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1. Diaphragm walls 2. Sheet piles walls 3. Ground anchors 4. Reinforced fills 5. Soil nailing 6. Bored piles 7. Displacement piles 8. Micropiling 9. Deep mixing 10.Deep vibration 11.Deep drainage 12. Grouting 13. Jet grouting
1. DIAPHRAGM WALLS
Clamshell (or grab): Excavation tool with two jaws to remove soil, rock or debris from an excavation by an intermittent operation. Jaws are attached to a steel frame. There are two main types of clamshells. — mechanical grabs using steel cables to open/close the jaws; — hydraulic grabs using hydraulic circuits to open/close the jaws. Hydrofraise (or cutter or mill): Excavation tool with rotating wheels fitted with steel picks to remove soil, rock or debris from an excavation by a continuous operation. Chisel: Heavy steel tool used to break up obstructions, boulders and hard strata encountered in the excavation or for socketing into hard soil or rock. There are particular types of chisels used to rectify an excavation trajectory, to extract stop ends, etc. Kelly (bar): Shaft, often telescopic, connected between the power drive and the digging tool which allows deep excavation. Cable(s): Steel cable(s) suspending the digging tool which allows deep excavation. Excavation crane: Crane used to handle the excavation tool (clamshell or hydrofraise). Handling crane: Crane used to handle the reinforcement cages and other equipment. Water stop: Special flexible element attached longitudinally to a stop end in such a way that half of the water stop is embedded in concrete in a panel after the concreting and stop end extracting operations. When constructing the adjacent panel, the other half of the water stop is released and also becomes embedded in concrete. As a result, the water stop surrounded in concrete at the contact zone between two panels helps to limit water leakage through this critical surface. Two water stops can be installed at a same joint if required. Overlap: The distance of a panel excavation into the material of an adjacent panel to ensure diaphragm wall continuity when no stop ends are used. The overlapping technique (no stop ends) is always used for hardening slurry walls, often used for plastic concrete walls and sometimes used for cast-in situ concrete walls where a hydrofraise (mill) can be employed to breakdown hard concrete at joints. Filter cake: Thin pastelike deposit formed by bentonite particles aggregating as water drains from the suspension to the ground through the edge walls of the excavation during its progress. This filter cake allows the bentonite suspension pressure to be maintained above the ground water pressure such that the excavation edge walls remain stable. Cutting back: Removal of surplus concrete (protrusions, etc) and bentonite cake when exposing the diaphragm wall panels. Trimming: Removal of surplus concrete above the cut-off level Capping beam: Reinforced concrete beam built above the cut-off level to connect the cast-in situ diaphragm wall panels together and/or to connect to overlying structural elements. 3
e. when the density of the suspension has to be increased. Lean concrete: Very low strength. It is also used as a constituent part of hardening slurries and of plastic concrete.e. Support fluids Bentonite suspensions A bentonite suspension shall be prepared with either natural or activated sodium bentonite. Specific materials and products used for the execution of diaphragm walls Bentonite Bentonite is a clay containing mainly the mineral montmorillonite. Concreting curve: Diagram representing the volume of poured concrete versus depth. Polymers Polymers can be used as rheological additive to bentonite suspensions with a content of 0. suitable inert materials may be added.g. 4 . polymers) in aqueous suspension. Desanding unit: Plant to remove sand and silt in order to clean the support fluid during excavation and before concreting. Bentonite is used in support fluids. Excavation curve: Diagram representing the excavation depth versus time. to fill voids or to fill panel excavation deviation. There are different types of polymers ranging from natural gums to specially tailored blends of synthetic products.1 – 1. Polymers are materials formed of molecules from chained monomeric units. Bentonite can contain additives (i.Air lift: Pumping technique in which air is pumped into the base of a suction pipe to cause reduced density of material in the pipe and induce upward flow to evacuate solids and fluids (flushing).5 mass % in relation to bentonite dry weight or as sole constituent. low fines concrete poured in a panel excavation to stop bentonite loss. The characteristics of the lean concrete should allow its re-excavation with normal tools. Pre-blasting: Preliminary operation consisting in drilling holes along the alignment of a diaphragm wall to place explosives in very hard material and blast it before commencing the diaphragm wall excavation. The air lift technique may be used to clean/replace the bentonite suspension before concreting. In certain cases. either as a bentonite suspension or as an addition to polymers. Bentonite used in bentonite suspensions shall not contain harmful constituents in such quantities as can be detrimental to reinforcement or concrete.
for example in the case of: – soils or rock with high permeability or cavities where loss of bentonite can occur. using the tests described in the American Petroleum Institute document "Recommended Practice Standard Procedure for Field Testing Water-Based Drilling Fluids" (reference: American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 13B-1. the fluid loss. – – – high piezometric ground water levels (confined or artesian conditions). 5 . unreinforced walls). for example.g in order to reduce penetration into the ground. very soft soils. salt water conditions.: non load bearing walls. A bentonite suspension with sufficient flow limit can be required by the design. Table 1 — Characteristics for fresh bentonite suspensions (1) see Table 2 . the sand content and the filter cake can be measured. notes 1 to 3 for the test procedures Table 2 — Characteristics for bentonite suspensions Notes (1) The Marsh value.Others than in exceptional circumstances. e. the fresh bentonite suspension shall meet the conditions shown in Table 1 and the "re-use" or "before-concreting" bentonite suspension shall meet the conditions shown in Table 2. The values in Tables 1 and 2 may be modified in special circumstances.g. an upper limit value between 4 % and 6 % for sand content may be used in special cases (e. 1990). At the stage "before concreting". June 1.
test will be approximately half of the value obtained in the 30 min test. NOTE: EN 1997-1 defines comparable experience as an experience which relates to similar works in similar conditions and is well documented or otherwise clearly established.5 min. in this case. Admixtures may be used to adjust setting time of the slury and its consistency during excavation and during any subsequent insertion of elements. and. For correct execution. The fluid loss for the 7. hardened material. (3) The duration of the fluid loss test may be reduced to 7. A hardening slurry may be prepared with calcium bentonite or activated sodium bentonite. – fine particles (d ≤ 80 µm) in the concrete mix (including cement and other fine materials) between 400 kg/m3 and 550 kg/m3. NOTE 2 Hardening slurries serve as support fluid during excavation. to provide a dense and low permeability material. to flow easily around the reinforcement. The specified properties of the hardened cast in situ concrete. together with the fines from the natural ground. the values for fluid loss and filter cake shall be adjusted. the cast in situ concrete shall be designed to avoid segregation during placing. A volume of 1 000 ml may be used. (4) Indicative values Polymer solutions Polymers may be designed to work in conjunction with bentonite or to be used as stand alone support fluid. 6 . Concrete Unless otherwise stated.(2) The Marsh value is the time required for a volume of 946 ml to flow through the orifice of the cone. In the case of a maximum aggregate particle size of 32 mm. the concrete mix shall have the following characteristics: – sand content (d ≤ 4 mm) greater than 40 % by weight of the total aggregate . Fresh hardening slurries The characteristics of the slurry shall be suitable to ensure satisfactory performance during execution. the concrete used in cast in situ concrete diaphragm walls or in precast concrete diaphragm walls shall comply with SR EN 206. the Marsh values given in tables 1 and 2 should be adjusted. and when set. but in this case. form the final.5 min. However. shall be compatible with the consistency requirements. related to strength and durability. Its use shall be based on full-scale trial trenches on the site or on the basis of comparable experience in similar geotechnical conditions. for routine control tests. NOTE 1 Hardening slurries are generally used in the precast concrete diaphragm wall technique and for slurry walls.
and be sufficiently workable for the duration of the placement procedure. – – – – be of high plasticity and good cohesiveness . to cater for any interruptions in the placement process. – – high range water reducing/super-plasticizing. and set retarding. honeycombing or segregation that might otherwise result from a high water content . The admixtures allowed for concreting using tremie pipe(s) may be: – water reducing/plasticizing. have good flow ability . The consistence ranges of the fresh concrete in different conditions of use shall comply with Table 4. Admixtures may be used: – to give a mix of high plasticity.6. Table 3 — Minimum cement content for concrete The water/cement ratio shall not exceed 0. – – to prolong the consistency as required for the duration of the placement . – to avoid bleeding. 7 . have the ability to self-compact . Fresh concrete Concrete used for diaphragm walls shall: – have a high resistance against segregation . The slump test or the flow table test may be used to evaluate the consistence of the fresh concrete.The minimum cement content shall be related to the maximum aggregate size in accordance with Table 3.
cement or another binder. high deformability is required. clay or bentonite). The terminology used to define the dimensions and details of panels is shown on Figures 1 and 2. For plastic concrete limiting w/c ratio does not apply. panel stability during excavation and concrete supply. well-graded aggregates. Plastic concrete is used for cut-off walls when. and possibly additions and admixtures. Plastic concrete Plastic concrete shall be designed in order to obtain the required deformability and permeability. water. Their constituent parts are: fine grain material (e. Considerations related to design of diaphragm wall made of panels The panel dimensions should take into account the dimensions of available excavating equipment.Table 4 — Consistency ranges for fresh concrete in different conditions Consistency of the concrete should be monitored with time. 8 .g. in addition to low permeability. the method and sequence of excavation. A minimum slump of 100 mm after four hours is recommended. silt. together with adequate workability and strength.
Key: 1 Wall thickness 2 Horizontal length of reinforcement cage 3 Cage width 4 Length of panel 5 Platform level 6 Casting level 7 Guide-wall 8 Cut off level 9 Vertical length of reinforcement cage 10 Reinforcement cage 11 Depth of excavation 12 Concave portion of curved joints Figure 1 — Geometry of a panel 9 .
Design should not normally consider continuity of reinforcement between the cages and across the joints but it may be constructed in exceptional circumstances. since leakage can occur at joints. Panel stability during excavation The length of the panels and the level of the support fluid shall ensure the stability of the trench during excavation. 10 . where it is necessary to distribute loads or minimize differential displacements.Key: P Primary S Secondary 1 Starter 2 Intermediate 3 Closure Figure 2 — Schematic examples of different types of panels and joints (plan view) The width of the excavating tool shall be at least equal to the design wall thickness. at recesses or through the wall material. Design shall consider that diaphragm walls cannot be expected to be completely watertight. Space shall be allowed in the reinforcement cage for the installation of the tremie pipe. Space shall be allowed between reinforcement cages of adjacent panels to accommodate the type of joints to be made and to take account of the construction tolerances. In exceptional cases where it is necessary to provide structural continuity across the joints. Damp patches and droplets of water on the surface of the wall cannot be avoided under normal circumstances. A reinforced concrete capping beam should be constructed along the top of reinforced concrete diaphragm walls. The design of the wall shall take into account the discontinuity of the reinforcement at the joints between the panels and between adjacent cages in the same panel. special techniques are available.
– effects of adjacent loads .g.g in loose soil overlying a hard rock. – in the case of voids. In the case of loose sand or soils with cu < 15 kPa. – in the case of polymer solutions. which increases with time.g case of closing a box). The trench remains stable as a result of the stabilizing forces of the support fluid acting against the walls of the trench: – in case of bentonite suspensions. – grouting the layers concerned before excavating the trench. special measures may be adopted. 11 . can have an influence on the trench stability. In case where a loss of support fluid can occur (e. In coarser soils. Also possible mitigation measures (e. – groundwater pressures . The ground water level can change in relation with execution (e. To ensure trench stability the level of the support fluid shall be adjusted with respect to the highest piezometric ground water level anticipated during excavation. The stability considerations shall take account of the following factors: – stabilizing forces due to the support fluid . The trench stability during excavation includes two aspects: – the local stability of the soil at the walls of the trench.The excavation tools or procedures. especially where chiselling or blasting are used. dewatering as a way to reduce pore pressure) should be considered. the support effect is caused by the seepage pressure of the liquid flowing into the soil. including the three-dimensional geometry of the problem . filling the trench to an appropriate depth with lean mix concrete or other suitable material.g highly permeable. The penetration depth. is significant in the case of silty or sandy soils. – earth pressures. either at the mixing plant or directly in the trench. – the overall stability of the excavation. – constructions details of adjacent structures. it can be necessary to stabilise the soil by increasing its strength or by raising the level of the support fluid and/or to increase its density during excavation. – shear strength parameters of the soils . Risk on trench stability in relation with change in water level due to construction should be considered. but remains small in the case of clayey soils. and to minimize the time during which the trench is left open. this effect is due to a limited penetration into the pores of the soil. and reexcavating. and the support fluid level shall always remain at least 1 m above the highest piezometric level. – adding a filler material to the bentonite suspension. Special precautions in chiselling and blasting have to be taken e. coarse soils or where there are voids in the ground). the support effect in fine-grained soils is due to the formation of a filter cake. for example : – increasing the flow limit of the fluid by increasing the bentonite content in the suspension.
When a bentonite suspension is used. The basic sequences for precast concrete diaphragm walls are: – excavation. – trimming and protective capping. excavations of long duration). the shape of the joints and the possible use of water stops. – cleaning the excavation. placing elements such as membranes. shall be 100 mm and shall take into account the verticality tolerances. generally with a hardening slurry. In some cases (e. This does not apply to the case of diaphragm walls with continuous horizontal reinforcement across the joints. to support the precast panel and applied loads . The basic sequences for cast in situ concrete diaphragm walls are: – excavation. – placing the precast element. – cleaning the excavation including recirculation of bentonite. In the general case a support fluid is used. – concreting. 12 . which has then to be replaced by the hardening slurry. reinforcement or sheet piles. the cage should not enter into the concave portion of the joint.Reinforcement cages The reinforcement within a panel may comprise one or more cages within the panel length. A clear distance of 200 mm is recommended between the ends of the cages and the joints formwork including water-stop if any. a stronger material such as mortar or concrete may be placed at the bottom of the excavation. In the case of the concave portion of curved joints. – placing the reinforcement. The maximum clear distance between two cages in the same panel should be 400 mm The minimum clear distance between the ends of the cages and the joints formwork including water-stop if any. The basic sequences for cut-off slurry walls are : – excavation with a hardening slurry.g. except special cases. Multiple cages and joints The minimum clear distance between two cages in the same panel shall be at least 200 mm. it is replaced by a hardening slurry. If required by the design. – trimming. Execution of diaphragm walls Construction sequence The phases of execution differ with the type of wall and support fluid used. generally with a bentonite suspension or other support fluid. a different support fluid may be used. sometimes with a bentonite suspension . – when required.
generally with a bentonite suspension. Preliminary works Working platform The working platform shall be stable. – to secure the sides of the trench against collapse in the vicinity of the fluctuating level of the support fluid. taking into account possible fluctuations. – to serve as a guide for the excavating tools. The top of the guide-walls should normally be horizontal and have the same elevation on both sides of the trench. – cleaning the excavation.5 m above the highest water-table anticipated during excavation. 13 . Excavation and backfilling are to be done symmetrically along the axis of the wall. Special care is to be taken for excavating and backfilling trenches in case of removal of disturbed soil or underground obstructions.The basic sequences for plastic concrete walls are: – excavation. The distance between the guide-walls should normally be 20 mm to 50 mm greater than the width of the excavating tool. guide-walls may not be necessary. – concreting. Guide-walls Guide-walls shall be designed and constructed: – to ensure alignment of the diaphragm wall. to a depth corresponding at least to the level of undisturbed soil. – to support the reaction forces of stop end extractors when necessary. with sufficient width and depth with regard to the guide-walls. above the water table.7 m and 1. if ground conditions should permit.5 m depending on ground conditions. – to serve as a support for the reinforcement cages or prefabricated panels or other elements inserted in the excavation until the concrete or hardening slurry has hardened. – trimming. horizontal and be suitable for traffic of heavy equipment and lorries. In the case of cut-off walls excavated continuously. Guide-walls are usually made of reinforced concrete with a depth normally between 0. The area along the line of the wall shall be clear of underground obstructions. The top of the working platform should be at least 1. Guide-walls should be propped apart until the excavation of the panel takes place.
