Tuning Control Loops Page 1 of 7

Tuning Control Loops
Table of Contents TUNING CONTROL LOOPS...................................................................................................1 TUNING CONSTANTS....................................................................................................1 PROPORTIONAL BAND (K).......................................................................................1 GAIN (K) CALCULATION..........................................................................................1 INTEGRAL or RESET (T1)..........................................................................................2 DERIVATIVE (T2).........................................................................................................2 TUNING.............................................................................................................................2 ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND..............................................................................2 ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION....................................................................2 ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE)...................................................................3 TUNING CONTROLLERS...................................................................................................3 GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS..................................................................3 FLOW.............................................................................................................................3 LEVEL...........................................................................................................................3 LIQUID PRESSURE.....................................................................................................4 GAS PRESSURE...........................................................................................................4 TEMPERATURE, VAPOR PRESSURE, AND COMPOSITION.................................4 CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD....................................................5 CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS................................5 DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS....................................................6 CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES.................................................................................6 PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS..............................................6

TUNING CONTROL LOOPS
TUNING CONSTANTS PROPORTIONAL BAND (K) • If Proportional Band is 100%, each percent of change at the input to the controller will produce the same percent of change at the controller's output. • If a Proportional Band is less than 100%, each percent change of input signal to the controller will produce a greater percent of change at the controller's output. • If a Proportional Band is larger than 100%, each percent change in input signal to the controller will produce a smaller percent of change at the controller's output. • The Proportional Band that is selected for a particular operating situation determines how much corrective signal the controller can produce for each percent of change in the variable controlled by the controller. • The controller's output signal determines the amount of movement that will be produced at the control valve. GAIN (K) CALCULATION Ratio of entire span of measurement to percent span being used as Proportional Band. GAIN = 100% (the entire span of measurement) % of span being used as a proportional band

Berry’s Commissioning Handbook

Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . from 10% to 15%. • Integral ( T1 ) is expressed in "Minutes per Repeat" DERIVATIVE (T2) • Changes the output of a controller in proportion to the "RATE" or "SPEED" at which the controlled variable is moving towards or away from the setpoint. adjust the proportional band to a smaller value (higher gain) until cycling or instability begins. 50% proportional band. Then reduce the reset to ten seconds. When cycling just begins. it's action consists of decreasing the number of repeats per minute required to drive the error back to setpoint. When cycling or instability begins.Tuning Control Loops Page 2 of 7 Assume GAIN = GAIN = 2. then reduce the reset to two seconds. ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION This is done by reducing the time value (in seconds). from 18% to 24%. EXAMPLE: Start with 40% proportional band (a gain of 2. That is. then halve the proportional band to 10% (a gain of 10). • Derivative action is expressed in minutes. then reduce the reset to five seconds. That is. increase the reset adjustment by 50%. etc. i. Then. in advance of the time proportional action alone would produce the same output. increase the proportional band by 50 percent. Say the reset is at twenty seconds. for instance with a speed control loop. The proportional band adjustment should now be properly set and should be left at this value.5). always set the reset (integral) adjustment at. etc. say twenty or thirty seconds or more before adjusting the proportional band. therefore K = INTEGRAL OR RESET (T1) • Integral action repeats the proportional controllers initial corrective signal until there is no difference between the PV and Setpoint. etc. to make it a three mode controller ( PID ). Cycling should stop.e: When derivative is applied to a two mode controller ( PI ). • Represents the time that the proportional plus derivative will take to reach a certain level of output. PB = PROPORTIONAL BAND 100% (span) 50% (PB) 2 Honeywell uses letter “K" to represent GAIN. TUNING ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND Always tune proportional band with very little reset action. then halve the proportional band to 20% (a gain of 5).

