Support material


1. Diaphragm walls 2. Sheet piles walls 3. Ground anchors 4. Reinforced fills 5. Soil nailing 6. Bored piles 7. Displacement piles 8. Micropiling 9. Deep mixing 10.Deep vibration 11.Deep drainage 12. Grouting 13. Jet grouting


Clamshell (or grab): Excavation tool with two jaws to remove soil, rock or debris from an excavation by an intermittent operation. Jaws are attached to a steel frame. There are two main types of clamshells. — mechanical grabs using steel cables to open/close the jaws; — hydraulic grabs using hydraulic circuits to open/close the jaws. Hydrofraise (or cutter or mill): Excavation tool with rotating wheels fitted with steel picks to remove soil, rock or debris from an excavation by a continuous operation. Chisel: Heavy steel tool used to break up obstructions, boulders and hard strata encountered in the excavation or for socketing into hard soil or rock. There are particular types of chisels used to rectify an excavation trajectory, to extract stop ends, etc. Kelly (bar): Shaft, often telescopic, connected between the power drive and the digging tool which allows deep excavation. Cable(s): Steel cable(s) suspending the digging tool which allows deep excavation. Excavation crane: Crane used to handle the excavation tool (clamshell or hydrofraise). Handling crane: Crane used to handle the reinforcement cages and other equipment. Water stop: Special flexible element attached longitudinally to a stop end in such a way that half of the water stop is embedded in concrete in a panel after the concreting and stop end extracting operations. When constructing the adjacent panel, the other half of the water stop is released and also becomes embedded in concrete. As a result, the water stop surrounded in concrete at the contact zone between two panels helps to limit water leakage through this critical surface. Two water stops can be installed at a same joint if required. Overlap: The distance of a panel excavation into the material of an adjacent panel to ensure diaphragm wall continuity when no stop ends are used. The overlapping technique (no stop ends) is always used for hardening slurry walls, often used for plastic concrete walls and sometimes used for cast-in situ concrete walls where a hydrofraise (mill) can be employed to breakdown hard concrete at joints. Filter cake: Thin pastelike deposit formed by bentonite particles aggregating as water drains from the suspension to the ground through the edge walls of the excavation during its progress. This filter cake allows the bentonite suspension pressure to be maintained above the ground water pressure such that the excavation edge walls remain stable. Cutting back: Removal of surplus concrete (protrusions, etc) and bentonite cake when exposing the diaphragm wall panels. Trimming: Removal of surplus concrete above the cut-off level Capping beam: Reinforced concrete beam built above the cut-off level to connect the cast-in situ diaphragm wall panels together and/or to connect to overlying structural elements. 3

Bentonite is used in support fluids.g.Air lift: Pumping technique in which air is pumped into the base of a suction pipe to cause reduced density of material in the pipe and induce upward flow to evacuate solids and fluids (flushing). Desanding unit: Plant to remove sand and silt in order to clean the support fluid during excavation and before concreting. In certain cases. Lean concrete: Very low strength.5 mass % in relation to bentonite dry weight or as sole constituent. to fill voids or to fill panel excavation deviation. The air lift technique may be used to clean/replace the bentonite suspension before concreting. Bentonite can contain additives (i. polymers) in aqueous suspension. when the density of the suspension has to be increased. either as a bentonite suspension or as an addition to polymers. Pre-blasting: Preliminary operation consisting in drilling holes along the alignment of a diaphragm wall to place explosives in very hard material and blast it before commencing the diaphragm wall excavation. Specific materials and products used for the execution of diaphragm walls Bentonite Bentonite is a clay containing mainly the mineral montmorillonite. Bentonite used in bentonite suspensions shall not contain harmful constituents in such quantities as can be detrimental to reinforcement or concrete. Excavation curve: Diagram representing the excavation depth versus time.e. Support fluids Bentonite suspensions A bentonite suspension shall be prepared with either natural or activated sodium bentonite. Polymers Polymers can be used as rheological additive to bentonite suspensions with a content of 0. suitable inert materials may be added. Concreting curve: Diagram representing the volume of poured concrete versus depth. 4 .1 – 1. The characteristics of the lean concrete should allow its re-excavation with normal tools. low fines concrete poured in a panel excavation to stop bentonite loss. It is also used as a constituent part of hardening slurries and of plastic concrete. e. There are different types of polymers ranging from natural gums to specially tailored blends of synthetic products. Polymers are materials formed of molecules from chained monomeric units.

very soft soils. the fluid loss. the sand content and the filter cake can be measured. At the stage "before concreting".g. A bentonite suspension with sufficient flow limit can be required by the design. the fresh bentonite suspension shall meet the conditions shown in Table 1 and the "re-use" or "before-concreting" bentonite suspension shall meet the conditions shown in Table 2. – – – high piezometric ground water levels (confined or artesian conditions). e.g in order to reduce penetration into the ground. an upper limit value between 4 % and 6 % for sand content may be used in special cases (e. 1990). The values in Tables 1 and 2 may be modified in special circumstances. 5 . for example in the case of: – soils or rock with high permeability or cavities where loss of bentonite can occur. unreinforced walls). notes 1 to 3 for the test procedures Table 2 — Characteristics for bentonite suspensions Notes (1) The Marsh value.: non load bearing walls. for example.Others than in exceptional circumstances. June 1. using the tests described in the American Petroleum Institute document "Recommended Practice Standard Procedure for Field Testing Water-Based Drilling Fluids" (reference: American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 13B-1. salt water conditions. Table 1 — Characteristics for fresh bentonite suspensions (1) see Table 2 .

(3) The duration of the fluid loss test may be reduced to 7.5 min. A volume of 1 000 ml may be used. NOTE 1 Hardening slurries are generally used in the precast concrete diaphragm wall technique and for slurry walls. and. In the case of a maximum aggregate particle size of 32 mm. NOTE: EN 1997-1 defines comparable experience as an experience which relates to similar works in similar conditions and is well documented or otherwise clearly established. to flow easily around the reinforcement. (4) Indicative values Polymer solutions Polymers may be designed to work in conjunction with bentonite or to be used as stand alone support fluid. However. Admixtures may be used to adjust setting time of the slury and its consistency during excavation and during any subsequent insertion of elements. to provide a dense and low permeability material. The fluid loss for the 7. the Marsh values given in tables 1 and 2 should be adjusted. – fine particles (d ≤ 80 µm) in the concrete mix (including cement and other fine materials) between 400 kg/m3 and 550 kg/m3. Concrete Unless otherwise stated. the concrete mix shall have the following characteristics: – sand content (d ≤ 4 mm) greater than 40 % by weight of the total aggregate . and when set. together with the fines from the natural ground. 6 . The specified properties of the hardened cast in situ concrete. the concrete used in cast in situ concrete diaphragm walls or in precast concrete diaphragm walls shall comply with SR EN 206. the values for fluid loss and filter cake shall be adjusted. NOTE 2 Hardening slurries serve as support fluid during excavation. Its use shall be based on full-scale trial trenches on the site or on the basis of comparable experience in similar geotechnical conditions. for routine control tests.(2) The Marsh value is the time required for a volume of 946 ml to flow through the orifice of the cone. form the final. hardened material. Fresh hardening slurries The characteristics of the slurry shall be suitable to ensure satisfactory performance during execution. For correct execution. related to strength and durability.5 min. test will be approximately half of the value obtained in the 30 min test. in this case. shall be compatible with the consistency requirements. A hardening slurry may be prepared with calcium bentonite or activated sodium bentonite. the cast in situ concrete shall be designed to avoid segregation during placing. but in this case.

have the ability to self-compact . The slump test or the flow table test may be used to evaluate the consistence of the fresh concrete. honeycombing or segregation that might otherwise result from a high water content . have good flow ability . – – to prolong the consistency as required for the duration of the placement . to cater for any interruptions in the placement process. Fresh concrete Concrete used for diaphragm walls shall: – have a high resistance against segregation . – – – – be of high plasticity and good cohesiveness . – – high range water reducing/super-plasticizing. and set retarding. The consistence ranges of the fresh concrete in different conditions of use shall comply with Table 4. Admixtures may be used: – to give a mix of high plasticity. Table 3 — Minimum cement content for concrete The water/cement ratio shall not exceed 0.6. – to avoid bleeding. 7 . and be sufficiently workable for the duration of the placement procedure.The minimum cement content shall be related to the maximum aggregate size in accordance with Table 3. The admixtures allowed for concreting using tremie pipe(s) may be: – water reducing/plasticizing.

in addition to low permeability.Table 4 — Consistency ranges for fresh concrete in different conditions Consistency of the concrete should be monitored with time. and possibly additions and admixtures.g. well-graded aggregates. cement or another binder. The terminology used to define the dimensions and details of panels is shown on Figures 1 and 2. 8 . together with adequate workability and strength. silt. water. For plastic concrete limiting w/c ratio does not apply. A minimum slump of 100 mm after four hours is recommended. high deformability is required. clay or bentonite). the method and sequence of excavation. Plastic concrete is used for cut-off walls when. Plastic concrete Plastic concrete shall be designed in order to obtain the required deformability and permeability. panel stability during excavation and concrete supply. Considerations related to design of diaphragm wall made of panels The panel dimensions should take into account the dimensions of available excavating equipment. Their constituent parts are: fine grain material (e.

Key: 1 Wall thickness 2 Horizontal length of reinforcement cage 3 Cage width 4 Length of panel 5 Platform level 6 Casting level 7 Guide-wall 8 Cut off level 9 Vertical length of reinforcement cage 10 Reinforcement cage 11 Depth of excavation 12 Concave portion of curved joints Figure 1 — Geometry of a panel 9 .

at recesses or through the wall material. Damp patches and droplets of water on the surface of the wall cannot be avoided under normal circumstances. since leakage can occur at joints. Design should not normally consider continuity of reinforcement between the cages and across the joints but it may be constructed in exceptional circumstances. A reinforced concrete capping beam should be constructed along the top of reinforced concrete diaphragm walls. In exceptional cases where it is necessary to provide structural continuity across the joints. The design of the wall shall take into account the discontinuity of the reinforcement at the joints between the panels and between adjacent cages in the same panel. Space shall be allowed in the reinforcement cage for the installation of the tremie pipe.Key: P Primary S Secondary 1 Starter 2 Intermediate 3 Closure Figure 2 — Schematic examples of different types of panels and joints (plan view) The width of the excavating tool shall be at least equal to the design wall thickness. 10 . special techniques are available. where it is necessary to distribute loads or minimize differential displacements. Space shall be allowed between reinforcement cages of adjacent panels to accommodate the type of joints to be made and to take account of the construction tolerances. Panel stability during excavation The length of the panels and the level of the support fluid shall ensure the stability of the trench during excavation. Design shall consider that diaphragm walls cannot be expected to be completely watertight.

The stability considerations shall take account of the following factors: – stabilizing forces due to the support fluid . – adding a filler material to the bentonite suspension. – effects of adjacent loads . Risk on trench stability in relation with change in water level due to construction should be considered. the support effect in fine-grained soils is due to the formation of a filter cake.g case of closing a box). – groundwater pressures . which increases with time. can have an influence on the trench stability. The trench stability during excavation includes two aspects: – the local stability of the soil at the walls of the trench. In coarser soils. is significant in the case of silty or sandy soils. and the support fluid level shall always remain at least 1 m above the highest piezometric level. including the three-dimensional geometry of the problem . filling the trench to an appropriate depth with lean mix concrete or other suitable material. the support effect is caused by the seepage pressure of the liquid flowing into the soil. but remains small in the case of clayey soils. special measures may be adopted. Special precautions in chiselling and blasting have to be taken e. The penetration depth. – in the case of polymer solutions. dewatering as a way to reduce pore pressure) should be considered. especially where chiselling or blasting are used.g in loose soil overlying a hard rock. – the overall stability of the excavation. The ground water level can change in relation with execution (e. it can be necessary to stabilise the soil by increasing its strength or by raising the level of the support fluid and/or to increase its density during excavation. 11 . Also possible mitigation measures (e. either at the mixing plant or directly in the trench. – grouting the layers concerned before excavating the trench. – constructions details of adjacent structures. To ensure trench stability the level of the support fluid shall be adjusted with respect to the highest piezometric ground water level anticipated during excavation. coarse soils or where there are voids in the ground). and to minimize the time during which the trench is left open.g highly permeable. and reexcavating. – in the case of voids. this effect is due to a limited penetration into the pores of the soil. for example : – increasing the flow limit of the fluid by increasing the bentonite content in the suspension.g. In case where a loss of support fluid can occur (e. – shear strength parameters of the soils . In the case of loose sand or soils with cu < 15 kPa. – earth pressures. The trench remains stable as a result of the stabilizing forces of the support fluid acting against the walls of the trench: – in case of bentonite suspensions.The excavation tools or procedures.

– trimming and protective capping. – cleaning the excavation including recirculation of bentonite. a different support fluid may be used. placing elements such as membranes. to support the precast panel and applied loads .Reinforcement cages The reinforcement within a panel may comprise one or more cages within the panel length. In the case of the concave portion of curved joints. 12 . – placing the precast element. A clear distance of 200 mm is recommended between the ends of the cages and the joints formwork including water-stop if any. sometimes with a bentonite suspension . generally with a bentonite suspension or other support fluid. – concreting. Execution of diaphragm walls Construction sequence The phases of execution differ with the type of wall and support fluid used. generally with a hardening slurry. When a bentonite suspension is used. shall be 100 mm and shall take into account the verticality tolerances. The basic sequences for cast in situ concrete diaphragm walls are: – excavation. – cleaning the excavation. reinforcement or sheet piles. The maximum clear distance between two cages in the same panel should be 400 mm The minimum clear distance between the ends of the cages and the joints formwork including water-stop if any. the cage should not enter into the concave portion of the joint. In the general case a support fluid is used. – when required. If required by the design. The basic sequences for precast concrete diaphragm walls are: – excavation. except special cases. the shape of the joints and the possible use of water stops. which has then to be replaced by the hardening slurry. excavations of long duration). – trimming.g. In some cases (e. it is replaced by a hardening slurry. a stronger material such as mortar or concrete may be placed at the bottom of the excavation. Multiple cages and joints The minimum clear distance between two cages in the same panel shall be at least 200 mm. The basic sequences for cut-off slurry walls are : – excavation with a hardening slurry. – placing the reinforcement. This does not apply to the case of diaphragm walls with continuous horizontal reinforcement across the joints.

5 m depending on ground conditions. Guide-walls are usually made of reinforced concrete with a depth normally between 0. The distance between the guide-walls should normally be 20 mm to 50 mm greater than the width of the excavating tool. taking into account possible fluctuations. Guide-walls should be propped apart until the excavation of the panel takes place.The basic sequences for plastic concrete walls are: – excavation. with sufficient width and depth with regard to the guide-walls. – trimming. – to serve as a guide for the excavating tools. – to support the reaction forces of stop end extractors when necessary. Excavation and backfilling are to be done symmetrically along the axis of the wall. to a depth corresponding at least to the level of undisturbed soil. above the water table. – concreting. – to secure the sides of the trench against collapse in the vicinity of the fluctuating level of the support fluid. Special care is to be taken for excavating and backfilling trenches in case of removal of disturbed soil or underground obstructions. 13 .5 m above the highest water-table anticipated during excavation.7 m and 1. The top of the guide-walls should normally be horizontal and have the same elevation on both sides of the trench. guide-walls may not be necessary. horizontal and be suitable for traffic of heavy equipment and lorries. generally with a bentonite suspension. Guide-walls Guide-walls shall be designed and constructed: – to ensure alignment of the diaphragm wall. The area along the line of the wall shall be clear of underground obstructions. if ground conditions should permit. – to serve as a support for the reinforcement cages or prefabricated panels or other elements inserted in the excavation until the concrete or hardening slurry has hardened. – cleaning the excavation. Preliminary works Working platform The working platform shall be stable. The top of the working platform should be at least 1. In the case of cut-off walls excavated continuously.

