PQ220 6234F.

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APPENDICES
APPENDIX A.
Table I
Table II
Table III
Table IV
Table V
Chart VI
Table VII
Table VIII
Table IX
Table X
Table XI

STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS

651

Summary of Common Probability Distributions 652
Cumulative Standard Normal Distribution 653
2
Percentage Points ,
of the Chi-Squared Distribution 655
Percentage Points t, of the t-Distribution 656
Percentage Points f,1,2 of the F-Distribution 657
Operating Characteristic Curves 662
Critical Values for the Sign Test 671
Critical Values for the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test 671
Critical Values for the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test 672
Factors for Constructing Variables Control Charts 673
Factors for Tolerance Intervals 674

APPENDIX B.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

677

APPENDIX C.

ANSWERS TO SELECTED EXERCISES

679

649

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1. 0   . where p  x  max10. K  N. . . . 0  x. 0  p  1 Geometric Negative binomial x1 b 11  p2 xrpr r1 x  r. 0  x. . 2. n2. 2. 0   x e . r  1. r  1.1 r p r11  p2 p2 3-7. . n. 0   Exponential ex. . Nn b N1 3-8 K N min1K. x  1. 1. . . . 0   x! Continuous 1 . . 0  p  1 a K NK b a ba nx x N a b n Hypergeometric np11  p2 a np. n  N  K2. 0  x. . . . a  b Binomial n a b px 11  p2 nx.2 2 1 x 2 e 2 1  2 12   x  . . . . 1r  12! r r1 x Erlang Gamma xr1ex . x 2 12 x  0.bappa. . x  0.     . r  2. .1 r  r 2 4-9. 0  r.qxd 12/29/03 11:57 PM Page 652 Rkaul 2 Rkaul 2:Desktop Folder:Tempwork:dont del_MONTO_22_12:BM: 652 APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS Table I Summary of Common Probability Distributions Probability Distribution Name Mean Variance Section in Book 1b  a2 1b  a  12 2  1 3-5 np np11  p2 3-6 1 p 11  p2 p2 3-7.2 Discrete Uniform 1 n. .axb ba Uniform 1 Normal 12   3-9 1b  a2 1b  a2 2 4-5  2 4-6 1  1 2 4-8 r  r 2 4-9. n  N Poisson e  x  . 1. . 0  p  1 11  p2 x1p. . 2. .

1r2 Weibull x 1 1x 2 a b e . .

a1  1 b  2 c .

a1  0  x. 0  . 0  Lognormal 1 x 22 exp a 3 ln1x2   4 2 22 2.

a1  b e 2 2 2 b 1 2 bd e2 1e 12 2 2 4-10 4-11 .

000088 0.014629 0.050503 0.02 0.000664 0.2 2.013903 0.036727 0.166023 0.003264 0.6 2.1 0.006947 0.5 3.298056 0.9 2.416834 0.016586 0.080757 0.005703 0.7 3.001107 0.161087 0.043633 0.004661 0.022216 0.000033 0.8 3.405165 0.397432 0.011604 0.005234 0.035148 0.000036 0.171056 0.000598 0.079270 0.000711 0.000419 0.018763 0.000042 0.002555 0.001350 0.000092 0.007344 0.000082 0.144572 0.9 0.000100 0.301532 0.034379 0.001988 0.000233 0.121001 0.351973 0.412936 0.002803 0.000078 0.105650 0.016177 0.168528 0.088508 0.000376 0.065522 0.156248 0.058208 0.374484 0.409046 0.393580 0.000117 0.000062 0.3 3.5 0.026190 0.186733 0.009642 0.492022 0.000736 0.001183 0.284339 0.000302 0.000142 0.000337 0.017864 0.163543 0.057053 0.000501 0.468119 0.181411 0.340903 0.117023 0.329969 0.440382 0.024998 0.382089 0.000242 0.203269 0.5 1.267629 0.000390 0.012874 0.223627 0.048457 0.041815 0.045514 0.090123 0.031443 0.00 3.9 1.060571 0.6 3.064256 0.4 2.197662 0.002052 0.000280 0.096801 0.401294 0.001001 0.0 0.025588 0.456205 0.038364 0.496011 0.003793 0.005386 0.035930 0.366928 0.000519 0.007143 0.011304 0.002327 0.220650 0.073529 0.189430 0.005085 0.000208 0.000467 0.000085 0.3 2.7 2.000046 0.003467 0.021178 0.000619 0.500000 .000126 0.305026 0.464144 0.001641 0.8 2.001144 0.000153 0.013209 0.001223 0.125072 0.005543 0.000048 0.000136 0.002256 0.000362 0.133500 0.158655 0.192150 0.093418 0.149170 0.026803 0.044565 0.000185 0.000159 0.214764 0.178786 0.000034 0.017003 0.019226 0.076359 0.022750 0.000059 0.000762 0.077804 0.032157 0.000069 0.000108 0.000172 0.109349 0.344578 0.000039 0.039204 0.003072 0.137857 0.000291 0.000179 0.3 0.326355 0.095098 0.001807 0.194894 0.115070 0.006569 0.436441 0.424655 0.028717 0.385908 0.054799 0.472097 0.000104 0.000075 0.000577 0.8 0.000200 0.378281 0.027429 0.003167 0.017429 0.011911 0.018309 0.030054 0.000434 0. pp [ 1 26].241964 0.000057 0.119000 0.000538 0.083793 0.294599 0.000641 0.0 1.000216 0.322758 0.000131 0.037538 0.000935 0.004025 0.113140 0.257846 0.229650 0.051551 0.001695 0.001538 0.07 0.4 3.2 1.002635 0.001070 0.003681 0.001589 0.001264 0.277595 0.019699 0.146859 0.007976 0.308538 0.013553 0.000041 0.068112 0.066807 0.028067 0.074934 0.000687 0.123024 0.127143 0.226627 0.261086 0.1 3.287740 0.002980 0.008424 0.09 0.248252 0.153864 0.046479 0.082264 0.1 2.000260 0.008656 0.06 0.005868 0.009387 0.040929 0.047460 0.206108 0.000112 0.002186 0.000270 0.432505 0.135666 0.000313 0.000037 0.000251 0.023852 0.460172 0.000054 0.363169 0.428576 0.059380 0.131357 0.006037 0.208970 0.000874 0.069437 0.000450 0.7 1.000193 0.107488 0.000325 0.010444 0.102042 0.004940 0.200454 0.001750 0.7 0.270931 0.000044 0.000224 0.055917 0.9 3.098525 0.232695 0.103835 0.184060 0.142310 0.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 653 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A 1z2  P1Z  z2   z 1  22 e 12 u 653 2 du Φ (z) z 0 Table II Cumulative Standard Normal Distribution z 0.006387 0.032884 0.004396 0.023295 0.245097 0.002401 0.211855 0.04 0.072145 0.042716 0.000072 0.480061 0.05 0.151505 0.000557 0.009137 0.274253 0.291160 0.004527 0.315614 0.010170 0.348268 0.003364 0.235762 0.140071 0.007760 0.452242 0.010724 0.359424 0.001489 0.476078 0.2 3.000050 0.000096 0.004269 0.100273 0.01 0.000067 0.001035 0.000483 0.006756 0.008894 0.002890 0.021692 0.1 1.389739 0.011011 0.03 0.420740 0.264347 0.049471 0.000147 0.020675 0.5 2.000052 0.009903 0.001395 0.053699 0.488033 0.448283 0.000121 0.061780 0.012545 0.000816 0.355691 0.003907 0.312067 0.002118 0.091759 0.129238 0.063008 0.000064 0.176185 0.000350 0.014262 0.238852 0.000845 0.319178 0.4 0.033625 0.0 2.173609 0.002477 0.085343 0.029379 0.070781 0.001441 0.001306 0.015386 0.000165 0.007549 0.012224 0.484047 0.444330 0.6 0.024419 0.001926 0.370700 0.280957 0.003573 0.020182 0.337243 0.254627 0.333598 0.015778 0.008198 0.052616 0.PQ220 6234F.000904 0.040059 0.111233 0.0 0.015003 0.8 1.3 1.4 1.08 0.6 1.000789 0.002718 0.086915 0.000968 0.001866 0.2 0.217695 0.000404 0.004799 0.006210 0.251429 0.030742 0.004145 0.

