C.

IVLII CAESARIS

Commentarii De Bello Gallico
Ex Libris I, IV, V Discipvlis Legenda Edidit Hans H. Ørberg

LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY

ABBREVIATIONS abl ablative acc accusative adj adjective adv adverb comp comparative conj conjunctive dat dative f feminine fut future gen genitive ger gerund indecl indeclinable inf infinitive m masculine n neuter pass passive perf perfect pl plural prp preposition sg singular subj subjunctive sup superlative

Missing words can be found in Latin-English Vocabulary I, the vocabulary for Lingva Latina per se Illvstrata, Pars I: Familia Romana.
A Document typeset with L TEX based on the PDF document available at http://focusbookstore. com/LLdownloads.aspx, with minor changes.

A ab/ā (mīlibus passuum…) ab-dere -didisse -ditum ab-esse: nōn multum abest quīn +subj abies -etis f ab-sistere abs-tinēre ac see atque ac-cēdere accēdit (quod/ut) accersere -īvisse -ītum āctuārius -a -um (nāvis) ad (: ferē) ad-aequāre ad-dūcere in cōnsuētūdinem a. adductus +abl ad-eō ad-haerēre -sisse -sum ad-hibēre ad-hortārī ad-igere -ēgisse -āctum ad-ipīscī -eptum aditus -ūs m adiūtor -ōris m ad-ministrāre ad-mittere equō admissō ad-modum adv ad-monēre ad-orīrī adventus -ūs m adversus -a -um: adversā nocte in adversum ōs ad-vertere: animum a. ad-volāre aedificium -ī n aegrē adv, sup aegerrimē aequāre aequus -a -um aes aeris n aestus -ūs m af-flīctāre af-flīgere -xisse -ctum af-fore fut inf = af-futūrum esse < ad- esse Āfricus -ī m ager agrī m agere (cum, inter sē) agger -is m ag-gredī -ior -gressum ag-gregāre, sē alacer -cris -cre alacritās -ātis f alere -uisse altum

at a distance of hide little is wanting (but) that fir stop, refrain abstain (from) be added moreover… fetch fast-moving (with sails and oars) about, approximately come up to, equal bring, lead accustom prompted, impelled so (very), to such an extent cling, stick bring in, summon encourage, urge on drive, hurl obtain, win access, coming helper, supporter perform, organize admit, allow, give rein at a gallop very much, greatly, quite, no less than advise, urge attack, assault approach, arrival in the face of night straight in the face notice rush building, farmhouse hardly, with difficulty make equal (locus) level, even; fair, just copper, bronze tide, current shatter strike, shatter ‘would be present’ south-west wind territory, country talk, discuss earthwork, ramp attack join, follow eager, keen eagerness, zeal feed, nourish, support

aliēnus -a -um ali-quam-diū adv ali-quī = aliquis alius aliā ex nāvī altitūdō -inis f ambō -ae -ō ammentum -ī n amplitūdō -inis f amplius adv amplus -a -um anceps -cipitis adj ancora -ae f angulus -ī m angustiae -ārum f pl angustius adv comp animus: in a.ō est +dat a.um advertere a.ī causā annōtinus -a -um ānser -eris m ante adv ante-cēdere ante-currere antecursōrēs -um m pl ante-ferre ante-pōnere apertus -a -um ap-pellere -pulisse -pulsum aptus -a -um (ad) aqua -ae f aquārī aquātiō -ōnis f aquili-fer -ferī m arbiter -trī m ārdēre -sisse argilla -ae f āridus -a -um armāmenta -ōrum n pl armāre armātī -ōrum m pl ar-ripere -iō -uisse -reptum ascēnsus -ūs m a-scīscere -īvisse -ītum asper -era -erum as-suē-facere atque/ac: (pār) a. (aliter) a. contrā a. at-texere -uisse -xtum at-tingere -tigisse -tāctum at-tribuere -uisse -ūtum auctor -ōris m a. esse auctōritās -ātis f audācter adv

unfavorable for some time someone one from one ship and one from another height, depth both thong size, extent more large, great undecided anchor angle, corner narrowness, pass, narrow passage closer together; more scantily have in mind, intend notice for pleasure of last year goose previously, beforehand, above go before, precede run before vanguard prefer place before/above uncovered, exposed drive to; pass (of ships) put in, sail (to) fitted (for) water, water-clock (to measure time) fetch water fetching of water standard-bearer assessor, umpire burn, be inflamed clay dry; n dry land rigging equip, rig armed men seize, grab ascent, way of ascending admit hard, severe accustom as than contrary to weave on adjoin, reach assign one who advocates, supporter, adviser propose authority, prestige boldly