The level of the support fluid shall remain above the base of the guide-walls. In some cases. Forming the joints Stop ends shall be of adequate strength and properly aligned throughout their length. 14 . the plastic concrete or the hardening slurry in the adjacent panel or panels has gained sufficient strength. unless there is no risk of caving of the soil below the guide-walls. other tools. it can be possible to excavate using water as a support fluid. panel lengths and distances between panels being excavated. In some cases. possibly containing sealing materials. In soils where no comparable experience is available. In situations where significant loss of support fluid can occur (e. Loss of support fluid When a sudden and significant loss of the support fluid occurs during excavation. the type of wall. depend on the ground conditions. and possibly sealing materials or suitable fill.Excavation Supporting the walls of the excavation Except special ground and site conditions. The use of chisels. In certain soils with cohesive properties or in rock. the excavation shall be refilled immediately with an additional volume of support fluid. The excavation of a panel shall not be started before the concrete. During excavation. dry excavation may be used. the level of the support fluid will fluctuate. shall be stored in a readily accessible area. waterstops can be incorporated into the joints. and the type of excavating tools. or blasting. the excavation shall be backfilled as quickly as possible with lean concrete or other material which can be readily re-excavated. Excavation sequence The excavation may be carried out continuously or in panels. which affect the nearby panels already filled with concrete or hardening slurry shall not be made before the material in these panels has sufficient strength to resist the stresses developed during these operations.g. provided the ground strength is sufficient to ensure stability of the sides of the trench. an additional volume of support fluid. cavities). The sequence of excavation. If this procedure is insufficient. a trial excavation should be made. highly permeable soils. a support fluid shall be used during excavation. The joints are normally formed either by using steel or concrete stop ends or by cutting into the concrete or hardened material of the previously cast adjacent panel. but it shall not be allowed to drawdown below the level required for excavation stability.

at least the same number of tremie pipes should be used. the horizontal distance the concrete has to travel should be less than 3. To start concreting. When several tremie pipes are used. precast concrete panels or other elements (such as sheet piles. Vibration of the concrete shall not be used. the extraction shall be made gradually during the setting of the concrete. Specific slump values are required for dry conditions. but shall be suspended from the guide-walls. Placing the reinforcement or other elements Reinforcement cages.In the case of stop ends which are extracted laterally. Where there is more than one cage per panel. The tremie pipe shall be clean and watertight. Concreting under support fluid The time elapsing between the start of excavation and commencement of concreting shall be kept as short as possible.15 m and 6 times the maximum aggregate size. In normal circumstances. The number of tremie pipes in a panel shall be adjusted to limit the horizontal distance the concrete has to travel. the support fluid and the concrete in the charged tremie pipe shall be kept separate by a plug of material or by other suitable means. Its outer diameter shall be such that it passes freely through the reinforcement cage. Concreting and trimming Concreting in dry conditions Particular care shall be observed when concreting in dry conditions. to avoid segregation. In the case of stop ends which are extracted vertically.0 m. Direct pumping may be used in dry excavations. After concreting has started. the tremie pipe shall always remain immersed in the fresh concrete. the extraction shall be made upon completion of the excavation of the adjacent panel.1 m. Its inner diameter shall be at least 0. 15 . membranes) shall not rest on the bottom of the excavation. When starting concreting. the tremie pipe shall be lowered to the bottom of the trench and then raised approximately 0. they shall be arranged and supplied with concrete in such a way that a reasonably uniform upward flow of the concrete is assured.

In order to ensure concrete integrity. reinforcement or any instrumentation installed in the panels. the wall dimensions and the number of tremie pipes. 16 . An adequate supply of concrete shall be available throughout the whole placement process to enable a controlled smooth operation. The required quality of the concrete at the cut-off level is achieved by providing a height of concrete above the cut-off level.The tremie pipe shall remain immersed into the fresh concrete for at least 6 m at the beginning of concreting and before the first section of the pipe is drawn. The height of concrete above the cut-off level depends on the cut-off level. the rate of concrete rising over the full height of the panel should not be less than 3 m/h. Immediately after extracting the first section. the immersion depth shall not fall below 3 m. Trimming Trimming of the concrete to cut-off level shall be carried out using equipment and methods which will not damage the concrete. The immersion depth may have to be reduced when the concrete approaches ground level to facilitate concrete flow. some trimming above cut-off level may be carried out before the concrete has set. sufficient concrete shall be placed in the panel to ensure that the concrete below the cut-off level has the specified properties. Since the top of the cast concrete may not be of the required quality. Where possible.

SHEET-PILE WALLS Legend a tubes + sheet piles b U box piles + U sheet piles c Z box piles + Z sheet piles d H beams + Z sheet piles Fig.2. 1 – Examples of combined walls Legend a b c d sheet piles strut waling rock dowel e tie rod f anchor plate or screen g variable angle h ground anchor or tension pile Fig. 2 – Example of a sheet pile wall structures 17 .

Legend a hammer b driving cap c sheet pile d leader e pile guide Fig. 3 – Examples of a sheet pile driving rig with fixed leader 18 .

5 – Driving direction for Z-sheet piles with tongue and claw interlocks 19 .Legend a hammer b cushion c leader d sliding guide e driving cap f leader slide Fig. 4 – Example of a driving cap Legend a claw b tongue c driving direction Fig.

if very dense sands and gravel above groundwater level or stiff clay layers have to be driven through. In difficult soil conditions preboring and sometimes water jetting can be effective in assisting the sheet pile to reach the required depth. Special care is necessary if such structures are founded on loose sand. Vibrating is in many circumstances the most efficient method. Where vibration or noise is considered a problem. because it is subject to sudden settlement resulting from vibrations in the ground. especially if it is saturated. where the eccentricity of the rotating mass can be varied during the start up and stop phases of the driving process. vibrating may be ineffective. – vibration . 20 . As a result damage can be caused to sensitive buildings near to the source of the vibrations. When obstacles are present and cannot be removed. In combination with leader guiding it is also a very accurate method of driving sheet piles to the required depth. Generally driving with a vibrator causes a higher level of vibration in the surrounding ground than impact driving. either predrilling or careful impact driving are the best methods to be used. 6 – Bags filled with concrete or cement mortar in order to obtain a good connection between waling and sheet piles Dr i vi n g of s h e et p i l es Sheet piles are installed in the ground by one or a combination of the following methods: – impact . pressing the sheet piles into the ground may be a solution.Legend a sheet pile b waling c strut d support bracket e bag filled with concrete Fig. In these cases either driving assistance or impact driving may be required. Vibrations from impact hammers and vibratory drivers are normally considerable and can travel over relatively long distances. can considerably reduce the adverse vibrations of the process on the surrounding ground. – pressing. However. High frequency vibrators. Foundations which are subjected to vibration will pick up part of these vibrations and transfer them to the various elements of the supported structure. Normally pressing is effective in cohesive soils.

– high frequency vibrators with a variable eccentricity of rotating mass. This simple procedure has the advantage that the top of the sheet pile has only to be lifted a distance equal to the length of the pile above the ground surface.Different types of pile driving equipment suitable for the installation of the sheet piles are available. 21 . is driven to full depth before pitching the next one. – high and low frequency vibrators . "Panel driving"and "staggered panel driving". individual sheet piles can be left high without disruption to the installation process. The most common types are: – free falling hammers . the 'pitch and drive'method can lead to de-clutching problems in the free leading interlock and occasionally to rather large deviations from the required position. Moreover it easily can be guided manually into the interlock of the sheet pile which has already been driven. – diesel hammers . At the same time the danger of declutching is minimised. – air hammers . – high frequency vibrator with continuously variable excentricity and resonance free start and stop phases . – hydro hammers . stiff cohesive soils and in soils containing obstructions. "Staggered driving" is a particular form of "panel driving" which may be applied when difficult soil conditions are encountered. enables better control of the position of the sheet piles along the wall length. Installation and driving assistance Driving method In the 'pitch and drive' method a single or double sheet pile. The sheet piles in the panel are driven in a sequence indicated in figure 7. In the case of dense sands. If obstructions are encountered. The disadvantage of the "panel driving" method is that interlocking the sheet piles requires individual piles to be lifted to twice their length. pressing systems. As a whole panel is pitched it is not necessary to drive all the sheet piles to full depth in order to maintain sheetpiling operations.

Normally applied methods are a) low pressure jetting with low water volumes – pressure : 1.5 Mpa to 2. – diameter of pipes : approx. d) blasting in special cases.Example of staggered driving of sheet piles D. c) predrilling. 25 mm . 7 . b) high pressure jetting – pressure : 25 Mpa to 50 MPa (at pump outlet) – discharge : 1 1/s to 2 1/s .0 mm. – pipe diameter : 20 mm to 30 mm . 2) d upper guide e lowerguide Fig.Legend a direction of sheet pile installation b driving direction (1 3 5) c driving direction (4. with or without cement bentonite. The pipes are welded to the sheet piles and left in situ. – nozzle diameter : 1.2 Driving assistance It is often necessary to loosen very dense sand layers.0 MPa .5 mm to 3. 22 . – number of pipes : 1 to 2 per sheet pile. – discharge : 2 I/s to 4 1/s per tube .

23 . However a rectangular shape is also used. low pressure jetting is sometimes used for pre-treatment of the soil prior to pile driving. it is necessary to treat the affected area with special protecting liquid. although special care has to be taken when the sheet piles have to carry vertical loads. Limited amounts of jetting fluid. boring and similar operations should preferably be carried out in the factory before the timber is impregnated. High pressure jetting or fluidisation can be very effective in very dense soil layers. are introduced into the ground through nozzles fixed to the sheet pile at a short distance above its tip. The soil is locally loosened by this process. Normally flight auger drills are used. Pre-drilling is sometimes carried out prior to the sheet pile driving. The overall performance will not be significantly influenced. The dimensions of the tongue determine the size of the groove as shown in figure 8. In general the soil characteristics are only slightly modified and there is practically no settlement. The soil properties are only adversely effected in a limited area around the sheet piles. Tropical hardwood normally meets this requirement without any preservation. bored or similarly reshaped. Joints Normally timber sheet piles are jointed by tongue and groove type interlocks of a trapezoidal shape. Facturing by blasting is normally carried out if the sheet piles have to pass hard obstructions in the soil or if they must penetrate bedrock. When impregnated timber is subsequently cut. As a result of the limited water consumption this method permits effective control of the pile. enables sheet piles to penetrate very dense soils. Timber sheet piles and walings Timber for sheet piles and walings in permanent sheet pile wall structures is normally of high durability. Low pressure jetting with low water volumes. In addition.Low pressure jetting is mainly used in dense non-cohesive soils. need to be impregnated by a preservation fluid pressed into the wood under vacuum conditions. water or sometimes cement-bentonite. However coniferous species when used in waterfront structures. in combination with a vibrator. Cutting.

Legend A Tongue and groove with trapezoidal shape B Tongue and groove with rectangular shape Fig. panels of several piles are driven as units.5 m. – small quays in yachting harbours and similar.) Fig. When a vibrator is used. a guide frame is used. If a free falling mass is used the height of the drop should not exceed 2. Driving is usually carried out with light driving equipment. 9 – Example of a timber corner pile with grooves Execution Normally timber sheet piles are only used in retaining structures with a limited retained height. Low pressure water 24 . 8 – Shape and dimensions of tongue and groove interlocks of timber sheet piles Corner sheet piles Corner sheet piles generally have a square crosss section with grooves to conne the adjacent sheet piles (see figure 9. Typical uses are: – vertical or nearly vertical embankments along canals and ditches. In order to keep the sheet piling in the correct position.

10 – Bevelling at the toe and driving direction 25 . Legend a driving direction b bevel width c ground pressure Fig. In order to ascertain a proper tongue and groove connection. the sheet piles are often bevelled at the "free" side of the toe as shown in figure 10.jetting is often used to assist driving work in sand layers.

a deadman anchorage. . Reasons for minimum ground modification are: . Scope — — to support a retaining structure. Two types of ground anchors: — pre-stressed anchorages consisting of an anchor head. . . by transmitting a tensile force to a load bearing formation of soil or rock.to minimise softening of the surface of the borehole wall in cohesive soils and degradable .to minimise loosening of the surrounding ground in cohesionless soils .Sketch of a ground anchor Drilling methods The drilling method shall be chosen with due regard to the ground conditions so as to cause either minimum ground modification or the modification most beneficial to the anchor capacity and to allow the design anchor resistance (Rd) to be mobilised. a screw anchor or a rock bolt.to prevent collapse of the borehole wall during drilling and tendon installation (where necessary a casing should be utilised) . Key 1 Anchorage point at jack during stressing 2 3 4 5 Anchorage point at anchor head in service Bearing plate Lold transfer black Structural element 6 7 8 9 10 SoiI Urock Borehole Debonding sleeve Tendon Grout body Figure 1 .to minimise change of ground water levels .3. cuts or tunnels. — — to provide the stability of slopes. a tendon free length and a restraint such as a fixed anchor length bonded to the ground by grout. — non pre-stressed anchorages consisting of an anchor head. a tendon free length and a tendon bond length bonded to the ground by grout (figure 1). — — to resist uplift forces on structures. GROUND ANCHORS Ground anchors are covered by EN 1537.

to strengthen the ground immediately adjacent to the fixed anchor in order to enhance ground anchor capacity . 27 . Anchor grouting Placement of grout should be carried out as soon as possible after completion of drilling. . to form the fixed anchor length in order that the applied load may be transferred from the tendon to the surrounding ground . a seal or packer is required to prevent loss of grout from either the fixed anchor length or the entire hole. hole collapse and erosion during drilling. after the risks of general settlement of the ground have been assessed. to seal the ground immediately adjacent to the fixed anchor length in order to limit the loss of grout. then general void filling is indicated which is beyond routine anchor construction. Stressing and recording shall be carried out by experienced personnel under the control of a suitably qualified supervisor. to protect the tendon against corrosion . Techniques to counteract the water pressure and to prevent any blow-out. provided preferably by a specialist anchor contractor or stressing equipment supplier. In high water table situations it may be appropriate to use heavy drilling fluids. When grouting by the tremie method.to ascertain and record the load carrying behaviour of the anchor .pre-grouting of the ground. The grouting process should always start at the lower end of the section to be grouted. d. b.the lowering of the water table. the end of the tremie pipe shall remain submerged in grout within the fixed anchor length and grouting shall continue until the consistency of the grout emerging is the same as that of the injected grout. . For functions c) and d) above only nominal grout consumptions should be expected. In such cases general void filling may be necessary before grouting the anchor. installation and grouting operations shall be identified in advance and implemented as and when required. If a grout volume injected is in excess of three times the borehole volume at pressures not exceeding total overburden pressure. .the use of special auxiliary drilling equipment such as seals or packers. For horizontal and upward inclined holes. Grouting Grouting meets one or more of the following functions: a. Possible preventative measures include .to tension the tendon and to anchor it at its lock-off load. Stressing Stressing is required to fulfil the following two functions .rocks. c.

the ultimate load resistance in relation to the ground conditions and materials used. c) to ensure that the lock-off load is at the designed load level. The objectives of the acceptance test are as follows: a) to demonstrate that a proof load.Investigation test Investigation tests may be required to establish for the designer. b) to determine the apparent tendon free length . Definitions permanent anchorage anchorage with a design life of more than two years temporary anchorage anchorage with a design life of less than two years acceptance test load test on site to confirm that each anchorage meets the design requirements suitability test load test on site to confirm that a particular anchor design will be adequate in particular ground conditions investigation test load test to establish the ultimate resistance of an anchor at the grout/ground interface and to determine the characteristics of the anchorage in the working load range 28 . when necessary. d) the creep or load loss characteristics at the serviceability limit state. which will depend on the test method. Acceptance test Each working anchor shall be subjected to an acceptance test. in advance of the installation of the working ground anchors. can be sustained by the anchor . to prove the competence of the contractor and/or to prove a new type of ground anchor by inducing a failure at the grout/ground interface. excluding friction .