785236 0.503989 0.PQ220 6234F.999638 0.989276 0.999815 0.999792 0.1 3.999800 0.575345 0.1 1.996636 0.864334 0.999956 0.633072 0.964070 0.998777 0.9 1.994457 0.971933 0.926471 0.999155 0.999928 0.813267 0.729069 0.06 0.791030 0.507978 0.998134 0.999720 0.640576 0.998893 0.0 0.981237 0.831472 0.999915 0.992857 0.999550 0.991344 0.999892 0.999821 0.687933 0.998856 0.960796 0.532922 0.621719 0.998359 0.888767 0.543795 0.965621 0.904902 0.0 1.997523 0.917736 0.998411 0.991106 0.999908 0.610261 0.606420 0.994915 0.648027 0.788145 0.984997 0.985371 0.958185 0.999958 0.659097 0.967843 0.999864 0.999698 0.810570 0.802338 0.994614 0.758036 0.0 2.551717 0.833977 0.1 2.968557 0.999238 0.886860 0.999963 0.625516 0.6 0.4 1.949497 0.999952 0.999610 0.998250 0.999264 0.999869 0.725747 0.994766 0.983823 0.963273 0.984222 0.996207 0.993244 0.999596 0.995060 0.929219 0.973197 0.547758 0.970621 0.992024 0.579260 0.975581 0.979818 0.8 3.996427 0.977250 0.5 3.563559 0.999289 0.998999 0.999936 0.738914 0.691462 0.2 3.971283 0.994297 0.998559 0.821214 0.992451 0.705401 0.961636 0.935744 0.9 0.999858 0.897958 0.999313 0.644309 0.967116 0.969258 0.999749 0.988089 0.999423 0.995604 0.7 1.03 0.773373 0.02 0.567495 0.677242 0.993431 0.997197 0.08 0.701944 0.987455 0.973810 0.843752 0.941792 0.962462 0.884930 0.999918 0.3 0.999948 0.954486 0.923641 0.996533 0.998305 0.4 3.892512 0.999904 0.988989 0.846136 0.992656 0.994132 0.999950 0.999767 0.999946 0.0 3.999624 0.930563 0.993053 0.7 2.998511 0.818589 0.951543 0.993790 0.999961 0.594835 0.999065 0.999925 0.995731 0.855428 0.999874 0.857690 0.799546 0.997445 0.952540 0.999650 0.911492 0.8 0.2 0.999499 0.990863 0.590954 0.673645 0.947384 0.555760 0.999517 0.999381 0.874928 0.511967 0.999730 0.955435 0.908241 0.944083 0.4 0.978822 0.913085 0.999954 0.870762 0.761148 0.859929 0.999581 0.999922 0.571424 0.1 0.764238 0.998605 0.993963 0.999966 0.975002 0.999896 0.815940 0.894350 0.999096 0.999758 0.969946 0.999959 0.998074 0.948449 0.999336 0.945201 0.999967 .997282 0.841345 0.708840 0.999912 0.997599 0.878999 0.5 0.998650 0.999402 0.992240 0.999841 0.6 2.995975 0.984614 0.751748 0.712260 0.980301 0.826391 0.996833 0.980774 0.906582 0.684386 0.987126 0.782305 0.986447 0.993613 0.828944 0.999566 0.559618 0.2 2.527903 0.999888 0.732371 0.933193 0.899727 0.925066 0.989556 0.666402 0.598706 0.922196 0.742154 0.997882 0.987776 0.990358 0.999835 0.981691 0.996736 0.2 1.999879 0.982136 0.998965 0.989830 0.767305 0.996319 0.909877 0.972571 0.999032 0.936992 0.999687 0.850830 0.998694 0.715661 0.978308 0.3 2.999663 0.940620 0.866500 0.964852 0.853141 0.9 3.539828 0.988696 0.999807 0.531881 0.995201 0.956367 0.982571 0.997948 0.959071 0.920730 0.942947 0.999938 0.919243 0.999740 0.748571 0.996093 0.999933 0.999776 0.655422 0.00 0.09 0.999533 0.670031 0.876976 0.999847 0.896165 0.515953 0.3 3. pp [ 1 654 26].999828 0.995473 0.629300 0.999931 0.957284 0.986097 0.05 0.862143 0.651732 0.916207 0.979325 0.939429 0.698468 0.997814 0.990613 0.991576 0.735653 0.617911 0.770350 0.662757 0.719043 0.946301 0.990097 0.587064 0.882977 0.997673 0.6 3.938220 0.838913 0.999675 0.999900 0.07 0.848495 0.999211 0.996928 0.836457 0.868643 0.997744 0.636831 0.998930 0.823815 0.4 2.779350 0.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 654 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS 1z2  P1Z  z2   z 1  22 e 12 u 2 du Φ (z) z 0 Table II Cumulative Standard Normal Distribution (continued) z 0.999481 0.985738 0.7 0.519939 0.931888 0.966375 0.9 2.807850 0.8 1.535856 0.999941 0.999184 0.872857 0.934478 0.999126 0.953521 0.3 1.950529 0.999359 0.974412 0.583166 0.776373 0.914657 0.999883 0.988396 0.5 2.680822 0.999853 0.796731 0.881000 0.999964 0.999784 0.500000 0.602568 0.793892 0.995339 0.7 3.959941 0.614092 0.998193 0.901475 0.999462 0.8 2.722405 0.694974 0.991802 0.745373 0.754903 0.999709 0.04 0.983414 0.998462 0.01 0.6 1.5 1.976705 0.986791 0.999943 0.998817 0.999443 0.982997 0.995855 0.805106 0.903199 0.927855 0.976148 0.998736 0.997110 0.998012 0.997020 0.997365 0.890651 0.977784 0.

11 41.74 60.00 .15 88.59 50.67 9.81 9.85 30.56 3.31 45.995 .31 10.63 8.65 2.36 4.74 37.17   degrees of freedom.53 101.15 16.65 12.36 .16 11.36 40.84 14.34 25.38 9.02 20.35 5.59 10.59 28.33 89.34 1.57 38.57 4.92 39.22 27.28 21.81 63.26 8.58 40.88 113.49 4.38 100.00 41.14 5.68 21.65 12.46 45.08 39.14 12.33 99.72 37.98 11.49 26.30 .82 4.19 37.06 22.28 18.81 6.26 14.39 2.01 .87 11.20 28.83 1.71 18.64 46.46 13.30 27.69 76.33 .94 4.55 19.96 8.93 40.34 13.42 83.55 .12 135.43 32.08 90.86 11.02 .34 26.26 9.99 27.01 5.65 74.70 3.02 106.78 9.79 24.78 38.69 2.100 .84 7.50 79.35 7.21 11.35 6.50 3.12 13.45 16.60 3.41 7.56 43.33 79.33 59.77 55.34 71.81 21.54 24.950 .32 128.34 24.27 6.025 .68 25.29 18.15 65.18 45.77 20.92 23.88 13.PQ220 6234F.98 59.34 14.46 55.99 52.41 34.17 35.61 15.71 1.34 13.31 19.00 . ν Table III Percentage Points 2.01 33.33 2.02 7.92 35.93 48.14 31.91 9.34 10.20 67.44 13.57 7.34 17.06 1.56 8.58 107.13 77.77 79.95 22.26 6.71 4.98 44.29 41.85 15.16 2.09 13.00 .90 9.40 13.72 26.42 37.28 15.56 36.19 26.05 37.07 12.36 14.89 63.79 8.99 7.73 2.80 34.31 23.20 12.34 18.53 32.24 10.14 30.92 18.09 2.57 5.050 .17 4.59 14.81 36.34 27.48 .28 49.96 23.02 13.59 12.15 1.34 16.49 11.22 116.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 655 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A 655 α 2 χα.990 .34 12.36 23.54 61.34 8.58 6.25 7.65 38.34 19.28 10.23 5.66 16.47 17.40 85.41 29.63 9.87 30.86 16.19 31.93 .83 3.32 32.11 4. of the Chi-Squared Distribution  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100  .71 37.23 5.38 16.67 33.81 32.04 7.99 1.34 42.55 9.20 34.48 45.61 2.48 20.83 14.17 2.16 29.87 5.59 25.63 118.82 31.34 5.40 5.99 17.30 7.99 35.900 .65 50.52 12.24 1.39 69.500 .16 38.00 26.07 3.21 .79 20.28 51.69 29.34 21.51 34.20 10.21 .57 14.28 73.93 17.03 8.26 51.19 51.43 8.09 16.33 64.56 6.34 24.09 10.22 .94 19.62 30.57 4.34 29.48 21.74 26.21 24.17 59.57 15. pp [ 1 26].14 129.70 6.26 7.71 27.02 .91 7.75 18.37 3.89 10.12 10.04 14.29 82.31 16.11 .23 8.54 10.34 20.34 15.34 53.68 .64 2.29 49.56 46.41 .49 91.00 .84 5.45 1.34 9.05 3.81 18.40 42.17 36.67 23.48 48.00 33.14 124.30 29.84 14.34 23.36 40.57 118.33 69.87 1.92 43.03 22.76 67.05 .09 21.34 28.11 18.35 .58 32.44 53.72 46.22 .81 7.64 42.07 15.60 12.66 5.24 14.89 6.53 19.68 15.85 34.80 44.12 27.20 2.42 112.18 2.35 11.28 35.52 11.34 22.48 36.30 140.61 6.33 124.24 1.19 44.60 5.01 17.53 96.12 13.25 3.73 3.49 28.64 9.85 11.58 1.65 41.05 16.55 20.75 70.41 32.975 . .30 95.06 .34 11.81 12.10 .33 3.010 .34 49.27 35.88 10.53 43.63 6.34 13.34 39.95 104.77 25.69 46.85 14.09 40.17 74.76 57.01 7.96 48.39 10.76 43.51 16.60 29.07 .005 .89 40.69 12.67 66.76 28.07 4.