NOT PROPORTIONAL BAND (or gain). then the controller must be tuned slow TO MATCH THE PROCESS. ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE) If a derivative adjustment is felt necessary. If the process is slow (i. increase the reset to 12 seconds. increase the reset to three seconds. "knobs" provided for controller tuning. Don't attempt tuning under these conditions. at least half of the control loops in a plant are flow loops.2 or 0. Slow moving or sticky control valves may require 0. If the process is fast to respond (i. GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS FLOW Usually. Never use derivative action in a flow loop. leave controller tuning to someone else who can get the needed information. etc.3 minutes but are rare exceptions.e. many methods have been developed over the years to aid in their proper adjustment. adjust the derivative action by beginning at a setting of one second. TUNING CONTROLLERS Since there are a very large number of combinations of the two or sometimes three. Do not confuse these actions or grief will be your constant companion during your controller tuning efforts. Use the controller in manual or a hand valve if you think a 10 minute reset time is necessary.e. then two. a flow loop). Fix the problem. Normally. until improvement is observed and seems to be optimal.Tuning Control Loops Page 3 of 7 Example: If cycling is observed at two seconds. IMPORTANT NOTE: No controller will work when the valve is almost closed or almost wide open.1 minutes. then three. LEVEL Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . usually about 300% although an occasional poor meter run installation may require as much as 1000%. derivative action is not needed and does not help the situation. The reset action should now be properly adjusted and should be left at this value. Set integral (I) at 0. often an unacceptable practice in real life. Do not adjust the controller to some ridiculous setting such as a 10 minute reset time. inspect the valve and orifice installation to find the. These notes are intended to provide a few simple rules to use in tuning controllers which will minimize upsets and still get the job done. temperature control of a tray part way up a distillation column). Fast or slow for a controller refers to integral (or reset). If you do not have a feel for the process characteristics or cannot find someone to enlighten you. problem. A few require upsetting the process to some extent. If these settings do not work. If cycling is observed at 8 seconds. Have the operator open or close a bypass (if one exists) or wait until process conditions change enough to get the valve back within its operating range (from 5 to 95% of travel as extreme limits with 10 to 90% as a safer range). Adjust the proportional band so that the measurement is not too noisy. A loop where a valve positioner has been used will require a proportional band setting two to three times larger than for a loop without a positioner. THE CONTROLLER MUST BE ADJUSTED TO BALANCE THE PROCESS. then the controller must be tuned fast too.

the longer the period. on to the more difficult control tuning applications. If the starting integral value is less than one half of the period. TEMPERATURE. If a cycle develops. triple etc. Level loops will usually show a limit cycle when the level controller sets a valve. Increase the integral time. measure the time from peak to peak (high to high or low to low). This is the period of the control loop. cycling is usually unimportant. A limit cycle looks like a saw blade. If close control of level is important. Well now that you've tuned over 90% of the loops in the typical plant. AND COMPOSITION There are several ways to tune these more difficult loops.). then a shorter integral time can be used but remember that a large value is safer. the integral time is too short and is causing the cycle. Included are the temperatures used to infer composition for so many distillation columns. then a greater value of integral must be used. These are temperature. and no derivative. vapor pressure. you're pretty Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . Proportional bands can be quite small (under 100% and often as small as 20-30%. There is absolutely nothing you can do to tune out such a limit cycle. The first is to use starting settings of 100% proportional band. This will satisfy 80 to 90% of the level applications in a plant. which is not equipped with a positioner. When the flow is used to control the level going to tankage. sometimes with flat bottoms and/or tops Limit cycle will show about 5% change. If each peak is higher than the one before. The period will get shorter as the integral time is increased. Set the integral at 10 minutes. DO NOT EVER USE A SHORT INTEGRAL VALUE IN A LEVEL LOOP. Never use derivative action in a level loop. often with a period (time from the peak of one cycle to the peak of the next) of 10 to 15 minutes. increase the proportional band (double. GAS PRESSURE Tune the same as level loops using a large integral value. Switch the controller to automatic when the measurement is close to the desired set point. if the vessel time constant (volume/flow) is 1 to 2 minutes. LIQUID PRESSURE Tune the same. as flow loops.) until the cycles damp out. VAPOR PRESSURE. Noise should not be as severe as for flow and proportional bands will usually be smaller. Divide by two. Changes in tuning will shorten or lengthen the period but only a positioner or level cascaded to a flow controller will eliminate the problem. Please note that a valve cycling almost closed or fully open will also produce a limit cycle. set the proportional band to as small a value as possible (20-50%) without causing cycling. If it is the reflux or feed to a distillation tower. When the period is about twice the integral time and the cycles are dampening out. and composition.Tuning Control Loops Page 4 of 7 The next most common loop after flow is level. usually of the flat bottom type (when almost closed) or of the flat top type when almost fully open. a 5 or 10 minute integral time. you will find the loop will always cycle. then such a limit cycle may be unacceptable. If you do. Use a larger proportional band (perhaps 100%) if smooth flow control to a downstream unit is more important than tight level control. The shorter the integral time. If the vessel is large and the controlling flow is a trickle.