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audītiō -ōnis f aurīga -ae m auxiliārī auxilium: dat auxiliō (venīre/mittere) ā-vertere āversus avus -ī m B balteus -ī m bellāre bellicōsus -a -um benevolēns -entis adj benevolentia -ae f bīduum -ī n biennium -ī n bi-pertītō adv bonitās -ātis f breviārium -ī n brevitās -ātis f brūma -ae f C cadere cecidisse caeruleus -a -um caespes -itis m calamitās -ātis f capere (locum) cōnsilium c. captīvus -ī m captus -ūs m caput (fluviī) capita pl carrus -ī m casa -ae f castellum -ī n cāsus -ūs m cāsū causa -ae f celeritās -ātis f cēnsus -ūs m centuria -ae f centuriō -ōnis m certiōrem facere pass certior fierī cibāria -ōrum n pl circu(m)-īre circu-itus -ūs m circum-cīdere circum-mittere circum-sistere -stetisse circum-spicere circum-venīre cis prp +acc citātus -a -um citerior -ius citus -a -um

hearsay, report charioteer give help to the assistance (of) turn away, divert with the back turned grandfather

baldric wage war warlike friendly goodwill two days two years in two parts good quality abstract, summary shortness winter solstice

adv citō, sup citissimē cīvitās -ātis f clādēs -is f clam adv clāmitāre clārus -a -um cliēns -entis m coāctū +gen co-emere cōgere coēgisse coāctum cognitus -a -um co-hortārī col-laudāre col-ligāre col-ligere -lēgisse -lēctum sē colligere col-locāre comb-ūrere -ussisse -ustum com-meāre commeātus -ūs m

fall (in battle), be killed blue turf disaster, defeat reach form a plan, make a decision prisoner of war capacity, notion mouth individuals waggon cottage, hut fort, stronghold chance, accident, fortune accidentally situation speed, swiftness census century (unit of up to 100 soldiers, 1/6 of a cohort) centurion (officer commanding a century) inform be informed, learn food, provisions go round circumference cut out send round gather round, surround look round (for) surround on the near side of moving quickly nearer quick

fast, quickly state, citizens (of a state) disaster, defeat secretly shout famous; (vōx) loud client under compulsion buy bring together, assemble, collect known exhort, encourage praise, commend tie up, fix together collect recover put, place, station, set up burn come and go, travel supplies, provisions; passage, convoy com-mendāre entrust, commit commentārius -ī m record comminus adv at close quarters com-mittere commit, do proelium c. join battle +dat entrust commodum -ī n advantage, convenience; commodō +gen without inconveniencing commodus -a -um convenient, advantageous adv -ē readily, easily com-movēre trouble, frighten commūnicāre (cum) communicate, discuss, consult com-mūnīre fortify com-mūtāre change commūtātiō -ōnis f change com-parāre prepare, provide com-pellere -pulisse -pulsum drive (together) comperīre -erisse -ertum find out, learn, be told com-portāre carry, bring (together) com-prehendere catch hold of, seize, arrest ignem c. catch fire cōnātus -ūs m effort, attempt con-cēdere give in, yield, concede, allow con-cidere -disse fall down con-cīdere -disse -sum cut down, kill concilium -ī n assembly, public meeting con-citāre incite, stir up con-clāmāre shout, cry out con-currere hurry together concursāre run to and fro con-cursus -ūs m gathering, concourse, running about; (nāvium) collision con-dere -didisse -ditum found ab urbe conditā from the founding of the city condiciō -ōnis f condition, terms, (legal) position con-dūcere hire cōn-fectus -a -um +abl worn out, exhausted

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cōn-ferre con-tulisse col-lātum sē cōnferre cōnfertus -a -um cōnfestim adv cōn-fīdere -fīsum esse +acc +inf cōn-fīnium -ī n cōn-fīrmāre +acc +inf cōn-flagrāre cōnflīctāre cōn-flīgere -xisse -ctum cōnfluēns -entis m cōn-fluere con-gredī -ior -gressum con-icere -iō -iēcisse -iectum in fugam c. in vincula c. culpam c. in con-iūrātiō -ōnis f con-quīrere cōnsanguineus -a -um cōn-scrībere cōnsectārī cōn-sentīre cōn-sequī cōn-sīdere cōnsilium -ī n

bring together, collect go, resort close, in close order at once trust, have confidence in be sure boundary establish, secure, strengthen confirm be destroyed by fire strike, harass clash confluence flow together, meet meet throw put to flight put in chains lay the blame on conspiracy, plot search out related; m relative, kinsman write; (mīlitēs) enlist, enrol pursue, hunt down be in agreement, agree follow, reach, acquire, gain, win take up a position, encamp, settle deliberation, decision, intention, judgement, discretion; council (of war) similar, like halt, stop, take one’s stand before the eyes of