499 3.261 .552 2.707 3.078 3.385 3.048 2.025 3.318 1.638 1.328 1.746 1.182 2.852 3.435 3.40 .31 23.765 .764 2.252 3.819 2.314 1.460 3.683 .508 2.797 2.0005 . ν 0 Table IV Percentage Points t.922 3.646 3.457 2.947 2.090 636.289 1.000 1.267 .821 2.078 1.733 3.686 .350 1.781 4.697 .453 5.228 2.684 .533 1.144 4.745 3.257 .660 2.977 2.104 3.256 .080 2.318 4.025 .067 3.959 5.222 3.250 3.365 3.689 .029 3.297 4.476 1.604 4.256 .831 2.120 2.688 .571 2.325 .257 .845 2.462 2.365 2.692 .756 2. of the t-Distribution  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 60 120   .038 3.725 1.711 .256 .333 1. pp [ 1 656 26].747 3.552 3.965 3.041 4.695 .686 3.337 1.671 1.821 6.691 .782 1.259 .706 .500 2.771 1.341 1.980 1.437 4.587 4.841 4.677 .317 4.131 2.PQ220 6234F.311 1.787 3.321 1.807 2.221 4.688 .690 .687 .256 .372 1.895 1.291   degrees of freedom.527 3.259 .703 .423 2.257 .943 1.289 .262 2.132 2.971 2.256 .314 2.012 2.886 1.174 3.485 3.32 14.310 1.315 1.208 4.179 2.001 .254 .396 3.753 1.323 1.286 3.807 318.785 4.106 3.015 3.325 1.610 3.659 3.650 2.896 2.143 2.169 3.706 1.119 3.047 3.073 4.450 3.086 2.306 2.05 .201 2.779 2.761 1.015 1.030 2.307 3.479 2.303 3.213 7.579 3.850 3.567 2.708 1.767 3.089 7.372 3.869 5.685 .363 1.258 .734 1.173 5.497 3.271 .684 .060 2.005 .408 3.345 1.674 3.042 2. .878 2.925 5.505 3.681 .706 4.492 2.140 4.617 2.920 2.397 1.415 1.319 1.257 .699 1.717 1.581 3.602 2.551 3.383 1.145 2.01 .657 9.326 63.256 .260 .256 .326 10.812 1.528 2.260 .707 3.685 .718 .021 2.093 2.921 2.10 .232 3.408 5.833 1.256 .727 .683 .725 3.860 1.265 .700 .467 3.101 2.658 1.690 3.467 2.056 2.610 6.055 3.686 .256 .721 1.091 3.000 .860 2.326 3.776 2.485 2.694 .539 2.358 2.915 2.679 .750 2.262 .296 1.681 2.255 .0025 .741 .303 1.898 2.816 .390 2.25 .646 3.316 1.598 4.684 .373 3.792 3.153 3.718 2.064 2.501 4.421 3.645 12.701 1.160 3.740 1.069 2.313 1.704 2.330 1.440 1.861 2.356 1.447 2.763 2.254 .683 .684 1.057 3.729 1.787 2.135 3.473 2.353 2.598 12.257 .883 3.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 656 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS α t α.277 .282 6.674 3.253 1.924 8.110 2.703 1.773 4.796 1.197 3.052 2.263 .518 2.074 2.697 1.714 1.771 2.583 2.160 2.690 3.819 3.032 3.711 1.428 3.576 127.965 4.541 3.960 31.045 2.258 .833 3.893 5.998 2.624 2.62 31.930 3.355 3.258 .

51 1.25 1.47 1.65 1.18 9.v2 Degrees of freedom for the numerator (v1) v1 Degrees of freedom for the denominator (v2) v2 657 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 60 120  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 24 30 40 60 120  5.18 1.37 1.29 1.41 1.35 1.89 1.34 1.50 1.67 1.45 1.42 1.55 1.27 1.59 1.26 1.44 2.54 1.43 1.46 1.32 1.43 1.69 1.75 1.46 1.39 1.08 1.46 1.27 1.52 1.49 3.36 1.88 1.72 1.32 1.89 1.39 1.60 1.22 1.41 1.47 1.45 1.38 1.45 1.53 1.46 1.44 1.38 1.47 1.14 9.34 1.08 1.82 3.46 2.54 1.55 1.88 1.19 1.44 1.42 1.40 1.41 1.51 1.53 1.45 2.48 1.35 1.31 9.49 1.61 1.60 1.52 1.40 1.39 1.31 1.42 1.62 1.43 1.48 1.40 1.87 1.35 1.33 1.34 1.40 1.40 1.45 1.31 1.30 1.50 1.78 1.27 1.48 1.64 1.08 1.50 1.49 1.25 1.53 1.44 1.52 1.67 1.71 1.40 1.59 1.33 1.19 9.44 2.28 1.72 1.66 1.46 1.58 3.36 1.35 1.50 1.44 2.54 1.83 2.02 1.80 3.34 1.51 1.78 1.76 3.10 3.38 1.48 1.48 1.19 3.47 1.89 1.31 1.76 1.89 1.51 1.57 1.43 2.78 1.53 1.35 1.35 1.45 1.32 1.47 1.45 1.38 1.56 1.30 1.40 1.08 9.44 1.31 1.44 1.70 1.30 1.24 1.62 1.39 1.58 1.60 1.70 1.28 1.48 1.35 1.28 9.31 1.57 2.34 1.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 657 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : α .26 1.59 1.88 1.24 1.22 1.38 1.24 1.29 1.38 1.42 1.39 1.47 2.08 1.07 1.30 1.32 1.43 1.59 1.38 2.08 1.26 1.56 1.38 1.08 1.48 2.28 1.39 1.51 1.00 1.28 1.32 1.30 1.44 1.44 1.  1 2 Table V Percentage Points f.25 1.37 1.30 1.37 2.50 3.39 1.12 9.36 1.47 1.28 1.v .66 1.37 1.37 1.43 1.08 1.43 1.60 1.43 1.62 1.44 1.45 1.54 1.35 1.19 1.79 1.42 1.36 1.26 1.58 1.37 1.41 1.35 8.41 1.29 1.24 9.24 1.44 1.60 1.08 1.30 1.51 1.43 1.74 1.31 1.31 1.66 1.32 7.43 1.17 1.37 8.42 1.41 1.54 1.35 1.52 1.34 1.26 1.58 1.v of the F-Distribution 1 2 f0.38 1.41 1.27 1.65 1.37 1.34 1.58 1.v1.31 2.40 1.46 1.46 2.24 1.49 1.36 1.39 1.48 1.31 1.36 1.40 1.48 1.47 2.36 1.31 1.33 1.47 1.30 1.46 1.56 1.49 1.56 1.53 1.34 1.43 2.52 1.70 1.45 1.89 1.40 1.51 1.32 1.63 1.24 1.53 1.49 1.31 1.46 1.35 1.28 2.37 1.42 1.40 1.29 9.43 1.75 1.41 1.35 1.41 1.35 2.36 1.70 1.45 1.35 1.37 1.28 1.42 1.55 1.32 1.39 1.46 1.45 1.43 1.89 1.77 1.45 1.47 1.38 1.15 2.87 1.05 1.29 1.42 1.89 1.40 1.26 1.44 1.38 1.39 1.23 1.38 1.26 3.36 1.46 1.41 1.43 1.39 1.44 1.41 1.40 1.39 1.34 1.45 1.33 1.47 1.47 1.39 1.32 3.49 1.66 1.32 1.37 1.22 1.42 1.44 2.41 1.28 2.33 1.22 9.44 1.25 1.49 1.29 1. pp [ 1 f.19 1.23 2.55 1.37 1.41 1.76 1.39 1.37 1.20 3.16 1.34 2.46 1.56 1.42 1.37 1.44 1.49 1.29 1.39 1.08 1.76 1.36 1.85 3.41 3.30 1.63 1.00 26].16 9.75 1.64 1.71 3.34 1.88 1.57 1.59 1.77 1.08 1.52 1.28 1.46 1.38 1.78 1.62 1.36 1.42 1.42 1.34 1.68 1.21 1.43 1.35 1.71 1.42 1.45 2.30 1.45 1.43 1.48 1.40 1.49 1.39 1.49 1.40 1.34 1.26 1.35 1.85 1.47 1.42 1.31 1.44 1.55 1.38 1.89 1.38 1.47 1.47 1.38 1.47 1.30 1.32 1.41 2.41 1.41 1.51 1.60 1.15 1.46 1.43 2.41 1.59 1.46 1.46 2.54 1.45 1.25 1.39 1.27 1.74 1.36 1.13 1.PQ220 6234F.65 1.29 1.41 1.33 1.48 1.33 1.88 1.39 1.33 1.28 1.58 3.67 3.08 1.08 1.38 1.36 1.42 1.57 1.48 1.47 1.50 1.44 1.38 1.10 1.38 1.46 1.27 1.31 1.08 1.37 1.39 1.41 1.50 1.21 1.34 1.49 1.  .46 1.43 1.43 1.45 1.36 2.56 1.53 1.33 1.45 1.39 2.37 1.46 1.48 1.57 1.25 1.39 2.77 1.36 1.47 2.32 1.49 1.49 1.34 1.42 1.41 2.47 1.41 1.63 3.29 1.33 1.40 1.55 1.30 1.44 1.53 1.08 1.52 1.06 1.40 1.34 1.33 8.28 1.40 1.30 1.32 1.38 1.47 2.62 1.39 1.31 1.50 1.39 8.37 1.79 1.33 1.74 1.47 2.37 1.38 1.32 1.98 3.67 1.32 1.56 1.33 1.27 9.87 1.38 1.45 1.37 1.00 2.52 1.51 1.44 1.51 1.35 1.42 2.36 1.69 1.50 1.66 1.47 2.25.42 1.33 1.46 2.53 1.40 1.68 1.44 1.40 1.40 1.38 1.39 1.29 1.51 1.25 9.37 1.89 1.41 1.51 1.45 1.35 1.28 1.42 1.49 1.45 1.65 1.81 1.23 1.58 1.63 1.28 1.33 1.43 1.21 1.41 1.63 1.37 1.61 1.27 1.41 1.58 1.29 1.