bridge abutments. reinforced shallow slopes without a facing. is an engineered fill reinforced by the inclusion of horizontal or subhorizontal reinforcement placed between layers of fill during construction. . either built-in or added or wrap-around. The scope of reinforced fill applications includes (Figure1): .reinforced steep slopes with a facing.embankments with basal reinforcement and embankments with reinforcement against frost heave in the upper part. but covered by some form of erosion protection without a facing. with a facing to retain fill placed between the reinforcing layers. (vertical. . REINFORCED FILLS Reinforced fill. reinstatement of failed slopes. bulk storage facilities). covered by EN 14475. . battered or inclined walls.earth retaining structures.4.

generally placed horizontally.Definitions fill natural or man made material formed of solid particles. which are arranged between successive layers of fill during construction reinforcement generic term for reinforcing inclusions placed within fill fill reinforcement reinforcement which enhances stability of the reinforced fill mass by mobilising the axial tensile strength of the fill reinforcement by soil interaction over its total length 30 . including certain rocks. used to construct engineered fill engineered fill fill which is placed and compacted under controlled conditions reinforced fill engineered fill incorporating discrete layers of soil reinforcement.

soft facing unit soil fill encapsulated in a geogrid or a geotextile facing with no bending stiffness.geosynthetics for the purpose of this European standard "geosynthetics" stands for "geotextiles and geotextile related products" foundation foundation of a reinforced fill structure is the total area of the surface upon which the lowest layer of reinforcement is installed facing covering to the exposed face of a reinforced fill structure which retains the fill between layers of reinforcement and protects the fill against erosion full height facing unit facing unit equal to the height of the face of the structure discrete facing unit partial height facing unit used to construct incrementally a reinforced fill structure hard facing unit panel or block usually of precast concrete with intrinsically low vertical compressibility and high bending stiffness. facing system with capacity to accommodate differential settlement between fill and facing green facing vegetative cover or infill used without facing units or as an adjunct to reinforced fill structures constructed using facing units cladding false facing added in front of the facing to improve the aesthetics of a finished reinforced fill structure 31 . semi-flexible facing system facing system with some capacity to accommodate differential settlement between fill and facing flexible facing system pliant. a preformed solid steel section or a rock filled gabion with intrinsically vertical compressibility and low bending stiffness. deformable facing unit preformed steel grid section. articulated. facing system assemblage of facing units used to produce a finished reir forced fill structure rigid facing system facing system with no capacity to accommodate vertical differential settlement between fill and facing.

design life service life, in years, required by the design temporary structures structures with a design life of 1 - 5 years (Class 1) permanent structures structures with a design life of more than 5 years (Class 2 - 5)

Materials and products
Construction of reinforced fill involves the use of the following major components: - fill material; - fill reinforcement, and if required; - facing system.

Fill materials
The fill used within the reinforced zone shall be selected to meet the properties required by the design and the project specification. The suitability of a reinforced fill material is dependent on a number of factors that shall be considered when selecting the material: fill workability; function and environment of the structure and long term behaviour; fill layer thickness and maximum particle size; facing technology; vegetation; drainage properties; aggressivity of the fill; fill - reinforcement interaction; fill - internal friction and cohesion; frost susceptibility.

Fill workability
The fill workability shall be such that it can be placed and compacted to produce the properties required by the design. Function and environment of the structure and long term behaviour Some types of structure have a critical function where post construction settlement is very important. e.g. bridge abutments, walls supporting railway tracks and buildings, or high earth retaining structures etc. In these cases fill material which is easy to compact and which will have subsequent low compressibility shall be selected. Where a structure is exposed to flooding and subsequent rapid drawdown the drainage properties of the fill shall be checked for compatibility with the design assumptions. 32

Reinforcement products
Fill reinforcements can be made from metals, generally steel, or polymeric materials.

Facings can be produced in a variety of materials and configurations with a variety of facingreinforcement connections and a variety of joint fillers and bearing devices. Facing units and systems Reinforced fill is constructed using successive layers of compacted, selected fill incorporating intervening layers of horizontal or sub-horizontal fill reinforcement placed at spacing required by the design. Reinforced fill earth retaining structures, with a vertical, battered or inclined face (see Figure 2), require a facing to retain the fill between the reinforcing layers. Depending on the particular system, certain layers of fill reinforcements may however not be connected to the facing. On shallow reinforced slopes, facing is generally not necessary. Such slopes are usually protected by vegetation with / without erosion control materials. The facing can be constituted of either hard units (typically made of concrete), or deformable units (typically made from metal, steel grid or mesh, or gabion baskets), or soft units (typically made from geosynthetic sheets or grids, or woven wire mesh). Where hard or deformable facing units are used, these serve as a formwork against which the selected fill is placed and compacted. Where soft facing units are used, it is generally necessary to employ temporary formwork to maintain the face alignment during the construction of walls or steep slopes.

Key: 1 Earth retaining structures 2 Reinforced slopes 3 Vertical 4 Vertical wall 5 Battered wall 6 Inclined wall Steep slope 7 Shallow slope

8 Some specific types of facings : panels, blocks, V2 elliptical steel units, gabions 9 Specific types of sloping panel, eg for bulk storage 10 Some common types of facings: planter units, wire mesh, wrapped around 11 No facing, erosion protection may be required 12 Line of 4:1 face slope angle 13 Line of 1:1 face slope angle

Figure 2 - Reinforced fill earth with a vertical, battered or inclined face 33

Facing units
Hard facing units: Hard facing units are usually produced in precast concrete, either unreinforced or reinforced. Concrete facing units may be full height panels, partial height panels, sloping panels, planter units, or segmental blocks. Many types of concrete facing units are proprietary and form part of proprietary systems. The reinforcements are connected to the units either by means of devices embedded or inserted into the concrete units, or they are simply clamped between the units. Full height panels : As the name suggests, full height panels (see Figure 3) are precast to the required full height of the specific reinforced fill wall to be constructed. The breadth of full height panels is typically in the range 1 to 3 m and the thickness in the range 100 to 200 mm.

Figure 3 - Full height panels Partial height panels: Partial height panels (See Figure 4) are the most common and typically have heights in the range 1 to 2 m and thickness in the range 100 to 200 mm. Distinctive shapes correspond to specific ways of fitting panels together, and to particular construction procedures. Simple rectangular shapes are also available. The panels are fitted with connecting devices embedded into the back face. The edges are usually provided with nibs and recesses, or tongues and grooves.

Figure 4 - Partial height panels


These units serve as a formwork during construction. placed horizontally. Otherwise the reinforcement is clamped between successive courses of blocks. Units may be manufactured solid. rake). either flat or pre-bent to the required slope angle. Such units. The mass of these units commonly ranges from 20 and 50 kilos.Semi elliptical steel units Steel welded wire mesh: Facing units may be formed of open-backed welded wire mesh sections (see Figure 8). blocks may be provided with connecting accessories (pins. They are fitted with holes along the horizontal edges for connection to the reinforcements. Figure 7 .Segmental blocks: Facing units in the form of precast or dry cast un-reinforced concrete blocks (see Figure 5) are usually referred to as modular blocks or segmental blocks. are typically 2 to 4 mm thick. or with cores. Unit heights typically range from 150 mm to 250 mm. exposed face length usually varies from 200 mm to 500 mm. Depending on the type of reinforcement.Segmental blocks Figure 6 .King post and concrete planking Deformable facing units Semi elliptical steel units: facing elements of steel sheet (see Figure 7) formed into elliptical or U-shaped half cylinders. 250 mm to 400 mm high and a few metres long. such units may be vegetated to prevent long 35 . When used for inclined faces. Figure 5 .

or backed. such units may have an inner layer of stone or crushed rock. Figure 8 .0 m in depth. The gabion baskets may be supplied with an extended tail that forms a frictional connection to the main reinforcement Figure 9 . especially for temporary applications. 2 m to 3 m in length and 0. 36 . or woven wire mesh.5 m to 1. such as polymeric grid or geotextile. The size of such gabion baskets is usually in the range of 0. When used for vertical or battered faces.0 m in height.Gabion baskets Tyres: Facing units may also be formed with tyres. These tyres are of similar size and are generally stacked in a staggered arrangement to form the facing. or galvanized welded wire mesh gabion baskets (See Figure 9) which are filled with stone or crushed rock.5 m to 1. with a suitable geotextile to guard against erosion of the face.Steel welded wire mesh Gabion baskets: Facing units may also be formed using polymeric geogrid or woven steel wire. Where polymeric grids or woven wire meshes are used these may be faced. To construct such slopes to an acceptable alignment it is common practice to use temporary formwork. galvanized or plastic coated. or be backed with a geosynthetic liner. is extended forward from the reinforced fill to wrap around the face of each intervening layer of fill. Soft facings units The most widely used soft facing unit is the so called wrapped facing (See Figure 10) in which full width reinforcement.term erosion of the face.

Key 1 Bags Figure 10 .Soft facing units Some typical reinforcement forms 37 .

Figure 11 – Steel reinforcement Figure 12 – Polymeric reinforcements 38 .

which contributes to increasing the stability condition. encountered during the ongoing activities.5. The soil nails mobilise frictional forces along their entire length. The stability is achieved by inserting soil nails. slopes and occasionally tunneling and for improvement of soil stability. provide erosion protection and have an aesthetic function facing drainage system of drains used to control water behind the facing facing system assemblage of facing units used to produce a finished facing of reinforced ground facing unit discrete element used to construct the facing flexible facing flexible covering which assists in containing soil between the nails hard facing stiff covering. A soil nail construction can involve the following material components for: a) soil nail system. precast concrete section or cast in-situ concrete production nail soil nail which forms part of the completed soil nail structure reinforcing element generic term for reinforcing inclusions inserted into ground . SOIL NAILING The objective of soil nailing is to improve the stability of the soil in cases where the stability conditions are adverse. b) facing system. Protection against corrosion in case of longterm stability problems is required in aggressive soil conditions. for example sprayed concrete. Terms and definitions bearing plate plate connected to the head of the soil nail to transfer a component of load from the facing or directly from the ground surface to the soil nail drainage system series of drains. drainage layers or other means to control surface and ground water facing covering to the exposed face of the reinforced ground that may provide a stabilising function to retain the ground between soil nails. into the soil. The amount of nails and the length of installation of the nails have to be adjusted in relation to the stability conditions. c) drainage system. Soil nailing is generally applied in connection with excavations. consisting of reinforcing bars.

grouts and corrosion protection test nail nail installed by the same method as the production nails for the purpose of verifying the pullout capacity and durability. solely to establish the pullout capacity but not forming part of the soil nail structure soft facing soft facing has only a short-term function to provide topsoil stability while vegetation becomes established soil nail reinforcing element installed into the ground. and could be forming a part of the structure proof load load applied in the testing Examples of uses of soil nailing Soil nail systems are produced using a wide range of materials and configurations. that mobilises resistance with the soil along its entire length soil nail construction any works that incorporates soil nails. Vertical walls Slopes Figure 1 . and can have a facing and/or a drainage system soil nail system consists of a reinforcing element and may include joints and couplings.Safeguarding stability of excavations by the use of soil nailing 40 . centralisers.reinforced ground ground that is reinforced by the insertion of reinforcing elements sacrificial nail soil nail installed in the same way as the production nails. spacers. usually at a sub-horizontal angle.

Tunnel excavation Key 1 ground surface 2 soil nails 3 tunnel advances Figure 2 — Safeguarding tunnelling operations by the use of soil nailing In the case of excavations. Key 1 excavation 2 installing the nails 3 reinforced shotcrete (or prefabricated facing panels) 4 next excavation Figure 3 — Typical sequences of excavation and installation Key 1 bulk excavation to proposed formation 2 berm 3 installed nails 4 existing ground 5 local trimming of face required to achieve agreed tolerances prior to nail installation of nail row "N" N Nth row Figure 4 — Bulk excavation to form benches and face for row "N" of soil nails 41 . the sequence of excavation and soil nailing has to be adjusted in order not to comprise the stability conditions of the site. Typical methods of excavation in combination with soil nailing operations are illustrated in Figures 3 and 4.

usually steel bars. pre-bored & grouted shown with hard/flexible facing FACING SYSTEMS Facing systems are constructed using a variety of materials. a) Pre-bored and grouted Key 1 facing 6 coupler 2 head plate 7 inner spacer 3 locking nut 8 grout annulus 4 outer spacer 9 reinforcing element 5 duct 10 drill bit b) Self-boring Figure 5 — Typical components of soil nail system. There is a number of different soil nailing systems. such as fibre reinforced plastics. The facing system shall be able to sustain differential settlements required by the design without structural damage to the facing. Examples of soil nail systems The soil nail systems include reinforcement bars. Facings exposed to frost should be protected by frost insulation and extra drainage. and often provided with a head plate and a facing system to ensure stability between the nails and also to avoid erosion problems. When nails are to be grouted. a hollow bar. an angle bar or some other form of cross-section. they may be ribbed or profiled to improve the effective bond with the grout. configurations and connections to the reinforcement. Typical examples are given in Figure 5. NOTE: The reinforcing element may be a solid bar.Reinforcing element The reinforcing element of the nail is usually produced from metals (typically steel) and to a lesser extent from other materials. geo-synthetics or carbon fibre. proving the serviceability of the system and the durability of the materials used for the design life of the soil nail construction. 42 . inserted into and bonded with the ground to the depth required with regard to safety conditions. The suitability of the facing system shall be proven by comparable experience or by tests.

as well as erosion control.Examples of facing systems used in a soil nail structure Hard facing The combination of soil nails and facing has to fulfill the function of stabilising the slope between the nails. soil friction angle value. The selection of type of flexible facing is dependent upon slope angle. slope height and predicted loading. and shall therefore be dimensioned to sustain the expected maximum destabilising forces. Figure 8 — Wire mesh 43 . Figure 6 — Constructed hard facing with concrete (either sprayed or placed or precast) (should be improved) Figure 7 — Strengthening of existing retaining structures (should be improved) Flexible facing Flexible facings are designed to provide the necessary restraint to the areas of slope face between the bearing plates. The common flexible facings include geogrids steel fabrics and geosynthetic.

g. Y-drains Figure 10 — Surface drainage above the soil nail structure (e. Interception of surface water run off Figures 9 and 10 show examples of drainage above the soil nailing structure. nails serve only to retain the facing and not to stabilise the slope. the soft facing has to reinforce the vegetation layer. b) surface drainage. c) subsurface drainage. Three essential measures have to be distinguished: a) prevention of surface runoff water. DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Water is detrimental to slope stability and has to be drained away from the surface as much as possible. In this way. rock strata with reduced shear resistance). general or local erosion etc.g. In many cases. and critical water pressures behind facings may be minimised (specially important in case of a full cover or with a vegetation layer.Soft facing The primary function of soft facing is erosion control and protection against surface ravelling. Figure 9 — Trenched drains above the soil nail structure guided to the sides of the slope Key 1 e. either in the temporary or the permanent situation. in case of stratum water) 44 .g. In some instances. Without facings Nailing in case of critically inclined sliding surfaces (e. however with a stable surface.

Surface drainage Systems for flexible and soft facings with vegetation layers but also possible behind hard facings (sprayed concrete). The characteristic opening size of the geotextile should be chosen to minimise clogging while permitting water into the pipe. 45 . with impermeable facings. spread filters made of drainage material and collector drains can be applied. In any case. Drainage boreholes normally contain slotted or perforated pipes. sufficient leakage holes have to be placed. Key 1 drainage material 2 collector drain 3 “weep-hole” drain Figure 12 — Hard and impermeable facings Subsurface drainage Subsurface drainage will be required if water-bearing strata are predicted or encountered. Key 1 foot drainage Figure 11 — Seepage Drainage systems for hard and impermeable facings In case of concrete walls. prefabricated or cast in place. Subsurface drainage may be required if the groundwater table has to be lowered. They are normally wrapped with a geotextile filter to prevent the ingress of fines.

Figure 13 — Subsurface drainage 46 . The inclination of the boreholes is typically ≥ 5 %.The number. length and pattern of the drainage pipes depend on the expected amount and regime of water.

The construction of bored piles is covered by EN 1536.