con-tendere contentiō -ōnis f con-testārī continēns -entis adj continēns -entis f (abl -ī) continenter adv con-tinēre con-tingere -tigisse -tāctum continuus -a -um cōntiō -ōnis f contrā atque con-trahere (nāvēs) contrōversia -ae f contumēlia -ae f convallis -is f con-venīre +acc conventus -ūs m co-orīrī cōpia -ae f cōpiae -ārum f pl cōpiōsus -a -um cōram adv cotīdiānus -a -um crātis -is f crēber -bra -brum, sup -errimus cruciātus -ūs m culpa -ae f cultūra -ae f cultus -ūs m cūnctārī cūrāre +acc +ger cursus -ūs m cūstōdia -ae f

make an effort, strive, hasten, contend, fight conflict, contention call to witness uninterrupted continent continuously keep together, keep, confine, limit touch, be in contact with continuous, successive assembly, parade contrary to draw together, gather, reduce in size, contract dispute indignity, affront narrow valley meet meeting, assize arise, break out supply forces, troops rich before his own eyes daily wickerwork close together, frequent torture blame, fault cultivation standard of living, civilization linger, hesitate undertake, have (something done) running, speed, passage guard

cōn-similis -e cōn-sistere -stitisse cōnspectus -ūs m: in cōnspectū +gen cōn-spicārī catch sight of, see cōnstāre: cōnstat +acc +inf it is apparent, it is plain cōnstīpāre, sē crowd together cōn-stituere place, locate; appoint cōn-suēr- = cōn-suēver-, -suēvērcōn-suēss- = cōn-sēvisscōn-suēscere -ēvisse become accustomed, accustom oneself perf cōn-suēvisse be accustomed /used (to), be in the habit of; usually (do) cōnsuētūdō -inis f usage, habit, practice, custom cōnsul -is m consul cōn-sulere -uisse -sultum consult, deliberate +dat consult the interests of, show consideration for cōnsultāre deliberate, debate cōnsultō adv deliberately cōn-surgere stand up, rise contabulāre cover with boards, equip with floors contemptiō -ōnis f scorn, contempt

D dē (III vigiliā) starting with, at dē-cēdere go away, retire decem et octō eighteen dē-cernere -crēvisse -crētum decide, decree dē-certāre fight it out, fight to a finish dēclīvis -e sloping decuria -ae f squad of ten cavalrymen decuriō -ōnis m officer commanding a decuria decus -oris n honor dē-decus -oris n disgrace dē-dere (sē) give up, surrender dēditīcius -a -um having surrendered dēditiō -ōnis f surrender dē-dūcere lead away, remove, conduct, (nāvem) launch dēfectiō -ōnis f defection, revolt dēfēnsor -ōris m defender dē-ferre bring, carry, report dē-fessus -a -um worn out dē-fetīgāre exhaust, wear out

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dē-ficere -iō -fēcisse -fectum dē-fīgere dē-fluere dē-fōrmis -e dē-icere -iō -iēcisse -iectum deinceps adv dē-līberāre dē-ligāre dē-ligere -lēgisse -lēctum dē-litēscere -tuisse dē-mēns -entis adj dēmentia -ae f dēmere -mpsisse -mptum dē-metere − -messum dē-migrāre dē-mittere, sē dē-mōnstrāre dēnsus -a -um dē-perīre dē-pōnere dē-populārī/-āre dē-precārī dēprecātor -ōris m dē-prehendere dēsertus -a -um dēscendere ad (cōnsilium) dēsīderāre +acc +inf dē-sistere -stitisse +abl dēspērātiō -ōnis f dē-stringere -strīnxisse -strictum dētrīmentum -ī n dē-turbāre dē-vehere diēs -ēī m/f in diēs dif-ferre dif-ferre dis-tulisse dī-lātum difficultās -ātis f dif-fīdere dignitās -ātis f dī-iūdicāre dīmicāre dīmidium -ī n d.ō minor dī-mittere

run short, fail, revolt, defect fix, plant flow misshapen, ugly throw down, divert, (spē) disappoint in succession, in turn deliberate, consider tie, fasten choose, pick out hide, go into hiding mad, insane madness, insanity take away, remove mow go away, move go down, descend indicate, point out, explain, describe thick perish, be lost lay down, put, place, abandon sack, plunder beg relief, plead for one who pleads for someone, intercessor seize, intercept deserted resort to want, require; pass be missing cease from despair (gladium) draw harm, loss dislodge convey, transport (fixed) day, time day by day differ, be different scatter, disperse difficulty have no confidence in, distrust dignity settle, decide fight half half as big send off (in different directions); give up control of, abandon; let go rich, wealthy give up arms departure training, discipline scatter