11 3.16 2.92 1.44 9.41 2.55 1.11 2.01 1.69 1.84 3.19 2.81 1.05 2.00 1.52 2.15 3.54 4.v2 v1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 60 120  Degrees of freedom for the numerator (v1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 24 30 40 60 120  39.64 1.83 2.79 2.29 2.10 2.89 1.33 2.73 1.79 1.42 62.50 1.55 2.04 2.24 3.83 1.66 1.14 3.46 4.21 2.89 2.06 2.30 53.97 1.95 2.22 2.50 9.47 1.11 2.68 1.41 5.06 2.63 60.88 1.84 1.93 1.02 2.88 1.61 2.67 59.19 9.81 2.36 3.96 2.91 1.72 1.45 3.76 2.06 2.52 1.02 2.20 2.72 1.23 2.82 2.89 1.50 2.08 55.72 1.14 2.89 1.09 2.91 2.93 2.72 1.10 2.61 1.46 2.32 2.46 1.49 1.87 1.76 2.68 1.33 9.32 2.46 2.74 1.84 2.82 1.14 2.10 3.86 1.54 2.82 1.46 2.64 1.59 1.59 2.80 1.35 2.36 2.62 1.86 1.83 3.85 1.21 2.72 1.62 2.69 1.93 1.25 2.13 2.48 1.78 1.48 5.08 2.56 1.07 2.67 1.00 1.49 5.46 5.00 1.PQ220 6234F.92 3.96 1.18 2.03 1.87 1.06 2.50 1.25 3.03 3.96 1.19 1.57 1.94 1.60 60.18 2.60 1.98 1.93 1.36 2.72 59.90 1.33 2.77 1.12 2.24 5.47 5.51 1.99 2.70 2.42 2.59 1.94 2.75 2.06 2.76 1.34 2.71 1.91 9.40 2.94 3.18 2.73 1.90 2.28 2.35 5.84 1.73 1.81 1.24 2.44 2.42 1.51 2.66 1.73 2.76 3.54 2.29 5.23 3.61 1.95 3.04 2.06 1.57 1.59 9.90 3.01 2.28 2.18 3.19 2.17 2.82 1.24 2.74 2.24 2.75 1.06 9.98 1.53 1.37 1.41 1.90 1.00 9.45 2.54 4.38 2.19 2.21 2.38 62.61 2.96 1.19 3.27 3.05 2.69 1.30 62.97 2.28 2.38 2.94 1.69 1.42 2.53 2.10 2.86 2.75 1.60 1.34 2.62 1.17 2.86 8.91 1.53 1.54 1.84 1.92 2.31 4.99 1.10.04 1.30 2.61 1.58 2.77 1.81 1.65 1.98 1.24 2.24 63.53 9.81 1.82 1.17 63.16 2.21 2.81 1.43 2.07 2.80 1.76 1.09 2.45 5.09 2.48 2.78 1.50 2.89 1.83 1.38 5.86 1.77 1.47 5.78 2.35 1.93 1.93 1.47 2.42 2.33 2.51 2.86 9.22 2.59 1.27 2.04 1.78 3.99 1.31 2.48 1.66 1.96 1.51 1.66 2.38 1.09 2.57 1.25 2.56 2.58 1.88 1.08 2.01 1.64 1.67 1.39 2.78 1.80 1.59 2.70 1.87 1.20 2.16 2.60 1.62 2.92 2.13 2.96 1.78 3.27 2. pp [ 1 Percentage Points of the F-Distribution (continued) f0.52 2.67 1.13 2.54 1.67 2.18 2.92 2.73 2.10 2.63 1.11 3.98 3.01 1.72 1.77 1.98 1.75 2.88 2.13 2.61 1.23 2.30 2.25 2.72 2.91 1.70 1.74 9.90 2.44 2.27 2.67 1.99 1.18 3.80 3.49 2.98 1.46 3.87 1.76 1.46 3.66 1.29 2.16 2.39 5.94 57.20 3.62 3.76 1.92 1.99 1.12 2.44 5.03 2.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 658 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : v2 Degrees of freedom for the denominator (v2) 658 Table V .85 1.30 2.00 2.84 2.44 2.56 1.37 3.99 1.56 2.67 2.14 3.84 1.87 1.11 2.96 2.20 2.89 1.93 1.12 2.54 2.08 2.82 3.82 1.71 1.39 2.16 3.87 2.61 2.18 2.83 1.97 1.64 1.71 1.94 2.71 49.85 1.47 2.78 1.87 1.34 4.55 1.87 1.32 3.52 3.51 1.39 2.58 1.96 2.06 2.42 5.17 2.95 1.03 2.79 1.17 2.94 1.84 1.01 1.65 1.28 2.97 1.57 1.15 2.79 1.09 2.74 1.49 61.94 1.39 2.40 1.71 1.96 1.10 2.70 1.93 1.36 2.11 2.34 2.01 2.07 3.40 3.86 1.40 2.97 1.00 5.04 2.49 2.39 4.57 1.66 1.72 1.61 2.92 1.89 1.38 2.18 2.29 1.34 2.63 2.81 2.78 3.98 2.15 2.02 1.68 1.05 3.06 2.12 2.v1.35 2.01 3.71 9.19 2.85 58.72 1.14 2.83 9.33 5.59 2.59 1.85 1.70 1.81 1.87 1.13 2.62 1.29 3.81 2.05 1.24 9.91 1.45 1.23 3.26 3.00 1.15 2.57 2.22 9.69 1.75 1.18 3.79 3.21 2.21 2.34 62.64 2.65 1.72 2.79 1.30 2.88 2.16 2.79 9.35 2.47 1.51 2.77 58.02 2.66 1.54 1.55 2.68 1.98 1.05 3.54 1.15 2.56 2.13 3.74 1.23 2.32 1.28 2.08 2.95 1.78 1.03 2.31 2.16 5.59 3.20 9.38 2.94 1.77 1.10 2.74 1.26 9.16 2.24 2.60 1.16 2.69 1.06 2.56 2.61 1.29 3.64 1.49 2.35 2.06 3.76 1.32 2.75 1.63 1.70 2.90 1.92 1.73 1.50 2.29 2.75 1.91 1.83 1.86 1.55 1.52 2.23 2.52 1.84 1.32 2.17 3.18 2.66 1.34 2.67 2.89 1.90 1.95 1.00 1.48 1.53 5.63 1.86 1.28 4.10 2.83 1.37 5.90 1.27 2.14 2.88 1.28 2.67 1.54 2.96 1.31 2.00 1.93 1.69 2.78 1.08 2.01 2.05 2.01 2.22 3.89 2.00 26].55 61.44 1.80 2.05 2.90 1.87 3.73 2.26 1.79 1.95 1.78 2.