The term pile is used for circular section structure and the term barrette for other shapes. Both are bored piles. bored pile pile or barrette formed with or without a pile casing by excavating or boring a hole in the ground and filling with plain or reinforced concrete (Fig. 1) Designation for bored pile are given fig.8 barrette discrete length of diaphragm wall, usually short, or a number of interconnecting lengths cast simultaneously (e.g. L-, T- or cruciform shapes), used to support vertical and/or lateral loads. (fig. 2) end bearing pile bored pile transmitting actions to the ground mainly by compression on its base. friction pile bored pile transmitting actions to the ground mainly by friction and adhesion between the lateral surface of the pile and the adjacent ground. skin friction frictional and/or adhesive resistance on the bored pile surface negative skin friction frictional and/or adhesive action by which surrounding soil or fill transfers downward load to a bored pile when the soil or fill settles relative to the bored pile shaft continuous flight auger pile (CFA-pile) pile formed by means of a hollow stemmed continuous flight auger through the stem of which concrete or grout is pumped as the auger is extracted (see figure 11, figure 12) prepacked pile pile where the completed excavation is filled with coarse aggregate which is subsequently injected with cement mortar from the bottom up. pile base grouting pressure injection of grout below the base of an installed bored pile base in order to enhance performance under load pile shaft grouting injection of grout carried out after bored pile concrete has set for the enhancement of skin friction by the use of grouting pipes which are installed down the shaft, normally placed with the bored pile reinforcement

enlarged base base of a bored pile formed to have an area greater than that of its shaft. For bored piles, normally constructed by the use of special underreaming or belling-out tools (see figure 3). integrity test test carried out on an installed bored pile for the verification of soundness of materials and of the pile geometry. sonic test integrity test where a series of sonic waves is passed between a transmitter and a receiver through the concrete of a bored pile and where the characteristics of the received waves are measured and used to infer the state of continuity and section variations of the bored pile shaft. sonic coring sonic integrity test carried out from core drillings in a bored pile shaft or from a pre-placed tube system test pile bored pile to which loads are applied to determine the resistance deformation characteristics of the pile and the surrounding ground trial pile bored pile installed to assess the practicability and suitability of the construction method for a particular application. static pile test loading test where a bored pile is subjected to chosen static axial and/or lateral actions at the bored pile head for the analysis of its capacity. maintained load test static loading test in which a test pile has loads applied in incremental stages, each of which is held constant for a certain period or until pile motion has virtually ceased or has reached a prescribed limit (ML test). constant rate of penetration test static loading test in which a test bored pile is forced into the ground at a constant rate and the force is measured (CRP-test). dynamic pile test loading test where a dynamic force is applied at the pile or the barrette head for assessment of pile capacity. socket bottom part of a bored pile in hard ground (usually rock) grout fluid mixture of a binding and/or setting agent (usually cement), fine aggregate and water that generally hardens after being placed in position.


Bored piles can be of two kind of shapes:
– – with circular shape (see figure 1) and barrettes (see figure 2), provided the section is concreted in a single operation.

Bored piles can have: – uniform cross-section (straight shaft); – telescopically changing shaft dimensions; – excavated base enlargements; or – excavated shaft enlargements Te European Standard EN 1536 applies to bored piles with the following dimensions: – depth to width ratio larger or equal to 5 ; – shaft diameter : 0,3 ≤ D ≤ 3,0 m (see figure 1, figure 3); – dimension for barrettes : Wi ≥ 0,4 m (see figure 2); ratio between the dimensions : Li / Wi ≤ 6 where: Li is the largest dimension of the barrette and Wi is the least dimension of the barrette; – cross-sectional area of barrettes : A ≤ 10 m² ; 49

The European Standard EN 1536 also apply to piles with the following rake (see figure 4): – n ≥ 4 (Θ ≥ 76°) . – bored pile groups (see figure 5).5 (see figure 3). – n ≥ 3 (Θ ≥ 72°) for permanently cased piles. 50 . Shaft or base enlargements covered by the European Standard EN 1536 are: – base enlargements in non-cohesive ground : DB / D ≤ 2 and in cohesive ground : DB / D ≤ 3. – walls formed by piles (see figure 6). The provisions of the European Standard EN 1536 apply to: – single bored piles. slope of the enlargement in non-cohesive ground : m ≥ 3 and in cohesive ground : m ≥ 1. – – shaft enlargements in any ground : DE / D ≤ 2.

steel sections or steel fibres. – of reinforced concrete. – of concrete reinforced by means of special reinforcement such as steel tubes. (see figure 7).The bored piles which are the subject of the European Standard EN 1536 can be excavated by continuous or discontinuous methods using support methods for stabilizing the excavation walls where required. 51 . Bored piles can be constructed: – of unreinforced (plain) concrete. – of precast concrete (including prestressed concrete) elements or steel tubes where the annular gap between the element or tube and the ground is filled by concrete. cement or cement-bentonite grout.

– unstable cavities outside the bored pile. – soft cohesive ground. An inflow of water and/or soil could cause for instance : – a disturbance to or instability of the bearing stratum or the surrounding ground.Excavation When constructing bored piles measures shall be taken to prevent uncontrolled inflow of water and/or soil into the bore. – damage to the unset concrete in the bored pile or bored piles recently installed nearby. or – ground which is variable. – washing out of cement. – voids in the shaft during concreting. – loss of support by the removal of soil from beneath adjacent foundations. There are increased risks in : – loose granular ground. 52 .

In soils liable to flow into the bore or where there is a risk of collapse, means of support shall be used to maintain stability and thereby prevent the uncontrolled entry of soil and water. Common means of support of bore walls are : – casings; – support fluid; – soil-filled auger flights. Bored pile bores shall be excavated until they reach : – the specified bearing stratum, or – the anticipated founding level, and shall be socketed into the founding material where and as required by the design. In cases of – unfavourable stratification of the bearing layers, – founding on bedrock, or – sloping surface of the bearing layers the excavation shall be carried down to provide full face contact. Bored piles can be excavated in an intermittent or continuous process : — tools for intermittent excavation are for example: grabs, shells, augers, boring buckets and chisels ; — tools for continuous excavation are for example: augers, drilling or percussion tools for excavation combined with augering or flushing methods for soil removal. The employment of – temporary or permanent casings – support fluids, or – soil-filled flights of a continuous flight auger can be necessary to support the excavation walls. The type of boring tool shall – be appropriate to the given soil, rock, groundwater or other environmental conditions, – be selected with a view to preventing loosening of material outside the bored pile and below its base, and – allow the bores to be excavated quickly. It can be necessary to change the method or tool employed to meet the requirements. Special tools and/or techniques other than those used for excavation may be used for the cleaning of bases. In situations where water or support fluid is present inside the bore, the choice and operation of tools shall not impair bore walls stability. A piston effect with negative influence on the stability of the bored pile walls can occur and the operating speed of the tool should be adapted accordingly. Excavations supported by casings Raking piles shall be cased over their entire length if their inclination is: n ≤15 (θ≤86°) unless it can be shown that uncased bores will be stable (see figure 4). 53

Casings may be installed during the excavation process using : – oscillating or – rotating equipment or they may be driven prior to the excavation using : – piling hammers or – vibrators or other. Where a bored pile is excavated – below the groundwater table in permeable ground, or – in artesian conditions an internal excess pressure shall be provided within the casing by a head of water or other suitable fluid of not less than 1,0 m which shall be maintained until the bored pile has been concreted. In unstable bores the casing shall be maintained in advance of boring. The advancement in relation to the excavation shall be adjusted to suit the ground and groundwater conditions. The insertion of the casings ahead of boring is necessary to prevent an inflow of soil and disturbance below the bored pile base which can affect the bored pile performance ("caving in", "bottom heave"). The creation of a cavity outside the casing can endanger the integrity of a concreted bored pile if and when the casing is withdrawn ("necking"). Zones of loosening can also move upwards to the surface and can there cause subsidence. Excavations supported by fluids The properties of a support fluid shall be in accordance with previously given conditions. There are two types of excavations supported by fluids: – direct circulation boring system (fig. 9) – reverse circulation boring system (fig. 10) The upper part of an excavation shall be protected by a lead-in tube or guide wall – to guide the boring tools; – to protect the bore walls against collapse of upper loose soils; and – for the safety of site personnel. At all times during boring and concrete placement the level of support fluid shall be maintained : – within the lead-in tube or the guide wall, and – at least 1,5 m above the external ground-water level.

Boring with continuous flight augers Piles may be formed without other means of support of the bore, by using a continuous flight auger in such a way that the stability of the bore is preserved by the material on the flights (fig.11, fig.12). Continuous flight auger piles shall not be constructed with inclinations of n ≤10 (θ≤84°), unless measures are taken to control the direction of the excavation and the installation of the reinforcement. Boring with continuous flight augers shall be carried out as fast as possible and with the least practical number of auger rotations in order to minimize the effects on the surrounding ground. 54

Where layers of unstable soil are encountered with a thickness of more than the pile diameter, the feasibility of the construction shall be demonstrated by means of trial piles or local experience before the commencement of the works. Unstable soils are considered to be : – uniform non-cohesive soils (d60/d10 < 1,5) below the groundwater table; – loose non-cohesive soils with relative density Dr < 0,3; – clays with high sensitivity; – cohesive soils with undrained shear strength cu < 15 kPa. Uniform non-cohesive soils with 1,5 < d60/d10 < 3,0 below the groundwater table can be sensitive. During excavation the advance and speed of rotation of the auger shall be adjusted in accordance with the soil conditions so that soil removal is limited to such an extent that : – the lateral stability of the bore wall will be preserved, and – over-excavation will be minmized. For this the boring tool shall be provided with sufficient torque and traction power. The pitch of the flights shall be constant over the whole length of the auger. A system of closure shall be provided in the hollow auger stem to prevent the entry of soil and inflow of water during drilling. When the required depth has been reached, the auger shall be lifted from the bore only if – the surrounding ground is stabilized by the rising concrete, or – the surrounding ground remains stable. If a pile can not be completed and the auger has to be removed, the auger shall be withdrawn by back-screwing and the bore hole shall be back-filled with soil or support fluid. Unsupported excavation Excavation without the provision of support to bore walls is permissible in ground conditions which remain stable during excavation and where a collapse of ground material into the bore is not likely. The stability of the unsupported excavation shall be demonstrated by means of trial bored piles or comparable experience before the commencement of the works. The upper part of the excavation shall be protected by a lead-in tube unless – the excavation is carried out in firm soil, and – the diameter D is smaller than 0,6 m. Concreting and trimming The interval between completion of excavation and commencement of concrete placement is required to be kept as short as possible. Prior to concrete placement the cleanliness of the bore shall be checked. The bored pile trimming operation: – shall be carried out only when the concrete has obtained sufficient strength, 55

56 . A check shall be carried out immediately before the placement. The tremie pipe. The main purpose of the tremie pipe is the prevention of segregation of the concrete during placement or its contamination by the fluid inside the bore. segregate or become contaminated. including its joints. The external shape and dimension of the tremie pipe.– – shall remove all concrete which is contaminated or of lower quality than required from the top of the bored pile.35 times the pile diameter D or the inner diameter of a casing . Compaction is dependent on the flow characteristics of the concrete in relation to its self weight and the surcharge of the fluid above the concrete column. The internal diameter of the concreting pipe shall not be less than 8 times the maximum size of the aggregate. The maximum outside diameter of the tremie pipe including its joints should be not more than: – 0.8 times the inner width of the reinforcement cage for barrettes. and – 0. The tremie pipe shall be smooth to allow free flow of concrete and have a uniform internal diameter of at least – 6 times the maximum size of the aggregate. the instantaneous velocity of concrete rising should not be less than 3 m/h. shall be water tight. Concreting shall be carried out in such way as to avoid segregation. It shall be equipped at its upper end with a hopper to receive the fresh concrete and prevent spillage of concrete which otherwise could fall freely into the bore. If water is recognized concrete should be placed as for submerged conditions. and shall continue until sound concrete over the whole cross section is revealed. Submerged concrete shall not be compacted by internal vibration. The concrete shall be directed vertically into the centre of the bore by means of a funnel and an attached length of pipe so that the concrete does not hit – the reinforcement. Concreting in submerged conditions In order to avoid mixing between concrete and bentonite. – 0. including all its joints.6 times the inner width of the reinforcement cage for piles. Concreting in dry conditions The procedure for placing concrete in dry conditions shall not be followed if there is standing water at the base of the bore. or – the walls of the bore. shall allow its free movement inside the reinforcement cage. or – 150 mm whichever is the greater.

and the speed of extraction of the casing shall be such that no inflow of soil or water occurs into the freshly placed concrete. The extraction shall be carried out while concrete is still of the required consistency. or – with sleeved perforated cross pipes arranged at the bored pile bottom. Extraction of casings The extraction of temporary casings shall not begin until the concrete column has reached a sufficient height inside the casing to generate an adequate excess pressure. and – any major filtercake or debris shall be removed from the bottom of the bore immediately before the start of the placement.0 m.2 m the immersion should be at least 2. particularly when two or more tremie pipes are used. allowing the spread of grout over the whole base area of the bored pile. For piles with a diameter D ≥ 1. even if a sudden drop of concrete level should occur when a cavity outside the casing is uncovered. When concrete is placed under support fluid: – a sample of the fluid shall be taken from the base of the bore. – to protect against inflow of water or soil at the tip of the casing.5 m and for barrettes at least 3. External grouting of bored piles Shaft and/or base grouting shall be carried out only after the cast-in-situ concrete has set. Concreting of continuous flight auger piles Concreting of piles excavated with continuous flight augers may be carried out by placing concrete through the hollow central stem of the auger. to avoid entry of water or soil until concrete placing commences. – by means of a flexible box structure (see Figure 13) installed with the reinforcement. particularly when disconnecting sections of the pipe and when recovering and disconnecting sections of temporary casing.5 m. During the continued extraction a sufficient quantity and head of concrete shall be maintained inside the casing to balance the external pressure so that the annular space vacated by the removal of the casing is filled with concrete. Only permanent grouting pipes are allowed and their arrangement shall be appropriate to the zones and materials to be grouted. 57 . Once boring has reached the final depth. The supply of concrete. the stem being closed at its base. concrete shall be placed through the stem to fill the pile as the auger is withdrawn. and – to prevent the reinforcement cage from being lifted. Base grouting can be carried out: – through steel pipes attached to cages.The immersion of the tremie pipe into the concrete should be not less than 1.

.the soundness and proper construction of a pile. The construction sequence of secant and contiguous pile walls. Pile walls A template of steel or concrete should be installed at the working platform for the maintenance of the pile positions where specified accuracy requires. and . as applicable (as long as respective European Standards are not available). 58 .Shaft grouting shall be carried out through grouting pipes fixed to the reinforcement cage or tube or a precast concrete element as applicable (see figure 14). Bored pile testing The principal requirements for bored pile testing shall comply with EN 1997-1. These reinforced piles should be constructed after the initially installed unreinforced piles on either side are in place.integrity tests which measure the acoustic or vibration properties of the bored pile in order to determine the presence of possible anomalies within its body. which may be supplemented by national application documents.constant rate of penetration tests. the primary piles shall be constructed so as not to impair the later alternate pile installation. Where all piles are to be reinforced. The following notes contain general remarks. . . Excavations should be supported by temporary casings in the construction of secant pile walls.dynamic pile tests for the determination of the pile capacity. shall be chosen as such that the concrete of the primary piles has achieved sufficient strength for stability but has not developed a strength that would be too high for an intersection to be achieved.maintained load tests. hardening slurry may be used for primary piles instead of concrete. and the concrete composition employed. In the construction of secant pile walls. Bored pile tests can consist of : . Bored pile tests may be used for proof of : . Normally in the construction of secant pile walls.resistance/deformation characteristics in the general range of specified actions. alternate piles only should be reinforced.

Fig. 8 .Bored pile: Designations 59 .

Fig. 9 .Direct circulation boring system Fig. 10 – Reverse circulation boring system 60 .

Continuous flight auger drilling 61 .12 .Auger Fig. 11 .Fig.