dis-pār -paris adj unequal di-spergere -sisse -sum scatter dis-pōnere distribute, post, station dis-putāre argue, debate disputātiō -īnis f discussion, debate, dispute dissēnsiō -ōnis f disagreement, dissension dis-sentīre disagree dis-simulāre conceal, dissemble dis-tribuere distribute dis-tul- < dif-ferre dītissimus -a -um sup < dīs dītis diūtinus -a -um lasting, prolonged docēre +acc +inf tell, inform, declare dolus -ī m deceit, guile, trickery domāre -uisse -itum tame, subdue domesticus -a -um domestic, internal dubitāre waver, hesitate dubitātiō -ōnis f doubt dūcere +acc +inf consider dum conj +subj until duodēnī -ae -a twelve each duplex -icis adj double duplicāre double dūrus -a -um hard, severe E eā adv ē-dūcere ef-fēmināre ef-ferre ex-tulisse ē-lātum efferrī (victōriā) ef-fugere +acc ē-gredī -ior -gressum ēgressus -ūs m ē-icere -iō -iēcisse -iectum sē ēicere eius-modī ē-lābī -lāpsum ē-licere -iō -uisse -itum ē-mittere eō +comp eō adv eō quod eō ut eō-dem adv ephippiātus -a -um ephippium -ī n epistola -ae f eques (Rōmānus) equester -tris -tre errāre (= fallī) ēruptiō -ōnis f essedārius -ī m essedum -ī n ē-vellere ē-venīre ēventus -ūs m

dīs dītis adj (= dīves), sup dītissimus dis-cēdere ab armīs dis-cessus -ūs m disciplīna -ae f dis-icere -iō -iēcisse -iectum

that way lead out unman, enervate carry out be elated, exult escape from go out going out, (ē nāvibus) disembarcation, landing throw out, turn out rush out of that kind, such slip out, manage to get out entice, lure out send out, let go so much (the more/ less) for that reason because in order that to the same place, to the same purpose furnished with an ephippium saddle-cloth letter knight, member of the equestrian order cavalrybe mistaken sally, sortie fighter in a war-chariot war-chariot tear out, pull out turn out, happen outcome, event

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ē-vocāre ex-agitāre exāmināre ex-animāre ex-cēdere (+abl ) ex-cipere ex-citāre ex-clūdere -sisse -sum exemplum -ī n exercitāre exercitātiō -ōnis f exiguitās -ātis f exīstimātiō -ōnis f expedītiō -ōnis f ex-pedītus -a -um ex-pellere -pulisse -pulsum (+abl ) ex-perīrī -pertum ex-piāre ex-plōrāre explōrātor -ōris m explōrātus -a -um ex-pōnere ex-portāre ex-sistere -stitisse ex-stāre ex-stinguere -stīnxisse -stīnctum ex-trahere extrēmus -a -um ad extrēmum ex-uere -uisse -ūtum ex-ūrere -ussisse -ustum F factū supine II : optimum f. facultās -ātis f fāgus -ī f falx -cis f familiāris -is m/f familiāritās -ātis f fās n indecl femur -oris/-inis n ferrāmenta -ōrum n pl ferre: ut fert illōrum opīniō fervē-facere fervēfactus fervēns -entis adj ficta -ōrum n pl fidēs -eī f

call out, summon stir up, harass weigh kill go out, go away, leave follow after, succeed build, erect shut out, exclude, prevent precedent, model train, exercise exercise, training smallness, scantiness opinion, judgement raid, expedition ready for action, moving easily; easy drive out, expel, banish try, attempt make amends, atone for investigate, explore scout, spy secured, certain put out, put on shore, land; expose, display carry out, take away emerge, arise project, stand out extinguish, wipe out protract, spend (time) outermost, hindmost, last finally deprive destroy by fire

fīnitimus -a -um (+dat ) fīrmus -a -um (adv -iter) flamma -ae f flētus -ūs m flōrēre fore fut inf < esse/fierī fortitūdō -inis f fortūnae -ārum f pl fremitus -ūs m frequēns quam freqentissimī frūmentārī frūmentārius -a -um rēs f.a fuga -ae f fugitīvus -ī m fūmus -ī m funda -ae f fundere fūdisse fūsum: (proeliō) f. fūnis -is m fūsilis -e G gallīna -ae f gaudēre gavīsum genus -eris n gerere gessisse gestum rēs gesta glāns -andis f grātia -ae f grātulārī grātulātiō -ōnis f gravitās -ātis f H habēre magnī h. in hostium numerō h. hīberna -ōrum n pl hiemāre historia -ae f hōc abl +comp: hōc facilius honestus -a -um honōs -ōris m horridus -a -um hospitium -ī n hūmānitās -ātis f hūmānus -a -um humilis -e humilitās -ātis f I iaculum -ī n ictus -ūs m idcircō adv ignōbilis -e ignōscere +dat