37 2.39 2.50 3.79 2.66 5.92 3.09 2.70 1.74 2.26 3.41 3.57 2.77 2.38 3.77 2.58 2.41 3.56 4.22 2.37 2.82 4.86 3.16 6.98 1.2 234.93 5.PQ220 6234F.18 3.79 3.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 659 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : v1 .08 3.29 2.76 2.69 3.88 1.81 4.6 230.79 1.32 2.42 2.87 1.96 1.9 245.85 2.35 2.76 4.84 3.67 2.40 19.35 3.57 2.53 2.01 1.96 4.33 2.49 2.03 1.20 3.99 1.50 10.37 2.30 19.64 3.38 2.47 1.01 2.89 1.46 19.10 2.94 6.48 19.40 2.41 3.91 2.10 2.37 2.94 1.22 2.75 2.36 2.35 3.08 2.03 2.71 1.03 1.84 1.52 1.73 1.11 2.26 3.32 1.68 2.81 1.46 4.20 2.49 2.75 1.15 2.63 6.57 3.32 2.69 2.v2 Degrees of freedom for the denominator (v2) v2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 60 120  Degrees of freedom for the numerator (v1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 24 30 40 60 120  161.51 2.29 2.19 2.82 1.68 1.55 8.11 2.16 2.95 1.31 2.79 2.76 2.54 2.81 1.97 1.80 2.97 3.28 2.23 2.10 2.00 19.49 3.39 1.10 2.05 2.04 3.1 250.91 1.30 2.65 4.31 2.70 2.5 241.55 3.60 2.94 2.66 2.71 2.68 4.49 3.90 1.79 1.15 3.06 2.70 1.55 1.20 2.93 1.28 4.15 2.49 3.93 2.46 2.02 1.64 2.04 1.57 1.84 2.32 3.80 1.20 2.37 3.19 2.24 2.34 2.53 4.86 2.90 1.47 2.06 1.85 2.88 4.5 215.05.24 2.07 2.89 3.85 8.92 1.90 2.15 2.40 4.53 2.05 2.34 3.77 2.01 2.38 19.62 4.00 2.70 3.0 236.11 2.00 2.2 253.19 5.62 4.34 2.01 1.31 2.9 248.40 4.84 4.1 252.68 2.11 2.84 1.53 7. pp [ 1 Table V Percentage Points of the F-Distribution (continued) f0.95 1.1 251.12 4.55 2.58 3.23 2.0 249.23 2.98 1.83 1.01 2.69 4.83 2.75 1.32 4.54 4.47 3.13 9.86 5.81 3.24 3.30 3.99 1.59 2.14 3.73 2.77 5.09 3.09 2.14 4.45 3.68 3.71 2.66 2.43 4.61 2.77 1.87 1.82 2.97 1.55 2.55 9.35 2.47 2.63 3.99 1.63 2.74 3.27 2.42 2.37 2.43 1.69 5.07 2.46 2.13 2.18 2.63 3.66 8.00 5.57 2.23 2.64 4.39 2.37 2.18 3.46 2.71 2.54 3.45 19.61 5.26 3.38 2.96 2.66 2.54 2.11 2.35 4.94 1.95 4.38 2.23 3.32 2.10 3.83 1.93 1.25 2.17 2.07 1.91 1.35 1.33 2.92 2.01 1.38 3.54 2.09 2.20 3.71 3.65 2.59 3.34 2.70 8.85 1.48 3.07 3.96 1.23 5.98 2.33 2.20 2.05 4.05 2.35 2.75 1.01 2.51 2.79 5.79 1.40 3.69 2.48 2.79 8.27 3.62 2.74 8.15 2.25 2.32 2.07 2.74 1.41 2.12 2.55 1.45 2.59 2.89 1.81 8.11 2.65 2.9 240.60 2.34 2.84 1.16 2.61 2.12 2.42 2.07 2.06 4.51 4.57 8.96 4.90 2.98 1.85 2.74 2.19 2.10 4.49 2.62 2.35 2.12 3.24 3.12 3.34 2.60 2.41 19.71 4.07 3.70 2.21 4.02 2.21 2.96 5.68 3.47 19.30 3.53 1.08 2.64 1.71 4.00 659 26].9 243.87 3.00 1.51 19.71 6.92 1.38 2.21 2.80 5.34 2.25 2.92 1.75 5.25 2.48 2.90 2.04 1.7 224.76 2.53 2.00 3.18 3.43 19.59 4.07 3.45 19.76 4.21 4.28 2.16 2.60 2.80 2.91 5.84 1.43 2.94 3.44 3.19 2.58 1.22 2.67 4.06 2.53 4.70 2.84 1.30 2.29 2.74 1.13 4.06 2.45 2.45 2.15 4.26 6.77 3.46 4.53 2.46 2.39 2.35 2.08 3.49 19.74 3.13 2.87 1.74 2.03 1.66 2.39 4.28 9.36 3.96 1.95 2.27 2.65 1.35 19.40 2.87 3.00 3.22 1.44 3.45 2.36 5.09 6.01 1.75 3.27 2.07 4.42 2.16 19.01 4.74 4.84 3.75 1.85 2.69 1.10 2.49 2.34 3.39 6.12 9.37 19.96 2.75 1.99 2.90 2.33 3.98 2.59 8.04 6.71 2.33 19.58 2.25 2.62 2.06 2.78 2.67 5.28 3.28 3.3 18.61 2.73 3.45 2.92 2.83 2.64 2.89 8.88 1.94 1.81 3.59 1.89 1.42 3.51 2.59 2.01 8.8 238.25 19.48 3.60 3.01 2.42 2.92 4.77 1.55 2.90 1.25 2.14 3.27 2.72 2.72 5.15 2.96 2.70 2.85 2.16 2.84 3.11 3.85 1.28 2.99 5.94 8.22 3.44 3.84 1.96 1.36 2.91 1.59 6.39 3.20 2.45 2.13 2.39 2.74 2.18 2.34 2.27 2.42 2.10 2.62 8.56 2.41 5.50 4.15 2.79 2.03 1.96 1.60 2.67 1.31 2.73 4.91 2.22 3.52 3.4 199.66 1.92 1.94 1.24 2.64 8.17 2.79 1.18 2.59 3.40 2.53 2.17 3.95 2.23 3.84 3.29 3.61 1.21 3.82 1.30 4.01 1.46 1.25 3.04 1.25 2.3 254.93 2.88 4.84 2.01 1.98 3.67 3.28 2.75 2.74 4.43 2.54 2.51 3.29 3.81 2.86 1.30 2.v1.78 4.93 1.18 2.02 1.53 2.44 2.77 4.49 2.18 2.39 3.87 2.46 2.03 2.16 2.51 2.97 2.12 2.

68 2.35 3.41 4.80 1.04 5.02 3.57 1.30 2.42 2.39 2.25 2.41 2.9 993.91 1.54 14.29 2.98 4.33 6.35 3.92 4.05 2.65 3.12 2.6 921.75 3.67 2.29 3.31 3.36 2.27 2.18 2.58 3.42 14.86 3.03 2.48 1.62 6.95 1.23 6.36 8.91 2.58 1.19 2.18 6.79 2.72 3.03 3.69 3.82 2.31 3.41 39.04 2.59 2.15 6.73 3.62 2.07 5.09 2.28 4.20 3.97 2.17 39.88 2.45 2.52 6.22 2.22 3.12 6.04 1.39 3.23 5.33 3.16 2.55 2.08 2.53 3.66 3.41 2.52 3.98 1.66 2.10 4.10 2.78 2.v2 v1 Degrees of freedom for the numerator (v1) 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 60 120  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 24 30 40 60 120  647.57 2.39 2.01 4.38 2.15 3.22 2.33 39.48 4.81 5.73 14.96 4.15 2.61 2.40 39.31 3.20 4.01 2.51 2.17 14.12 3.13 5.76 7.6 976.61 4.26 3.34 14.10 4.79 4.46 3.93 2.51 2.55 2.00 3.75 8.2 899.95 3.62 4.15 2.38 3.41 2.37 3.59 4.62 2.66 4.05 1.38 2.29 2.45 3.5 864.33 2.91 2.22 10.80 2.30 4.49 6.36 4.05 1.28 2.02 2.69 1.41 2.47 4.33 2.22 2.12 3.67 4.94 2.57 2.65 2.70 2.88 14.61 2.12 2.52 5.63 2.39 7.67 3.85 5.20 4.82 4.42 3.26 2.41 2.14 2.18 3.33 3.20 2.67 2.15 3.56 2.89 1.99 13.87 2.34 3.79 2.8 799.64 1.08 2.99 2.39 3.59 2.10 4.47 2.24 2.00 2.71 2.53 2.42 5.39 2.53 4.80 3.77 2.44 16.51 3.25 2.68 2.16 2.48 5.78 2.25 14.04 4.83 1.88 1.11 2.01 2.51 3.25 3.23 2.33 3.24 3.67 2.54 2.46 39.50 17.76 1.88 6.43 39.20 3.84 3.56 3.96 3.66 8.56 3.60 9.45 2.42 4.08 3.48 3.90 2.44 15.82 2.37 2.42 3.46 4.20 4.07 2.05 2.05 3.85 6.19 2.18 2.82 4.05 2.02 2.46 2.14 7.22 3.29 3.43 4.24 2.32 4.07 3.78 3.00 3.94 5.07 3.31 5.05 2.49 2.51 2.97 2.25 4.12 5.22 3.70 2.11 2.98 1.55 5.39 2.87 4.18 2.12 3.92 2.95 13.09 2.37 5.75 4.12 4.94 1.30 39.13 3.29 3.07 6.7 963.00 1.47 14.14 3.2 1001 1006 1010 1014 1018 38.07 8.59 3.25 3.26 10.19 5.12 3.1 997.69 4.45 2.34 3.94 1.18 2.85 3.20 3.26 6.61 2.83 5.96 1.88 5.23 3.69 3.13 2.17 3.87 2.46 39.13 2.18 3.99 4.31 2.69 4.38 3.75 2.82 1.60 6.43 6.95 3.25 5.01 1.23 2.59 2.38 3.61 3.96 2.10 3.01 2.84 2.09 2.49 39.60 3.60 6.00 39.45 39.15 2.27 2.46 2.50 2.53 2.56 2.87 2.44 3.11 2.84 2.51 3.57 4.18 3.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 660 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : v2 Degrees of freedom for the denominator (v2) 660 Table V .38 2.36 4.57 2.96 2.PQ220 6234F.17 2.57 2.76 2.09 5.39 2.77 4.06 3.62 2.66 3.53 1.37 3.68 6.65 4.16 3.84 2.72 4.41 3.80 2.76 3.29 3.7 984.16 2.32 2.72 1.03 1.70 5.43 3.29 3.65 9.85 2.94 5.79 5.82 5.06 2.62 14.04 13.72 6.20 9.57 2.56 3.89 3.76 6.10 14.91 5.20 2.21 2.20 4.64 5.66 3.56 8.84 8.01 1.17 3.48 3.05 1.05 4.32 2.61 3.90 8.69 2.76 2.67 7.90 2.60 2.50 2.72 2.87 2.44 3.61 1.47 4.2 956.44 3.72 3.77 3.25 3.06 2.60 5.33 2.08 14.29 2.36 39.01 1.05 1.43 7.27 2.50 2.26 4.73 3.v1.86 2.30 4.89 2.28 3.36 2.50 3.02 8.76 4.71 5.21 2.07 2.08 2.99 5.63 3.97 5.3 968.83 4.61 3.57 4.67 1.92 2.32 3.39 39.13 2.53 2.21 2.93 2.51 39.54 5.04 15.73 3.22 3.94 2.62 3.73 2.31 8.51 8.74 2.90 2.93 1.72 4.27 2.94 1.37 39.06 5.94 1.05 2.84 2.51 2.11 2.12 14.89 3.47 4.39 1.46 8.32 6.89 2.95 2.80 3.89 3.67 2.24 3.79 2.27 3.52 2.14 2.52 5.07 2.81 2.1 948.30 2.64 2.04 3.33 2.63 4.47 39.97 4.28 6.51 3.71 1.12 4.15 3.27 3.63 2.36 9.025.06 2.24 4.61 3.78 3.43 2.99 2.35 4.90 4.94 1.82 1.76 2.44 2.41 8.59 3.38 3.46 3.72 5.63 4.27 5.43 1.45 2.96 2.79 2.77 3.48 39.46 5.67 2.85 2.50 3.08 4.40 6.03 1.72 2. pp [ 1 Percentage Points of the F-Distribution (continued) f0.90 4.78 2.35 2.63 2.72 2.29 5.73 2.44 2.98 6.31 4.82 3.01 8.83 4.21 3.95 2.08 6.98 2.64 2.34 2.95 3.57 2.90 3.21 5.79 2.89 5.64 2.29 3.42 4.73 2.51 2.88 3.74 1.77 2.89 2.78 3.47 2.32 2.41 3.07 6.01 3.44 2.98 8.30 2.68 2.90 12.98 9.73 2.87 1.75 2.93 3.86 4.31 2.82 2.15 3.17 2.70 2.81 7.27 1.67 3.28 3.57 6.17 5.33 6.88 1.85 8.00 5.00 26].88 2.65 2.87 3.52 2.8 937.06 1.25 39.