The sequence of excavation. but it shall not be allowed to drawdown below the level required for excavation stability. The excavation of a panel shall not be started before the concrete. The level of the support fluid shall remain above the base of the guide-walls. unless there is no risk of caving of the soil below the guide-walls. or blasting. In some cases. other tools.g. Excavation sequence The excavation may be carried out continuously or in panels. the type of wall. In situations where significant loss of support fluid can occur (e. waterstops can be incorporated into the joints. In some cases. which affect the nearby panels already filled with concrete or hardening slurry shall not be made before the material in these panels has sufficient strength to resist the stresses developed during these operations. and the type of excavating tools. the plastic concrete or the hardening slurry in the adjacent panel or panels has gained sufficient strength. The joints are normally formed either by using steel or concrete stop ends or by cutting into the concrete or hardened material of the previously cast adjacent panel. the level of the support fluid will fluctuate. In soils where no comparable experience is available. Loss of support fluid When a sudden and significant loss of the support fluid occurs during excavation. an additional volume of support fluid. depend on the ground conditions. it can be possible to excavate using water as a support fluid. The use of chisels. highly permeable soils. the excavation shall be backfilled as quickly as possible with lean concrete or other material which can be readily re-excavated. If this procedure is insufficient. provided the ground strength is sufficient to ensure stability of the sides of the trench.Excavation Supporting the walls of the excavation Except special ground and site conditions. cavities). a trial excavation should be made. shall be stored in a readily accessible area. During excavation. a support fluid shall be used during excavation. dry excavation may be used. the excavation shall be refilled immediately with an additional volume of support fluid. 14 . and possibly sealing materials or suitable fill. possibly containing sealing materials. Forming the joints Stop ends shall be of adequate strength and properly aligned throughout their length. In certain soils with cohesive properties or in rock. panel lengths and distances between panels being excavated.
The tremie pipe shall be clean and watertight.0 m. Its outer diameter shall be such that it passes freely through the reinforcement cage. the extraction shall be made upon completion of the excavation of the adjacent panel. Direct pumping may be used in dry excavations. Where there is more than one cage per panel. Specific slump values are required for dry conditions. precast concrete panels or other elements (such as sheet piles. to avoid segregation. The number of tremie pipes in a panel shall be adjusted to limit the horizontal distance the concrete has to travel.15 m and 6 times the maximum aggregate size. Concreting under support fluid The time elapsing between the start of excavation and commencement of concreting shall be kept as short as possible. the extraction shall be made gradually during the setting of the concrete. at least the same number of tremie pipes should be used. Its inner diameter shall be at least 0. the tremie pipe shall be lowered to the bottom of the trench and then raised approximately 0.1 m. the tremie pipe shall always remain immersed in the fresh concrete.In the case of stop ends which are extracted laterally. but shall be suspended from the guide-walls. To start concreting. they shall be arranged and supplied with concrete in such a way that a reasonably uniform upward flow of the concrete is assured. When starting concreting. membranes) shall not rest on the bottom of the excavation. 15 . When several tremie pipes are used. In the case of stop ends which are extracted vertically. After concreting has started. the support fluid and the concrete in the charged tremie pipe shall be kept separate by a plug of material or by other suitable means. Placing the reinforcement or other elements Reinforcement cages. In normal circumstances. Vibration of the concrete shall not be used. Concreting and trimming Concreting in dry conditions Particular care shall be observed when concreting in dry conditions. the horizontal distance the concrete has to travel should be less than 3.
Immediately after extracting the first section. The immersion depth may have to be reduced when the concrete approaches ground level to facilitate concrete flow. Where possible. In order to ensure concrete integrity. Trimming Trimming of the concrete to cut-off level shall be carried out using equipment and methods which will not damage the concrete. the immersion depth shall not fall below 3 m.The tremie pipe shall remain immersed into the fresh concrete for at least 6 m at the beginning of concreting and before the first section of the pipe is drawn. The required quality of the concrete at the cut-off level is achieved by providing a height of concrete above the cut-off level. An adequate supply of concrete shall be available throughout the whole placement process to enable a controlled smooth operation. some trimming above cut-off level may be carried out before the concrete has set. The height of concrete above the cut-off level depends on the cut-off level. the rate of concrete rising over the full height of the panel should not be less than 3 m/h. 16 . the wall dimensions and the number of tremie pipes. sufficient concrete shall be placed in the panel to ensure that the concrete below the cut-off level has the specified properties. reinforcement or any instrumentation installed in the panels. Since the top of the cast concrete may not be of the required quality.
SHEET-PILE WALLS Legend a tubes + sheet piles b U box piles + U sheet piles c Z box piles + Z sheet piles d H beams + Z sheet piles Fig. 2 – Example of a sheet pile wall structures 17 .2. 1 – Examples of combined walls Legend a b c d sheet piles strut waling rock dowel e tie rod f anchor plate or screen g variable angle h ground anchor or tension pile Fig.
Legend a hammer b driving cap c sheet pile d leader e pile guide Fig. 3 – Examples of a sheet pile driving rig with fixed leader 18 .
5 – Driving direction for Z-sheet piles with tongue and claw interlocks 19 . 4 – Example of a driving cap Legend a claw b tongue c driving direction Fig.Legend a hammer b cushion c leader d sliding guide e driving cap f leader slide Fig.
Vibrations from impact hammers and vibratory drivers are normally considerable and can travel over relatively long distances. In difficult soil conditions preboring and sometimes water jetting can be effective in assisting the sheet pile to reach the required depth. if very dense sands and gravel above groundwater level or stiff clay layers have to be driven through. especially if it is saturated. – vibration . Foundations which are subjected to vibration will pick up part of these vibrations and transfer them to the various elements of the supported structure. Normally pressing is effective in cohesive soils. can considerably reduce the adverse vibrations of the process on the surrounding ground. High frequency vibrators. – pressing. Vibrating is in many circumstances the most efficient method. However. Generally driving with a vibrator causes a higher level of vibration in the surrounding ground than impact driving. In these cases either driving assistance or impact driving may be required.Legend a sheet pile b waling c strut d support bracket e bag filled with concrete Fig. 6 – Bags filled with concrete or cement mortar in order to obtain a good connection between waling and sheet piles Dr i vi n g of s h e et p i l es Sheet piles are installed in the ground by one or a combination of the following methods: – impact . either predrilling or careful impact driving are the best methods to be used. When obstacles are present and cannot be removed. where the eccentricity of the rotating mass can be varied during the start up and stop phases of the driving process. As a result damage can be caused to sensitive buildings near to the source of the vibrations. Where vibration or noise is considered a problem. Special care is necessary if such structures are founded on loose sand. pressing the sheet piles into the ground may be a solution. because it is subject to sudden settlement resulting from vibrations in the ground. 20 . vibrating may be ineffective. In combination with leader guiding it is also a very accurate method of driving sheet piles to the required depth.
The sheet piles in the panel are driven in a sequence indicated in figure 7. "Panel driving"and "staggered panel driving". the 'pitch and drive'method can lead to de-clutching problems in the free leading interlock and occasionally to rather large deviations from the required position. – high frequency vibrators with a variable eccentricity of rotating mass. At the same time the danger of declutching is minimised. The most common types are: – free falling hammers . The disadvantage of the "panel driving" method is that interlocking the sheet piles requires individual piles to be lifted to twice their length. If obstructions are encountered. – high and low frequency vibrators . pressing systems. – diesel hammers .Different types of pile driving equipment suitable for the installation of the sheet piles are available. 21 . As a whole panel is pitched it is not necessary to drive all the sheet piles to full depth in order to maintain sheetpiling operations. In the case of dense sands. – high frequency vibrator with continuously variable excentricity and resonance free start and stop phases . This simple procedure has the advantage that the top of the sheet pile has only to be lifted a distance equal to the length of the pile above the ground surface. – air hammers . "Staggered driving" is a particular form of "panel driving" which may be applied when difficult soil conditions are encountered. stiff cohesive soils and in soils containing obstructions. Moreover it easily can be guided manually into the interlock of the sheet pile which has already been driven. – hydro hammers . is driven to full depth before pitching the next one. Installation and driving assistance Driving method In the 'pitch and drive' method a single or double sheet pile. enables better control of the position of the sheet piles along the wall length. individual sheet piles can be left high without disruption to the installation process.
d) blasting in special cases.2 Driving assistance It is often necessary to loosen very dense sand layers.Example of staggered driving of sheet piles D. – pipe diameter : 20 mm to 30 mm . 2) d upper guide e lowerguide Fig. – diameter of pipes : approx.5 mm to 3. 7 .5 Mpa to 2.0 MPa .0 mm. – discharge : 2 I/s to 4 1/s per tube . – nozzle diameter : 1. – number of pipes : 1 to 2 per sheet pile. with or without cement bentonite. Normally applied methods are a) low pressure jetting with low water volumes – pressure : 1. 22 . b) high pressure jetting – pressure : 25 Mpa to 50 MPa (at pump outlet) – discharge : 1 1/s to 2 1/s . 25 mm .Legend a direction of sheet pile installation b driving direction (1 3 5) c driving direction (4. c) predrilling. The pipes are welded to the sheet piles and left in situ.
The soil properties are only adversely effected in a limited area around the sheet piles. although special care has to be taken when the sheet piles have to carry vertical loads. are introduced into the ground through nozzles fixed to the sheet pile at a short distance above its tip. The soil is locally loosened by this process. However a rectangular shape is also used. Normally flight auger drills are used. it is necessary to treat the affected area with special protecting liquid. The dimensions of the tongue determine the size of the groove as shown in figure 8. water or sometimes cement-bentonite. 23 . low pressure jetting is sometimes used for pre-treatment of the soil prior to pile driving. Low pressure jetting with low water volumes. bored or similarly reshaped. In addition. Timber sheet piles and walings Timber for sheet piles and walings in permanent sheet pile wall structures is normally of high durability. The overall performance will not be significantly influenced. As a result of the limited water consumption this method permits effective control of the pile. When impregnated timber is subsequently cut. High pressure jetting or fluidisation can be very effective in very dense soil layers. in combination with a vibrator. Joints Normally timber sheet piles are jointed by tongue and groove type interlocks of a trapezoidal shape. boring and similar operations should preferably be carried out in the factory before the timber is impregnated. enables sheet piles to penetrate very dense soils.Low pressure jetting is mainly used in dense non-cohesive soils. However coniferous species when used in waterfront structures. need to be impregnated by a preservation fluid pressed into the wood under vacuum conditions. Pre-drilling is sometimes carried out prior to the sheet pile driving. In general the soil characteristics are only slightly modified and there is practically no settlement. Limited amounts of jetting fluid. Tropical hardwood normally meets this requirement without any preservation. Facturing by blasting is normally carried out if the sheet piles have to pass hard obstructions in the soil or if they must penetrate bedrock. Cutting.
9 – Example of a timber corner pile with grooves Execution Normally timber sheet piles are only used in retaining structures with a limited retained height. When a vibrator is used. a guide frame is used. Low pressure water 24 . – small quays in yachting harbours and similar. If a free falling mass is used the height of the drop should not exceed 2. panels of several piles are driven as units.) Fig. Driving is usually carried out with light driving equipment.5 m. In order to keep the sheet piling in the correct position.Legend A Tongue and groove with trapezoidal shape B Tongue and groove with rectangular shape Fig. Typical uses are: – vertical or nearly vertical embankments along canals and ditches. 8 – Shape and dimensions of tongue and groove interlocks of timber sheet piles Corner sheet piles Corner sheet piles generally have a square crosss section with grooves to conne the adjacent sheet piles (see figure 9.
In order to ascertain a proper tongue and groove connection.jetting is often used to assist driving work in sand layers. the sheet piles are often bevelled at the "free" side of the toe as shown in figure 10. 10 – Bevelling at the toe and driving direction 25 . Legend a driving direction b bevel width c ground pressure Fig.
a tendon free length and a restraint such as a fixed anchor length bonded to the ground by grout. — — to resist uplift forces on structures. Scope — — to support a retaining structure. Key 1 Anchorage point at jack during stressing 2 3 4 5 Anchorage point at anchor head in service Bearing plate Lold transfer black Structural element 6 7 8 9 10 SoiI Urock Borehole Debonding sleeve Tendon Grout body Figure 1 .to prevent collapse of the borehole wall during drilling and tendon installation (where necessary a casing should be utilised) . by transmitting a tensile force to a load bearing formation of soil or rock.Sketch of a ground anchor Drilling methods The drilling method shall be chosen with due regard to the ground conditions so as to cause either minimum ground modification or the modification most beneficial to the anchor capacity and to allow the design anchor resistance (Rd) to be mobilised. a screw anchor or a rock bolt.to minimise loosening of the surrounding ground in cohesionless soils .3. . — non pre-stressed anchorages consisting of an anchor head. a tendon free length and a tendon bond length bonded to the ground by grout (figure 1).to minimise change of ground water levels . GROUND ANCHORS Ground anchors are covered by EN 1537. — — to provide the stability of slopes. cuts or tunnels. Two types of ground anchors: — pre-stressed anchorages consisting of an anchor head. Reasons for minimum ground modification are: . . .to minimise softening of the surface of the borehole wall in cohesive soils and degradable . a deadman anchorage.
When grouting by the tremie method. to strengthen the ground immediately adjacent to the fixed anchor in order to enhance ground anchor capacity . If a grout volume injected is in excess of three times the borehole volume at pressures not exceeding total overburden pressure. b. In high water table situations it may be appropriate to use heavy drilling fluids. the end of the tremie pipe shall remain submerged in grout within the fixed anchor length and grouting shall continue until the consistency of the grout emerging is the same as that of the injected grout.the use of special auxiliary drilling equipment such as seals or packers. . For functions c) and d) above only nominal grout consumptions should be expected. In such cases general void filling may be necessary before grouting the anchor.pre-grouting of the ground. to protect the tendon against corrosion . to form the fixed anchor length in order that the applied load may be transferred from the tendon to the surrounding ground . Possible preventative measures include . a seal or packer is required to prevent loss of grout from either the fixed anchor length or the entire hole. d. Anchor grouting Placement of grout should be carried out as soon as possible after completion of drilling. provided preferably by a specialist anchor contractor or stressing equipment supplier.to ascertain and record the load carrying behaviour of the anchor . 27 . Stressing and recording shall be carried out by experienced personnel under the control of a suitably qualified supervisor. Techniques to counteract the water pressure and to prevent any blow-out.the lowering of the water table. For horizontal and upward inclined holes. installation and grouting operations shall be identified in advance and implemented as and when required. . Grouting Grouting meets one or more of the following functions: a. c. then general void filling is indicated which is beyond routine anchor construction. Stressing Stressing is required to fulfil the following two functions . to seal the ground immediately adjacent to the fixed anchor length in order to limit the loss of grout. hole collapse and erosion during drilling.to tension the tendon and to anchor it at its lock-off load.rocks. after the risks of general settlement of the ground have been assessed. The grouting process should always start at the lower end of the section to be grouted. .