bordering, neighboring; m pl neighboring people strong, firm, steady flame, fire weeping bloom, flourish ‘would be, would happen’ bravery property roar, growl numerous in the greatest possible number gather corn, forage corn-, corn-producing corn-supply in fugam dare, put to flight runaway, fugitive smoke sling rout rope molten, fusible

hen be glad, rejoice stock, descent carry on, perform, do action, event, achievement acorn, acorn-shaped missile favor, popularity congratulate congratulation heaviness, weight, importance

figūra -ae f fīnēs -ium m pl fingere fīnxisse fictum ficta n pl fīnīre

the best to be done possibility, opportunity beech-tree sickle-like hook fitted on a long pole, siege-hook close friend close friendship right, proper thigh iron tools as far as their opinion goes heat red-hot, incandescent red-hot made-up stories trust, guarantee, promise, protection, credibility, allegiance form, shape land, territory make up, invent made-up stories form the boundary of

regard value highly regard as enemies winter camp pass the winter history so much the more easily honorable esteem, honor rough, horrible tie between host and guest, hospitable relations civilization civilized humble lowness, lowliness

throwing-spear, javelin stroke, impact for that reason, therefore not well known, obscure forgive

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il-lāt- < īn-ferre illō adv illūstris -e immānis -e im-mittere impedīmenta -ōrum n pl impedīmentum -ī n impedīre impedītus -a -um im-pellere -pulisse -pulsum im-pendēre impēnsus -a -um imperāre +acc (+dat ) imperātum -ī n im-perītus -a -um (+gen) impetrāre impetus -ūs m im-portāre im-prōvīsus -a -um: dē -ō im-prūdēns -entis adj imprūdentia -ae f impulsus -ūs m inānis -e in-cendere -disse -cēnsum incendium -ī n in-citāre in-cognitus -a -um in-colere in-commodus -a -um, adv incommodē incommodum -ī n in-crēdibilis -e in-currere incursiō -ōnis f in-dūcere -xisse -ductum indūtiae -ārum f pl in-ers -ertis adj īn-ferre in-tulisse il-lātum signa ī. bellum ī. (+dat ) īn-ficere -iō -fēcisse -fectum īn-fīnītus -a -um īnfīrmitās -ātis f īn-fīrmus -a -um īn-flectere īnfrā adv in-gredī -ior -gressum in-icere -iō -iēcisse -iectum +dat in-īquus -a -um in-īre cōnsilium i. in-iussū +gen

to that place, to that end clear, lucid vast, tremendous throw, hurl baggage hindrance encumber, hinder, impede hindered from moving freely, encumbered impel overhang, tower excessive rule, hold power order, levy, requisition command, order ignorant (of) obtain (by request) impulse, onset import unexpectedly, without warning ignorant, unaware ignorance, unawareness, imprudence impulse, instigation empty set on fire fire, conflagration cause to move fast, urge on, spur on, impel unknown dwell, live inconvenient harm, disadvantage, misfortune, setback incredible rush in, charge inroad, raid lead, induce, prompt armistice inactive, lazy, idle cause, inflict advance to the attack make war (on) dye infinite, great weakness (of character), unreliability weak bend below, further down enter, get in throw in instil, inspire (with) uneven, unfavorable enter on, begin form a plan without orders

in-opīnāns -antis adj īn-scius -a -um īn-sequī īnsidiae -ārum f pl īnsigne -is n īnsignis -e īn-sinuāre, sē īn-sistere -stitisse īn-stabilis -e īn-stāre īn-stituere -uisse -ūtum īnstitūtum -ī n īnstruere -ūxisse -ūctum īnstrūmentum -ī n īn-suēfacere integer -gra -grum inter-cēdere inter-cipere -iō -cēpisse -ceptum inter-clūdere -sisse -sum inter-dīcere inter-diū adv inter-esse +dat interior -ius inter-īre interitus -ūs m inter-mittere (tempore) intermissō inter-pōnere fidem i. interpres -etis m intervāllum -ī n intro-īre introitus -ūs m intrō-rumpere intus adv in-ūsitātus -a -um in-ūtilis -e inveterāscere -rāvisse in-vicem in-vītāre invītus -a -um eō invītō ir-rumpere ita: nōn +adj iter itineris n magnīs itineribus iūdicāre iūdicium -ī n iugum -ī n sub i. mittere iūmentum -ī n iūrāre -ius adv comp