02 1.21 2.59 8.75 8.14 3.71 3.82 5.98 2.46 3.56 3.60 5.83 3.72 6.33 3.00 99.00 3.54 4.74 2.58 2.56 7.09 3.63 2.52 2.06 4.50 4.75 8.84 2.49 99.80 2.26 8.66 3.16 3.52 3.13 3.54 3.44 4.99 6.84 2.56 2.20 5.78 4.96 2.29 2.31 10.89 2.93 2.62 2.31 3.11 2.39 99.91 5.20 5.33 2.67 2.41 3.06 7.22 26.87 8.02 6.59 1.73 4.84 2.60 4.93 2.87 4.43 3.78 3.92 2.06 2.51 3.21 3.87 2.63 6.84 6.24 27.68 6.18 4.67 10.67 3.71 4.76 2.03 3.57 4.40 7.93 5.64 5.62 6.08 4.05 26.81 5.00 26.65 7.39 4.70 3.53 4.18 3.42 4.01.58 2.75 2.86 6.04 4.23 7.45 3.23 27.31 3.27 12.07 5.66 1.46 99.76 3.21 6.36 4.94 3.28 5.26 13.75 10.34 2.42 99.38 9.48 3.85 4.68 3.30 3.99 2.18 3.70 1.45 2.85 4.51 3.98 7.48 4.72 7.70 2.47 9.16 10.77 5.65 11.20 14.54 3.64 5.65 13.34 4.46 28.80 3.82 4.46 10.87 3.72 9.17 2.31 3.64 4.41 5.13 7.95 5.31 3.79 1.18 6.50 34.52 2.30 4.25 99.65 8.38 6.66 2.13 21.87 26.v1.96 4.86 3.52 15.00 16.86 1.52 2.74 4.29 3.40 2.08 4.82 2.53 6.58 2.00 2.85 4.50 2.86 4.22 3.86 3.02 13.99 5.94 3.21 3.51 3.89 9.67 5.65 7.69 26.20 3.69 3.07 2.14 4.03 2.32 2.5 5403 5625 5764 5859 5928 5982 6022 6056 6106 6157 6209 6235 6261 6287 6313 6339 6366 98.47 2.94 2.83 2.14 2.31 7.99 2.62 2.72 2.84 2.92 2.26 2.17 7.32 4.06 11.55 2.36 7.55 2.60 9.95 3.98 2.19 6.30 3.03 1.64 4.41 2.70 2.03 4.41 2.40 6.58 4.80 2.37 99.64 2.78 3.20 2.36 5.93 5.65 3.20 9.30 99.00 8.57 8.26 3.43 4.96 2.47 5.23 2.87 7.51 2.03 1.66 2.29 3.66 2.36 99.46 2.02 5.97 10.55 8.56 5.31 6.46 16.02 3.96 2.75 2.50 99.01 4.93 2.81 2.66 4.72 2.74 5.68 5.37 2.37 4.73 3.49 27.39 2.16 6.20 2.92 9.89 4.85 2.92 2.75 2.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 661 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : v1 .55 2.88 5.37 3.11 3.95 2.78 3.07 6.01 6.93 3.40 99.51 3.73 1.23 5.51 5.85 3.98 15.02 13.79 2.66 3.31 2.12 30.33 6.44 4.50 3.39 4.23 3.73 2.25 4.14 7.59 3.56 6.09 3.17 99.33 2.00 661 26].40 4.41 4.90 2.03 3.46 3.09 2.39 10.04 1.63 3.15 8.30 3.25 9.54 2.18 5.03 7.15 3.96 3.29 2.55 3.03 2.PQ220 6234F.34 3.12 3.46 3.10 4.29 4.45 2.17 3.32 5.26 8.93 13.10 3.71 3.30 2.11 5.12 2.18 4.74 5.37 3.29 3.29 10.78 3.10 3.35 5.57 4.69 15.21 4.20 2.07 3.84 3.10 3.04 3.76 4.50 26.69 3.78 2.53 1.35 3.09 4.00 2.46 10.55 14.46 4.47 99.65 4.77 4.57 4.08 3.86 2.80 3.26 3.02 2.70 2.44 2.02 3.70 3.63 4.56 4.38 2.50 3.17 2.12 2.10 7.45 7.66 14.11 9.06 6.29 9.17 8.82 4.78 2.81 3.75 2.42 4.64 3.61 2.94 3.32 1.71 28.62 3.04 3.62 4.66 2.47 8.94 1.60 3.89 2.56 13.54 2.32 3.91 27.03 5.01 7.41 3.17 3.63 4.79 3.18 2.77 3.69 4.47 99.72 5.20 18.67 4.15 3.36 5.10 5.68 4.35 2.08 3.56 5.47 1.67 3.05 9.99 5.90 3.61 3.11 2.00 3.26 3.52 3.23 2.56 8.36 3.89 3.81 4.18 3.84 1.12 5.94 4.72 4.25 4.04 7.98 4.39 3.35 2.61 5.26 3.21 7.41 26.45 3.92 1.45 4.98 14.19 4.37 6.85 7.78 3.75 3.76 1.07 4.50 4.06 4.52 5.01 3.58 2.47 6.27 3.43 3.25 3.37 3.17 4.36 2.12 2.10 7.60 6.59 7.59 3.50 2.32 3.11 4.26 5.48 99.01 3.29 6.42 6.26 7.22 3.60 2.63 2.v2 Degrees of freedom for the denominator (v2) Degrees of freedom for the numerator (v1) 1 v2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 60 120  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 24 30 40 60 120  4052 4999.34 3.82 29.63 3.51 4.54 4.88 2.13 2.42 3.56 3.23 3.89 3.46 7.05 2.67 5.91 9.40 4.50 2.95 4.19 2.94 4.79 3.20 4.55 9.31 7.69 2.37 14.84 13.01 5.67 2.07 2.49 2.23 3.78 2.25 4.12 2.70 3.42 8.75 13.36 9.03 2.00 2.42 2.89 4.83 2.47 2.49 4.80 7.18 3.91 5.95 5.97 6.53 3.78 9.72 4.49 2.45 99.80 5.33 4.80 14.30 4.66 2.31 5.82 3.94 3.47 2.67 27.35 3. pp [ 1 Table V Percentage Points of the F-Distribution (continued) f0.00 2.88 12.14 4.55 5.61 4.47 3.95 1.13 3.99 3.43 99.06 5.22 5.99 6.88 1.17 3.43 3.51 3.27 2.40 3.16 4.02 2.09 2.35 27.70 5.40 2.36 3.33 99.28 4.21 14.17 3.57 2.59 3.80 2.35 2.10 3.59 3.26 3.82 5.82 3.64 2.32 26.39 5.

d. m. curves for different values of n for the two-sided normal test for a level of significance   0. Charts VIb. k. pp [ 1 0. and q are reproduced with permission from “Operating Characteristics for the Common Statistical Tests of Significance. F.C. by A. f.’’ by C.8 0. Ferris. June 1946. j.APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS Chart VI Operating Characteristic Curves 1. l. p.05. L. H. Grubbs. Lieberman. h. e. Annals of Mathematical Statistics. o. g.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 662 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : 1 2 3 4 5 d (a) O. L.0 0.00 0. 1972.4 2 3 4 0.60 0. Bowker and G.40 n 1 2 0. 1. Weaver. and r are reproduced with permission from Engineering Statistics. J.C. i. . Prentice-Hall.01.6 n = 1 0. curves for different values of n for the two-sided normal test for a level of significance   0. E.2 0 15 20 30 40 50 75 100 0 5 6 7 8 10 Probability of accepting H0 662 26].20 = 3 4 5 20 1 6 7 8 9 10 15 0 30 40 50 75 100 0 2 3 4 d (b) O. and C. n. 2nd Edition. c. Source: Charts VIa.80 Probability of accepting H0 PQ220 6234F.

