# Tuning Control Loops Page 1 of 7

Tuning Control Loops
Table of Contents TUNING CONTROL LOOPS...................................................................................................1 TUNING CONSTANTS....................................................................................................1 PROPORTIONAL BAND (K).......................................................................................1 GAIN (K) CALCULATION..........................................................................................1 INTEGRAL or RESET (T1)..........................................................................................2 DERIVATIVE (T2).........................................................................................................2 TUNING.............................................................................................................................2 ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND..............................................................................2 ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION....................................................................2 ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE)...................................................................3 TUNING CONTROLLERS...................................................................................................3 GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS..................................................................3 FLOW.............................................................................................................................3 LEVEL...........................................................................................................................3 LIQUID PRESSURE.....................................................................................................4 GAS PRESSURE...........................................................................................................4 TEMPERATURE, VAPOR PRESSURE, AND COMPOSITION.................................4 CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD....................................................5 CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS................................5 DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS....................................................6 CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES.................................................................................6 PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS..............................................6

TUNING CONTROL LOOPS
TUNING CONSTANTS PROPORTIONAL BAND (K) • If Proportional Band is 100%, each percent of change at the input to the controller will produce the same percent of change at the controller's output. • If a Proportional Band is less than 100%, each percent change of input signal to the controller will produce a greater percent of change at the controller's output. • If a Proportional Band is larger than 100%, each percent change in input signal to the controller will produce a smaller percent of change at the controller's output. • The Proportional Band that is selected for a particular operating situation determines how much corrective signal the controller can produce for each percent of change in the variable controlled by the controller. • The controller's output signal determines the amount of movement that will be produced at the control valve. GAIN (K) CALCULATION Ratio of entire span of measurement to percent span being used as Proportional Band. GAIN = 100% (the entire span of measurement) % of span being used as a proportional band

Berry’s Commissioning Handbook

Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . from 10% to 15%. • Integral ( T1 ) is expressed in "Minutes per Repeat" DERIVATIVE (T2) • Changes the output of a controller in proportion to the "RATE" or "SPEED" at which the controlled variable is moving towards or away from the setpoint. adjust the proportional band to a smaller value (higher gain) until cycling or instability begins. 50% proportional band. Then reduce the reset to ten seconds. When cycling just begins. it's action consists of decreasing the number of repeats per minute required to drive the error back to setpoint. When cycling or instability begins.Tuning Control Loops Page 2 of 7 Assume GAIN = GAIN = 2. then reduce the reset to two seconds. ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION This is done by reducing the time value (in seconds). from 18% to 24%. EXAMPLE: Start with 40% proportional band (a gain of 2. That is. then halve the proportional band to 10% (a gain of 10). • Derivative action is expressed in minutes. then reduce the reset to five seconds. That is. increase the reset adjustment by 50%. etc. i. Then. in advance of the time proportional action alone would produce the same output. increase the proportional band by 50 percent. Say the reset is at twenty seconds. for instance with a speed control loop. The proportional band adjustment should now be properly set and should be left at this value.5). always set the reset (integral) adjustment at. etc. say twenty or thirty seconds or more before adjusting the proportional band. therefore K = INTEGRAL OR RESET (T1) • Integral action repeats the proportional controllers initial corrective signal until there is no difference between the PV and Setpoint. etc. to make it a three mode controller ( PID ). Cycling should stop.e: When derivative is applied to a two mode controller ( PI ). • Represents the time that the proportional plus derivative will take to reach a certain level of output. PB = PROPORTIONAL BAND 100% (span) 50% (PB) 2 Honeywell uses letter “K" to represent GAIN. TUNING ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND Always tune proportional band with very little reset action. then halve the proportional band to 20% (a gain of 5).