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Published by: Jonathan Heng Fuqiang on Sep 06, 2013
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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment, of whatever predetermined or agreed upon proportions or frame of reference; these contaminants

cause instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms therein. [1] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances, or energy, such as noise, heat, or light energy. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. • Sometimes the term pollution is extended to include any substance when it occurs at such unnaturally high concentration within a system that it endangers the stability of that system. For example, water is innocuous and essential for life, and yet at very high concentration, it could be considered a pollutant: if a person were to drink an excessive quantity of water, the physical system could be so overburdened that breakdown and even death could result. Another example is the potential of excessive noise to induce imbalance in a person's mental state, resulting in malfunction and psychosis; this has been used as a weapon in warfare. Pollution control Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products from consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. Pollution control devices

Dust collection systems o Cyclones o Electrostatic precipitators o Baghouses Scrubbers o Baffle spray scrubber o Cyclonic spray scrubber o Ejector venturi scrubber o Mechanically aided scrubber


includes light trespass. Radioactive contamination. industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. motorway billboards. by the release of waste products and contaminants into surface runoff into river drainage systems. Visual pollution. Water pollution. MTBE[4]. wastewater discharges. eutrophication and littering. heavy metals. open storage of trash or municipal solid waste. over-illumination and astronomical interference. Common air pollutants include carbon monoxide. which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines. manufacture and deployment. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons. pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. which encompasses roadway noise.) Noise pollution.• • Spray tower Wet scrubber Sewage treatment and Wastewater treatment o API oil-water separators[2][3] o Sedimentation (water treatment) o Dissolved air flotation (DAF) o Activated sludge biotreaters o Biofilters o Powdered activated carbon treatment Vapor recovery systems o o Major forms of pollution and major polluted areas The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular pollutants relevant to each of them: • Air pollution. aircraft noise. Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment. resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics. • • • • • • 2 . such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research. the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. leaching into groundwater. liquid spills. sulfur dioxide. scarred landforms (as from strip mining). Light pollution. herbicides.

In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan. Russia. however. gasoline). or EU. heavy metals (such as chromium.• Thermal pollution. can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur. pigs.). PVC factories. and petrochemical spills from ruptured boats or automobiles. Some sources of pollution.S. 3 . Peru. poultry. etc. zinc. Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater). Russia. or from pre-1970 landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U. such as TCDD. nuclear waste disposal activity. especially substances illegally discarded there. such as use of water as coolant in a power plant. arsenic and benzene. is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. Ukraine and Zambia. coal-fired power plants. ranked per capita. plastics factories. MTBE. aviation fuel and still in some countries. and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. commonly called dioxins for simplicity.[3] petrochemical plants. The Blacksmith Institute issues annually a list of the world's worst polluted places. There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. Canada is the number two country. large livestock farms (dairy cows. United States. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants. India.[5][6][7] China.[8] Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. incinerators. For example. such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers. oil refineries. Some of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CFH). emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted. and other heavy industry. cadmium-found in rechargeable batteries. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage. China. Sources and causes Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. and lead--found in lead paint. metals production factories. Mexico.

producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide. Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. and sleep disturbance. throat inflammation. Noise pollution induces hearing loss. high blood pressure. stress. Effects Human health Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. This will affect other organisms in the food web. Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease. mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. cardiovascular disease. Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. often reducing native species competitiveness. chest pain. Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment. Biomagnification describes a situation where toxins may be pass through trophic levels. and congestion.In the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle. Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis.000 deaths per day. 4 . becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process. Water pollution causes approximately 14. Ecosystems • • • • • Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen can cause acid rain which reduces the pH value of soil.

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