00 d (d) O.50 3.50 30 40 50 75 100 0 –1.0 15 20 –0.20 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 0.50 15 0.50 9 0. pp [ 1 0.60 n = 1 Probability of accepting H0 PQ220 6234F.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 663 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A Chart VI 663 Operating Characteristic Curves (continued) 1.05.C.0 50 75 –0.50 2. curves for different values of n for the one-sided normal test for a level of significance   0.00 d 1.00 1.26].80 0.20 3 4 5 6 7 0.00 1.40 2 3 0.00 10 8 1. curves for different values of n for the one-sided normal test for a level of significance   0.00 0.00 2.50 2. .80 0.00 2.01.50 3.60 0.00 (c) O.50 30 40 100 0 –1.40 n = 1 2 0. 1.00 Probability of accepting H0 0.C.

0 3.30 n = 7 n 0.01.6 4 5 0.8 Probability of accepting H0 664 26].8 2.4 1. curves for different values of n for the two-sided t-test for a level of significance   0.40 n = 4 5 0.0 n=2 0.20 = 0.4 2.05.6 15 0.8 1.6 d 1.qxd 5/8/02 8:31 PM Page 664 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : 3 0. pp [ 1 0. 1.6 2.2 0 0 1 2 3 d (e) O.80 Probability of accepting H0 PQ220 6234F.10 1.60 n= 0.0 10 0.APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS Chart VI Operating Characteristic Curves (continued) 1.50 0.00 0.8 3. curves for different values of n for the two-sided t-test for a level of significance   0.2 2.2 1.4 = 0.2 ( f ) O.70 0.C.0 2.90 n=3 0.4 7 10 15 20 75 100 30 40 50 0. .2 n 0 n= 75 100 0 20 = n 30 n= 40 n= 50 n= n= 0.C.

qxd 5/8/02 8:32 PM Page 665 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A Chart VI 665 Operating Characteristic Curves (continued) 1.10 0 – 0.2 2.4 –0.6 0.00 0.70 0. curves for different values of n for the one-sided t-test for a level of significance   0.8 3.6 2.4 1. curves for different values of n for the one-sided t-test for a level of significance   0. 1.50 0.8 1.70 3 0.4 0.80 n= 0.4 0.2 0.60 n 0.30 0.C.2 d (h) O.80 = = = 3 4 5 0.0 2.4 –0. pp [ 1 0.00 0.6 2.26].20 0.0 1.10 15 n= 20 n= 30 n= 40 n = n = 50 0.2 0 n 0.8 1.8 3.50 0.0 2.2 d (g) O.6 –0.01.0 3.C.8 –0.8 2.2 1.6 1.40 4 5 = 7 = 10 0 – 0.6 –0.20 = = n 0.90 0.6 0.60 0.4 2.8 – 0.6 1.30 n n = 75 0 n = 10 Probability of accepting H0 PQ220 6234F.2 0.2 0 n 7 = n 10 = n 15 n= 20 n= 0 3 n= 40 50 n= n= 5 n=7 0 n = 10 Probability of accepting H0 0. .05.90 0.0 3.2 1.4 2.4 1.40 n n 0.0 1.8 2.2 2.

00 . curves for different values of n for the two-sided chi-square test for a level of significance   0.00 3 n = 0.00 (i) O.APPENDIX A Chart VI STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS Operating Characteristic Curves (continued) 2 1.40 2.00 n= 0.30 0.70 3 6 666 26]. 3 1.01.C.50 5 Probability of accepting H0 PQ220 6234F.60 ( j) O.20 0.60 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 40 50 75 100 0.40 0.80 3.60 2.05.90 4 n= 0.80 3.20 6 0.10 0 0 0.10 0 0 0. pp [ 1 1.30 0.80 1. 4.70 6 0.80 n= 2 5 0.20 4 5 6 Probability of accepting H0 1.C.40 3 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 40 50 75 100 0.20 3.00 1.80 1.60 2.90 4 0.00 λ 2.60 0.00 1.60 4.20 3.20 0. curves for different values of n for the two-sided chi-square test for a level of significance   0.00 λ 2.80 2 5 0.40 0.50 0.40 0.40 2.qxd 5/8/02 8:32 PM Page 666 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : 4 0.

.0 6.0 6 5 4.40 2 3 4 5 0 6 10 15 20 30 40 50 75 100 0 7 8 0.0 4.00 0.80 Probability of accepting H0 PQ220 6234F.05.qxd 5/8/02 8:32 PM Page 667 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A Chart VI 667 Operating Characteristic Curves (continued) 1.0 9.20 30 9 20 10 15 0 0 3 4 1. pp [ 1 0.40 100 75 50 n= 40 0.0 3.26].0 λ (k) O.0 5.0 8.C.60 n= 0.0 λ (l) O. curves for different values of n for the one-sided (upper tail) chi-square test for a level of significance   0.20 1.0 8 7 3.80 0. curves for different values of n for the one-sided (upper tail) chi-square test for a level of significance   0. 1.01.60 0.0 7.00 Probability of accepting H0 0.C.0 2.0 2.

00 n 0.40 75 100 20 0.80 3 0. curves for different values of n for the one-sided (lower tail) chi-square test for a level of significance   0.4 0.2 100 40 30 50 75 15 20 8 10 Probability of accepting H0 0 0 0.0 λ (m) O. .60 5 4 0.qxd 5/8/02 8:32 PM Page 668 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : Probability of accepting H0 PQ220 6234F.20 1.5 01.60 0.APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS Chart VI Operating Characteristic Curves (continued) 1.80 1. pp [ 1 0 0 0. = 2 1.40 0.00 1.20 30 40 50 15 9 10 8 7 6 668 26].0 n= 2 0.5 2.05.C.6 5 4 3 7 6 0. 1.C.8 0.01.40 λ (n) O. curves for different values of n for the one-sided (lower tail) chi-square test for a level of significance   0.20 0.

4.01.00 3.00 λ 2.80 2.80 1.20 2.80 5 6 21 31 0.00 .60 ( p) O.40 7 8 51 101 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16 21 31 51 101 0.40 2.20 1.20 3.C.40 3.60 3.60 16 Probability of accepting H0 PQ220 6234F.26].00 n1 = n 0.00 1. 1.05.00 n1 = n = 2 3 4 0.40 6 7 8 9 16 21 31 51 101 6 7 8 9 10 16 21 31 51 101 10 Probability of accepting H0 3 2 =3 0.20 0 0 0.80 4 4 0.80 4. curves for different values of n for the two-sided F-test for a level of significance   0.60 2. curves for different values of n for the two-sided F-test for a level of significance   0.40 0.80 1. pp [ 1 0 0 0.00 λ (o) O.40 0.00 1.60 5 5 0.80 3.20 9 10 0.qxd 5/8/02 8:33 PM Page 669 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : 669 APPENDIX A Chart VI Operating Characteristic Curves (continued) 1.40 1.C.

C.00 8.qxd 5/8/02 8:33 PM Page 670 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : 20 0 1 15 100 30 40 50 75 0.80 3 0.20 1.00 16.00 2.00 (r) O.05.60 4 5 6 0.C.00 n1 = n 2 =2 0.40 7 8 10 Probability of accepting H0 670 26].40 4 5 6 7 0.20 2 3 4 λ (q) O.00 14. 1.00 5.80 Probability of accepting H0 PQ220 6234F.00 10 0 8 9 16 21 31 41 51 121 0 4.00 λ 10. pp [ 1 0. curves for different values of n for the one-sided F-test for a level of significance   0.60 3 0.APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS Chart VI Operating Characteristic Curves (continued) 1.00 n1 = n 2 =2 0.00 12. .01. curves for different values of n for the one-sided F-test for a level of significance   0.

025 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0. W (or W ) is approximately normally distributed with mean n(n 1)4 and variance n(n 1)(2n 1)24.05 0.10 0.01 0.005 0 2 3 5 8 10 13 17 21 25 30 35 41 47 53 60 67 75 83 91 100 0 2 3 5 8 10 13 17 21 25 29 34 40 46 52 58 65 73 81 89 0 1 3 5 7 9 12 15 19 23 27 32 37 43 49 55 62 69 76 0 1 3 5 7 9 12 15 19 23 27 32 37 42 48 54 61 68 Two-sided tests One-sided tests * If n  25.005 Two-sided tests One-sided tests  n 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 Table VIII Critical Values for the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test w*  n* 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0. pp [ 1 26].025 0.005 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 Two-sided tests One-sided tests .01 0.025 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 0.PQ220 6234F.01 0.10 0. 0.qxd 5/8/02 8:33 PM Page 671 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A 671 Table VII Critical Values for the Sign Test r*  n 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 0.10 0.02 0.01 0.