Investigation test Investigation tests may be required to establish for the designer. b) to determine the apparent tendon free length . the ultimate load resistance in relation to the ground conditions and materials used. when necessary. c) to ensure that the lock-off load is at the designed load level. Definitions permanent anchorage anchorage with a design life of more than two years temporary anchorage anchorage with a design life of less than two years acceptance test load test on site to confirm that each anchorage meets the design requirements suitability test load test on site to confirm that a particular anchor design will be adequate in particular ground conditions investigation test load test to establish the ultimate resistance of an anchor at the grout/ground interface and to determine the characteristics of the anchorage in the working load range 28 . which will depend on the test method. to prove the competence of the contractor and/or to prove a new type of ground anchor by inducing a failure at the grout/ground interface. excluding friction . d) the creep or load loss characteristics at the serviceability limit state. Acceptance test Each working anchor shall be subjected to an acceptance test. The objectives of the acceptance test are as follows: a) to demonstrate that a proof load. can be sustained by the anchor . in advance of the installation of the working ground anchors.
battered or inclined walls. REINFORCED FILLS Reinforced fill. is an engineered fill reinforced by the inclusion of horizontal or subhorizontal reinforcement placed between layers of fill during construction. covered by EN 14475. bridge abutments.reinforced steep slopes with a facing. (vertical. .4. bulk storage facilities). with a facing to retain fill placed between the reinforcing layers. The scope of reinforced fill applications includes (Figure1): . but covered by some form of erosion protection without a facing. either built-in or added or wrap-around. reinstatement of failed slopes. reinforced shallow slopes without a facing.earth retaining structures. .embankments with basal reinforcement and embankments with reinforcement against frost heave in the upper part. .
including certain rocks. used to construct engineered fill engineered fill fill which is placed and compacted under controlled conditions reinforced fill engineered fill incorporating discrete layers of soil reinforcement. which are arranged between successive layers of fill during construction reinforcement generic term for reinforcing inclusions placed within fill fill reinforcement reinforcement which enhances stability of the reinforced fill mass by mobilising the axial tensile strength of the fill reinforcement by soil interaction over its total length 30 .Definitions fill natural or man made material formed of solid particles. generally placed horizontally.
geosynthetics for the purpose of this European standard "geosynthetics" stands for "geotextiles and geotextile related products" foundation foundation of a reinforced fill structure is the total area of the surface upon which the lowest layer of reinforcement is installed facing covering to the exposed face of a reinforced fill structure which retains the fill between layers of reinforcement and protects the fill against erosion full height facing unit facing unit equal to the height of the face of the structure discrete facing unit partial height facing unit used to construct incrementally a reinforced fill structure hard facing unit panel or block usually of precast concrete with intrinsically low vertical compressibility and high bending stiffness. soft facing unit soil fill encapsulated in a geogrid or a geotextile facing with no bending stiffness. facing system assemblage of facing units used to produce a finished reir forced fill structure rigid facing system facing system with no capacity to accommodate vertical differential settlement between fill and facing. a preformed solid steel section or a rock filled gabion with intrinsically vertical compressibility and low bending stiffness. semi-flexible facing system facing system with some capacity to accommodate differential settlement between fill and facing flexible facing system pliant. deformable facing unit preformed steel grid section. facing system with capacity to accommodate differential settlement between fill and facing green facing vegetative cover or infill used without facing units or as an adjunct to reinforced fill structures constructed using facing units cladding false facing added in front of the facing to improve the aesthetics of a finished reinforced fill structure 31 . articulated.
design life service life, in years, required by the design temporary structures structures with a design life of 1 - 5 years (Class 1) permanent structures structures with a design life of more than 5 years (Class 2 - 5)
Materials and products
Construction of reinforced fill involves the use of the following major components: - fill material; - fill reinforcement, and if required; - facing system.
The fill used within the reinforced zone shall be selected to meet the properties required by the design and the project specification. The suitability of a reinforced fill material is dependent on a number of factors that shall be considered when selecting the material: fill workability; function and environment of the structure and long term behaviour; fill layer thickness and maximum particle size; facing technology; vegetation; drainage properties; aggressivity of the fill; fill - reinforcement interaction; fill - internal friction and cohesion; frost susceptibility.
The fill workability shall be such that it can be placed and compacted to produce the properties required by the design. Function and environment of the structure and long term behaviour Some types of structure have a critical function where post construction settlement is very important. e.g. bridge abutments, walls supporting railway tracks and buildings, or high earth retaining structures etc. In these cases fill material which is easy to compact and which will have subsequent low compressibility shall be selected. Where a structure is exposed to flooding and subsequent rapid drawdown the drainage properties of the fill shall be checked for compatibility with the design assumptions. 32
Fill reinforcements can be made from metals, generally steel, or polymeric materials.
Facings can be produced in a variety of materials and configurations with a variety of facingreinforcement connections and a variety of joint fillers and bearing devices. Facing units and systems Reinforced fill is constructed using successive layers of compacted, selected fill incorporating intervening layers of horizontal or sub-horizontal fill reinforcement placed at spacing required by the design. Reinforced fill earth retaining structures, with a vertical, battered or inclined face (see Figure 2), require a facing to retain the fill between the reinforcing layers. Depending on the particular system, certain layers of fill reinforcements may however not be connected to the facing. On shallow reinforced slopes, facing is generally not necessary. Such slopes are usually protected by vegetation with / without erosion control materials. The facing can be constituted of either hard units (typically made of concrete), or deformable units (typically made from metal, steel grid or mesh, or gabion baskets), or soft units (typically made from geosynthetic sheets or grids, or woven wire mesh). Where hard or deformable facing units are used, these serve as a formwork against which the selected fill is placed and compacted. Where soft facing units are used, it is generally necessary to employ temporary formwork to maintain the face alignment during the construction of walls or steep slopes.
Key: 1 Earth retaining structures 2 Reinforced slopes 3 Vertical 4 Vertical wall 5 Battered wall 6 Inclined wall Steep slope 7 Shallow slope
8 Some specific types of facings : panels, blocks, V2 elliptical steel units, gabions 9 Specific types of sloping panel, eg for bulk storage 10 Some common types of facings: planter units, wire mesh, wrapped around 11 No facing, erosion protection may be required 12 Line of 4:1 face slope angle 13 Line of 1:1 face slope angle
Figure 2 - Reinforced fill earth with a vertical, battered or inclined face 33
Hard facing units: Hard facing units are usually produced in precast concrete, either unreinforced or reinforced. Concrete facing units may be full height panels, partial height panels, sloping panels, planter units, or segmental blocks. Many types of concrete facing units are proprietary and form part of proprietary systems. The reinforcements are connected to the units either by means of devices embedded or inserted into the concrete units, or they are simply clamped between the units. Full height panels : As the name suggests, full height panels (see Figure 3) are precast to the required full height of the specific reinforced fill wall to be constructed. The breadth of full height panels is typically in the range 1 to 3 m and the thickness in the range 100 to 200 mm.
Figure 3 - Full height panels Partial height panels: Partial height panels (See Figure 4) are the most common and typically have heights in the range 1 to 2 m and thickness in the range 100 to 200 mm. Distinctive shapes correspond to specific ways of fitting panels together, and to particular construction procedures. Simple rectangular shapes are also available. The panels are fitted with connecting devices embedded into the back face. The edges are usually provided with nibs and recesses, or tongues and grooves.
Figure 4 - Partial height panels
Unit heights typically range from 150 mm to 250 mm. are typically 2 to 4 mm thick. When used for inclined faces.King post and concrete planking Deformable facing units Semi elliptical steel units: facing elements of steel sheet (see Figure 7) formed into elliptical or U-shaped half cylinders. blocks may be provided with connecting accessories (pins. These units serve as a formwork during construction. such units may be vegetated to prevent long 35 . 250 mm to 400 mm high and a few metres long. Figure 5 . Units may be manufactured solid. rake).Semi elliptical steel units Steel welded wire mesh: Facing units may be formed of open-backed welded wire mesh sections (see Figure 8). The mass of these units commonly ranges from 20 and 50 kilos. placed horizontally.Segmental blocks: Facing units in the form of precast or dry cast un-reinforced concrete blocks (see Figure 5) are usually referred to as modular blocks or segmental blocks. or with cores. Figure 7 . They are fitted with holes along the horizontal edges for connection to the reinforcements. Depending on the type of reinforcement.Segmental blocks Figure 6 . Such units. either flat or pre-bent to the required slope angle. Otherwise the reinforcement is clamped between successive courses of blocks. exposed face length usually varies from 200 mm to 500 mm.
term erosion of the face. To construct such slopes to an acceptable alignment it is common practice to use temporary formwork. or backed. such units may have an inner layer of stone or crushed rock. Where polymeric grids or woven wire meshes are used these may be faced.Gabion baskets Tyres: Facing units may also be formed with tyres. or woven wire mesh. 2 m to 3 m in length and 0. Figure 8 .Steel welded wire mesh Gabion baskets: Facing units may also be formed using polymeric geogrid or woven steel wire.0 m in depth.5 m to 1. The gabion baskets may be supplied with an extended tail that forms a frictional connection to the main reinforcement Figure 9 . When used for vertical or battered faces. or be backed with a geosynthetic liner.5 m to 1. with a suitable geotextile to guard against erosion of the face. especially for temporary applications. 36 . is extended forward from the reinforced fill to wrap around the face of each intervening layer of fill. Soft facings units The most widely used soft facing unit is the so called wrapped facing (See Figure 10) in which full width reinforcement. or galvanized welded wire mesh gabion baskets (See Figure 9) which are filled with stone or crushed rock. such as polymeric grid or geotextile. galvanized or plastic coated. These tyres are of similar size and are generally stacked in a staggered arrangement to form the facing.0 m in height. The size of such gabion baskets is usually in the range of 0.
Key 1 Bags Figure 10 .Soft facing units Some typical reinforcement forms 37 .
Figure 11 – Steel reinforcement Figure 12 – Polymeric reinforcements 38 .
Protection against corrosion in case of longterm stability problems is required in aggressive soil conditions. for example sprayed concrete. A soil nail construction can involve the following material components for: a) soil nail system.5. c) drainage system. The stability is achieved by inserting soil nails. The soil nails mobilise frictional forces along their entire length. provide erosion protection and have an aesthetic function facing drainage system of drains used to control water behind the facing facing system assemblage of facing units used to produce a finished facing of reinforced ground facing unit discrete element used to construct the facing flexible facing flexible covering which assists in containing soil between the nails hard facing stiff covering. Terms and definitions bearing plate plate connected to the head of the soil nail to transfer a component of load from the facing or directly from the ground surface to the soil nail drainage system series of drains. into the soil. b) facing system. Soil nailing is generally applied in connection with excavations. consisting of reinforcing bars. SOIL NAILING The objective of soil nailing is to improve the stability of the soil in cases where the stability conditions are adverse. The amount of nails and the length of installation of the nails have to be adjusted in relation to the stability conditions. drainage layers or other means to control surface and ground water facing covering to the exposed face of the reinforced ground that may provide a stabilising function to retain the ground between soil nails. slopes and occasionally tunneling and for improvement of soil stability. encountered during the ongoing activities. precast concrete section or cast in-situ concrete production nail soil nail which forms part of the completed soil nail structure reinforcing element generic term for reinforcing inclusions inserted into ground . which contributes to increasing the stability condition.
Safeguarding stability of excavations by the use of soil nailing 40 . centralisers. spacers. grouts and corrosion protection test nail nail installed by the same method as the production nails for the purpose of verifying the pullout capacity and durability. solely to establish the pullout capacity but not forming part of the soil nail structure soft facing soft facing has only a short-term function to provide topsoil stability while vegetation becomes established soil nail reinforcing element installed into the ground.reinforced ground ground that is reinforced by the insertion of reinforcing elements sacrificial nail soil nail installed in the same way as the production nails. Vertical walls Slopes Figure 1 . usually at a sub-horizontal angle. that mobilises resistance with the soil along its entire length soil nail construction any works that incorporates soil nails. and could be forming a part of the structure proof load load applied in the testing Examples of uses of soil nailing Soil nail systems are produced using a wide range of materials and configurations. and can have a facing and/or a drainage system soil nail system consists of a reinforcing element and may include joints and couplings.
Key 1 excavation 2 installing the nails 3 reinforced shotcrete (or prefabricated facing panels) 4 next excavation Figure 3 — Typical sequences of excavation and installation Key 1 bulk excavation to proposed formation 2 berm 3 installed nails 4 existing ground 5 local trimming of face required to achieve agreed tolerances prior to nail installation of nail row "N" N Nth row Figure 4 — Bulk excavation to form benches and face for row "N" of soil nails 41 . Typical methods of excavation in combination with soil nailing operations are illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. the sequence of excavation and soil nailing has to be adjusted in order not to comprise the stability conditions of the site.Tunnel excavation Key 1 ground surface 2 soil nails 3 tunnel advances Figure 2 — Safeguarding tunnelling operations by the use of soil nailing In the case of excavations.
Typical examples are given in Figure 5. an angle bar or some other form of cross-section. a hollow bar. configurations and connections to the reinforcement. geo-synthetics or carbon fibre. usually steel bars. The facing system shall be able to sustain differential settlements required by the design without structural damage to the facing. they may be ribbed or profiled to improve the effective bond with the grout. When nails are to be grouted. Facings exposed to frost should be protected by frost insulation and extra drainage. The suitability of the facing system shall be proven by comparable experience or by tests. Examples of soil nail systems The soil nail systems include reinforcement bars. 42 .Reinforcing element The reinforcing element of the nail is usually produced from metals (typically steel) and to a lesser extent from other materials. pre-bored & grouted shown with hard/flexible facing FACING SYSTEMS Facing systems are constructed using a variety of materials. such as fibre reinforced plastics. proving the serviceability of the system and the durability of the materials used for the design life of the soil nail construction. a) Pre-bored and grouted Key 1 facing 6 coupler 2 head plate 7 inner spacer 3 locking nut 8 grout annulus 4 outer spacer 9 reinforcing element 5 duct 10 drill bit b) Self-boring Figure 5 — Typical components of soil nail system. There is a number of different soil nailing systems. inserted into and bonded with the ground to the depth required with regard to safety conditions. and often provided with a head plate and a facing system to ensure stability between the nails and also to avoid erosion problems. NOTE: The reinforcing element may be a solid bar.
as well as erosion control. Figure 8 — Wire mesh 43 . The selection of type of flexible facing is dependent upon slope angle. The common flexible facings include geogrids steel fabrics and geosynthetic. Figure 6 — Constructed hard facing with concrete (either sprayed or placed or precast) (should be improved) Figure 7 — Strengthening of existing retaining structures (should be improved) Flexible facing Flexible facings are designed to provide the necessary restraint to the areas of slope face between the bearing plates.Examples of facing systems used in a soil nail structure Hard facing The combination of soil nails and facing has to fulfill the function of stabilising the slope between the nails. and shall therefore be dimensioned to sustain the expected maximum destabilising forces. soil friction angle value. slope height and predicted loading.
Three essential measures have to be distinguished: a) prevention of surface runoff water.g. b) surface drainage. In many cases. DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Water is detrimental to slope stability and has to be drained away from the surface as much as possible. however with a stable surface. Y-drains Figure 10 — Surface drainage above the soil nail structure (e. either in the temporary or the permanent situation. nails serve only to retain the facing and not to stabilise the slope. the soft facing has to reinforce the vegetation layer. general or local erosion etc. In some instances.g.Soft facing The primary function of soft facing is erosion control and protection against surface ravelling. and critical water pressures behind facings may be minimised (specially important in case of a full cover or with a vegetation layer. c) subsurface drainage.g. Without facings Nailing in case of critically inclined sliding surfaces (e. rock strata with reduced shear resistance). Interception of surface water run off Figures 9 and 10 show examples of drainage above the soil nailing structure. Figure 9 — Trenched drains above the soil nail structure guided to the sides of the slope Key 1 e. In this way. in case of stratum water) 44 .
spread filters made of drainage material and collector drains can be applied. In any case. Key 1 drainage material 2 collector drain 3 “weep-hole” drain Figure 12 — Hard and impermeable facings Subsurface drainage Subsurface drainage will be required if water-bearing strata are predicted or encountered. prefabricated or cast in place. with impermeable facings. Drainage boreholes normally contain slotted or perforated pipes. 45 . They are normally wrapped with a geotextile filter to prevent the ingress of fines. Subsurface drainage may be required if the groundwater table has to be lowered. sufficient leakage holes have to be placed. Key 1 foot drainage Figure 11 — Seepage Drainage systems for hard and impermeable facings In case of concrete walls. The characteristic opening size of the geotextile should be chosen to minimise clogging while permitting water into the pipe.Surface drainage Systems for flexible and soft facings with vegetation layers but also possible behind hard facings (sprayed concrete).
The number. length and pattern of the drainage pipes depend on the expected amount and regime of water. The inclination of the boreholes is typically ≥ 5 %. Figure 13 — Subsurface drainage 46 .
6. BORED PILES
The construction of bored piles is covered by EN 1536.