unprepared unaware follow closely, pursue ambush, plot, treachery distinctive mark conspicuous, sensational make one’s way in stand, take one’s stand unsteady press on, attack put up, set up, institute, start on, instruct custom, institution build, equip equipment accustom fresh come in between, be interposed cut off, intercept cut off, stop forbid by day take part in interior, inner; m pl peoples of the interior perish, die, be killed death interrupt, leave off, leave (unused), miss after a lapse of put between, insert, interpose pledge one’s word intermediary, interpreter interval, distance come inside, enter entrance break in inside unusual, unfamiliar useless become old, become established in their turn urge, invite unwilling, against one’s wishes against his will break in not very… route, march, day’s march by forced marches judge, decide, consider judgement, decision yoke; (montis) ridge send under the yoke (humiliating defeated army) beast of burden, draughtanimal (horse, mule…) swear too…

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iūs iūrandum iūstitia -ae f L lābī lāpsum labōrāre labōriōsus -a -um lacessere laetātiō -ōnis f lapis -idis m largītiō -ōnis f lassitūdō -inis f lassus -a -um lātē adv, comp lātius, sup lātissimē longē lātēque lātitūdō -inis f lēgātiō -ōnis f lēgātus -ī m lēnis -e, adv comp lēnius lēnitās -ātis f lepus -oris m levāre +abl levis -e levitās -ātis f līberālis -e, adv līberāliter ligāre lignārī lignātiō -ōnis f lignātor -ōris m linter -tris m līs lītis f litterae pūblicae locus -ī m obsidum locō longē adv longinquus -a -um longitūdō -inis f longius adv comp lōrīca -ae f lūx lūcis f prīma lūx M magnī habēre magnitūdō -inis f magnopere māiōrēs -um m pl m. nātū mandāre sē fugae m. mandātum -ī n manēre mānsisse manus -ūs f manūs dare matara -ae f māteria -ae f

oath justice

lapse, fall into error be distressed, be in trouble hard, laborious challenge, provoke rejoicing stone largesse, bribery weariness weary widely far and wide breadth, width delegation delegate, envoy; staff-officer, legate slow, gentle, light slowness, gentleness hare free from, relieve of irresponsible, fickle lightness generous, noble fasten, tie collect firewood collecting of firewood one who collects firewood light boat dispute documents, records scope, opportunity; position, rank, status as hostages far; +sup by far… far-off, remote; long, prolonged length further, longer cuirass, parapet daylight dawn, daybreak

mātrimōnium -ī n in m. dūcere mātūrāre mātūrus -a -um adv mātūrē, comp mātūrius māximam partem adv medērī +dat mediocris -e mediterrāneus -a -um medius -a -um memoria -ae f memoriā prōdere mēnsūra -ae f merērī (dē) merīdiānus -a -um meritum -ī n metallum -ī n mētīrī mēnsum migrāre mīlia -ium (passuum) n pl missū Caesaris mittere mōbilis -e mōbilitās -ātis f moderārī molere -uisse -itum mollis -e morārī mōtus -ūs m movēre, castra multus -a -um: multō diē ad multam noctem mūnītiō -ōnis f mūrālis -e: pīlum mūrāle N nancīscī nactum nātiō -ōnis f nātū abl nātus -a -um nātus… locō/ genere nāvālis -e nāvigium -ī n necessāriō adv necessārius -ī m neglegere -ēxisse -ēctum negōtium -ī n nē-quāquam adv nihil adv nōbilitās -ātis f nocēre: pass nocērī +dat noctū adv nocturnus -a -um nōminātim nostrī gen (< nōs) novae rēs

marriage marry make haste, hurry premature, early early mostly cure, remedy moderate inland the middle of memory hand down measurement deserve well (of), behave well (towards) of midday benefit, service metal measure, measure out, apportion migrate, move (Roman) mile as Caesar’s envoy send word inconstant, fickle freedom of movement, mobility direct, guide grind (lītus) gentle, open stay, linger, check, delay motion, movement, commotion, insurrection move camp, move forward in broad daylight till late in the night fortification, defense work spear used to defend walls

value highly size, force urgently, greatly ancestors elders, seniors order take to flight, fly order, commission remain armed force, troop surrender, give up Gallic throwing-spear wood, timber

get, obtain, acquire people, nation of age born of… descent/rank naval, ships’ vessel, ship of necessity kinsman, relative neglect, omit work, difficulty, trouble by no means, not at all in no way, not at all nobility, the aristocracy, the nobles come to harm by night night-, nightly, nocturnal by name, specifically of us revolution