W1 is approximately normally distributed with mean 12 n1 1 n1 n2 12 and variance n1n2(n1 n2 1)12.PQ220 6234F.01 n1 n2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 4 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 31 32 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 32 33 34 36 37 38 39 40 42 43 44 32 34 35 37 38 40 41 43 44 46 47 49 50 52 53 55 57 43 45 47 49 51 53 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 56 58 61 63 65 67 70 72 74 76 78 81 83 71 74 76 79 81 84 86 89 92 94 97 87 90 93 96 99 102 105 108 111 106 109 112 115 119 122 125 125 129 133 137 140 147 151 155 171 . pp [ 1 672 26].qxd 5/8/02 8:33 PM Page 672 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS Table IX Critical Values for the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test w0.05 n1* n2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 28 29 17 18 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 31 32 33 34 35 37 38 39 40 42 26 27 29 31 32 34 35 37 38 40 42 43 45 46 48 50 51 53 55 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 49 51 53 55 58 60 63 65 67 70 72 74 77 79 82 63 65 68 71 73 76 79 82 84 87 90 93 95 78 81 85 88 91 94 97 100 103 107 110 96 99 103 106 110 114 117 121 124 115 119 123 127 131 135 139 137 141 145 150 154 160 164 169 185 *For n1 and n2  8. Table IX Critical Values for the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test (continued) w0.

9845 0.9693 0.9869 0.608 1.9854 0.414 .404 .816 .qxd 5/8/02 8:33 PM Page 673 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A Table X Factors for Constructing Variables Control Charts Factor for Control Limits X Chart R Chart S Chart n* A1 A2 d2 D3 D4 c4 n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 3.175 1.895 3.392 .136 .689 3.364 .9862 0.557 1.173 3.848 .9754 0.348 .619 1.425 .729 .285 . pp [ 1 26].162 .864 1.777 1.308 .443 .532 3.8862 0.9400 0.173 .094 1.575 2.788 .PQ220 6234F.692 1.256 .267 2.459 3.778 3.337 .816 1.004 1.329 .9727 0.9810 0.577 .744 1.180 .9835 0.434 .632 .258 3.647 .9887 0.596 1.223 .566 1.9823 0.679 .9794 0.588 3.336 3.379 .153 1.652 1.187 .9876 0.9213 0.735 3.9594 0.023 .621 1.9882 0.596 1.640 3.9896 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 *n  25: A1  3 .858 3.541 0.203 .925 .662 .9650 0.760 2.575 1.924 1.157 .266 .697 .326 2.059 2.223 .212 .076 .282 2.452 .847 2.534 2.880 1.483 .194 .078 3.693 2.973 .284 .704 2.9776 0.184 .115 2.548 1.235 .880 1.717 .394 1.7979 0.9515 0.884 .931 0 0 0 0 0 .716 1.028 .407 3.819 3.167 .308 .738 .410 1.636 1.373 .586 1.671 1.128 1.762 .419 .277 1.970 3.249 .9892 0.472 3.

1n where n  number of observations in sample. 673 .

044 3.904 3.314 2.874 37.95 0.524 2.379 2.100 4.244 2.079 4.577 3.004 2.959 1.414 4.916 1.337 2.368 3.855 6.265 4.018 2.483 3.185 2.299 6.919 4.947 3.172 2.150 7.934 160.703 2.187 6.733 3.854 32.955 3.161 4.676 2.293 3.659 2.250 3.060 2.445 2.514 3.95 0.118 2.421 3.131 2.626 2.040 3.605 4.889 1.955 2.972 2.315 3.300 29.126 3.907 1.221 3.366 2.870 3.026 1.385 2.012 2.90 0.872 2.152 3.369 4.380 5.933 2.PQ220 6234F.865 1.052 1.945 2.723 3.301 7.021 2.522 2.299 2.974 6.529 2.089 2.808 2.307 4.401 11.95 0.506 2.121 3.99 0.819 2.379 3.078 3.152 2.308 5.631 2.887 1.qxd 5/8/02 8:33 PM Page 674 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TABLES AND CHARTS Table XI Factors for Tolerance Intervals Values of k for Two-Sided Intervals Confidence Level 0.044 3.863 2.903 2.977 188.643 2.673 2.594 5.943 4.996 1.168 3.162 3.543 2.162 2.775 5.474 2.077 2.677 2.457 3.193 18.527 10.150 4.958 1.758 3.978 5.066 3.488 4.535 2.620 2.849 3.219 2.270 3.608 3.397 3.656 3.529 2.993 3.103 2.400 2.655 2.452 3.055 14.878 3.518 3.986 2.588 2.350 3.812 3.463 2.454 2.634 5.079 4.284 2.468 5.222 2.136 2.045 3. pp [ 1 674 26].433 4.902 2.337 4.404 2.894 2.480 2.385 3.674 9.959 3.355 2.292 3.194 2.507 3.260 8.805 2.264 2.398 6.167 8.277 4.713 2.081 3.870 4.494 2.727 3.958 2.682 3.847 4.737 4.893 4.286 2.135 2.489 2.345 3.584 2.752 2.440 5.784 2.213 3.370 5.098 3.564 2.858 2.140 2.399 3.029 2.723 2.247 2.382 2.834 1.954 2.001 2.930 9.841 2.550 4.310 2.614 2.130 3.423 4.929 1.471 3.936 4.512 3.99 Percent Coverage 0.753 2.521 4.506 2.279 3.437 2.272 2.99 0.492 4.491 22.966 5.251 2.172 24.433 3.631 4.259 3.848 1.551 2.414 2.872 2.103 2.800 6.202 2.732 3.697 2.208 2.233 48.345 5.587 2.264 3.369 3.147 3.618 3.712 3.756 2.430 12.251 3.90 0.99 242.532 3.170 3.246 2.916 6.125 3.019 8.90 0.612 5.230 4.839 2.173 3.90 0.999 1.582 3.248 4.822 18.920 2.130 3.613 4.754 3.413 2.393 4.737 2.278 4.822 3.333 2.576 2.95 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 15.861 8.066 3.225 2.615 3.949 3.334 2.275 3.166 3.225 3.702 3.096 .543 3.278 2.007 3.562 3.355 0.651 2.340 3.891 4.743 2.025 1.967 2.248 2.

614 2.PQ220 6234F.472 4.728 4.275 2.965 1.859 3.99 0.852 3.95 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10.911 2.598 1.902 1.464 3.074 4.736 2.895 1.633 4.974 2.520 3.276 2.405 2.125 3.qxd 5/8/02 8:33 PM Page 675 RK UL 6 RK UL 6:Desktop Folder:TEMP WORK:PQ220 MONT 8/5/2002: PPENDIX : APPENDIX A 675 Table XI Factors for Tolerance Intervals (continued) Values of k for One-Sided Intervals Confidence Level 0.883 2.609 1.470 13.559 1.481 1.808 2.511 1.909 1.886 1.066 2.190 2.159 2.741 5.640 3.972 3.447 3.755 2.206 3.380 5.939 7.033 2.370 9.028 2.030 1.884 2.426 17.553 7.349 2.684 103.807 2.295 3.357 2.666 4.521 2.928 1.706 2.133 2.853 1.532 3.102 3.765 2.309 2.766 2.155 2.263 3.137 3.258 3.832 3.438 4.568 2.677 2.153 2.737 1.010 1.617 23.641 3.007 2.944 1.838 1.355 2.002 1.407 3.411 3.777 1.905 2.819 1.729 2.006 2.750 1.793 2.180 2.874 1.329 2.556 3.829 4.077 3.109 2.659 3.309 3.453 2.661 1.697 1.960 3.155 4.987 2.656 5.311 3.269 2.95 0.662 2. pp [ 1 26].926 1.905 1.144 4.974 1.581 1.542 1.578 5.927 37.414 3.990 1.494 2.966 1.031 2.862 2.094 10.896 12.681 3.362 4.363 2.209 2.733 2.052 3.867 1.370 3.90 0.443 3.292 2.694 2.892 3.949 1.406 4.181 3.601 3.222 4.854 2.154 2.90 0.314 2.371 2.187 3.328 2.174 2.869 1.585 3.747 3.396 2.080 2.083 6.038 2.410 3.399 3.671 2.243 3.486 2.952 2.815 2.742 2.400 3.963 2.650 2.249 3.340 5.188 2.212 3.028 2.272 2.029 13.500 7.172 3.064 2.082 2.335 6.559 1.633 2.056 0.145 2.162 3.371 3.99 185.068 2.727 3.143 3.702 1.331 3.337 4.524 2.090 5.132 2.387 8.618 2.754 2.065 2.260 7.861 18.812 5.894 2.964 1.048 2.240 3.995 7.821 1.95 0.495 1.189 3.158 3.712 1.646 1.203 3.601 20.898 2.354 4.95 0.657 1.042 5.515 2.062 4.503 2.092 2.364 2.028 3.389 5.582 2.957 3.220 2.448 2.735 2.233 3.765 1.125 2.219 2.99 0.011 1.454 2.253 4.566 2.800 1.722 1.842 1.333 2.257 3.777 2.527 26.99 Percent Coverage 0.037 3.412 5.642 4.423 2.924 2.941 2.123 4.777 3.299 2.285 3.593 2.249 2.972 3.532 1.850 .290 3.639 131.969 2.662 2.764 1.497 3.694 2.783 3.638 2.738 3.890 1.90 0.210 2.227 2.202 2.129 2.105 3.90 0.114 2.933 1.688 1.459 2.581 6.022 1.724 1.402 2.708 3.241 2.782 1.981 3.

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