The term pile is used for circular section structure and the term barrette for other shapes. Both are bored piles. bored pile pile or barrette formed with or without a pile casing by excavating or boring a hole in the ground and filling with plain or reinforced concrete (Fig. 1) Designation for bored pile are given fig.8 barrette discrete length of diaphragm wall, usually short, or a number of interconnecting lengths cast simultaneously (e.g. L-, T- or cruciform shapes), used to support vertical and/or lateral loads. (fig. 2) end bearing pile bored pile transmitting actions to the ground mainly by compression on its base. friction pile bored pile transmitting actions to the ground mainly by friction and adhesion between the lateral surface of the pile and the adjacent ground. skin friction frictional and/or adhesive resistance on the bored pile surface negative skin friction frictional and/or adhesive action by which surrounding soil or fill transfers downward load to a bored pile when the soil or fill settles relative to the bored pile shaft continuous flight auger pile (CFA-pile) pile formed by means of a hollow stemmed continuous flight auger through the stem of which concrete or grout is pumped as the auger is extracted (see figure 11, figure 12) prepacked pile pile where the completed excavation is filled with coarse aggregate which is subsequently injected with cement mortar from the bottom up. pile base grouting pressure injection of grout below the base of an installed bored pile base in order to enhance performance under load pile shaft grouting injection of grout carried out after bored pile concrete has set for the enhancement of skin friction by the use of grouting pipes which are installed down the shaft, normally placed with the bored pile reinforcement
enlarged base base of a bored pile formed to have an area greater than that of its shaft. For bored piles, normally constructed by the use of special underreaming or belling-out tools (see figure 3). integrity test test carried out on an installed bored pile for the verification of soundness of materials and of the pile geometry. sonic test integrity test where a series of sonic waves is passed between a transmitter and a receiver through the concrete of a bored pile and where the characteristics of the received waves are measured and used to infer the state of continuity and section variations of the bored pile shaft. sonic coring sonic integrity test carried out from core drillings in a bored pile shaft or from a pre-placed tube system test pile bored pile to which loads are applied to determine the resistance deformation characteristics of the pile and the surrounding ground trial pile bored pile installed to assess the practicability and suitability of the construction method for a particular application. static pile test loading test where a bored pile is subjected to chosen static axial and/or lateral actions at the bored pile head for the analysis of its capacity. maintained load test static loading test in which a test pile has loads applied in incremental stages, each of which is held constant for a certain period or until pile motion has virtually ceased or has reached a prescribed limit (ML test). constant rate of penetration test static loading test in which a test bored pile is forced into the ground at a constant rate and the force is measured (CRP-test). dynamic pile test loading test where a dynamic force is applied at the pile or the barrette head for assessment of pile capacity. socket bottom part of a bored pile in hard ground (usually rock) grout fluid mixture of a binding and/or setting agent (usually cement), fine aggregate and water that generally hardens after being placed in position.
Bored piles can be of two kind of shapes:
– – with circular shape (see figure 1) and barrettes (see figure 2), provided the section is concreted in a single operation.
Bored piles can have: – uniform cross-section (straight shaft); – telescopically changing shaft dimensions; – excavated base enlargements; or – excavated shaft enlargements Te European Standard EN 1536 applies to bored piles with the following dimensions: – depth to width ratio larger or equal to 5 ; – shaft diameter : 0,3 ≤ D ≤ 3,0 m (see figure 1, figure 3); – dimension for barrettes : Wi ≥ 0,4 m (see figure 2); ratio between the dimensions : Li / Wi ≤ 6 where: Li is the largest dimension of the barrette and Wi is the least dimension of the barrette; – cross-sectional area of barrettes : A ≤ 10 m² ; 49
The provisions of the European Standard EN 1536 apply to: – single bored piles. Shaft or base enlargements covered by the European Standard EN 1536 are: – base enlargements in non-cohesive ground : DB / D ≤ 2 and in cohesive ground : DB / D ≤ 3.The European Standard EN 1536 also apply to piles with the following rake (see figure 4): – n ≥ 4 (Θ ≥ 76°) . slope of the enlargement in non-cohesive ground : m ≥ 3 and in cohesive ground : m ≥ 1. – bored pile groups (see figure 5). – – shaft enlargements in any ground : DE / D ≤ 2. 50 . – n ≥ 3 (Θ ≥ 72°) for permanently cased piles. – walls formed by piles (see figure 6).5 (see figure 3).
steel sections or steel fibres. – of concrete reinforced by means of special reinforcement such as steel tubes.The bored piles which are the subject of the European Standard EN 1536 can be excavated by continuous or discontinuous methods using support methods for stabilizing the excavation walls where required. 51 . – of precast concrete (including prestressed concrete) elements or steel tubes where the annular gap between the element or tube and the ground is filled by concrete. cement or cement-bentonite grout. (see figure 7). Bored piles can be constructed: – of unreinforced (plain) concrete. – of reinforced concrete.
There are increased risks in : – loose granular ground. – voids in the shaft during concreting.Excavation When constructing bored piles measures shall be taken to prevent uncontrolled inflow of water and/or soil into the bore. – soft cohesive ground. An inflow of water and/or soil could cause for instance : – a disturbance to or instability of the bearing stratum or the surrounding ground. – washing out of cement. 52 . – unstable cavities outside the bored pile. – damage to the unset concrete in the bored pile or bored piles recently installed nearby. – loss of support by the removal of soil from beneath adjacent foundations. or – ground which is variable.
In soils liable to flow into the bore or where there is a risk of collapse, means of support shall be used to maintain stability and thereby prevent the uncontrolled entry of soil and water. Common means of support of bore walls are : – casings; – support fluid; – soil-filled auger flights. Bored pile bores shall be excavated until they reach : – the specified bearing stratum, or – the anticipated founding level, and shall be socketed into the founding material where and as required by the design. In cases of – unfavourable stratification of the bearing layers, – founding on bedrock, or – sloping surface of the bearing layers the excavation shall be carried down to provide full face contact. Bored piles can be excavated in an intermittent or continuous process : — tools for intermittent excavation are for example: grabs, shells, augers, boring buckets and chisels ; — tools for continuous excavation are for example: augers, drilling or percussion tools for excavation combined with augering or flushing methods for soil removal. The employment of – temporary or permanent casings – support fluids, or – soil-filled flights of a continuous flight auger can be necessary to support the excavation walls. The type of boring tool shall – be appropriate to the given soil, rock, groundwater or other environmental conditions, – be selected with a view to preventing loosening of material outside the bored pile and below its base, and – allow the bores to be excavated quickly. It can be necessary to change the method or tool employed to meet the requirements. Special tools and/or techniques other than those used for excavation may be used for the cleaning of bases. In situations where water or support fluid is present inside the bore, the choice and operation of tools shall not impair bore walls stability. A piston effect with negative influence on the stability of the bored pile walls can occur and the operating speed of the tool should be adapted accordingly. Excavations supported by casings Raking piles shall be cased over their entire length if their inclination is: n ≤15 (θ≤86°) unless it can be shown that uncased bores will be stable (see figure 4). 53
Casings may be installed during the excavation process using : – oscillating or – rotating equipment or they may be driven prior to the excavation using : – piling hammers or – vibrators or other. Where a bored pile is excavated – below the groundwater table in permeable ground, or – in artesian conditions an internal excess pressure shall be provided within the casing by a head of water or other suitable fluid of not less than 1,0 m which shall be maintained until the bored pile has been concreted. In unstable bores the casing shall be maintained in advance of boring. The advancement in relation to the excavation shall be adjusted to suit the ground and groundwater conditions. The insertion of the casings ahead of boring is necessary to prevent an inflow of soil and disturbance below the bored pile base which can affect the bored pile performance ("caving in", "bottom heave"). The creation of a cavity outside the casing can endanger the integrity of a concreted bored pile if and when the casing is withdrawn ("necking"). Zones of loosening can also move upwards to the surface and can there cause subsidence. Excavations supported by fluids The properties of a support fluid shall be in accordance with previously given conditions. There are two types of excavations supported by fluids: – direct circulation boring system (fig. 9) – reverse circulation boring system (fig. 10) The upper part of an excavation shall be protected by a lead-in tube or guide wall – to guide the boring tools; – to protect the bore walls against collapse of upper loose soils; and – for the safety of site personnel. At all times during boring and concrete placement the level of support fluid shall be maintained : – within the lead-in tube or the guide wall, and – at least 1,5 m above the external ground-water level.
Boring with continuous flight augers Piles may be formed without other means of support of the bore, by using a continuous flight auger in such a way that the stability of the bore is preserved by the material on the flights (fig.11, fig.12). Continuous flight auger piles shall not be constructed with inclinations of n ≤10 (θ≤84°), unless measures are taken to control the direction of the excavation and the installation of the reinforcement. Boring with continuous flight augers shall be carried out as fast as possible and with the least practical number of auger rotations in order to minimize the effects on the surrounding ground. 54
Where layers of unstable soil are encountered with a thickness of more than the pile diameter, the feasibility of the construction shall be demonstrated by means of trial piles or local experience before the commencement of the works. Unstable soils are considered to be : – uniform non-cohesive soils (d60/d10 < 1,5) below the groundwater table; – loose non-cohesive soils with relative density Dr < 0,3; – clays with high sensitivity; – cohesive soils with undrained shear strength cu < 15 kPa. Uniform non-cohesive soils with 1,5 < d60/d10 < 3,0 below the groundwater table can be sensitive. During excavation the advance and speed of rotation of the auger shall be adjusted in accordance with the soil conditions so that soil removal is limited to such an extent that : – the lateral stability of the bore wall will be preserved, and – over-excavation will be minmized. For this the boring tool shall be provided with sufficient torque and traction power. The pitch of the flights shall be constant over the whole length of the auger. A system of closure shall be provided in the hollow auger stem to prevent the entry of soil and inflow of water during drilling. When the required depth has been reached, the auger shall be lifted from the bore only if – the surrounding ground is stabilized by the rising concrete, or – the surrounding ground remains stable. If a pile can not be completed and the auger has to be removed, the auger shall be withdrawn by back-screwing and the bore hole shall be back-filled with soil or support fluid. Unsupported excavation Excavation without the provision of support to bore walls is permissible in ground conditions which remain stable during excavation and where a collapse of ground material into the bore is not likely. The stability of the unsupported excavation shall be demonstrated by means of trial bored piles or comparable experience before the commencement of the works. The upper part of the excavation shall be protected by a lead-in tube unless – the excavation is carried out in firm soil, and – the diameter D is smaller than 0,6 m. Concreting and trimming The interval between completion of excavation and commencement of concrete placement is required to be kept as short as possible. Prior to concrete placement the cleanliness of the bore shall be checked. The bored pile trimming operation: – shall be carried out only when the concrete has obtained sufficient strength, 55
Concreting in submerged conditions In order to avoid mixing between concrete and bentonite.6 times the inner width of the reinforcement cage for piles. or – 150 mm whichever is the greater. and – 0. The maximum outside diameter of the tremie pipe including its joints should be not more than: – 0. It shall be equipped at its upper end with a hopper to receive the fresh concrete and prevent spillage of concrete which otherwise could fall freely into the bore. segregate or become contaminated. The main purpose of the tremie pipe is the prevention of segregation of the concrete during placement or its contamination by the fluid inside the bore. A check shall be carried out immediately before the placement. If water is recognized concrete should be placed as for submerged conditions. including its joints. The external shape and dimension of the tremie pipe. or – the walls of the bore. The tremie pipe. including all its joints. The internal diameter of the concreting pipe shall not be less than 8 times the maximum size of the aggregate. and shall continue until sound concrete over the whole cross section is revealed.8 times the inner width of the reinforcement cage for barrettes. – 0. shall be water tight. Submerged concrete shall not be compacted by internal vibration. 56 . Concreting in dry conditions The procedure for placing concrete in dry conditions shall not be followed if there is standing water at the base of the bore.– – shall remove all concrete which is contaminated or of lower quality than required from the top of the bored pile. Compaction is dependent on the flow characteristics of the concrete in relation to its self weight and the surcharge of the fluid above the concrete column. the instantaneous velocity of concrete rising should not be less than 3 m/h. The concrete shall be directed vertically into the centre of the bore by means of a funnel and an attached length of pipe so that the concrete does not hit – the reinforcement. shall allow its free movement inside the reinforcement cage. The tremie pipe shall be smooth to allow free flow of concrete and have a uniform internal diameter of at least – 6 times the maximum size of the aggregate.35 times the pile diameter D or the inner diameter of a casing . Concreting shall be carried out in such way as to avoid segregation.
allowing the spread of grout over the whole base area of the bored pile. Only permanent grouting pipes are allowed and their arrangement shall be appropriate to the zones and materials to be grouted.5 m. even if a sudden drop of concrete level should occur when a cavity outside the casing is uncovered. When concrete is placed under support fluid: – a sample of the fluid shall be taken from the base of the bore. External grouting of bored piles Shaft and/or base grouting shall be carried out only after the cast-in-situ concrete has set.2 m the immersion should be at least 2. The extraction shall be carried out while concrete is still of the required consistency.0 m. Extraction of casings The extraction of temporary casings shall not begin until the concrete column has reached a sufficient height inside the casing to generate an adequate excess pressure. and – any major filtercake or debris shall be removed from the bottom of the bore immediately before the start of the placement.The immersion of the tremie pipe into the concrete should be not less than 1. to avoid entry of water or soil until concrete placing commences. concrete shall be placed through the stem to fill the pile as the auger is withdrawn. During the continued extraction a sufficient quantity and head of concrete shall be maintained inside the casing to balance the external pressure so that the annular space vacated by the removal of the casing is filled with concrete. and the speed of extraction of the casing shall be such that no inflow of soil or water occurs into the freshly placed concrete. the stem being closed at its base. Base grouting can be carried out: – through steel pipes attached to cages. – to protect against inflow of water or soil at the tip of the casing. particularly when disconnecting sections of the pipe and when recovering and disconnecting sections of temporary casing. and – to prevent the reinforcement cage from being lifted. particularly when two or more tremie pipes are used. The supply of concrete. or – with sleeved perforated cross pipes arranged at the bored pile bottom. For piles with a diameter D ≥ 1. Once boring has reached the final depth. 57 . Concreting of continuous flight auger piles Concreting of piles excavated with continuous flight augers may be carried out by placing concrete through the hollow central stem of the auger.5 m and for barrettes at least 3. – by means of a flexible box structure (see Figure 13) installed with the reinforcement.
hardening slurry may be used for primary piles instead of concrete.constant rate of penetration tests.dynamic pile tests for the determination of the pile capacity. the primary piles shall be constructed so as not to impair the later alternate pile installation. and . Bored pile tests can consist of : . . . Excavations should be supported by temporary casings in the construction of secant pile walls.integrity tests which measure the acoustic or vibration properties of the bored pile in order to determine the presence of possible anomalies within its body. The following notes contain general remarks.Shaft grouting shall be carried out through grouting pipes fixed to the reinforcement cage or tube or a precast concrete element as applicable (see figure 14). and the concrete composition employed.resistance/deformation characteristics in the general range of specified actions. Normally in the construction of secant pile walls. Bored pile testing The principal requirements for bored pile testing shall comply with EN 1997-1. Pile walls A template of steel or concrete should be installed at the working platform for the maintenance of the pile positions where specified accuracy requires. as applicable (as long as respective European Standards are not available).the soundness and proper construction of a pile. which may be supplemented by national application documents. The construction sequence of secant and contiguous pile walls. Where all piles are to be reinforced. 58 . . alternate piles only should be reinforced. Bored pile tests may be used for proof of : . shall be chosen as such that the concrete of the primary piles has achieved sufficient strength for stability but has not developed a strength that would be too high for an intersection to be achieved. In the construction of secant pile walls.maintained load tests. These reinforced piles should be constructed after the initially installed unreinforced piles on either side are in place.
Fig. 8 .Bored pile: Designations 59 .
9 . 10 – Reverse circulation boring system 60 .Fig.Direct circulation boring system Fig.
Auger Fig. 11 .12 .Fig.Continuous flight auger drilling 61 .