Shaft grouted pile 62 . 13 .Pile base grouting (examples) Fig.Fig. 14 .

pressing. and filling the hole so formed with plain or reinforced concrete(see Figure 5 and 9a) screw pile pile in which the pile or pile tube comprises a limited number of helices at its base and which is installed under the combined action of a torque and a vertical thrust. such as hammering. By the screwing-in and/or by the screwing-out. vibrating. placed between the base of the impact hammer and the pile or drive tube so as to uniformly distribute the hammer impact to the top of the pile. vibration. See Figure 6 . 2. Terms displacement pile pile which is installed in the ground without excavation or removal of material from the ground except for limiting heave. DISPLACEMENT PILES Displacement piles are covered by EN 12699. the ground is essentially laterally displaced and virtually no soil is removed jacked pile pile pressed into soil by means of static force grouted pile prefabricated pile fitted with an enlarged shoe to create along a part or the full perimeter of the pile a space which is filled during driving with grout. See Figure 6 impact hammer tool of construction equipment for driving piles by impact (striking or falling mass) vibrator (vibrating hammer) tool of construction equipment for driving or extracting piles. screwing or by a combination of these or other methods leader steel sections used for guiding driving equipment and/or pile during driving. 3) prefabricated (displacement) pile pile or pile element which is manufactured in a single unit or in pile segments before installation (see Figure 9b) cast in place (displacement) pile pile installed by driving a closed ended concrete shell or permanent or temporary casing.7. drive tubes or casing by the application of vibratory forces helmet device. usually steel. See Figure 7 post grouted pile pile where shaft and/or base grouting is performed after installation through pipes fixed along or incorporated in the pile. removal of obstructions or to assist penetration (see Figure 1. See Figure 8 driving method to bring the piles into the ground to the required depth. mortar or microconcrete.

usually softwood. Drive tube is withdrawn during concreting casing steel tube used temporarily or permanently to support shaft walls during the construction of a pile. used during driving. follower a temporary extension. In permanent situation the casing can act as a protective or load bearing unit mandrel a steel core for driving that is inserted into a closed-end tubular pile. driving equipment and/or for confirming the design. or below the lowest point to which the driving equipment can reach without disengagement from the leaders driving criteria driving parameters used to be fullfilled when driving a pile jetting use of pressurised water to facilitate the driving of a pile by means of hydraulic displacement of parts of the soil preboring (preaugering. water surface.hammer cushion device or material placed between the impact hammer and the helmet to protect the hammer and the pile head from destructive direct impact. After installation the mandrel is withdrawn test pile pile to which a load is applied to determine the resistance deformation characteristics of the pile and surrounding ground trial pile pile installed to assess the practicability and suitability of the construction method for a particular application preliminary pile pile installed before the commencement of the main piling works or section of the works for the purpose of establishing the suitability of the chosen type of pile. The hammer cushion material shall have enough stiffness to transmit hammer energy efficiently into the pile. placed between the helmet and the top of a precast concrete pile. pile cushion material. dimensions and bearing capacity 64 . that permits the driving of the pile top below ground surface. predrilling) boring through obstructions or materials too dense to penetrate with the planned pile type and driving equipment set mean permanent penetration of a pile in the ground per blow measured by a series of blows drive tube steel tube used to displace the ground during the formation of a driven cast in place pile.

test) dynamic pile load test loading test where a pile is subjected at the pile head to a dynamic force for analysis of its load bearing capacity sonic test . Classification and examples Figure 1 – Family tree chart for displacement piles 65 . the soil being displaced by the pile or drive tube maintained load pile test static loading test in which a testpile has loads applied in incremental stages.test) constant rate of penetration pile load test static loading test in which a test pile is forced into the ground at a constant rate and the force is measured (CRP .driven pile pile which is forced into the soil by driving. each of which is held constant for a certain period or until pile motion has virtually ceased or has reached a prescribed limit (ML . low strain integrity test integrity test where a series of waves is passed between a transmitter and a receiver through the concrete of a pile and where the characteristics of the received waves are measured and used to infer continuity and section variations of the pile shaft sonic coring sonic integrity test of pile concrete carried out from core drillings in a pile shaft or from a preplaced tube system working level level of the piling platform on which the piling rig works.

Figure 2 – Examples of shafts and bases of displacement piles 66 .

Figure 3 – Examples of cross sections for displacement piles 67 .

Figure 4 – Examples for toe protection for prefabricated displacement piles 68 .

Figure 5 – Examples of construction of cast in place displacement piles 69 .

Figure 6 – Examples of piling rig with impact hammer 70 .

Figure 7 – Example of grouted pile 71 .

Figure 8 – Example of post grouted pile 72 .

Figure 9 – Displacement piles. termes and levels 73 .

g. . rake (definition of rake.shaft enlargements.base enlargement.working under restricted access and/or headroom conditions. micropile groups. underpinning works. grout. Other than practical considerations.improving slope stability.foundations of new structures (particularly in very heterogeneous soil or rock formations). domains of use There are two types of micropiles from execution stand point: . and/or . there are no limitations regarding.reinforcing or strengthening of existing structures to increase the capacity to transfer load to depth with acceptable load settlement characteristics. .8.reinforcing of soil to form a bearing and/or retaining structure. Micropiles can act as (see Figure 3): single micropiles. . . a combination of above. .forming a retaining wall. micropile walls. .telescopically changing shaft dimensions.other application where micropiles technicques are appropriate. see Figure 2). mortar or concrete. reticulated micropiles. e. .driven micropiles with a shaft diameter or a maximum shaft cross sectional extension not greater than 150 mm Micropiles are structural members to transfer actions to the ground and may contain bearing elements to transfer directly or indirectly loads and or to limit deformations. or . The material of micropiles can be: steel or other reinforcement materials. length. . Their shaft and base resistance may be improved (mostly by grouting) and they may be constructed with (see Figure 1): . MICROPILES Micropiles are covered by EN 14199 Classification.drilled micropiles with a shaft diameter not greater than 300 mm. . .reducing settlements and/or displacements. Micropiles may be used for: . .uniform cross section (straight shaft).securing against uplift. slenderness ratio or shaft and base enlargements.

Figure 1 – Example of micropile shafts and bases Figure 2 – Definition of rake Key 1 Single micropile 2 Micropile groups 3 Reticulated micropiles 4 Micropile walls Figure 3 – Examples of micropile structures 75 .

Sometimes referred to as gravity grouting or as tremie grouting test micropile micropile to which a load is applied to determine the resistance and deformation characteristics of the micropile and the surrounding ground preliminary micropile micropile installed before the commencement of the main piling works or section of the works for the purpose of establishing the suitability of the chosen type of micropile and/or for 76 . vibrating. polymers or clay. which transfers load from the bearing element or the micropiles shaft to the ground and/or contributes to corrosion protection mortar concrete with very small aggregates(< 8 mm) grouting pumping of grout or concrete into the borehole with a pressure which is higher than the hydrostatic pressure tube-à-manchettes a regularly slotted sleeved tube through that grout injections are possible using a packer device filling grouting under no applied fluid pressure other than the height of grout fluid. drilling method of removing the soil or rock in an intermittent or continous process drilling fluid/ mud water or a suspension of bentonite. such as hammering.Terms and definitions micropiles piles which have a small diameter (smaller than 300 mm shaft diameter for drilled piles and not greater than 150 mm shaft diameter or maximum shaft cross sectional extension for driven piles). usually cement and water. The drive tube is withdrawn during grouting or concreting grout a setting material. for stabilization of borehole walls and for flushing driving method to bring the micopile into the ground to the required depth. The casing can be permanent or temporary. Permament casing may act as a load bearing element and/or as a corrosion protection drive tube steel tube used to displace the ground during the formation of a driven cast in place micropile. containing sometimes additives or a limited amount of fine aggregates. in water with or without cement and other additions. pressing screwing or by a combination of these or other methods casing tube used to support the micropile hole during the construction of a micropile.

.soil description. (possibly by reference to site investigation report). .spoil management.filling. . trial or test micropiles should be installed close to positions of soil investigation. objective and scope of the micropiles. constitutive material). deviation.measures to ensure the boring accuracy: . Where possible the preliminary. sequence of drilling.technical requirements. 77 .grouting parameters.identification .quality control procedures.drilling and/or driving. This method statement should contain (but is not limited to) the following information: . each of which is held constant for a certain period or until micropile motion has virtually ceased or has reached a priscrebed limit constant rate of penetration test (CRP test) static load test in which a test micropile is forced into the ground at a constant rate and the force is measured Execution of micropiles The micropiles shall be executed and supervised by trained and experienced personnel. grouting or concreting. Special care shall be taken for the execution of tangent or secant micropiles for the formation of walls (spacing. equipment and working procedure for: .site installation and working areas. . . .confirming the design. A method statement should be provided before starting the execution of micropiles.environmental issues. . dimensions are bearing capacity trial micropile micropile installed to assess the practicability and suitability of the construction method for a particular application working micropile micropile which is part of a structure integrity test test carried out on an installed micropile for the verification of soundness of micropile components static load test loading test where a micropile is subjected to chosen axial and/or lateral forces at the micropile head for the analysis of its capacity and deformation characteristics maintained load test (ML test) static loading test in which a test micropile has loads applied in incremental stages. .installation of reinforcement or bearing element. .

special measures shall be taken to maintain the stability and thereby prevent the uncontrolled entry of soil and water. . Enlargements Micropile enlargements may be formed: by excavation.soft cohesive soil. special care should be taken to avoid disturbance or fracturing of the ground.loose granular soil. Normally grout or mortar is used for the execution of micropiles with continuous flight augers. . mortar or concrete in the micropile or micropiles recently installed nearby. with comparable experience taking into account the soil type and the condition of the structures to be underpinned).the specified embedment in the bearing stratum.damage to the unset grout. Driving When impact or vibrating driving methods are applied for underpinning works. or . . by driving compacted quantities of concrete below the bottom of the drive tube or permanent casing. Micropile boreholes shall be drilled until they reach: . Boreholes supported by casings Casings should be used when the borehole is unstable or there is a significant fluid loss or when filling or grouting is performed through the casing. Drilling with continuous flight augers No special limitations exist concerning the inclination on the basis that the direction of excavation is controlled and the installation of the reinforcement can be achieved correctly. When drilling methods with air as flushing medium are used for underpinning works.when using air as drilling fluid with direct circulation under the groundwater table. their feasibility shall be proven (e. There are increased risks in: .ground which is variable. .the prescribed length. .Drilling When constructing micropiles by drilling. or . Use of flushing Drilling can be performed with water.loss of support by the removal of soil from beneath underpinned or adjacent foundations. 78 . air and drilling fluids.defaults in the shaft.washing out of cement.g. When uncontrolled inflow of water and soil into the borehole can occur or when there is a risk of collapse. .the anticipated founding level. . continuous drilling with flushing for the removal of soil is the most common method. An inflow of water and/or soil could cause for instance: .a disturbance to or instability of the bearing stratum or the surrounding ground.

Filling or grouting meets one or more of the following functions: . the bearing elements are fitted with a drill bit and they are drilled into the ground. The grouting pressure should be applied at least every 2 m during the extraction of the casing. When filling the borehole.to create or improve the bond between the micropile shaft and the surrounding ground to allow the design shaft bearing capacity to be mobilised. the grout pressure and flow rate should be adjusted depending on the grout susceptibility to penetrate the ground loosened by the drilling process and contained within 79 . . to improve the bearing capacity of the micropile. Filling the borehole with grout The interval between the completion of the borehole drilling and the filling up of the borehole with grout shall be kept as short as possible. . Grouting during drilling When grouting is applied during drilling. Single step grouting through a load bearing element When tubes are used as bearing element.grouting: .single or multiple step grouting through tubes-ă-manchettes. re-grouting shall be performed after a certain waiting period until the specified grouting pressure can be applied. Single step grouting through a temporary casing The reinforcement shall be placed before the temporary casing is extracted. For drilled boreholes the remaining cuttings shall be able to escape when filling the borehole. . Grouting The following methods may be employed for filling and grouting the borehole: . air and drilling fluid shall be able to escape to permit complete grout filling. . When filling the borehole with the tremie pipe or through the drill rods or tubular bearing elenients. special valves or post-grouting tubes (= multi-stage grouting).single step grouting through a bearing element. For grouting during drilling. to strengthen and seal the ground immediately adjacent to the micropile in order to enhance the micropile bearing capacity.filling the borehole with grout.grouting during driving and/or drilling. the end of the tremie pipe or drill rods shall remain submerged in the grout and grouting shall continue until the consistency of the grout emerging on top is almost the same as that of the injected grout (Figure 5). .to protect the reinforcement against corrosion.- by installing an expanded body.single step grouting through a temporary casing. Measures shall be taken to ensure that the micropile length is completely filled with grout. single step grouting can be applied at the bottoni of the bearing element (Figure 7). When the specified grouting pressure cannot be applied. During extraction of the temporary casing the grout level within the casing shall be brought back up to ground level before the next length of casing is removed (Figure 6).

When the specified grouting pressure cannot be applied additional step(s) of grouting shall be performed after a certain waiting period until the specified grouting pressure can be applied. b) constant rate of penetration tests. The grouting tubes shall be flushed with water after each grouting step and filled with grout at the end of the whole grouting process. The grouting shall be carried out either in single or multiple step(s) and in single or multiple stage(s). Static load tests on preliminary micropiles Static load tests on preliminary micropiles shall be performed when: a) new techniques are used for the execution of the micropiles. Static load tests on working micropiles In the project specifications it shall be specified if static load tests have to be performed on working micropiles. grout flushing should be carried out at a constant rate and the flush should be re-established each time a new section of bearing element are added prior to advancing the drill bit. For micropiles working in compression static load tests on at least two micropiles should be performed for the first 100 micropiles and 1 for each next 100 micropiles. For micropiles working in tension static load tests on at least two micropiles should be performed for the first 25 micropiles and 1 for each next 25 micropiles. Static load tests Static load tests on micropiles may consist of: a) maintained load tests. c) higher working loads are applied than those already adopted in similar ground conditions. The multi-stage grouting phase(s) shall take place only after the grout placed into the borehole has set. 80 . Multi-stage grouting Multi-stage grouting may be executed by single step grouting through tube-ă-manchettes (Figure 8) or by multiple step grouting through tube-ă-manchettes or special valves (Figure 9) or by single step grouting through several post-grouting tubes staggered in length (Figure 10). according to the project specifications. d) when the results of static load tests are used to determine the design load.the annulus around the reinforcing element. When grouting during drilling. Micropile testing Tests on micropiles can be performed on preliminary micropiles and/or working micropiles. b) micropiles have to be installed in ground conditions for which previous tests are not available.

Dynamic load tests and integrity tests The use of dynamic load tests and integrity tests can not be generalised for micropiles because the interpretation of the results concerning the bearing capacity and integrity may be difficult due to the small diameter andlor shape of the micropile and the presence of a bearing element. So the use of dynamic load tests and integrity tests has to be limited to cases where experience or comparison with static load tests has demonstrated that the results can he interpretated in a confident way. For dynamic load tests the micropile shall be allowed to gain sufficient strength after installation and before testing. Figure 5 – Filling up a borehole with grout Figure 6 – Single step grouting through a temporary casing 81 .

Figure 7 – Single step grouting through a load bearing element Figure 8 – Single step grouting through a tube-à-manchettes 82 .

