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Chapter2 Physiological Basis

Chapter2 Physiological Basis


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Published by: manghose on Jun 20, 2009
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I. Nervous System • • CNS = contains the spinal cord and the brain PNS = connects the brain and the spinal cord to the body

A. Neuron •

Most basic unit of the nervous system; like any other cells, has cell body with membrane, cytoplasm & nucleus Transmission of message: The dendrites near the cell body will receive the message of a stimulus, the message will travel through the these dendrites to the cell body. From the nucleus of the cell body, the message will travel to the axon which is protected by the myelin sheath then down to the axon’s endbrush that will transfer the message to other neurons. Kinds of neuron: 1. Sensory / Afferent = collects impulses from sense organs to spinal cord / brain 2. Motor / Efferent = carries impulses from CNS to muscles and glands 3. Connector / Association / Interneurons = connects neurons between sensory and motor; provides complex connections which mediate behavior Kinds of Connector: a. receive from spinal cord to brain b. transmit from 1 area of brain to another in same hemisphere c. transmit from 1 hemisphere to another

B. Nerve Impulse •

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The form of messages; involve electro-chemical reactions within nerve fiber Polarization = resting state; nerve fiber has more + electrical charges in outer surface and more negative in inner surface; when neuron stimulated Absolute Refractory Period = immediately after transmission of impulse; cannot be charged even by strongest stimulus Partial Refractory Phase = neuron gradually recovers; increase in receptivity of fibers; can be stimulated by stronger stimulus Fibers operate in groups/bundles High intensity stimulus will increase frequency of discharge and activate more fibers

C. Synapse • • Nerve junctures formed when nerve fibers interlace Functions: 1. nerve impulse slowed down, inhibited, not allowed to go further 2. nerve impulse entering synaptic junction may activate other fibers

D. Reflexes • • Simplest synaptic arrangements Inborn, automatic responses Messages transmitted directly from sensory to motor neurons forming Sensory-Motor Arc (causes person to react even before messages reach cerebral cortex) Protection reflex: Pupillary reflex, gagging reflex Flexion reflex: Jerk away hand from hot object

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Extension reflex: Stiffening of legs to support weight when standing Spinal cord reflex: Knee jerk

E. Neurotransmitters • • • • • Chemical substances connecting nervous system and behavior Carry impulse across synapse to dendrite / cell body of receiving neuron Help monitor vital functions of bran and body Excess / Deficiency lead to behavioral disorder Most popular: 1. Acetylcholine (Ach) = carry impulse to skeletal muscles; associated with memory capabilities; loss of memory, confusion, degenerative disorder like Alzheimer’s disease (disorders) 2. Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) = inhibitory transmitter; controls behavior 3. Dopamine (D.A.) = related to physical and mental ailments; Parkinson’s disease characterized by muscular rigidity and shaking @ very low levels; Schizophrenia @ very high levels 4. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) = enlarges cells; essential in formation of synapses for memory functions 5. Endorphins = helps brain control pain; long-term pain @ very high levels in brain

II. Central Nervous System A. Spinal Cord •

Spinal nerves: Motor and sensory nerves Receptor will receive the message from the stimulus. The message will travel down to the sensory nerve which is inside the dorsal root. The message will travel through the gray matter which is surrounded by the white matter of the spinal cord, to the brain. The brain will respond with another message. This message will travel back through the gray matter, surrounded by the white matter, to the motor nerve, which is inside the ventral root. Then the message will be sent to the muscles as a response. *** For the diagram of the spinal cord, please refer to your textbook. ***

B. Brain 1. Hindbrain (behind the head/brain) a. Medulla Oblongata = connects spinal cord and brain; automatic activities (heartbeat) b. Pons = connects higher and lower nervous system c. Cerebellum = maintains posture; smooth out and coordinate complex muscular activities (walking) 2. Midbrain (connects forebrain and hindbrain; connects sensory and motor pathways between lower and upper portions of the nervous system; visual and auditory activities) 3. Forebrain (with cerebral hemispheres; front) a. Thalamus = relay station of sensory impulses to brain b. Hypothalamus = physiological activities: sexual behavior, sleeping, eating, concentration, behavioral responses and emotional responses; with pituitary gland, regulate hormonal secretions, sexual development and behavior, metabolism, and reaction to stress) c. Cerebrum = seat of consciousness and higher mental processes 4. Reticular activating system = activates cortex (arousal of awareness) 5. Limbic system = organize activities to satisfy basic motivations and emotional needs • Cerebral hemispheres (right and left) = division of cerebrum