Pile base grouting (examples) Fig.Fig.Shaft grouted pile 62 . 14 . 13 .
DISPLACEMENT PILES Displacement piles are covered by EN 12699. vibrating. drive tubes or casing by the application of vibratory forces helmet device.7. mortar or microconcrete. removal of obstructions or to assist penetration (see Figure 1. and filling the hole so formed with plain or reinforced concrete(see Figure 5 and 9a) screw pile pile in which the pile or pile tube comprises a limited number of helices at its base and which is installed under the combined action of a torque and a vertical thrust. 3) prefabricated (displacement) pile pile or pile element which is manufactured in a single unit or in pile segments before installation (see Figure 9b) cast in place (displacement) pile pile installed by driving a closed ended concrete shell or permanent or temporary casing. placed between the base of the impact hammer and the pile or drive tube so as to uniformly distribute the hammer impact to the top of the pile. See Figure 6 . By the screwing-in and/or by the screwing-out. See Figure 6 impact hammer tool of construction equipment for driving piles by impact (striking or falling mass) vibrator (vibrating hammer) tool of construction equipment for driving or extracting piles. screwing or by a combination of these or other methods leader steel sections used for guiding driving equipment and/or pile during driving. such as hammering. See Figure 8 driving method to bring the piles into the ground to the required depth. the ground is essentially laterally displaced and virtually no soil is removed jacked pile pile pressed into soil by means of static force grouted pile prefabricated pile fitted with an enlarged shoe to create along a part or the full perimeter of the pile a space which is filled during driving with grout. usually steel. vibration. See Figure 7 post grouted pile pile where shaft and/or base grouting is performed after installation through pipes fixed along or incorporated in the pile. Terms displacement pile pile which is installed in the ground without excavation or removal of material from the ground except for limiting heave. pressing. 2.
that permits the driving of the pile top below ground surface. pile cushion material. used during driving. water surface. placed between the helmet and the top of a precast concrete pile. usually softwood. Drive tube is withdrawn during concreting casing steel tube used temporarily or permanently to support shaft walls during the construction of a pile. or below the lowest point to which the driving equipment can reach without disengagement from the leaders driving criteria driving parameters used to be fullfilled when driving a pile jetting use of pressurised water to facilitate the driving of a pile by means of hydraulic displacement of parts of the soil preboring (preaugering. follower a temporary extension. After installation the mandrel is withdrawn test pile pile to which a load is applied to determine the resistance deformation characteristics of the pile and surrounding ground trial pile pile installed to assess the practicability and suitability of the construction method for a particular application preliminary pile pile installed before the commencement of the main piling works or section of the works for the purpose of establishing the suitability of the chosen type of pile.hammer cushion device or material placed between the impact hammer and the helmet to protect the hammer and the pile head from destructive direct impact. predrilling) boring through obstructions or materials too dense to penetrate with the planned pile type and driving equipment set mean permanent penetration of a pile in the ground per blow measured by a series of blows drive tube steel tube used to displace the ground during the formation of a driven cast in place pile. dimensions and bearing capacity 64 . The hammer cushion material shall have enough stiffness to transmit hammer energy efficiently into the pile. driving equipment and/or for confirming the design. In permanent situation the casing can act as a protective or load bearing unit mandrel a steel core for driving that is inserted into a closed-end tubular pile.
each of which is held constant for a certain period or until pile motion has virtually ceased or has reached a prescribed limit (ML .test) dynamic pile load test loading test where a pile is subjected at the pile head to a dynamic force for analysis of its load bearing capacity sonic test .test) constant rate of penetration pile load test static loading test in which a test pile is forced into the ground at a constant rate and the force is measured (CRP . low strain integrity test integrity test where a series of waves is passed between a transmitter and a receiver through the concrete of a pile and where the characteristics of the received waves are measured and used to infer continuity and section variations of the pile shaft sonic coring sonic integrity test of pile concrete carried out from core drillings in a pile shaft or from a preplaced tube system working level level of the piling platform on which the piling rig works. Classification and examples Figure 1 – Family tree chart for displacement piles 65 . the soil being displaced by the pile or drive tube maintained load pile test static loading test in which a testpile has loads applied in incremental stages.driven pile pile which is forced into the soil by driving.
Figure 2 – Examples of shafts and bases of displacement piles 66 .
Figure 3 – Examples of cross sections for displacement piles 67 .
Figure 4 – Examples for toe protection for prefabricated displacement piles 68 .
Figure 5 – Examples of construction of cast in place displacement piles 69 .
Figure 6 – Examples of piling rig with impact hammer 70 .
Figure 7 – Example of grouted pile 71 .
Figure 8 – Example of post grouted pile 72 .
termes and levels 73 .Figure 9 – Displacement piles.
Micropiles can act as (see Figure 3): single micropiles. reticulated micropiles. Their shaft and base resistance may be improved (mostly by grouting) and they may be constructed with (see Figure 1): .drilled micropiles with a shaft diameter not greater than 300 mm. there are no limitations regarding. domains of use There are two types of micropiles from execution stand point: .uniform cross section (straight shaft). mortar or concrete. Micropiles may be used for: . see Figure 2).working under restricted access and/or headroom conditions. . .foundations of new structures (particularly in very heterogeneous soil or rock formations).base enlargement.reducing settlements and/or displacements. e.forming a retaining wall.driven micropiles with a shaft diameter or a maximum shaft cross sectional extension not greater than 150 mm Micropiles are structural members to transfer actions to the ground and may contain bearing elements to transfer directly or indirectly loads and or to limit deformations. .other application where micropiles technicques are appropriate. .telescopically changing shaft dimensions. micropile groups.reinforcing or strengthening of existing structures to increase the capacity to transfer load to depth with acceptable load settlement characteristics. slenderness ratio or shaft and base enlargements. MICROPILES Micropiles are covered by EN 14199 Classification. .improving slope stability. . underpinning works. The material of micropiles can be: steel or other reinforcement materials. and/or . . rake (definition of rake. or .shaft enlargements. grout. . . . .g. a combination of above. Other than practical considerations. micropile walls.securing against uplift. length.8.reinforcing of soil to form a bearing and/or retaining structure.
Figure 1 – Example of micropile shafts and bases Figure 2 – Definition of rake Key 1 Single micropile 2 Micropile groups 3 Reticulated micropiles 4 Micropile walls Figure 3 – Examples of micropile structures 75 .
Sometimes referred to as gravity grouting or as tremie grouting test micropile micropile to which a load is applied to determine the resistance and deformation characteristics of the micropile and the surrounding ground preliminary micropile micropile installed before the commencement of the main piling works or section of the works for the purpose of establishing the suitability of the chosen type of micropile and/or for 76 . usually cement and water.Terms and definitions micropiles piles which have a small diameter (smaller than 300 mm shaft diameter for drilled piles and not greater than 150 mm shaft diameter or maximum shaft cross sectional extension for driven piles). for stabilization of borehole walls and for flushing driving method to bring the micopile into the ground to the required depth. Permament casing may act as a load bearing element and/or as a corrosion protection drive tube steel tube used to displace the ground during the formation of a driven cast in place micropile. pressing screwing or by a combination of these or other methods casing tube used to support the micropile hole during the construction of a micropile. polymers or clay. vibrating. which transfers load from the bearing element or the micropiles shaft to the ground and/or contributes to corrosion protection mortar concrete with very small aggregates(< 8 mm) grouting pumping of grout or concrete into the borehole with a pressure which is higher than the hydrostatic pressure tube-à-manchettes a regularly slotted sleeved tube through that grout injections are possible using a packer device filling grouting under no applied fluid pressure other than the height of grout fluid. such as hammering. in water with or without cement and other additions. containing sometimes additives or a limited amount of fine aggregates. drilling method of removing the soil or rock in an intermittent or continous process drilling fluid/ mud water or a suspension of bentonite. The casing can be permanent or temporary. The drive tube is withdrawn during grouting or concreting grout a setting material.
deviation.confirming the design. . . objective and scope of the micropiles.environmental issues.quality control procedures. equipment and working procedure for: . dimensions are bearing capacity trial micropile micropile installed to assess the practicability and suitability of the construction method for a particular application working micropile micropile which is part of a structure integrity test test carried out on an installed micropile for the verification of soundness of micropile components static load test loading test where a micropile is subjected to chosen axial and/or lateral forces at the micropile head for the analysis of its capacity and deformation characteristics maintained load test (ML test) static loading test in which a test micropile has loads applied in incremental stages. 77 .grouting parameters.drilling and/or driving. grouting or concreting. (possibly by reference to site investigation report). . . sequence of drilling. Special care shall be taken for the execution of tangent or secant micropiles for the formation of walls (spacing.measures to ensure the boring accuracy: . . each of which is held constant for a certain period or until micropile motion has virtually ceased or has reached a priscrebed limit constant rate of penetration test (CRP test) static load test in which a test micropile is forced into the ground at a constant rate and the force is measured Execution of micropiles The micropiles shall be executed and supervised by trained and experienced personnel. constitutive material).soil description. A method statement should be provided before starting the execution of micropiles.site installation and working areas. Where possible the preliminary. trial or test micropiles should be installed close to positions of soil investigation.filling. . .spoil management.installation of reinforcement or bearing element. .technical requirements.identification . This method statement should contain (but is not limited to) the following information: . .
Normally grout or mortar is used for the execution of micropiles with continuous flight augers. Micropile boreholes shall be drilled until they reach: . air and drilling fluids. or .soft cohesive soil. with comparable experience taking into account the soil type and the condition of the structures to be underpinned). Boreholes supported by casings Casings should be used when the borehole is unstable or there is a significant fluid loss or when filling or grouting is performed through the casing. . Drilling with continuous flight augers No special limitations exist concerning the inclination on the basis that the direction of excavation is controlled and the installation of the reinforcement can be achieved correctly.the anticipated founding level. An inflow of water and/or soil could cause for instance: .loss of support by the removal of soil from beneath underpinned or adjacent foundations. special care should be taken to avoid disturbance or fracturing of the ground. mortar or concrete in the micropile or micropiles recently installed nearby.loose granular soil. or . 78 . continuous drilling with flushing for the removal of soil is the most common method. When uncontrolled inflow of water and soil into the borehole can occur or when there is a risk of collapse.washing out of cement.defaults in the shaft.the prescribed length. . Enlargements Micropile enlargements may be formed: by excavation.when using air as drilling fluid with direct circulation under the groundwater table. . When drilling methods with air as flushing medium are used for underpinning works. . special measures shall be taken to maintain the stability and thereby prevent the uncontrolled entry of soil and water. Use of flushing Drilling can be performed with water.damage to the unset grout.the specified embedment in the bearing stratum. their feasibility shall be proven (e.a disturbance to or instability of the bearing stratum or the surrounding ground. .Drilling When constructing micropiles by drilling. . by driving compacted quantities of concrete below the bottom of the drive tube or permanent casing.g. Driving When impact or vibrating driving methods are applied for underpinning works. There are increased risks in: . .ground which is variable.
air and drilling fluid shall be able to escape to permit complete grout filling. Single step grouting through a temporary casing The reinforcement shall be placed before the temporary casing is extracted.grouting during driving and/or drilling.grouting: . . Single step grouting through a load bearing element When tubes are used as bearing element. When filling the borehole. re-grouting shall be performed after a certain waiting period until the specified grouting pressure can be applied.to protect the reinforcement against corrosion. The grouting pressure should be applied at least every 2 m during the extraction of the casing. Grouting The following methods may be employed for filling and grouting the borehole: . single step grouting can be applied at the bottoni of the bearing element (Figure 7). Filling or grouting meets one or more of the following functions: .single or multiple step grouting through tubes-ă-manchettes.to create or improve the bond between the micropile shaft and the surrounding ground to allow the design shaft bearing capacity to be mobilised. When filling the borehole with the tremie pipe or through the drill rods or tubular bearing elenients. For grouting during drilling. the grout pressure and flow rate should be adjusted depending on the grout susceptibility to penetrate the ground loosened by the drilling process and contained within 79 . Grouting during drilling When grouting is applied during drilling. . . . to improve the bearing capacity of the micropile.single step grouting through a bearing element.single step grouting through a temporary casing. to strengthen and seal the ground immediately adjacent to the micropile in order to enhance the micropile bearing capacity. the end of the tremie pipe or drill rods shall remain submerged in the grout and grouting shall continue until the consistency of the grout emerging on top is almost the same as that of the injected grout (Figure 5). the bearing elements are fitted with a drill bit and they are drilled into the ground. Measures shall be taken to ensure that the micropile length is completely filled with grout. special valves or post-grouting tubes (= multi-stage grouting). Filling the borehole with grout The interval between the completion of the borehole drilling and the filling up of the borehole with grout shall be kept as short as possible. During extraction of the temporary casing the grout level within the casing shall be brought back up to ground level before the next length of casing is removed (Figure 6). . When the specified grouting pressure cannot be applied.filling the borehole with grout.- by installing an expanded body. For drilled boreholes the remaining cuttings shall be able to escape when filling the borehole.
c) higher working loads are applied than those already adopted in similar ground conditions. d) when the results of static load tests are used to determine the design load. For micropiles working in tension static load tests on at least two micropiles should be performed for the first 25 micropiles and 1 for each next 25 micropiles. according to the project specifications. Static load tests Static load tests on micropiles may consist of: a) maintained load tests. Static load tests on working micropiles In the project specifications it shall be specified if static load tests have to be performed on working micropiles. When grouting during drilling. Micropile testing Tests on micropiles can be performed on preliminary micropiles and/or working micropiles.the annulus around the reinforcing element. For micropiles working in compression static load tests on at least two micropiles should be performed for the first 100 micropiles and 1 for each next 100 micropiles. b) micropiles have to be installed in ground conditions for which previous tests are not available. The multi-stage grouting phase(s) shall take place only after the grout placed into the borehole has set. grout flushing should be carried out at a constant rate and the flush should be re-established each time a new section of bearing element are added prior to advancing the drill bit. When the specified grouting pressure cannot be applied additional step(s) of grouting shall be performed after a certain waiting period until the specified grouting pressure can be applied. The grouting shall be carried out either in single or multiple step(s) and in single or multiple stage(s). b) constant rate of penetration tests. Static load tests on preliminary micropiles Static load tests on preliminary micropiles shall be performed when: a) new techniques are used for the execution of the micropiles. The grouting tubes shall be flushed with water after each grouting step and filled with grout at the end of the whole grouting process. Multi-stage grouting Multi-stage grouting may be executed by single step grouting through tube-ă-manchettes (Figure 8) or by multiple step grouting through tube-ă-manchettes or special valves (Figure 9) or by single step grouting through several post-grouting tubes staggered in length (Figure 10). 80 .
So the use of dynamic load tests and integrity tests has to be limited to cases where experience or comparison with static load tests has demonstrated that the results can he interpretated in a confident way. Figure 5 – Filling up a borehole with grout Figure 6 – Single step grouting through a temporary casing 81 .Dynamic load tests and integrity tests The use of dynamic load tests and integrity tests can not be generalised for micropiles because the interpretation of the results concerning the bearing capacity and integrity may be difficult due to the small diameter andlor shape of the micropile and the presence of a bearing element. For dynamic load tests the micropile shall be allowed to gain sufficient strength after installation and before testing.
Figure 7 – Single step grouting through a load bearing element Figure 8 – Single step grouting through a tube-à-manchettes 82 .