Key 1 Packer Figure 9 – Multiple step grouting through a tube-à-manchettes or special valves Figure 10 – Single step grouting through several post-grouting tubes 83 .

c) different shapes and configurations.) admixture (aditiv) dispersant. b) treatment of the soil to a minimum depth of 3 m. distribute and mix the binder with the soil. DEEP MIXING Deep mixing works are carried out by two different methods: dry mixing and wet mixing and form the objects of EN 14679. which involve: a) mixing by rotating mechanical mixing tools where the lateral support provided to the surrounding soil is not removed. in which the mixing tool is delivered to the appropriate depth and initial mixing and fluidisation of the soil take place retrieval (upstroke) 84 . arms. e) other ground improvement methods using similar techniques exist. binders with or without fillers and admixtures binder (liant) chemically reactive materials (lime. consisting of either single columns. gypsum. etc. Deep mixing considered in EN 14679 is limited to methods. The mixing tool and the execution process govern the shape and size of the cross section of a column mixing tool tool used to disaggregate the soil. cement. fly ash. walls or any combination of more than one single column.) column pillar of treated soil manufactured in situ by a single installation process using a mixing tool. blast furnace slag.9. limestone powder etc. retarding agent filler non-reacting material (sand. fluidifier. panels. paddles with/without continuous or discontinuous flight augers penetration (downstroke) stage/phase of mixing process cycle. consisting of one or several rotating units equipped with several blades. waste deposits and slurries. overlapping or not: d) treatment of natural soil. fill. grids.. etc. Definitions dry mixing (malaxare în uscat) process consisting of mechanical disaggregation of the soil in situ and its mixing with binders with or without fillers and admixtures in dry powder form wet mixing (malaxare umedă) process consisting of mechanical disaggregation of the soil in situ and its mixing with a slurry consisting of water. blocks.

however. Dry mixing. More recently. in which the final mixing and retrieval of the mixing tool take place Material and products Construction of deep mixing involves the addition of a binder and. The improvement becomes possible by ion exchange at the surface of clay minerals. some variations of machines. water. dry mixing originated in Sweden as lime (powdered lime) mixing to improve the settlement characteristics of soft. During penetration. The main applications are reduction of settlement. using granular quick lime (unslaked lime) as a binder. etc. auger-based or blade-based). Fields of application A variety of applications for deep mixing exists for temporary or permanent works and either on land or marine. filler. Wet mixing. using cement slurry as a binder. admixture. if needed. plastic clays. was put into practice in Japan in the middle of the 1970's. was also put into practice in Japan in the middle of the 1970's. the mixing tool(s) cut and disaggregate the soil to the desired depth of treatment. e. Recently. Deep mixing can be carried out by two different methods: dry mixing where the binder is introduced by air and wet mixing where the binder is in slurry form. to increase the shear strength and/or reduce the compressibility. Deep mixing has since spread into other parts of the world. lime/cement and possible additives.) and the method of mixing (wet/dry. in which the binder is injected during the penetration phase and both in the penetration and retrieval phase.g. by mixing the soil with some type of chemical additives that react with the soil. structural reinforcement. the combination of cement and lime with gypsum. such as gypsum. improvement of stability and containment. The mixing blades rotate in the horizontal plane and mix the soil and the binder. Figure 1. fly ash and slag has been introduced. fly ash. as the retrieval speed is kept constant. penetration and retrieval. Deep mixing is classified with regard to the binder utilised (cement. During retrieval. one or more of the following components to the soil: a. Execution The execution consists typically of positioning. c. bonding of soil particles and/or filling of voids by chemical reaction products. There are. The development of deep mixing was started in Sweden and Japan in the late 1960's. the binder is injected into the soil at a constant flow rate. rotary/jet-based. b. Approximately at the same time.stage/phase of mixing process cycle. hybrid techniques have been developed by combining deep mixing with other soil improvement methods (such as jet grouting) or other machinery (surface mixing). Practical aspects of deep mixing The objective of deep mixing is to improve the soil characteristics. d. 85 .

86 . (The moisture content of the soil needs to be ኑ 20%). lime.In dry mixing the binder is usually a mixture of cement and lime (unslaked). For certain applications. Dry mixing Dry mixing is normally carried out in accordance with some general principles. gypsum. or a combination of cement. As can be seen in the flow chart. Figure 1. dry mixing has also been used in loose granular soil. . Air is used to feed (or incorporate) the binder into the soil. the binder is fed into the soil in dry form with the aid of compressed air. Two major techniques for dry mixing exist at present: the Nordic and the Japanese techniques.Applications of deep mixing for various purposes In wet mixing the most common binder is cement. whereas wet mixing is applied also in order to improve the characteristics of granular material. blast furnace slag or pulverized fuel ash (PFA) in granular or powdered form. such as prevention of liquefaction. Dry mixing is primarily utilised to improve the characteristics of cohesive soil.

3) after reaching the desired depth.Sequence of installation The installation is carried out according to the following procedure. the shaft is withdrawn and at the same time. During the retrieval phase. the binder in granular or powder form is injected into the soil. 87 . The mixing tool is drilled down to the final depth and a predetermined amount of binder is added through an inner tube with an opening at the mixing tool (during the retrieval phase). Mixing energy and amount of binder are monitored and in some cases automatically controlled to achieve uniform treated soil. Both phases can be repeated for the same location. The columns can be inclined up to about 70' in relation to the vertical.Figure 2. if required. usually cement powder.6 m to 1. .3 m and are able to install columns to a depth of 33 m. the soil and binder are mixed by continued turning of the mixing tool. is brought to the mixing machine by compressed air. from left to right (Figure 2): 1) the mixing tool is correctly positioned. The machines have one mixing shaft with the injection outlet positioned at the mixing tool. which have either one or two mixing shafts.0 m. 2) the mixing shaft penetrates to the desired depth of treatment with simultaneous disaggregation of the soil by the mixing tool. 5) completion of the treated column. Nordic technique Equipments used in the Nordic countries are able to install columns to a depth of 25 m with a column diameter of normally 0. The binder. Japanese technique There are several variations of execution machines.8 m to 1. 4) the mixing tool rotates in the horizontal plane and mixes the soil and the binder. Each mixing shaft of these machines have several blades with a diameter of 0.

Depending on the type of soil and slurry. a number of different patterns of column installations are used (Figures 3. shape of the grains. Whereas flight augers may be sufficient for predominantly granular soils. the columns are usually placed in an equilateral triangular or in a square pattern. Patterns of installation Depending on the purpose of deep mixing. If. organic content. Strength and permeability depend strongly on the composition and characteristics of the soil (fines content. For machines with the outlet below the mixing tool the slurry need not be added during the retrieval phase. a mortar-like mixture is created which hardens during the hydration process. Pumps for transport of the slurry to the outlet need to have sufficient capacity (delivery rate and pressure) to safely deliver the design quantity of slurry. wall type and grid type installations. cuts or embankments.5 m in the soil already treated. the purpose is to ensure stability of.Comparison of the Nordic and Japanese dry mixing techniques Wet mixing In wet mixing the binder is usually cemnt slurry. increasing fineness and stiffness requires more complicated mixing tools provided with mixing and cutting blades of different shapes and arrangements The rotary drives. need to have enough power to destroy the matrix of the soil for intimate mixture with the slurry. The specific quantity of slurry added can vary with depth. North America and Japan. the amount and type of binder and the mixing procedure. turning the shaft. Filler (sand and additives) may be added to the slurry when necessary. grain hardness). for example. 88 . 4. Overlapping is normal in block type. on the other hand. Overlapping of the columns is particularly important when the columns are installed for containment purposes. grain size distribution. The wet mixing process can be interrupted on condition that the slurry has not begun to harden and the mixing tool starts again at least 0. 5. Wet mixing is common in Central and Southern Europe. If the main purpose is to reduce settlement. 6). the columns are usually placed in walls perpendicular to the expected failure surface. type of clay.

Examples of treatment patterns in dry mixing Figure 4 .Block type pattern in dry mixing with overlapping columns Key 1 2 3 4 Wall type Grid type Block type Area type Figure 5 .Key 1 Strip 2 Group 3 Triangular 4 Square Figure 3 .Examples of treatment patterns in wet mixing on land 89 .

90 .g.Key 1 2 3 4 Wall type Grid type Block type Area type 5 6 7 8 Tangent Tangent Tangent Tangent column wall grid block Figure 6 . In Figure 7 are shown two types of mass stabilisation.Examples of treatment patterns in marine conditions Hybrid methods There are several methods. gyttja or organic clay and soft clay deposits. They typically combine hydraulic and mechanical mixing. mass stabilisation can be required. e. These methods. The binder is fed to the mixing head while the mixer rotates and simultaneously moves vertically and horizontally. Mostly the mass stabilisation machine is a conventional cavator but equipped with a mass stabilisation mixer. Mass stabilisation In cases where the soil conditions are very bad. peat. which in this context are named hybrid methods. are continuously under development to tackle particular ground conditions and foundation problems. in which the whole soil mass is treated down to a depth of normally 2 m to 3 m. which use techniques reminding of deep mixing. The maximum depth of treatment presently is 5 m. The mass stabilisation machines differ essentially from the column stabilisation machines.

gyttja or clay Peat. clay Direction of mass stabilisation Geotextile (reinforcement) Preloading embankment Figure 7 .Two types of mass stabilisation 91 .Key 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Stabiliser tank + scales Execution machine Mixing tool Mass stabilised peat. gyttja.

containing oscillating weights which cause horizontal vibrations. The following treatment methods are covered by EN 14731: methods in which depth vibrators.10. methods in which compaction probes are inserted into the ground using a vibrator which remains at the ground surface and which in most cases oscillates in a vertical mode. are inserted into the ground. the dry top-feed process.2 m. and penetrates into the ground.6 m and lower than 1. which vibrates horizontally by means of an eccentric weight rotating about its longitudinal axis. stone columns have a diameter greater than 0. The following types of treatment are covered by EN 14731: deep vibratory compaction to densify the existing ground. Definitions deep vibratory compaction type of ground treatment by deep vibration in which the main purpose is to densify the soil. the wet process and the dry bottom-feed process are described in Annex B depth vibrator basic component of ground treatment equipment used in the installation of vibrated stone columns and in vibro compaction. The treatment is applicable to many granular soils and normally results in increased strength and stiffness. DEEP VIBRATION Ground treatment by deep vibration achieved by depth vibrators and compaction probes is the object of EN 14731. wings. commonly a depth vibrator containing oscillating weights or a compaction probe inserted into the ground using a top vibrator which remains at the ground surface 92 . reduced permeability and reduced susceptibility to liquefaction vibrated stone columns type of ground treatment by deep vibration in which a depth vibrator is used to form continuous stone columns from the maximum depth of penetration up to the ground surface. and hence to form a stone column/soil structure which should have an increased strength and stiffness compared with the ground in an untreated state. The penetration in the ground can be made easier by air or water flushing top vibrator vibrator which remains above the ground surface compaction probe tool for deep vibratory compaction which is inserted into the ground to transmit vibrations from a top vibrator which remains at the ground surface. The treatment is applicable to a wide range of soils and in granular soils some densification may also be achieved. Three installation processes. vibrated stone columns to form a stiffened composite ground structure by the insertion of granular material which itself shall be densified. Generally. drainage or water flushing can be provided to facilitate the compaction process vibrating tool item of equipment which is inserted into the ground to cause vibration at depth.

This may be the natural granular material being compacted at the site or imported material. It is often found that a fines content of more than 10 % causes difficulties. or in combination with vertical drains. increasing fines content will reduce the compaction efficiency. compaction efficiency can be increased by using water flushing. Deep vibratory compaction of granular soils can be achieved by methods which use either a depth vibrator or a top vibrator. Compaction up to ground surface is only possible applying additional measures. graded appropriately for compaction to form a dense column fully interlocked with the surrounding ground and in compliance with other requirements such as drainage. suction or some other cause may not be suitable for this type of ground treatment. compatible with the plant used and flow freely within bottom-feed and through-feed delivery systems without arching which may block these systems. Soils exhibiting inter-particle bonding due to cementation. Materials for vibrated stone columns Material used to form stone columns shall be: sufficiently hard and chemically inert so as to remain stable during column construction and subsequent working life in the anticipated soil and groundwater conditions. Process Dry top-feed process Wet process Dry bottom-feed process Grading in mm 40 to 75 25 to 75 8 to 50 Deep vibratory compaction Deep vibratory compaction is usually restricted to granular soils. stabilises the hole and allows specified granular material to reach the tip of the depth vibrator where it is compacted (the process is described in Annex B) dry bottom-feed process method of installing vibrated stone columns in which specified granular material is delivered directly to the tip of the vibrator via a feed pipe attached to the vibrator. In some cases. 93 . Added materials shall be sufficiently hard and chemically inert so as to remain stable during the treatment process and subsequent working life in the anticipated soil and groundwater conditions. Gradings typically used with the different processes are given in the following table. with the vibrator remaining in the ground during the construction of the column to maintain the stability of the hole (the process is described in Annex B) Materials for deep vibratory compaction Material may be added during deep vibratory compaction.wet process method of installing vibrated stone columns in which flushing water removes soft material.

Depth vibrator Where a top vibrator is used. but special vibrators have been developed. 94 . Conventional vibrators for sheet-pile driving can be used. By means of vibration sensors placed on the ground. the probe will cause horizontal accelerations which may locally be greater than the vertical ones. the frequency can be adapted to amplify ground vibrations. which is designed to transfer the vibrations to the soil as efficiently as possible. and a vibrator with adjustable frequency. it is connected to the top of a compaction probe. this method is known as resonance compaction. Although the top vibrator usually vibrates vertically. Several different types of compaction probes are available including the vibro-wing (Figure 2) and other flexible probes. 1 . The compaction increases when resonance is created between the vibrating system (vibrator and compaction probe) and surrounding soil.Key 1 Eccentric weight (within) 2 Extension tube 3 Isolator 4 Water or air jets 5 Motor (within) 6 Fins to prevent twist 7 Nose cone Fig.

in Figure A. with closer spacings in the later passes. wet process and dry bottom-feed process.Vibro-wing Compaction is achieved by inserting the probe at treatment points usually on a triangular or rectangular grid.Fig. and for each method the installation of a single column is described. With the vibrated stone column processes.1. column installation is repeated for further columns at a predetermined spacing to effect the desired treatment. Penetration of the fill and/or underlying weak soil is effected by a combination of the weight of the 95 . dry top-feed process. which is an eccentric weight assembly rotating rapidly within a heavy tubular steel casing. All three processes use a similar type of depth vibrator. The nose of the vibrator is tapered to aid penetration on the ground. The compaction time at each point varies typically from 5 min to 40 min and the time required increases with the fine content of the soil. Dry top-feed process In granular soils.'shown . Installation of vibrated stone columns There are three principal methods of installing vibrated stone columns. The whole assembly is suspended from a crawler mounted crane and the vibrator is lowered onto the ground. The general arrangement of the ciepth vibrator is. 2 . this method is usually only possible above the water table. Compaction can be effected using several passes. At each treatment point the probe is inserted into the soil to the depth to which compaction is required. whilst vertical fins prevent the vibrator rotating during penetration. In practice small differences in detail may be noticed. Spacings are typically from lm to 4 m depending on the type and size of the compaction probe and vibrator capacity. The compaction is obtained during penetration or during penetration and extraction. The following descriptions are given as typical.

Key 1 Stone column being formed 2 Stockpile of granular infill 3 Vibrator Fig.Dry top-feed process Wet process The wet process is used where the dry top-feed process cannot be used because of unstable ground. The vibrator penetrates quickly through weak soils under its own weight aided by the water flushing and vibrations. By adding successive small charges of granular material and compacting each one to chosen levels of power consumption. lowered onto the ground and the water jets are opened. The vibrator compacts the granular infill and interlocks it tightly with the surrounding soil. 96 . Following formation of an open hole the vibrator is kept in the ground and the water flow reduced whilst clean inert granular material is successively heaped around the top of the vibrator bore at ground level. inert granular material is tipped into the hole and the vibrator is lowered again to compact the granular material and interlock it with the surrounding soils. a dense stone column is built up to ground level. The vibrator is partially withdrawn and is sometimes surged to flush out the weak soils accumulating in and adjacent to the bore. After reaching the required depth. Typically gradings for the granular material are within the range from 40 mm to 75 mm. The depth vibrator is similar to that used for the dry process but is equipped with water flushing. the high frequency vibration and compressed air. the vibrator is held in the ground for a short time and then withdrawn. A compressor supplies the depth vibrator with air. The cycle is repeated until a compact stone column is built up to ground level. The depth vibrator (Figure 4) is suspended from a suitable crane. It is important that the water flow is maintained until the vibrator reaches ground surface. which emerges from nozzles in the main steel housing just above the vibrator tip.vibrator. A small charge of clean. Typically gradings for the granular material are within the range from 25 mm to 75 mm. . The granular material then passes down between the vibrator and the surrounding soils to permit the construction of a stone column in short lifts and repenetration steps. The general arrangement is shown in Figure 3.