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novissimus -a -um novitās -ātis f nūdāre numerus: n.ō ad n.um obsidum n.ō nummus -ī m sg nūtus -ūs m ad nūtum O ob-icere -iō -iēcisse -iectum obiectus +dat ob-īre ob-lāt- < of-ferre ob-servāre obses -idis m/f ob-sidēre obsidiō -ōnis f obstrictus -a -um ob-struere -ūxisse -ūctum ob-temperāre ob-tinēre ob-tul- < of-ferre occāsiō -ōnis f occāsus -ūs m occultus -a -um occupāre occupātiō -ōnis f occupātus -a -um oc-currere of-ferre ob-tulisse ob-lātum officium -ī n: in officiō omnīnō adv onerāre onerārius -a -um: nāvis onerāria onus -eris n opīnārī opīniō -ōnis f opportūnus -a -um, adv -ē op-primere -pressisse -pressum oppugnātiō -ōnis f opus -eris n opus esse, pl opus sunt ōrātiō -ōnis f ōrātor -ōris m orbis -is m ōrdō -inis m prīmī ōrdinēs

last, hindmost; pl the rear novelty, unfamiliarity lay open, expose in number, in all to make up the number as hostages coinage nod at the nod, instantly

put in front, set before situated opposite to visit, inspect observe, follow hostage besiege, blockade siege, blockade obliged bar, block comply with, obey hold, occupy opportunity (sōlis) sunset, west hidden, secret seize, occupy preoccupation occupied, busy, engaged encounter, come upon, run into offer, present, expose, deliver loyal altogether, only, at all load cargo vessel burden, load, cargo think, suppose opinion, expectation, reputation convenient, favorable, suitable overpower, overwhelm, crush attack, assault work, effort, defense work (opere mūnītus) be needed speech, words speaker, envoy circle, ring rank; century (centuria) the 6 centuries of the 1st cohort, their commanders (senior centurions) embellishment declare, point out, explain display

P pābulārī pābulātor -ōris m pācāre pācātus paenitēre +acc +gen pāgus -ī m palam adv palūs -ūdis f pār paris adj parāre (pretiō) parātus -a -um +inf pars: quā ex parte trēs partēs māximam partem adv parvulus -a -um passim adv patēns -entis adj patēre patī +acc +inf paucitās -ātis f pecus -oris n (sg/pl ) pedester -tris -tre peditātus -ūs m pellis -is f pendere per prp +acc (licet) per mē per-agere per-cipere -iō -cēpisse -ceptum per-contārī percontātiō -ōnis f per-currere per-dūcere

collect fodder, forage forager pacify, subdue settled, peaceful (cause to) regret, repent district, tribe openly swamp, marsh equal acquire, buy ready to for which reason three quarters mostly small, slight all over the place, in every direction open, accessible extend, stretch allow fewness, small number livestock, cattle pedestrian, infantryinfantry skin, hide pay because of with me, on my part carry out, perform perceive, apprehend

ōrnātus -ūs m ostendere (verbīs) ostentāre

make inquiries, question inquiry, questioning run over, run along conduct, extend, prolong, construct perendinō diē abl the day after tomorrow per-equitāre ride around per-exiguus -a -um very small per-facilis -e very easy per-ferre convey, deliver, bring news perfidia -ae f faithlessness, treachery per-fringere -frēgisse -frāctum break through perfuga -ae m deserter, renegade per-fugere take refuge (with the enemy) perfugium -ī n place of refuge perīculum facere make an attempt, try perītus -a -um (+gen) experienced, expert per-legere read through per-manēre -mānsisse remain, stay per-mittere permit, commit, entrust per-mulcēre -sisse -sum soothe, calm per-paucī -ae -a very few perpetuum: in p. for ever per-rumpere break through per-scrībere write (in full) per-sequī (bellō) pursue, press per-sevērāre persist