Key 1 Packer Figure 9 – Multiple step grouting through a tube-à-manchettes or special valves Figure 10 – Single step grouting through several post-grouting tubes 83 .
panels. blast furnace slag. cement. Deep mixing considered in EN 14679 is limited to methods. Definitions dry mixing (malaxare în uscat) process consisting of mechanical disaggregation of the soil in situ and its mixing with binders with or without fillers and admixtures in dry powder form wet mixing (malaxare umedă) process consisting of mechanical disaggregation of the soil in situ and its mixing with a slurry consisting of water. limestone powder etc. fill. binders with or without fillers and admixtures binder (liant) chemically reactive materials (lime.) column pillar of treated soil manufactured in situ by a single installation process using a mixing tool. e) other ground improvement methods using similar techniques exist. overlapping or not: d) treatment of natural soil. in which the mixing tool is delivered to the appropriate depth and initial mixing and fluidisation of the soil take place retrieval (upstroke) 84 . fly ash. c) different shapes and configurations. etc. grids. gypsum. which involve: a) mixing by rotating mechanical mixing tools where the lateral support provided to the surrounding soil is not removed. retarding agent filler non-reacting material (sand. blocks. consisting of either single columns.) admixture (aditiv) dispersant.9.. waste deposits and slurries. DEEP MIXING Deep mixing works are carried out by two different methods: dry mixing and wet mixing and form the objects of EN 14679. etc. The mixing tool and the execution process govern the shape and size of the cross section of a column mixing tool tool used to disaggregate the soil. arms. fluidifier. walls or any combination of more than one single column. paddles with/without continuous or discontinuous flight augers penetration (downstroke) stage/phase of mixing process cycle. b) treatment of the soil to a minimum depth of 3 m. distribute and mix the binder with the soil. consisting of one or several rotating units equipped with several blades.
by mixing the soil with some type of chemical additives that react with the soil. plastic clays. in which the final mixing and retrieval of the mixing tool take place Material and products Construction of deep mixing involves the addition of a binder and. using granular quick lime (unslaked lime) as a binder. fly ash.stage/phase of mixing process cycle. dry mixing originated in Sweden as lime (powdered lime) mixing to improve the settlement characteristics of soft. Fields of application A variety of applications for deep mixing exists for temporary or permanent works and either on land or marine. penetration and retrieval. During retrieval. admixture. e. Wet mixing. The mixing blades rotate in the horizontal plane and mix the soil and the binder. as the retrieval speed is kept constant. etc. such as gypsum. Dry mixing. More recently. using cement slurry as a binder. Deep mixing can be carried out by two different methods: dry mixing where the binder is introduced by air and wet mixing where the binder is in slurry form. filler. rotary/jet-based. the binder is injected into the soil at a constant flow rate.g. Execution The execution consists typically of positioning. structural reinforcement. hybrid techniques have been developed by combining deep mixing with other soil improvement methods (such as jet grouting) or other machinery (surface mixing). c. the mixing tool(s) cut and disaggregate the soil to the desired depth of treatment. some variations of machines. There are.) and the method of mixing (wet/dry. lime/cement and possible additives. During penetration. d. The development of deep mixing was started in Sweden and Japan in the late 1960's. was put into practice in Japan in the middle of the 1970's. The improvement becomes possible by ion exchange at the surface of clay minerals. Practical aspects of deep mixing The objective of deep mixing is to improve the soil characteristics. improvement of stability and containment. b. Deep mixing has since spread into other parts of the world. bonding of soil particles and/or filling of voids by chemical reaction products. The main applications are reduction of settlement. if needed. Deep mixing is classified with regard to the binder utilised (cement. was also put into practice in Japan in the middle of the 1970's. Approximately at the same time. however. 85 . in which the binder is injected during the penetration phase and both in the penetration and retrieval phase. fly ash and slag has been introduced. the combination of cement and lime with gypsum. water. Figure 1. to increase the shear strength and/or reduce the compressibility. Recently. auger-based or blade-based). one or more of the following components to the soil: a.
Dry mixing is primarily utilised to improve the characteristics of cohesive soil. whereas wet mixing is applied also in order to improve the characteristics of granular material. (The moisture content of the soil needs to be ኑ 20%). Dry mixing Dry mixing is normally carried out in accordance with some general principles. such as prevention of liquefaction. blast furnace slag or pulverized fuel ash (PFA) in granular or powdered form.In dry mixing the binder is usually a mixture of cement and lime (unslaked). or a combination of cement. the binder is fed into the soil in dry form with the aid of compressed air. Figure 1. Two major techniques for dry mixing exist at present: the Nordic and the Japanese techniques. 86 . gypsum. Air is used to feed (or incorporate) the binder into the soil. For certain applications. As can be seen in the flow chart.Applications of deep mixing for various purposes In wet mixing the most common binder is cement. dry mixing has also been used in loose granular soil. lime. .
Both phases can be repeated for the same location. The binder. Each mixing shaft of these machines have several blades with a diameter of 0. which have either one or two mixing shafts. The machines have one mixing shaft with the injection outlet positioned at the mixing tool. 4) the mixing tool rotates in the horizontal plane and mixes the soil and the binder. the soil and binder are mixed by continued turning of the mixing tool.6 m to 1. Nordic technique Equipments used in the Nordic countries are able to install columns to a depth of 25 m with a column diameter of normally 0. Mixing energy and amount of binder are monitored and in some cases automatically controlled to achieve uniform treated soil. The columns can be inclined up to about 70' in relation to the vertical.Figure 2. the shaft is withdrawn and at the same time. During the retrieval phase.3 m and are able to install columns to a depth of 33 m. 3) after reaching the desired depth. The mixing tool is drilled down to the final depth and a predetermined amount of binder is added through an inner tube with an opening at the mixing tool (during the retrieval phase). 2) the mixing shaft penetrates to the desired depth of treatment with simultaneous disaggregation of the soil by the mixing tool. is brought to the mixing machine by compressed air.0 m. if required. 5) completion of the treated column. .Sequence of installation The installation is carried out according to the following procedure. 87 .8 m to 1. Japanese technique There are several variations of execution machines. from left to right (Figure 2): 1) the mixing tool is correctly positioned. the binder in granular or powder form is injected into the soil. usually cement powder.
The specific quantity of slurry added can vary with depth. the columns are usually placed in an equilateral triangular or in a square pattern. a mortar-like mixture is created which hardens during the hydration process. wall type and grid type installations. cuts or embankments. a number of different patterns of column installations are used (Figures 3. turning the shaft. Overlapping is normal in block type.5 m in the soil already treated. increasing fineness and stiffness requires more complicated mixing tools provided with mixing and cutting blades of different shapes and arrangements The rotary drives. Strength and permeability depend strongly on the composition and characteristics of the soil (fines content. Patterns of installation Depending on the purpose of deep mixing. North America and Japan. grain size distribution. For machines with the outlet below the mixing tool the slurry need not be added during the retrieval phase. If the main purpose is to reduce settlement. 5. need to have enough power to destroy the matrix of the soil for intimate mixture with the slurry. 4. Depending on the type of soil and slurry. Overlapping of the columns is particularly important when the columns are installed for containment purposes. Whereas flight augers may be sufficient for predominantly granular soils.Comparison of the Nordic and Japanese dry mixing techniques Wet mixing In wet mixing the binder is usually cemnt slurry. organic content. on the other hand. 88 . Pumps for transport of the slurry to the outlet need to have sufficient capacity (delivery rate and pressure) to safely deliver the design quantity of slurry. type of clay. shape of the grains. If. the purpose is to ensure stability of. The wet mixing process can be interrupted on condition that the slurry has not begun to harden and the mixing tool starts again at least 0. the amount and type of binder and the mixing procedure. 6). grain hardness). for example. Wet mixing is common in Central and Southern Europe. the columns are usually placed in walls perpendicular to the expected failure surface. Filler (sand and additives) may be added to the slurry when necessary.
Examples of treatment patterns in wet mixing on land 89 .Block type pattern in dry mixing with overlapping columns Key 1 2 3 4 Wall type Grid type Block type Area type Figure 5 .Examples of treatment patterns in dry mixing Figure 4 .Key 1 Strip 2 Group 3 Triangular 4 Square Figure 3 .
in which the whole soil mass is treated down to a depth of normally 2 m to 3 m. The binder is fed to the mixing head while the mixer rotates and simultaneously moves vertically and horizontally.Key 1 2 3 4 Wall type Grid type Block type Area type 5 6 7 8 Tangent Tangent Tangent Tangent column wall grid block Figure 6 . e. peat. Mostly the mass stabilisation machine is a conventional cavator but equipped with a mass stabilisation mixer. The maximum depth of treatment presently is 5 m. which use techniques reminding of deep mixing. gyttja or organic clay and soft clay deposits.g. Mass stabilisation In cases where the soil conditions are very bad. which in this context are named hybrid methods. 90 . are continuously under development to tackle particular ground conditions and foundation problems.Examples of treatment patterns in marine conditions Hybrid methods There are several methods. They typically combine hydraulic and mechanical mixing. mass stabilisation can be required. The mass stabilisation machines differ essentially from the column stabilisation machines. In Figure 7 are shown two types of mass stabilisation. These methods.
gyttja. gyttja or clay Peat.Key 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Stabiliser tank + scales Execution machine Mixing tool Mass stabilised peat.Two types of mass stabilisation 91 . clay Direction of mass stabilisation Geotextile (reinforcement) Preloading embankment Figure 7 .
which vibrates horizontally by means of an eccentric weight rotating about its longitudinal axis. commonly a depth vibrator containing oscillating weights or a compaction probe inserted into the ground using a top vibrator which remains at the ground surface 92 . and penetrates into the ground. The following treatment methods are covered by EN 14731: methods in which depth vibrators. the wet process and the dry bottom-feed process are described in Annex B depth vibrator basic component of ground treatment equipment used in the installation of vibrated stone columns and in vibro compaction. reduced permeability and reduced susceptibility to liquefaction vibrated stone columns type of ground treatment by deep vibration in which a depth vibrator is used to form continuous stone columns from the maximum depth of penetration up to the ground surface. Three installation processes. containing oscillating weights which cause horizontal vibrations. The following types of treatment are covered by EN 14731: deep vibratory compaction to densify the existing ground. DEEP VIBRATION Ground treatment by deep vibration achieved by depth vibrators and compaction probes is the object of EN 14731. The treatment is applicable to a wide range of soils and in granular soils some densification may also be achieved. drainage or water flushing can be provided to facilitate the compaction process vibrating tool item of equipment which is inserted into the ground to cause vibration at depth.6 m and lower than 1. Definitions deep vibratory compaction type of ground treatment by deep vibration in which the main purpose is to densify the soil. Generally.2 m.10. wings. stone columns have a diameter greater than 0. The penetration in the ground can be made easier by air or water flushing top vibrator vibrator which remains above the ground surface compaction probe tool for deep vibratory compaction which is inserted into the ground to transmit vibrations from a top vibrator which remains at the ground surface. are inserted into the ground. and hence to form a stone column/soil structure which should have an increased strength and stiffness compared with the ground in an untreated state. vibrated stone columns to form a stiffened composite ground structure by the insertion of granular material which itself shall be densified. methods in which compaction probes are inserted into the ground using a vibrator which remains at the ground surface and which in most cases oscillates in a vertical mode. the dry top-feed process. The treatment is applicable to many granular soils and normally results in increased strength and stiffness.
increasing fines content will reduce the compaction efficiency.wet process method of installing vibrated stone columns in which flushing water removes soft material. or in combination with vertical drains. graded appropriately for compaction to form a dense column fully interlocked with the surrounding ground and in compliance with other requirements such as drainage. Process Dry top-feed process Wet process Dry bottom-feed process Grading in mm 40 to 75 25 to 75 8 to 50 Deep vibratory compaction Deep vibratory compaction is usually restricted to granular soils. Gradings typically used with the different processes are given in the following table. with the vibrator remaining in the ground during the construction of the column to maintain the stability of the hole (the process is described in Annex B) Materials for deep vibratory compaction Material may be added during deep vibratory compaction. Compaction up to ground surface is only possible applying additional measures. compatible with the plant used and flow freely within bottom-feed and through-feed delivery systems without arching which may block these systems. Deep vibratory compaction of granular soils can be achieved by methods which use either a depth vibrator or a top vibrator. compaction efficiency can be increased by using water flushing. In some cases. This may be the natural granular material being compacted at the site or imported material. Soils exhibiting inter-particle bonding due to cementation. It is often found that a fines content of more than 10 % causes difficulties. Materials for vibrated stone columns Material used to form stone columns shall be: sufficiently hard and chemically inert so as to remain stable during column construction and subsequent working life in the anticipated soil and groundwater conditions. suction or some other cause may not be suitable for this type of ground treatment. stabilises the hole and allows specified granular material to reach the tip of the depth vibrator where it is compacted (the process is described in Annex B) dry bottom-feed process method of installing vibrated stone columns in which specified granular material is delivered directly to the tip of the vibrator via a feed pipe attached to the vibrator. 93 . Added materials shall be sufficiently hard and chemically inert so as to remain stable during the treatment process and subsequent working life in the anticipated soil and groundwater conditions.
The compaction increases when resonance is created between the vibrating system (vibrator and compaction probe) and surrounding soil. this method is known as resonance compaction. the frequency can be adapted to amplify ground vibrations. and a vibrator with adjustable frequency.Depth vibrator Where a top vibrator is used. which is designed to transfer the vibrations to the soil as efficiently as possible. Conventional vibrators for sheet-pile driving can be used. it is connected to the top of a compaction probe. but special vibrators have been developed. By means of vibration sensors placed on the ground. 94 . Although the top vibrator usually vibrates vertically. the probe will cause horizontal accelerations which may locally be greater than the vertical ones.Key 1 Eccentric weight (within) 2 Extension tube 3 Isolator 4 Water or air jets 5 Motor (within) 6 Fins to prevent twist 7 Nose cone Fig. 1 . Several different types of compaction probes are available including the vibro-wing (Figure 2) and other flexible probes.
Compaction can be effected using several passes. The compaction is obtained during penetration or during penetration and extraction. and for each method the installation of a single column is described.in Figure A. whilst vertical fins prevent the vibrator rotating during penetration.Fig. In practice small differences in detail may be noticed. dry top-feed process. which is an eccentric weight assembly rotating rapidly within a heavy tubular steel casing.1. At each treatment point the probe is inserted into the soil to the depth to which compaction is required. Installation of vibrated stone columns There are three principal methods of installing vibrated stone columns. Dry top-feed process In granular soils. wet process and dry bottom-feed process. The whole assembly is suspended from a crawler mounted crane and the vibrator is lowered onto the ground. The compaction time at each point varies typically from 5 min to 40 min and the time required increases with the fine content of the soil. The general arrangement of the ciepth vibrator is. with closer spacings in the later passes.Vibro-wing Compaction is achieved by inserting the probe at treatment points usually on a triangular or rectangular grid.'shown . All three processes use a similar type of depth vibrator. this method is usually only possible above the water table. The nose of the vibrator is tapered to aid penetration on the ground. With the vibrated stone column processes. 2 . Penetration of the fill and/or underlying weak soil is effected by a combination of the weight of the 95 . The following descriptions are given as typical. Spacings are typically from lm to 4 m depending on the type and size of the compaction probe and vibrator capacity. column installation is repeated for further columns at a predetermined spacing to effect the desired treatment.