The bottomfeed depth vibrator has a heavy duty supply tube located down one side and permanently fixed to the vibrator forming a fully integrated vibrator/granular material supply.Key 1 Stone column 2 Stone stockpile 3 Water flushing 4 Vibrator Fig. holding the lift for a short time to allow the granular material to run. 4 . until a compact stone column is formed up to ground level. and then forcing the vibrator down on the charge of granular material to compact and tightly interlock it with the surrounding soil. Typically gradings for the granular material are within the range from 8 mm to 50 mm. 97 . The stone column is then formed and compacted by lifting the vibrator. using an additional pull down force if necessary. This is repeated. The vibrator is positioned on the ground at the treatment point location. With the granular material in the supply tube acting as a plug at the tip of the vibrator. and the whole system is charged with granular material. the process can operate successfully in unstable hole conditions and can be used instead of the wet process in most cases. charging the system with granular material as necessary. assisted as necessary by compressed air and under the combined action of the vibrations and its weight. The general arrangement is shown in Figure 5. The cycle of operations for this completely dry process is as follows.Wet process Dry bottom-feed process As the vibrator remains in the hole during column construction. the depth vibrator penetrates the ground to the required depth. The supply tube bends inwards at the vibrator tip to ensure a central location for the supply of granular material.

Key 1 Pressure chamber 2 Vibrator 3 Stone stockpile 4 Stone feed bucket 5 Stone delivery tube Fig. 5 .Dry bottom-feed process 98 .

Vertical drainage is covered by EN 15237. ports and airports. remediation of contaminated ground. induced by the loading operation. . A possible decrease in shear strength has to be taken into account in cases where stability under loading conditions may be threatened. gyttja (Decomposed plant and animal remains. . Fields of application The installation of vertical drains is carried out as a means of speeding up Iong-term consolidation settlements caused by loading. Examples of areas where this technique has generally been applied are: . which previously were frequently used.marine constructions and near-shore applications. terminals etc.11. Execution of vertical drainage The functional requirements of the project form the basis for the geotechnical design of vertical drainage. a process whose duration depends on the consolidation characteristics of the soil and the drainage paths (the longer the drainage paths. causes a stress increase exceeding the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil. preloading for landfills. The aim of vertical drain installation is to shorten the drainage paths and the time required for the excess pore water pressure.. with the exception of drains used for liquefaction mitigation where the lifetime needs to be significantly longer. may contain inorganic constituents). Prefabricated drain types have gradually replaced sand drains. In seismic regions vertical drainage can also be used for the purpose of mitigating liquefaction phenomena.. the longer the consolidation process). the placement of a drainage blanket. pore water is squeezed out of the soil in the horizontal direction towards the drains and thereafter in the vertical 99 . positioning of the drain pattern and installation of the drains. A growing area of application is in the environmental field. followed by the loading operation and monitoring.g. VERTICAL DRAINAGE In cases where external loading of low-permeability soils. The volume decrease of the soil caused thereby is accompanied by a gradual increase in effective stress and a corresponding decrease in excess pore water pressure. The execution of a vertical drainage system includes the creation of a working platform. The installation of vertical drains may detrimentally affect the original properties of the soil (e. followed by a consolidation process in which pore water is squeezed out of the soil. Vertical drainage and preloading are illustrated in Figure 1. The consolidation process will continue until the excess pore water pressure has completely dissipated and the load is carried by effective stresses. The required life span of vertical drains is normally limited to a maximum of about 5 years.embankments for construction sites of housing estates.embankments for roads and railroads. . decomposed peat etc. excess pore water pressure will be induced. industrial estates.construction and reinforcements of dikes. The time of excess pore water pressure dissipation (the consolidation time) will be shorter the closer the drains are installed. to dissipate. Contaminated water squeezed out through the drains may have to be treated before disposal. decrease the shear strength and coefficient of consolidation). Another objective is to improve stability conditions by an overall increase in shear strength. Due to the excess pore water pressure created by loading. .land reclamation. such as clay.

Key 1 2 3 4 5 surcharge load drainage blanket vertical drains clay layer pore water flow Figure 1 . Figure 2. The width of the band drains is typically 100 mm.Sketch showing fully penetrating drains (drains in contact with drainage layers at top and bottom). a) Channel-shaped core with glued filter b) Channel-shaped core with wrapped filter c) Geo-mat with edge-sealed filter d) Cusp-shaped core with wrapped filter Figure 2 . This should be considered in the design. Drain types Band drains Prefabricated band drains consist typically of a central core surrounded by a filter sleeve.Examples of band drains 100 . drainage blanket and surcharge load Depending upon the installation method and procedure used. decrease the shear strength and coefficient of consolidation).direction through the drains. A generally smaller amount of water is also squeezed out of the soil in the vertical direction between the drains (contributory effect of one-dimensional consolidation). the installation of vertical drains may affect the original properties of the soil (e.g.

Band drains are installed inside a hollow mandrel with rectangular. Moreover. shocks. Figure 3. typically 50 mm in outer diameter and 45 mm in inner diameter. preferably about 25 cm above the working platform. rapid tension and ageing. During installation the soil should be prevented from intruding between the inside surface of the mandrel and the drain. The penetration of the mandrel is either performed by means of a static load or by dynamic action. Static installation is preferable in soils sensitive to disturbance. Figure 3 . made of annular-corrugated perforated plastic. An anchor plate is fixed to the drain tip before installation and prevents soil from intruding into the mandrel during installation. prevents the drain from being dragged up when the mandrel is withdrawn. The shape of the mandrel and the anchor needs to be fitted to prevent soil intrusion into the mandrel. Method of installation The prefabricated cylindrical drains are installed inside a hollow. cylindrical mandrel with an external diameter of typically 100 mm. the drain will be subjected to high tensile forces upon withdrawal. The mandrel. After withdrawal of the mandrel. which is fixed to the drain tip before installation. An anchor. resistant to crushing. the drains should be cut in a way to ascertain good contact with the drainage blanket. which is normally pushed into the soil by static loading. The size of the mandrel is normally adapted to leave a free inside space for the band drain during installation. Otherwise. surrounded by a filter sock made of non-woven geotextile. 101 .Example of band drain anchor Prefabricated cylindrical drains Types of drains A prefabricated drain consists of a tubular core. rhomboid or circular crosssection. the bending rigidity of the mandrel needs to be high enough to ensure verticality of the drain installed. using a vibratory or impact hammer. needs to have sufficient rigidity.

However. then pulling it upwards while sand is transferred to the hole below the auger tip through the axis. The hollow auger method consists of screwing the auger down to the required depth and then pulling it upwards while sand is transferred to the hole below the auger tip through 102 . 4 – Grain size limits of granular material to be used in sand drains Methods of installation Sand drains are either installed by so-called non-displacement methods or by so-called displacement methods. Key 1 sand 2 gravel 3 grain size d. flight augering and wash boring. 18 cm to 50 cm in diameter. water jetting. falling outside the limits of the cross-ruled area. The sand used for sand drains should preferably fall within the grain size limits shown with crossruled area in Figure 4. The auger method consists in screwing the auger down to the required depth. The grain size distribution of the sand used in these case histories falls within the limits given by the outer unbroken lines in Figure 4. Sand drains Types of drains Sand drains usually consist of sand columns. % of total mass Fig. powered auger drilling. mm 4 content of grains <d in wt. preferably 25 cm above the working blanket. there are many case histories where sand drains have functioned successfully having wider grain size distributions.Upon withdrawal of the mandrel the drains are cut in a way to ascertain good contact with the drainage layer. The non-displacement methods comprise shell and auger drilling. which are installed into the soil and are in direct contact with the soil.

The execution of a vertical drainage project requires the presence of a working platform with an upper surface suitable to facilitate the vertical installation of the drains. In the water jetting method. The un-drained shear strength of the soil may be detrimentally affected. Alternatively. As the mandrel is withdrawn. At sites of drain installation where the stability conditions are unsatisfactory. In the mandrel method a hollow mandrel with a flap at its lower end is driven into the ground. The consolidation settlement causes a depression of the central part of the drainage blanket. which after installation is continuously pulled upwards without compacting the sand fill. Alternatively. In the vibro installation method. Loading needs to be carried out in such a way that the stability of the ground is not endangered. it is important that the filling operation is monitored by settlement and pore pressure observations. Loading The loading operation usually consists of placing a surface load on top of the drainage blanket. a mandrel with or without a flap on its lower end is inserted into the soil to the required depth by means of a top vibrator mounted on the mandrel. required to permit the placement of the next load-step. the surface load can be replaced or augmented by the vacuum method. followed by investigation of the gain in shear strength and dissipation of excess pore water pressure during the consolidation process. Groundwater lowering in permeable strata in connection with the drains can also be used as an alternative to. the drains are installed by means of a depth vibrator. and so on. Therefore. In this case the drainage blanket is overlain by an airtight cover and sealed hermetically along its outer borders. In most cases. The drainage blanket is connected to a vacuum pump. especially in cases where the width of the drainage blanket is large. Drainage blanket and working platform For the efficiency of the vertical drainage system an appropriate drainage blanket (a layer of granular material of appropriate thickness and/or a geotextile or geotextile-related products) should be installed. If the shear strength of the soil is too low to permit placement of the fill to full height. loading has to be carried out stepwise. or in combination with. which will be filled with sand. This is a critical phase of vertical drainage projects.its hollow axis. but also by the loading operation if carried out with heavy equipment. The displacement methods comprise mandrel or vibro installation methods. the flap opens and water-saturated sand filled into the mandrel thereby creates the sand drain. The working platform needs to be capable of carrying the installation equipment. Sand is then poured into the hole without compaction. the unit weight of the fill used for loading has to be defined and controlled. is first created by water jetting at a pressure and flow adjusted to the soil condition. Temporary wells for removing drained water from the drainage blanket may therefore be required. The placement of a geotextile separation layer underneath the working platform may be a way of avoiding the risk of heterogeneities in the working platform. external loading. the hole. loading berms are required. Protection of the drainage blanket against frost effects should be considered when relevant. not only by the drain installation in itself. In the case of stepwise loading the specified thickness of each embankment layer need to be checked in order to avoid excess loading and consequential failure. Figure 5. which produces under-pressure in the drains in relation to the pore 103 . After installation the vibrator is continuously pulled upwards without compacting the sand fill exerting from the lower end of the mandrel. The presence of pockets and lenses of soft soil in the working platform can significantly reduce the local bearing capacity and result in overturning of the installation rig.

Therefore. The aim of soil improvement by vertical drainage is generally to prevent unacceptable settlement from taking place. It is important that the monitoring system is installed in due time before the installation of the drains.water pressure in the soil and results in consolidation [9] [10]. = pore water pressure in the drains uvac = under-pressure (assumed equal to a vacuum of 70 % of atmospheric pressure) a) pore pressure dissipation caused by the drains b) pore pressure dissipation without drains 1 airtight cover 2 to vacuum pump Figure 5 – Sketch of the vacuum method and its effect on power water pressure. Key u d. Typical locations for observations of settlement and pore pressures for a case with homogeneous ground of limited thickness are shown in Figure 6 and for a case with stratified ground in Figure 7. The under-pressure achieved by the vacuum method in this case is maximum 70 kPa to 80 kPa. settlement observations are a necessary ingredient in the monitoring system. The measured values are used to check the actual rate of consolidation and the assumptions made in the design. The piezometers should be placed in the centre between the drains where the rate of consolidation is a minimum. both for horizontal pore water flow towards the drains (a) and for vertical pore water flow between the drains (b) Monitoring The effect of vertical drainage should be monitored by both settlement and pore pressure measurements. both with regard to the effect of drain installation itself (excess pore pressure due to disturbance caused by drain installation and its possible negative influence on stability) and with regard to the interpretation of the results of observation subsequently achieved. The number of measurement profiles depends on the extent of the site and the thickness and 104 . Excess pore pressure observations by means of piezometers installed at different depths is doubtless the most appropriate way of checking that the degree of consolidation has reached the set level according to the design.

Key 1 embankment 2 drainage blanket and working platform 3 vertical drain 4 compressible soil 5 underlying permeable layer 6 settlement gauge 7 piezometer Figure 6 . i. If the discharge capacity of the drains is too low this will strongly influence the degree of consolidation achieved with increasing depth of installation.Typical instrumentation for monitoring the efficiency of vertical drainage (site with different layers) In practice.Typical instrumentation for monitoring the efficiency of vertical drainage (simple case) Key 1 embankment 2 drainage blanket and working platform 3 vertical drain 4 compressible soil 5 underlying permeable layer 6 settlement gauge 7 piezometer 8 permeable sand layer 9 compressible soil Figure 7 . Using only surface settlement observations as a means of checking the degree of consolidation achieved throughout the soil layer may consequently lead to wrong conclusions. 105 . one needs to consider the degree of consolidation achieved in the soil layers having the lowest coefficient of consolidation (usually having also the most unfavourable compression characteristics). in the middle of the clay layer.layering of the compressible layers that are treated by vertical drainage. In homogeneous soil condition.e. the lowest degree of consolidation is achieved where the effect of vertical onedimensional consolidation is minimal.

hydraulic fracturing) . compress. fissure and contact grouting fissure grouting the injection of grout into fissures. Definitions grout a pumpable material (suspension. fractures and discontinuities. joints. injected into soil or rock. volume and the flow rate). fissure grouting. or displace the ground compaction grouting a displacement grouting method which aims at forcing a mortar of high internal friction into the soil to compact it without fracturing it hydraulic fracturing (hydraulic fracture. solution. The following principles and methods of geotechnical grouting are covered by EN 12715: . emulsion or mortar).grouting without displacement of the host material (permeation. particularly in rock contact grouting the injection of grout into the interface between man-made structures and the ground bulk filling bulk filling is the placement of grout with a high particulate content to fill substantial voids 106 . The term includes permeation (impregnation). hydrosplitting. without displacing the ground. hydrojacking or claquage non-displacement grouting substitution of the natural interstitial fluid in the accessible existing voids of the ground by a grout or mortar without any significant displacement of the ground. GROUTING Grouting for geotechnical purposes (geotechnical grouting) is a process in which the remote placement of a pumpable material in the ground is indirectly controlled by adjusting its rheological characteristics and by the manipulation of the placement parameters (pressure.12. or pore spaces in soil.displacement grouting (compaction grouting. bulk filling). which stiffens and sets with time displacement grouting injection of grout into a host medium in such a manner as to deform. also called hydrofracturing. The term includes penetration grouting and bulk filling permeation (impregnation) grouting the replacement of interstitial water or gas of a porous medium with a grout at injection pressures low enough prevent displacement penetration grouting grout injection of joints or fractures in rock. . claquage grouting) the fracturing of a ground initiated by the injection of water or grout under a pressure in excess of the local tensile strength and confining pressure.

especially of the microfine products used.the rate of sedimentation and bleeding . gravels and fillers Grouts Grouts are classified as: . etc.toxicity. b.their water retention capacity under pressure filtration. . if applicable . c. . Setting time.strength and durability . 107 . Hydraulic binders and cements Hydraulic binders include all cements and similar products used in water suspension for making grouts.suspensions: either particulate or colloidal suspensions .). Microfine (ultra-fine) hydraulic binders or cements are characterised by a particle size d95 of less than 20 µm. .the grain size distribution of the solid particles . particle size. or to improve the pumpability of the grout. cohesion. Suspensions Suspensions are characterised by: . water content.Grout classification The following intrinsic properties shall be considered when choosing a grout: . Clay materials Natural clays. The mineralogy.their water/solid ratio .solutions: either true or colloidal solutions . . .particle size. . shall be known. The granulometric curve. and Atterberg liquid limit of the clay should be known. Sands.Grout materiais a. to vary the viscosity and cohesion (yield) of the grout. Figure 1 . .rheology (viscosity. activated or modified bentonites can be added to cement based grouts in order to reduce bleeding and filtration under pressure. Stability . .mortars.