place one loop in manual. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . (derivative or rate on some controllers) to minimum (if provided on the controller) and I.82. Change the output a small amount and transfer the controller to automatic. then use an integral time at least four times as great for the temperature controller. safe values are a large I and a small D. Readjust the proportional band if more or less damping is desired. Set D = to the period x 0. Rearrange the loops or use the technique outlined above to minimize cycling. never under any circumstances set the derivative greater than the integral.S. derivative cannot usually be used. perhaps to half the value tried before. return to manual and set the valve at the original position noted in step 2. Then set D. set the derivative at one quarter of the integral time. Select a set point equal to the measurement and adjust the proportional band to 100% (or gain at 1. If the cycle stops. Double the proportional band. follow the procedure given below. Readjust the proportional band if more or less damping is desired. Note the starting valve position. Remember. Measure the period (defined as the time for one complete cycle to occur). If the measurement is noisy (Ph loops in particular). or very nearly so. Double the proportional band and try again until uniform. For a P+I Controller: Set I = to the period x 0. The period will decrease by about 15%. If the shortcut method described above is unsuccessful or you want to be a bit more methodical. The period will increase by about 43%. Tune the pressure loop (representing the fastest loop in this case) with a minimum integral value. Readjust the proportional band if required to get a damped oscillation after an upset (wait for a bump or ask the operator to make a small set point change in a safe direction). Set I = to the period x O. Never use a primary controller integral value less than four times the integral value used for the secondary controller. Transfer to remote set point and tune the primary loop. interaction is probably the problem. (integral or reset on some controllers) to maximum. Some manufacturers use an inverse relationship so large becomes small and vice versa.Tuning Control Loops Page 5 of 7 well finished. switch the controller to manual. CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS Tune the secondary loop first using the local set point mode. If oscillations of increasing amplitude develop on the first try. oscillations develop. It will always work and will leave no doubt as to the characteristics of the control loop. If oscillations do not develop.12. repeat step 2 reducing the proportional band. These instructions are for controllers adjusted in terms of minutes per repeat. Double the proportional band. To test for interaction when two -loops cycle together at the same period. CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD When the process is reasonably stable and no plant upsets are expected. The same rules hold true for interacting loops such as pressure and pressure compensated temperature used for a distillation tower. Reduce the integral as much as possible. Continue to reduce the proportional band until oscillations start.0) to start. If the measurement is not noisy.

TEMPERATURE 1. . it can be some time (the plant has to stabilize) before all controllers have their final (normal operations) tunings.Complex Control Loop. CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES The control loops shall be configured to achieve the functionality and philosophy of the P&IDs. . Controller output to field devices shall be -6.9% to compensate for calibration offsets in the field device. Derivative values should be added in the final tunings of the applicable controllers. These are start-up values only.25 seconds. depending on plant start-up conditions. When a control valve is tripped on abnormal condition (Low-low level.3 . This tuning may occur several times on individual controllers. In fact. Following are the basic types of control loops: . .Cascade Control Loop.5 seconds. In case of sensing element failure.3 CONTROLLER INPUT/OUTPUT INDICATION Output to valves viewed by the operator shall indicate close as 0% and open as 100%.Tuning Control Loops Page 6 of 7 DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS For the start-up of any plant.).9% to 106.Analog Indication Only Loop. 5 Min.Single Control Loop. 2 Min.3 ANALYZERS 1. Some fast loops (according to EPC contractor) will run at 0. a "Bad PV" alarm will be generated and if it is a control point. as it has not been shown to be required for those conditions. 1 Min. .Discrete 1/0 Loops within APM (Advanced Process Manager).2 MINS/REPEAT T1 .083 or 5 Sec. 3. there are default tuning parameters that can be entered into each controller.5 . There are no values shown for Derivative action for start-up conditions.5 Min. etc. controller shall switch to manual output mode.Discrete 1/0 Loops within LM. and .2 . 5 Min. the PID controller shall be configured to switch to manual output mode and the controller output to the fail-safe condition value. PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS Berry’s Commissioning Handbook .5 1 2 1 PB 200 100 50 100 75 75 REPEATS/MIN 12 1 . Master controller output in cascade loops shall be 0% to 100%. The controllers (APM) base scan rate will be 0. and each controller will still require additional tuning. The following is a list of typical start-up tunings: PROCESS FLOW PRESSURE (Liquid) PRESSURE (Gas) LEVEL GAIN K .

0 1. final loop tuning will be done during plant operation: PID Gain (K) (min..3 Integral (min.5 1.0 3.0 2.T1) 0.T2) 0. It is understand that these are initial values.0 Flow Pressure (Liquid) Pressure (Gas) Level Temperature Berry’s Commissioning Handbook .Tuning Control Loops Page 7 of 7 The PID algorithms will be configured with the following default values unless otherwise specified by the EPC contractor.0 0.0 2.0 0.08 1.0 Derivative 0. .0 0.0 0.0 1.0 5.

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