By adding successive small charges of granular material and compacting each one to chosen levels of power consumption. inert granular material is tipped into the hole and the vibrator is lowered again to compact the granular material and interlock it with the surrounding soils. The vibrator is partially withdrawn and is sometimes surged to flush out the weak soils accumulating in and adjacent to the bore. The depth vibrator (Figure 4) is suspended from a suitable crane. the high frequency vibration and compressed air. lowered onto the ground and the water jets are opened. It is important that the water flow is maintained until the vibrator reaches ground surface. a dense stone column is built up to ground level.vibrator. A compressor supplies the depth vibrator with air.Dry top-feed process Wet process The wet process is used where the dry top-feed process cannot be used because of unstable ground. After reaching the required depth. Typically gradings for the granular material are within the range from 25 mm to 75 mm. The general arrangement is shown in Figure 3. the vibrator is held in the ground for a short time and then withdrawn. Key 1 Stone column being formed 2 Stockpile of granular infill 3 Vibrator Fig. 96 . The depth vibrator is similar to that used for the dry process but is equipped with water flushing. The vibrator compacts the granular infill and interlocks it tightly with the surrounding soil. Following formation of an open hole the vibrator is kept in the ground and the water flow reduced whilst clean inert granular material is successively heaped around the top of the vibrator bore at ground level. which emerges from nozzles in the main steel housing just above the vibrator tip. The vibrator penetrates quickly through weak soils under its own weight aided by the water flushing and vibrations. . A small charge of clean. The cycle is repeated until a compact stone column is built up to ground level. Typically gradings for the granular material are within the range from 40 mm to 75 mm. The granular material then passes down between the vibrator and the surrounding soils to permit the construction of a stone column in short lifts and repenetration steps.
holding the lift for a short time to allow the granular material to run. the depth vibrator penetrates the ground to the required depth. This is repeated. assisted as necessary by compressed air and under the combined action of the vibrations and its weight. The bottomfeed depth vibrator has a heavy duty supply tube located down one side and permanently fixed to the vibrator forming a fully integrated vibrator/granular material supply.Key 1 Stone column 2 Stone stockpile 3 Water flushing 4 Vibrator Fig. With the granular material in the supply tube acting as a plug at the tip of the vibrator. and then forcing the vibrator down on the charge of granular material to compact and tightly interlock it with the surrounding soil. The vibrator is positioned on the ground at the treatment point location. using an additional pull down force if necessary.Wet process Dry bottom-feed process As the vibrator remains in the hole during column construction. 97 . Typically gradings for the granular material are within the range from 8 mm to 50 mm. 4 . The supply tube bends inwards at the vibrator tip to ensure a central location for the supply of granular material. the process can operate successfully in unstable hole conditions and can be used instead of the wet process in most cases. until a compact stone column is formed up to ground level. The stone column is then formed and compacted by lifting the vibrator. charging the system with granular material as necessary. The general arrangement is shown in Figure 5. The cycle of operations for this completely dry process is as follows. and the whole system is charged with granular material.
Key 1 Pressure chamber 2 Vibrator 3 Stone stockpile 4 Stone feed bucket 5 Stone delivery tube Fig. 5 .Dry bottom-feed process 98 .
to dissipate. the longer the consolidation process). a process whose duration depends on the consolidation characteristics of the soil and the drainage paths (the longer the drainage paths. VERTICAL DRAINAGE In cases where external loading of low-permeability soils.construction and reinforcements of dikes. may contain inorganic constituents). excess pore water pressure will be induced. preloading for landfills. The execution of a vertical drainage system includes the creation of a working platform. Execution of vertical drainage The functional requirements of the project form the basis for the geotechnical design of vertical drainage. followed by a consolidation process in which pore water is squeezed out of the soil. . The aim of vertical drain installation is to shorten the drainage paths and the time required for the excess pore water pressure. induced by the loading operation. Vertical drainage and preloading are illustrated in Figure 1. A possible decrease in shear strength has to be taken into account in cases where stability under loading conditions may be threatened. followed by the loading operation and monitoring. causes a stress increase exceeding the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil. such as clay.. Contaminated water squeezed out through the drains may have to be treated before disposal. with the exception of drains used for liquefaction mitigation where the lifetime needs to be significantly longer. Due to the excess pore water pressure created by loading. The time of excess pore water pressure dissipation (the consolidation time) will be shorter the closer the drains are installed. The volume decrease of the soil caused thereby is accompanied by a gradual increase in effective stress and a corresponding decrease in excess pore water pressure. decrease the shear strength and coefficient of consolidation). . gyttja (Decomposed plant and animal remains. A growing area of application is in the environmental field.11. industrial estates.embankments for construction sites of housing estates. In seismic regions vertical drainage can also be used for the purpose of mitigating liquefaction phenomena.embankments for roads and railroads. Another objective is to improve stability conditions by an overall increase in shear strength.g. . The consolidation process will continue until the excess pore water pressure has completely dissipated and the load is carried by effective stresses. pore water is squeezed out of the soil in the horizontal direction towards the drains and thereafter in the vertical 99 . Vertical drainage is covered by EN 15237. Examples of areas where this technique has generally been applied are: . The required life span of vertical drains is normally limited to a maximum of about 5 years. which previously were frequently used. remediation of contaminated ground. positioning of the drain pattern and installation of the drains. Prefabricated drain types have gradually replaced sand drains. Fields of application The installation of vertical drains is carried out as a means of speeding up Iong-term consolidation settlements caused by loading. terminals etc. .marine constructions and near-shore applications. the placement of a drainage blanket. decomposed peat etc.land reclamation. ports and airports. The installation of vertical drains may detrimentally affect the original properties of the soil (e..
drainage blanket and surcharge load Depending upon the installation method and procedure used.direction through the drains. This should be considered in the design. decrease the shear strength and coefficient of consolidation). Key 1 2 3 4 5 surcharge load drainage blanket vertical drains clay layer pore water flow Figure 1 . Drain types Band drains Prefabricated band drains consist typically of a central core surrounded by a filter sleeve. The width of the band drains is typically 100 mm.Examples of band drains 100 .g. A generally smaller amount of water is also squeezed out of the soil in the vertical direction between the drains (contributory effect of one-dimensional consolidation). a) Channel-shaped core with glued filter b) Channel-shaped core with wrapped filter c) Geo-mat with edge-sealed filter d) Cusp-shaped core with wrapped filter Figure 2 . the installation of vertical drains may affect the original properties of the soil (e. Figure 2.Sketch showing fully penetrating drains (drains in contact with drainage layers at top and bottom).
preferably about 25 cm above the working platform. The penetration of the mandrel is either performed by means of a static load or by dynamic action. which is fixed to the drain tip before installation. surrounded by a filter sock made of non-woven geotextile. made of annular-corrugated perforated plastic. rhomboid or circular crosssection. The size of the mandrel is normally adapted to leave a free inside space for the band drain during installation. An anchor. Otherwise. needs to have sufficient rigidity. The mandrel. the drain will be subjected to high tensile forces upon withdrawal. Method of installation The prefabricated cylindrical drains are installed inside a hollow.Band drains are installed inside a hollow mandrel with rectangular. An anchor plate is fixed to the drain tip before installation and prevents soil from intruding into the mandrel during installation.Example of band drain anchor Prefabricated cylindrical drains Types of drains A prefabricated drain consists of a tubular core. 101 . using a vibratory or impact hammer. typically 50 mm in outer diameter and 45 mm in inner diameter. During installation the soil should be prevented from intruding between the inside surface of the mandrel and the drain. which is normally pushed into the soil by static loading. Figure 3. prevents the drain from being dragged up when the mandrel is withdrawn. Figure 3 . After withdrawal of the mandrel. rapid tension and ageing. resistant to crushing. Moreover. the drains should be cut in a way to ascertain good contact with the drainage blanket. The shape of the mandrel and the anchor needs to be fitted to prevent soil intrusion into the mandrel. cylindrical mandrel with an external diameter of typically 100 mm. shocks. Static installation is preferable in soils sensitive to disturbance. the bending rigidity of the mandrel needs to be high enough to ensure verticality of the drain installed.
% of total mass Fig. preferably 25 cm above the working blanket. The hollow auger method consists of screwing the auger down to the required depth and then pulling it upwards while sand is transferred to the hole below the auger tip through 102 . Key 1 sand 2 gravel 3 grain size d. The non-displacement methods comprise shell and auger drilling. The sand used for sand drains should preferably fall within the grain size limits shown with crossruled area in Figure 4. 18 cm to 50 cm in diameter. The grain size distribution of the sand used in these case histories falls within the limits given by the outer unbroken lines in Figure 4. powered auger drilling. mm 4 content of grains <d in wt. there are many case histories where sand drains have functioned successfully having wider grain size distributions. then pulling it upwards while sand is transferred to the hole below the auger tip through the axis. water jetting. falling outside the limits of the cross-ruled area. However. Sand drains Types of drains Sand drains usually consist of sand columns. 4 – Grain size limits of granular material to be used in sand drains Methods of installation Sand drains are either installed by so-called non-displacement methods or by so-called displacement methods. The auger method consists in screwing the auger down to the required depth. flight augering and wash boring. which are installed into the soil and are in direct contact with the soil.Upon withdrawal of the mandrel the drains are cut in a way to ascertain good contact with the drainage layer.
If the shear strength of the soil is too low to permit placement of the fill to full height. Therefore. In the case of stepwise loading the specified thickness of each embankment layer need to be checked in order to avoid excess loading and consequential failure. This is a critical phase of vertical drainage projects. loading has to be carried out stepwise. Figure 5. Sand is then poured into the hole without compaction. The working platform needs to be capable of carrying the installation equipment. and so on. loading berms are required. Loading The loading operation usually consists of placing a surface load on top of the drainage blanket. not only by the drain installation in itself. the unit weight of the fill used for loading has to be defined and controlled. The consolidation settlement causes a depression of the central part of the drainage blanket. external loading. but also by the loading operation if carried out with heavy equipment.its hollow axis. a mandrel with or without a flap on its lower end is inserted into the soil to the required depth by means of a top vibrator mounted on the mandrel. Groundwater lowering in permeable strata in connection with the drains can also be used as an alternative to. Loading needs to be carried out in such a way that the stability of the ground is not endangered. or in combination with. which produces under-pressure in the drains in relation to the pore 103 . Protection of the drainage blanket against frost effects should be considered when relevant. As the mandrel is withdrawn. the flap opens and water-saturated sand filled into the mandrel thereby creates the sand drain. The un-drained shear strength of the soil may be detrimentally affected. In most cases. At sites of drain installation where the stability conditions are unsatisfactory. followed by investigation of the gain in shear strength and dissipation of excess pore water pressure during the consolidation process. Alternatively. which will be filled with sand. In this case the drainage blanket is overlain by an airtight cover and sealed hermetically along its outer borders. The drainage blanket is connected to a vacuum pump. In the vibro installation method. Temporary wells for removing drained water from the drainage blanket may therefore be required. the surface load can be replaced or augmented by the vacuum method. required to permit the placement of the next load-step. Drainage blanket and working platform For the efficiency of the vertical drainage system an appropriate drainage blanket (a layer of granular material of appropriate thickness and/or a geotextile or geotextile-related products) should be installed. the drains are installed by means of a depth vibrator. the hole. In the water jetting method. After installation the vibrator is continuously pulled upwards without compacting the sand fill exerting from the lower end of the mandrel. The displacement methods comprise mandrel or vibro installation methods. especially in cases where the width of the drainage blanket is large. The execution of a vertical drainage project requires the presence of a working platform with an upper surface suitable to facilitate the vertical installation of the drains. The placement of a geotextile separation layer underneath the working platform may be a way of avoiding the risk of heterogeneities in the working platform. Alternatively. is first created by water jetting at a pressure and flow adjusted to the soil condition. The presence of pockets and lenses of soft soil in the working platform can significantly reduce the local bearing capacity and result in overturning of the installation rig. In the mandrel method a hollow mandrel with a flap at its lower end is driven into the ground. it is important that the filling operation is monitored by settlement and pore pressure observations. which after installation is continuously pulled upwards without compacting the sand fill.
both for horizontal pore water flow towards the drains (a) and for vertical pore water flow between the drains (b) Monitoring The effect of vertical drainage should be monitored by both settlement and pore pressure measurements. The under-pressure achieved by the vacuum method in this case is maximum 70 kPa to 80 kPa. = pore water pressure in the drains uvac = under-pressure (assumed equal to a vacuum of 70 % of atmospheric pressure) a) pore pressure dissipation caused by the drains b) pore pressure dissipation without drains 1 airtight cover 2 to vacuum pump Figure 5 – Sketch of the vacuum method and its effect on power water pressure. settlement observations are a necessary ingredient in the monitoring system. The piezometers should be placed in the centre between the drains where the rate of consolidation is a minimum. both with regard to the effect of drain installation itself (excess pore pressure due to disturbance caused by drain installation and its possible negative influence on stability) and with regard to the interpretation of the results of observation subsequently achieved. The number of measurement profiles depends on the extent of the site and the thickness and 104 . Typical locations for observations of settlement and pore pressures for a case with homogeneous ground of limited thickness are shown in Figure 6 and for a case with stratified ground in Figure 7. The aim of soil improvement by vertical drainage is generally to prevent unacceptable settlement from taking place. Therefore. Key u d. It is important that the monitoring system is installed in due time before the installation of the drains. The measured values are used to check the actual rate of consolidation and the assumptions made in the design. Excess pore pressure observations by means of piezometers installed at different depths is doubtless the most appropriate way of checking that the degree of consolidation has reached the set level according to the design.water pressure in the soil and results in consolidation  .
e. i.layering of the compressible layers that are treated by vertical drainage. Using only surface settlement observations as a means of checking the degree of consolidation achieved throughout the soil layer may consequently lead to wrong conclusions.Typical instrumentation for monitoring the efficiency of vertical drainage (site with different layers) In practice. one needs to consider the degree of consolidation achieved in the soil layers having the lowest coefficient of consolidation (usually having also the most unfavourable compression characteristics).Typical instrumentation for monitoring the efficiency of vertical drainage (simple case) Key 1 embankment 2 drainage blanket and working platform 3 vertical drain 4 compressible soil 5 underlying permeable layer 6 settlement gauge 7 piezometer 8 permeable sand layer 9 compressible soil Figure 7 . 105 . In homogeneous soil condition. in the middle of the clay layer. If the discharge capacity of the drains is too low this will strongly influence the degree of consolidation achieved with increasing depth of installation. Key 1 embankment 2 drainage blanket and working platform 3 vertical drain 4 compressible soil 5 underlying permeable layer 6 settlement gauge 7 piezometer Figure 6 . the lowest degree of consolidation is achieved where the effect of vertical onedimensional consolidation is minimal.
The term includes permeation (impregnation). compress.grouting without displacement of the host material (permeation. or displace the ground compaction grouting a displacement grouting method which aims at forcing a mortar of high internal friction into the soil to compact it without fracturing it hydraulic fracturing (hydraulic fracture. or pore spaces in soil. fissure and contact grouting fissure grouting the injection of grout into fissures. injected into soil or rock. emulsion or mortar). joints. hydraulic fracturing) . . hydrojacking or claquage non-displacement grouting substitution of the natural interstitial fluid in the accessible existing voids of the ground by a grout or mortar without any significant displacement of the ground. solution. hydrosplitting. The following principles and methods of geotechnical grouting are covered by EN 12715: . also called hydrofracturing.12. particularly in rock contact grouting the injection of grout into the interface between man-made structures and the ground bulk filling bulk filling is the placement of grout with a high particulate content to fill substantial voids 106 . The term includes penetration grouting and bulk filling permeation (impregnation) grouting the replacement of interstitial water or gas of a porous medium with a grout at injection pressures low enough prevent displacement penetration grouting grout injection of joints or fractures in rock. claquage grouting) the fracturing of a ground initiated by the injection of water or grout under a pressure in excess of the local tensile strength and confining pressure. without displacing the ground. Definitions grout a pumpable material (suspension. bulk filling). which stiffens and sets with time displacement grouting injection of grout into a host medium in such a manner as to deform.displacement grouting (compaction grouting. fissure grouting. fractures and discontinuities. GROUTING Grouting for geotechnical purposes (geotechnical grouting) is a process in which the remote placement of a pumpable material in the ground is indirectly controlled by adjusting its rheological characteristics and by the manipulation of the placement parameters (pressure. volume and the flow rate).
Suspensions Suspensions are characterised by: .the grain size distribution of the solid particles . cohesion. Microfine (ultra-fine) hydraulic binders or cements are characterised by a particle size d95 of less than 20 µm. 107 . etc. . Stability .their water/solid ratio . . activated or modified bentonites can be added to cement based grouts in order to reduce bleeding and filtration under pressure. shall be known. .solutions: either true or colloidal solutions .suspensions: either particulate or colloidal suspensions .Grout materiais a. The granulometric curve. or to improve the pumpability of the grout.Grout classification The following intrinsic properties shall be considered when choosing a grout: . . .their water retention capacity under pressure filtration.the rate of sedimentation and bleeding . Sands. Setting time. if applicable . water content. . . to vary the viscosity and cohesion (yield) of the grout. gravels and fillers Grouts Grouts are classified as: . Figure 1 .rheology (viscosity. Hydraulic binders and cements Hydraulic binders include all cements and similar products used in water suspension for making grouts. and Atterberg liquid limit of the clay should be known. particle size.). b.particle size. .mortars. The mineralogy. especially of the microfine products used.strength and durability .toxicity. Clay materials Natural clays. c.