open fissures and voids in granular soils. When used for compaction grouting.Application of resin grouts Mortars Mortars showing high internal friction are used for compaction grouting or for the filling of voids. Organic silicate gels may lead to the proliferation of bacteria in the ground. Resins are usually applied under the circumstances given in Table 2. They shall be stable and their rheological behaviour (similar to suspensions) is usually characterised with suitably selected flow cones. large cracks.Grouting principles and methods 108 .1 mm. the mortar should contain a minimum of 15% of fines pass 0. Grouting principles and methods The introduction of grout in a host medium is achieved either wiht or without displacement of the ground. Their rheological behaviour is usually determined by slump tests. Table 2 . Mortars flowing under their own weight are generally used for filling cavities. Figure 2 illustrates the various injection methods associated with these two principles: Figure 2 .Solutions Some types of silicate grout are not stable with time and their use should be carefully assessed.

produce controlled uplift of structures . Hydraulic fracturing Grouting by hydraulic fracturing is used to: . The grout is usually extruded from open-ended injection tubes. 3. Hence. It is difficult to control the propagation of an hydraulic fracture plane. It reduces the permeability of the host material and usually increases the strength and density. fractures or joints in a rock mass with grouts without creating new or opening existing fractures. spread over a period of time. and hydraulic fracturing (claquage). Fissure and contact grouting Fissure grouting aims at filling open fissures.achieve watertightness by creating compartments.reinforce or stabilise the ground (soil or rock) .Grouting without ground displacement (non-displacement grouting) Permeation (impregnation) grouting Permeation grouting aims at filling the accessible interstices between grains in permeable soils by a grout without destruction of the integrity of the ground. . Compaction grouting Compaction grouting refers to the intrusion of a comparatively stiff (viscous) particulate grout into the ground to induce displacement and deformation. Grouting with ground displacement (displacement grouting) Displacement grouting refers to the injection of grout under pressure with the deliberate intent of spatially displacing the host medium. Controlled displacement grouting can be employed to strengthen the ground under existing structures. The grout consistency is such that the grout remains as a homogeneous mass and neither permeation nor hydraulic fracturing of the host medium occurs. The term is generally applied to the placement of large volumes of grout under gravity or at low pressures. . In order to avoid displacement. The method is used to increase the density of a plastically deformable materiai. the grouting objective should usually be achieved by an incremental series of injections. Bulk filling may be followed by a phase of grouting under pressure to fill the remaining voids. permeation grouting shall be carried out at carefully controlled pressures and flow rates.nd the volume of the treated mass where the plastic deformation limit is reached. Bulk filling Bulk filling is used for the filling of large natural or man made openings. Compaction grouting is most often used to compact and densify loose ground and to raise and 109 . The term includes injection methods such as compaction grouting. in order to reduce the permeability and/or increase the strength of the grouted mass.

Applicability The type of grout applicable for different types of ground are shown in Table 3.the grout volume V per pass . . . . In rock. such as the D10/d90 or D15/d85 criterion.the flow or placement rate Q.the grout rheology. The final grid of grout holes is generally defined during the grouting process.support structures which have settled. Table 3 – Indicative grouts for different types of ground Grout placement The injection process is governed by: . the maximum particle size to fissure width is considered (a ratio of three is commonly used). 110 . Grout In soils.the injection pressure P. can be used to assess the penetrability of particulate grouts. a groutability ratio. in accordance with the results of control tests performed in the centre of the primary grid.

with each stage requiring a sequence of injection passes of differing grout types. . . The grout placement sequence may progress to multiple stages. the results to be obtaineti.pumping equipment .percussion drilling using either an external or down-the-hole hammer . depth. the type of grout to be used. Drilling pattern and borehole design The number. injection pressure and rate of grout take.monitoring and testing equipment. Vand Pfor a given mix design. the permissible injection pressure is the maximum pressure at which a grout is allowed to be introduced into the ground in order to avoid any undesirable deformation of the ground. cased percussion 111 .packers . position. For permeation. the grouting pressure is measured at the grout delivery pump and/or at the hole collar. . and friction losses in the delivery system. spacing. . For non-displacement grouting. a value for the permissible injection pressure shall be given in the design. Grouting pressure In general practice. . the type of structure to be grouted. During non-displacement grouting of soils. the effective (or limit) grouting pressure is dependent on the confining pressure at the point of injection. variations in hydraulic head.injection piping . Grouting sequence In its simplest form. . diameter. a sequence constitutes a single grout type introduced through a single hole. Drilling The following drilling methods may be employed: .mixing and proportioning equipment .The design should indicate how to adapt Q. to the anticipated ground response during grout placement.rotational drilling . However. In non-displacement grouting. Execution The equipment required to perform a grouting operation includes: . the grouting method and purpose. The design shall make adequate provision for any variation in the above parameters.drilling and driving equipment . over many holes. will result in this 'working pressure' being different from the 'effective pressure' acting in the ground. the flow (injection) rate Q should be controlled to ensure that the effective pressure remains lower than the ground fracturing pressure. inclination and orientation of boreholes and injection points shall be based on geological conditions. or the rheology of the mix design.

. The basic approaches are the following a) injection in unsupported boreholes in stable ground . . Large openings (voids. in unstable ground .grab-. generally considered as a pre-grouting phase and to be followed by approaches a) or b) . chisel. Grout placement The method of grout placement will be determined by the ground condition. grout sheath. pierced casing. Sleeve pipes which are permanently seaied into the ground by use of a support mix (sleeve grout) allow a repeated use of the injection points.) are generally filled under gravity. Soil grouting can be achieved with casing. or via a tremie pipe extending to the base of the opening. If several holes are grouted using downstage grouting.progressive stabilisation as the borehole advances. b) injection via sleeve pipes previously placed in a temporarily cased borehole. c) injection through the drill string in unstable ground. d) compaction grouting is usually performed through a casing retrieved during upstage grouting. and have to be long enough to minimise the risk of grout bypass through the medium being grouted. and sleeve pipes. . Combinations of these techniques are possible.and bailer borings . grouts or foams . Grouting sequences Descending or downstage grouting is commonly reserved for the treatment of unstable rock. the works requirement and the type of grout used. 112 . . In unstable ground full borehole penetration may require: .driving of lances .drilling .temporary casing . mechanical or pneumatic.the use of drilling muds. Packers shall ensure tight sealing between the grout hole wall and the injection pipe at maximum grouting pressure.direct insertion of sleeve pipes . . either directly. using sleeve pipes is generally used in soils and sometimes in unstable rock. Packers are used to isolate a grouting stage. .vibrating of casing or drill pipes. etc. the uppermost stage in all holes is drilled and grouted before drilling and grouting the next stage in all neighbouring holes. Multistage grouting. cavities. Upstage grouting is only used in open holes in stable rock or if the aim is compaction grouting. Packers are either passive.

3 d) horizontal jet grouting treatment performed from a horizontal or sub-horizontal borehole (within ± 20° from the horizontal plane) jet grouting rig rotary rig able to automatically regulate the rotation and translation of the jet grouting string and tool jet grouting string jointed rods. .jet grouted column : a cylindrical jet grouted element (Fig.jet grouted panel : a planar jet grouted element (Fig. the disaggregation is achieved by means of a high energy jet of a fluid which can be the cementing agent itself jet grouted element volume of soil treated through a single borehole. usually a cement grout (Fig.2 a) .jet grouted canopy : a structure formed by horizontal jet grouting . a cementing agent.13. single system the jet grouting process in which the disaggregation and cementation of soil are achieved by a high energy jet of a single fluid.2 c) . . and partial replacement by. The most common structures formed are: . jet grouted structure an assembly of jet grouted elements which are partially or fully interlocked. and its cementing is simultaneously obtained by a separate grout jet (Fig. double or triple inner conduit.1 a) .jet grouted block : a three-dimensional structure.3 a) double (air) system the jet grouting process in which the disaggregation and the cementation of soil are achieved by one high energy fluid (usually a cement grout) assisted by an air jet shroud as a second fluid (Fig.jet grouted slab : a horizontal structure formed by essentially vertical jet grouting (Fig.3 b) double (water) system the jet grouting process in which the disaggregation of the soil is achieved by a high energy water jet and its cementing is simultaneously obtained by a separate grout jet (Fig.8 below (Fig. with simple.jet grouted diaphragm : a wall structure (Fig.1 b). The most common elements are: .2 b) . Definitions jet grouting the jet grouting process consists of the disaggregation of the soil or weak rock and its mixing with. .see 3.3 c) triple system the jet grouting process in which the disaggregation of the soil is achieved by a high energy water jet assisted by an air jet shroud. which convey the jet grouting fluid(s) to the monitor 113 . . JET GROUTING The jet grouting method is covered by the EN 12716.

4 a) primary-secondary sequence the sequence of work. flow rate of the fluid(s) within the jet grouting string . measured from the axis of the monitor spoil return the surplus mixture of soil particles and introduced fluids arising from the jet grouting process. prejetting the method in which the jet grouting of an element is facilitated by a preliminary disaggregation phase.4 b) jet grouted material the material which constitutes the body of a jet grouted element reinforced jet grouting jet grouted columns reinforced by steel or other high strength material 114 . to enable jetting of the fluids into the ground nozzle a specially manufactured device fitted into the monitor and designed to transform the high pressure fluid flow in the string into the high speed jet directed at the soil radius of influence effective distance of disaggregation of soil by the jet. grout composition . and normally flowing to the ground surface via the annulus of the jetting borehole jet grouting parameters the jet grouting parameters are defined: pressure of the fluid(s) within the jet grouting string . fresh-in-fresh sequence the sequence of work in which the jet grouted elements are constructed successively without waiting for the grout to harden in the overlapping elements (Fig.monitor the tool mounted at the end of the jet grouting string. with a jet of water and/or other fluids Prejetting is also widely known as prewashing or precutting. rate of withdrawal or insertion of the jet grouting string.in which the execution of an overlapping element cannot commence before a specified hardening time or achievement of predetermined strength of the adjacent elements previously constructed (Fig. rotation speed of the jet grouting string.

Figure 1 a) – Jet grouted column Figure 1 b) – Jet grouted panel Figure 1 – Examples of jet grouted elements Figure 2 a) – Jet grouted diaphragms 115 .

Figure 2 b) – Jet grouted slab Figure 2 c) – Jet grouted canopy Figure 2 – Examples of jet grouted structures Key 1 Monitor Figure 3 a) – Single system 116 .

Key 1 Monitor Figure 3 b) – Double (air) system Key 1 Monitor Figure 3 c) – Double (water) system 117 .

5. Water reducing. Hydraulic binders other than cement can be used. plasticising. In water/cement mixes the water/cement ratio by weight should range between 0. fly-ash. waterproofing or antiwashing admixtures can be added to the water/cement mix. such as bentonite. a water/bentonite suspension should be prepared before adding cement. filler. stabilizing. 118 .Key 1 Monitor Figure 3 d) – Schemes of jet grouting systems Figure 4 a) – Fresh in fresh sequence Figure 4 b) – Primary – secondary sequence Figure 4 – Work sequences Materials Mixes composed of water and cement are usually adopted. Other materials.5 and 1. When bentonite is to be used in the mix. can also be added to the mix.

underpinning existing foundations (Fig. Figure 5 a) – Foundation for structure to be erected Figure 5 b) – Underpinning existing foundation Figure 5 – Examples of applications 119 .Examples of applications Jet grouting can be applied in either temporary or permanent works for different purposes. reinforcing a soil mass. creating retaining or supporting structures .5 b) .5 a) . creating low permeability barriers . complementing other geotechnical works . For example: providing foundations for structures to be erected (Fig.

high pressure grout pump . Jet grouted panel execution method The phases of execution are the same as defined for jet grouted columns. . simultaneously withdrawing and rotating the rods. 120 . depth. . The resulting panel is placed in a plane on the drilling axis. agitator tanks.the high pressure lines connecting the jet grouting pump to the rig .jetting of the disaggregating and cementing fluid(s) through the monitor. Among alternatives the most usual is prejetting. The jet grouting string . with the exception that during jetting the rods are withdrawn and not rotated. or is formed by two or more sections on planes intersecting the drilling axis (Fig. or water and cement mix respectively) to the monitor.introducing to the end of the borehole a monitor connected to the jet grouting string.Execution The execution of jet grouting works requires knowledge and experience in this type of construction. . colloidal mixing plant. one conduit conveying the high pressure the cement mix to the monitor. . and so on. Equipment < The jet grouting equipment usually comprises: . alternative execution methods may be adopted. until the design length of the treatment is reached.the drilling rig . This is unnecessary in some cases as the string and monitor are used for drilling . after redrilling the treated soil.the mixing and pumping plant supplying the jet grouting fluid (or fluids) .1 b). Jet grouted column execution method The phases of execution usually consist of: drilling a borehole of a predetermined length .equipment to monitor pressures. An element can also be executed in sequential treatment for a given length from the borehole collar is completed and allowed to gain strength. Alternatively the rods can be rotated about limited angles. .for the triple system. mainly comprises . fluids flow rates and volumes. for the different systems. Alternative execution methods If required by soil conditions.the jet grouting rig (often is also the drilling rig) provided with the jet grouting string. . rate of rotation and withdrawal. the compressed air and the cement mix to the monitor. three conduits to allow for the high pressure water. two conduits separately conveying the two fluids (air and cement mix. the monitor and the devices able to drive the jet grouting string at predetermined rotation and translation speeds . both for column or panel processes. .for the single system. pump pressure and flow rate for each fluid. . The high pressure employed in the jet grouting process is to generate a high speed jet to disaggregate the soil and is not intended to be applied to the surrounding soil. the process is repeated at a deeper stage. Then.for the single system : cement and other materials storage.for the double system. The jet grouting mixing and grouting plant. with pre-established withdrawal and rotational speed.

Ranges of jet grouting parameters The jet grouting parameters usually adopted for the different systems fall within the following ranges: Jet grouting parameters Grout pressure (MPa) Grout flow rate (I/min) Water pressure (MPa) Water flow rate (I/min) Air pressure (MPa) Air flow rate (m3/min) N/A Not applicable. as defined in the table above. The above thickness may vary from 0.7 3 to 12 The disaggregating effect is obtained by the high velocity of the jet. for the double (water) system: as for the single fluid system plus a high pressure water pump and a grout pump . Drilling Drilling can be performed with air or water or muds or grouts or foams as flushing media. Jet grouting should be executed with a sufficient thickness between the upper nozzle and the ground surface. Single fluid 30 to 50 50 to 450 N/A N/A N/A N/A Double fluid (air) 30 to 50 50 to 450 N/A N/A 0. such as a slab or a wall. to avoid possible local hydrofracturing. grout pressure usually ranges between 30 MPa and 50 MPa. 121 . For single and double (air) fluid systems. such as small diameter jet grouted columns in very loose soils. mainly dependent on the pressure of the fluid used for the disaggregation : grout in single and double (air) fluid systems.7 3 to 12 Double fluid (water) >2 50 to 200 30 to 60 50 to 150 N/A N/A Triple fluid >2 50 to 200 30 to 60 50 to 150 0. The most recent developments in pumping equipment enable the pressure of the disaggregating fluid to reach up to 70 MPa or flow rates up to 650 I/min. Alternatively it can be installed in a borehole drilled into the element after hardening. for the triple system: as for the double fluid (water) system plus an air compressor. water in double (water) and triple fluid systems. Jet grouting Jet grouting shall be executed and supervised by trained and experienced personnel.- for the double (air) system: as for the single fluid system plus an air compressor .2 to 1.5 m for vertical boreholes to 2.2 to 1. Placing the reinforcement Reinforcement can be installed in the fresh jet grouted material during or immediately after the completion of the jet grouting operations. Lower limits down to 10 MPa have also been adopted in particular cases.0 m for horizontal boreholes and can be reduced in the presence of an adequate restraint to the surface. If required casing is used.

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