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Cerebral cortex = outer grey part off cortex with neuron cell bodies, dendrites; inner white core with axons that connect areas of the hemisphere with each other Convolutions = large wrinkle-like feature of the cortex which conceals the real size of the brain Central Sulcus / Fissure of Rolando = separates the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain Lateral Fissure / Fissure of Sylvius = separates the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain 4 Lobes of Cerebral Hemisphere: Frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital Areas of Cerebral Hemisphere: 1. Motor = one side near central sulcus 2. Somesthetic/Body-Sense/Touch = beside motor, near central sulcus 3. Taste = above lateral fissure 4. Broca’s area / Speech = beside taste, above lateral fissure 5. Auditory = below lateral fissure 6. Visual = back of the brain 7. Smell = tip of temporal lobe 8. Association area = integrating, coordinating, thinking, problem solving 9. Large silent area = untapped area of brain *** For the diagram of the brain, please refer to your textbook. ***

III. Peripheral Nervous System (conducts impulses) A. Somatic System (sensory and motor nerves to activate skeletal muscles; voluntary activities) 1. Cranial nerves (12 pairs) = receptors and effectors of head 2. Spinal nerves (31 pairs) = chest, trunk, extremities B. Autonomic System / Vegetative Nervous System (body activities: glands and organs; involuntary activities) 1. Sympathetic = originate from thoracic and lumbar parts of the spinal cord; mobilization, activation, expenditure of body energy during emergencies and stressful/threatening situations 2. Parasympathetic = from cranial and sacral nerves; calms body after emergency/stress; conserves energy IV. Endocrine System (ductless glands)

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Homeostasis (biochemical balance/equilibrium) Hormones (secretions of glands to maintain homeostasis)

A. Pituitary Gland / Hypophysis (master gland; controls other glands, near optic chiasma) Hormones: 1. Somatotropin = growth hormone (anterior lobe) 2. Follicle-stimulating hormone = follicles (anterior lobe) 3. Prolactin = mammary glands (anterior lobe) 4. Adenocorticotropic hormone = adrenals 5. Thyrotropic hormone = thyroid 6. Luteinizing hormone = gonads 7. Vasopressin = antidiuretic (secretion of water through kidneys); (also by hypothalamus) 8. Oxytocin = stimulate breast to produce milk; contraction of uterus during labor (also by hypothalamus) Disorders: 1. Hyperpituitarism (over somatotropin) a. Giantism = children


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b. Acromegaly = adults; over development of certain portions of skeleton 2. Hypopituitarism a. Dwarfism = short and small skeleton 3. Diabetes Insipidus = low vasopressin (large quantities of urine) B. Thyroid Gland (neck, near adam’s apple) Hormones: Thyroxine and Idothyroxine Disorders: 1. Hyperthyroidism = rapid physiological processes (accelerated heartbeat, high temperature, flushed and moist skin) 2. Hypothyroidism a. Cretinism = children; arrested physical and mental development b. Myxedema = adults; slow motor activity, increase in weight, slow speech, yellowish skin and thick lips C. Adrenal Glands (top of kidney) Hormones: • Medulla (center): Adrenalin / Epinephrine and Noradrenalin / Norepinephrine (extra energy in emergencies and stressful situations, like sympathetic nervous system) • Adrenal Cortex (outer): Metabolism of carbohydrates; functioning of reproductive organs Disorders: 1. Addison’s disease = undersecretion; weak, lethargic, loss of appetite for food or sex, breakdown of physiological functions 2. Cushing’s disease = oversecretion; adult females with rounded face, beard, cessation of menstruation 3. Adrenogenital syndrome = female children with accentuated male sex characteristics D. Islets of Langerhans (pancreas; back of stomach, attached to intestinal tract) Hormones: 1. Insulin = 2. Glucagon = increase permeability of cells to glucose in blood; important for nervous functions

Disorders: 1. Hypoinsulinism (Diabetes Mellitus) = high sugar in blood because it is not utilized in cells thus, low metabolic rate and level of activity 2. Hyperinsulinism = extreme weakness, cold and clammy sweating, collapse E. Gonads (develops during 3rd month in the womb) Hormones: • Testes: Testosterone (male secondary sex characteristics) • Ovaries 1. Estrogen = female secondary sex characteristics 2. Progesterone = thickens uterine lining for pregnancy F. Parathyroid Glands (posterior to thyroid) Hormone: Parathormone = balance of minerals (calcium) in blood


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Disorders: 1. Tetany = undersecretion; stiffened hands and fingers, muscle cramps, irritability 2. Oversecretion = with high amounts of calcium; lethargy, unconsciousness

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