1 mm. They shall be stable and their rheological behaviour (similar to suspensions) is usually characterised with suitably selected flow cones. the mortar should contain a minimum of 15% of fines pass 0. open fissures and voids in granular soils.Solutions Some types of silicate grout are not stable with time and their use should be carefully assessed. Their rheological behaviour is usually determined by slump tests.Application of resin grouts Mortars Mortars showing high internal friction are used for compaction grouting or for the filling of voids. Organic silicate gels may lead to the proliferation of bacteria in the ground. When used for compaction grouting. large cracks. Resins are usually applied under the circumstances given in Table 2.Grouting principles and methods 108 . Figure 2 illustrates the various injection methods associated with these two principles: Figure 2 . Grouting principles and methods The introduction of grout in a host medium is achieved either wiht or without displacement of the ground. Mortars flowing under their own weight are generally used for filling cavities. Table 2 .
nd the volume of the treated mass where the plastic deformation limit is reached. The grout is usually extruded from open-ended injection tubes.Grouting without ground displacement (non-displacement grouting) Permeation (impregnation) grouting Permeation grouting aims at filling the accessible interstices between grains in permeable soils by a grout without destruction of the integrity of the ground. The method is used to increase the density of a plastically deformable materiai. spread over a period of time. Hydraulic fracturing Grouting by hydraulic fracturing is used to: .produce controlled uplift of structures . Controlled displacement grouting can be employed to strengthen the ground under existing structures. Compaction grouting is most often used to compact and densify loose ground and to raise and 109 . permeation grouting shall be carried out at carefully controlled pressures and flow rates. fractures or joints in a rock mass with grouts without creating new or opening existing fractures. Bulk filling Bulk filling is used for the filling of large natural or man made openings. Bulk filling may be followed by a phase of grouting under pressure to fill the remaining voids. . the grouting objective should usually be achieved by an incremental series of injections.reinforce or stabilise the ground (soil or rock) . . Fissure and contact grouting Fissure grouting aims at filling open fissures. Hence. Grouting with ground displacement (displacement grouting) Displacement grouting refers to the injection of grout under pressure with the deliberate intent of spatially displacing the host medium. It reduces the permeability of the host material and usually increases the strength and density. and hydraulic fracturing (claquage). The grout consistency is such that the grout remains as a homogeneous mass and neither permeation nor hydraulic fracturing of the host medium occurs. Compaction grouting Compaction grouting refers to the intrusion of a comparatively stiff (viscous) particulate grout into the ground to induce displacement and deformation. The term is generally applied to the placement of large volumes of grout under gravity or at low pressures. in order to reduce the permeability and/or increase the strength of the grouted mass. In order to avoid displacement. It is difficult to control the propagation of an hydraulic fracture plane. 3. The term includes injection methods such as compaction grouting.achieve watertightness by creating compartments.
The final grid of grout holes is generally defined during the grouting process. Grout In soils.support structures which have settled. the maximum particle size to fissure width is considered (a ratio of three is commonly used).the grout volume V per pass . such as the D10/d90 or D15/d85 criterion. Table 3 – Indicative grouts for different types of ground Grout placement The injection process is governed by: .the injection pressure P. a groutability ratio. . Applicability The type of grout applicable for different types of ground are shown in Table 3.the grout rheology. . 110 . in accordance with the results of control tests performed in the centre of the primary grid. In rock.the flow or placement rate Q. . can be used to assess the penetrability of particulate grouts.
For non-displacement grouting. Grouting sequence In its simplest form. variations in hydraulic head. a value for the permissible injection pressure shall be given in the design. diameter. . cased percussion 111 . will result in this 'working pressure' being different from the 'effective pressure' acting in the ground.injection piping . spacing. and friction losses in the delivery system.rotational drilling . Drilling pattern and borehole design The number. . In non-displacement grouting. the flow (injection) rate Q should be controlled to ensure that the effective pressure remains lower than the ground fracturing pressure. the type of structure to be grouted. position. the grouting method and purpose.drilling and driving equipment . Execution The equipment required to perform a grouting operation includes: . . . inclination and orientation of boreholes and injection points shall be based on geological conditions.packers . the results to be obtaineti.monitoring and testing equipment. During non-displacement grouting of soils. . . the permissible injection pressure is the maximum pressure at which a grout is allowed to be introduced into the ground in order to avoid any undesirable deformation of the ground. the type of grout to be used. to the anticipated ground response during grout placement. the effective (or limit) grouting pressure is dependent on the confining pressure at the point of injection. depth. Vand Pfor a given mix design. Drilling The following drilling methods may be employed: . For permeation. The grout placement sequence may progress to multiple stages. with each stage requiring a sequence of injection passes of differing grout types.mixing and proportioning equipment .percussion drilling using either an external or down-the-hole hammer . over many holes.The design should indicate how to adapt Q. a sequence constitutes a single grout type introduced through a single hole. the grouting pressure is measured at the grout delivery pump and/or at the hole collar. injection pressure and rate of grout take. Grouting pressure In general practice. or the rheology of the mix design.pumping equipment . However. The design shall make adequate provision for any variation in the above parameters.
Sleeve pipes which are permanently seaied into the ground by use of a support mix (sleeve grout) allow a repeated use of the injection points. the works requirement and the type of grout used. and sleeve pipes. . or via a tremie pipe extending to the base of the opening. grout sheath. etc.direct insertion of sleeve pipes .grab-. using sleeve pipes is generally used in soils and sometimes in unstable rock. c) injection through the drill string in unstable ground. . either directly.) are generally filled under gravity. Packers shall ensure tight sealing between the grout hole wall and the injection pipe at maximum grouting pressure. 112 . in unstable ground . . Grouting sequences Descending or downstage grouting is commonly reserved for the treatment of unstable rock. In unstable ground full borehole penetration may require: .the use of drilling muds. The basic approaches are the following a) injection in unsupported boreholes in stable ground . Large openings (voids. Combinations of these techniques are possible. generally considered as a pre-grouting phase and to be followed by approaches a) or b) . Grout placement The method of grout placement will be determined by the ground condition. . Packers are either passive. Soil grouting can be achieved with casing.driving of lances . . Packers are used to isolate a grouting stage. If several holes are grouted using downstage grouting. grouts or foams .vibrating of casing or drill pipes. d) compaction grouting is usually performed through a casing retrieved during upstage grouting. Upstage grouting is only used in open holes in stable rock or if the aim is compaction grouting.and bailer borings .progressive stabilisation as the borehole advances. pierced casing. cavities.drilling .temporary casing . the uppermost stage in all holes is drilled and grouted before drilling and grouting the next stage in all neighbouring holes. . b) injection via sleeve pipes previously placed in a temporarily cased borehole. Multistage grouting. chisel. mechanical or pneumatic. and have to be long enough to minimise the risk of grout bypass through the medium being grouted.
1 b). the disaggregation is achieved by means of a high energy jet of a fluid which can be the cementing agent itself jet grouted element volume of soil treated through a single borehole.jet grouted panel : a planar jet grouted element (Fig. Definitions jet grouting the jet grouting process consists of the disaggregation of the soil or weak rock and its mixing with.jet grouted column : a cylindrical jet grouted element (Fig.jet grouted block : a three-dimensional structure.3 c) triple system the jet grouting process in which the disaggregation of the soil is achieved by a high energy water jet assisted by an air jet shroud.2 b) .3 a) double (air) system the jet grouting process in which the disaggregation and the cementation of soil are achieved by one high energy fluid (usually a cement grout) assisted by an air jet shroud as a second fluid (Fig. . and its cementing is simultaneously obtained by a separate grout jet (Fig. single system the jet grouting process in which the disaggregation and cementation of soil are achieved by a high energy jet of a single fluid. .1 a) . JET GROUTING The jet grouting method is covered by the EN 12716. with simple.2 a) .3 d) horizontal jet grouting treatment performed from a horizontal or sub-horizontal borehole (within ± 20° from the horizontal plane) jet grouting rig rotary rig able to automatically regulate the rotation and translation of the jet grouting string and tool jet grouting string jointed rods.13.2 c) . which convey the jet grouting fluid(s) to the monitor 113 .jet grouted canopy : a structure formed by horizontal jet grouting . and partial replacement by. usually a cement grout (Fig.jet grouted diaphragm : a wall structure (Fig.3 b) double (water) system the jet grouting process in which the disaggregation of the soil is achieved by a high energy water jet and its cementing is simultaneously obtained by a separate grout jet (Fig.8 below (Fig.jet grouted slab : a horizontal structure formed by essentially vertical jet grouting (Fig. The most common elements are: . . double or triple inner conduit. The most common structures formed are: . . a cementing agent. jet grouted structure an assembly of jet grouted elements which are partially or fully interlocked.see 3.
4 a) primary-secondary sequence the sequence of work. with a jet of water and/or other fluids Prejetting is also widely known as prewashing or precutting. grout composition . flow rate of the fluid(s) within the jet grouting string . rotation speed of the jet grouting string. to enable jetting of the fluids into the ground nozzle a specially manufactured device fitted into the monitor and designed to transform the high pressure fluid flow in the string into the high speed jet directed at the soil radius of influence effective distance of disaggregation of soil by the jet. fresh-in-fresh sequence the sequence of work in which the jet grouted elements are constructed successively without waiting for the grout to harden in the overlapping elements (Fig.in which the execution of an overlapping element cannot commence before a specified hardening time or achievement of predetermined strength of the adjacent elements previously constructed (Fig. measured from the axis of the monitor spoil return the surplus mixture of soil particles and introduced fluids arising from the jet grouting process. prejetting the method in which the jet grouting of an element is facilitated by a preliminary disaggregation phase.monitor the tool mounted at the end of the jet grouting string. rate of withdrawal or insertion of the jet grouting string. and normally flowing to the ground surface via the annulus of the jetting borehole jet grouting parameters the jet grouting parameters are defined: pressure of the fluid(s) within the jet grouting string .4 b) jet grouted material the material which constitutes the body of a jet grouted element reinforced jet grouting jet grouted columns reinforced by steel or other high strength material 114 .
Figure 1 a) – Jet grouted column Figure 1 b) – Jet grouted panel Figure 1 – Examples of jet grouted elements Figure 2 a) – Jet grouted diaphragms 115 .
Figure 2 b) – Jet grouted slab Figure 2 c) – Jet grouted canopy Figure 2 – Examples of jet grouted structures Key 1 Monitor Figure 3 a) – Single system 116 .
Key 1 Monitor Figure 3 b) – Double (air) system Key 1 Monitor Figure 3 c) – Double (water) system 117 .
Other materials. In water/cement mixes the water/cement ratio by weight should range between 0.5 and 1.Key 1 Monitor Figure 3 d) – Schemes of jet grouting systems Figure 4 a) – Fresh in fresh sequence Figure 4 b) – Primary – secondary sequence Figure 4 – Work sequences Materials Mixes composed of water and cement are usually adopted. such as bentonite. filler. a water/bentonite suspension should be prepared before adding cement. Hydraulic binders other than cement can be used. stabilizing. waterproofing or antiwashing admixtures can be added to the water/cement mix. fly-ash.5. can also be added to the mix. 118 . Water reducing. plasticising. When bentonite is to be used in the mix.
complementing other geotechnical works .5 b) . Figure 5 a) – Foundation for structure to be erected Figure 5 b) – Underpinning existing foundation Figure 5 – Examples of applications 119 .5 a) . creating low permeability barriers .Examples of applications Jet grouting can be applied in either temporary or permanent works for different purposes. reinforcing a soil mass. creating retaining or supporting structures . underpinning existing foundations (Fig. For example: providing foundations for structures to be erected (Fig.
both for column or panel processes. Equipment < The jet grouting equipment usually comprises: . rate of rotation and withdrawal. An element can also be executed in sequential treatment for a given length from the borehole collar is completed and allowed to gain strength. after redrilling the treated soil. with pre-established withdrawal and rotational speed. . or water and cement mix respectively) to the monitor. three conduits to allow for the high pressure water. alternative execution methods may be adopted. the process is repeated at a deeper stage. or is formed by two or more sections on planes intersecting the drilling axis (Fig. until the design length of the treatment is reached. .the drilling rig . with the exception that during jetting the rods are withdrawn and not rotated. agitator tanks. The resulting panel is placed in a plane on the drilling axis. Jet grouted panel execution method The phases of execution are the same as defined for jet grouted columns.for the triple system. This is unnecessary in some cases as the string and monitor are used for drilling .for the single system : cement and other materials storage. 120 . colloidal mixing plant. one conduit conveying the high pressure the cement mix to the monitor.equipment to monitor pressures. and so on. Among alternatives the most usual is prejetting. .the mixing and pumping plant supplying the jet grouting fluid (or fluids) .introducing to the end of the borehole a monitor connected to the jet grouting string. The jet grouting mixing and grouting plant. Alternatively the rods can be rotated about limited angles.for the single system. . .Execution The execution of jet grouting works requires knowledge and experience in this type of construction.jetting of the disaggregating and cementing fluid(s) through the monitor. pump pressure and flow rate for each fluid. . Alternative execution methods If required by soil conditions.the jet grouting rig (often is also the drilling rig) provided with the jet grouting string. high pressure grout pump . depth.for the double system. the compressed air and the cement mix to the monitor. .1 b). fluids flow rates and volumes. for the different systems. mainly comprises .the high pressure lines connecting the jet grouting pump to the rig . two conduits separately conveying the two fluids (air and cement mix. Jet grouted column execution method The phases of execution usually consist of: drilling a borehole of a predetermined length . The jet grouting string . Then. simultaneously withdrawing and rotating the rods. The high pressure employed in the jet grouting process is to generate a high speed jet to disaggregate the soil and is not intended to be applied to the surrounding soil. the monitor and the devices able to drive the jet grouting string at predetermined rotation and translation speeds . .
5 m for vertical boreholes to 2. Lower limits down to 10 MPa have also been adopted in particular cases. Alternatively it can be installed in a borehole drilled into the element after hardening. to avoid possible local hydrofracturing.7 3 to 12 Double fluid (water) >2 50 to 200 30 to 60 50 to 150 N/A N/A Triple fluid >2 50 to 200 30 to 60 50 to 150 0.2 to 1. Placing the reinforcement Reinforcement can be installed in the fresh jet grouted material during or immediately after the completion of the jet grouting operations.- for the double (air) system: as for the single fluid system plus an air compressor . such as a slab or a wall.2 to 1. Ranges of jet grouting parameters The jet grouting parameters usually adopted for the different systems fall within the following ranges: Jet grouting parameters Grout pressure (MPa) Grout flow rate (I/min) Water pressure (MPa) Water flow rate (I/min) Air pressure (MPa) Air flow rate (m3/min) N/A Not applicable. such as small diameter jet grouted columns in very loose soils. for the triple system: as for the double fluid (water) system plus an air compressor. Jet grouting Jet grouting shall be executed and supervised by trained and experienced personnel. 121 . grout pressure usually ranges between 30 MPa and 50 MPa. The most recent developments in pumping equipment enable the pressure of the disaggregating fluid to reach up to 70 MPa or flow rates up to 650 I/min. Jet grouting should be executed with a sufficient thickness between the upper nozzle and the ground surface. For single and double (air) fluid systems. mainly dependent on the pressure of the fluid used for the disaggregation : grout in single and double (air) fluid systems. as defined in the table above. water in double (water) and triple fluid systems. Single fluid 30 to 50 50 to 450 N/A N/A N/A N/A Double fluid (air) 30 to 50 50 to 450 N/A N/A 0. Drilling Drilling can be performed with air or water or muds or grouts or foams as flushing media.0 m for horizontal boreholes and can be reduced in the presence of an adequate restraint to the surface.7 3 to 12 The disaggregating effect is obtained by the high velocity of the jet. for the double (water) system: as for the single fluid system plus a high pressure water pump and a grout pump . The above thickness may vary from 0. If required casing is used.
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