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per-solvere, poenās

pay the penalty, suffer punishment per-spicere -iō -exisse -ectum inspect, discern, see persuādēre sibi persuade oneself, be convinced persuāsum mihi est I am convinced pertinācia -ae f obstinacy pertināx -ācis adj obstinate per-tinēre extend p. (ad) tend, relate, pertain (to) per-turbāre throw into confusion, discompose perturbātiō -ōnis f confusion, disturbance phalanx -ngis f phalanx pietās -ātis f devotion, sense of duty pīlus -ī m century (centuria) pinna -ae f breastwork, parapet pius -a -um devoted, dutiful plānus -a -um level, flat plēbs -bis f the common people plumbum -ī n lead p. album tin plūrimum sup most of all poenās persolvere pay the penalty pondus -eris n weight pōnere (arma) lay down spem p. in place one’s hopes in positus in dependent on pōns pontis m bridge populārī ravage, plunder populātiō -ōnis f plundering porrō moreover poscere poposcisse demand positus -a -um: p. in dependent on posse (plūrimum) have power possessiō -ōnis f possession, holding pos-sīdere -sēdisse take possession of post… quam after posteā-quam, posteā… quam after postrī-diē (eius diēī) the day after postulāre +acc +inf claim postulātum -ī n demand potestās -ātis f opportunity potestātem facere give a chance, allow potīrī +abl take possession of, gain control of prae-cēdere precede, surpass praeceps -cipitis adj headlong, precipitous praeceptum -ī n instruction, order prae-cipere -iō -cēpisse command, order -ceptum praecipitāre throw headlong prae-clūdere -sisse -sum block praecō -ōnis m crier, herald praeda -ae f booty praedārī rob, plunder praedicāre proclaim, declare praefectus -ī m officer, commander (of cavalry, auxiliary troops)

attach by the end send in advance, send word ahead prae-optāre prefer prae-parāre prepare beforehand praesēns -entis n present in praesēns/praesentia for the present praesentia -ae f presence p. animī resolution praesertim adv especially praesidium -ī n guard, protection, protective force, garrison praesidiō dat in defense prae-stāre -stitisse fulfil, show, prove +dat be superior praestat it is preferable, it is better praestō esse +dat be ready, meet praeter-mittere omit, let slip praeter-quam apart from, except praetor -ōris m praetor prō praetōre ex-praetor prae-ūrere burn at the end premere pressisse pressum press, harass, attack prī-diē the day before prīmus -a -um the front part of, the beginning of prīnceps -ipis adj first, leading prīncipātus -ūs m chief position prīstinus -a -um old, former p. diēs the day before prius quam before prīvātim adv privately prō prp +abl in front of; in relation to, considering, according to; instead of, as prō praetōre ex-praetor probāre approve of, prove probārī +dat be commended by prō-currere run forward prō-dere -didisse -ditum abandon, betray memoriā p. hand down prōd-īre go/come forward prō-dūcere lead forth; draw out proeliārī engage in battle, fight profectiō -ōnis f departure prō-ficere -iō -fēcisse -fectum achieve pro-fitērī -fessum declare, offer prō-fluere flow forth, rise pro-fugere run away, fly, flee pro-inde accordingly prōmissus -a -um (capillus) long prō-nūntiāre proclaim, announce, relate prō-pellere push forward, drive forth, drive away propinquus -ī m relative propinquitās -ātis f nearness, proximity prō-pōnere put forward, set forth, hold out, offer

prae-ficere -iō -fēcisse -fectum +dat prae-fīgere prae-mittere

put in charge of, set over

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proptereā adv p. quod prō-pugnāre prō-sequī prōspectus -ūs m prosperus -a -um prō-spicere +dat prō-tegere prō-vehere prō-venīre prō-vidēre prō-vocāre proximē adv pulvis -eris m pūrgāre

for that reason, therefore because fight in defense pursue view, sight successful provide for protect carry forth, convey come forth, grow up foresee, provide for provoke, challenge most recently dust clean, purge, excuse

Q qua f (sī/nē/num qua…) any nē qua legiō so that no legion quā adv by which road, where quae-cumque n pl whatever, anything that quaestor -ōris m quaestor (officer) quam +sup (potest) as… as possible q. māximus as large as possible q. plūrimī as many as possible q. māximē as much as possible quam prīmum as soon as possible quam-vīs +adj no matter how…, however… quantō +comp tantō +comp the more…, the more… quantus-vīs -a- -umhowever big quārta pars fourth part, quarter querī questum complain, protest quibus-cum with whom quic-quam = quidquam quī-cumque quae- quod-/quid-whoever, whatever quiēs -ētis f repose, rest quīn conj +subj (but) that quīn etiam indeed, in fact quis-piam quae- quodsome quī-vīs quae- quodwhatever, any quō +comp +subj so that the more quō adv because quo-ad conj until, as long as quō-minus conj +subj so that… not quotiēs as often as, whenever R rādere -sisse -sum rapiditās -ātis f rapīna -ae f rārus -a -um ratiō -ōnis f r.em habēre +gen r.em reposcere re-bellāre rebelliō -ōnis f recēns -entis adj receptus -ūs m recessus -ūs m

reciperāre re-cipere, sē re-cūsāre nōn re-cūsāre quīn red-igere -ēgisse -āctum r. in/sub imperium +adj red-integrāre reditiō -ōnis f reditus -ūs m re-ferre rettulisse -lātum pedem r. re-ficere -iō -fēcisse -fectum re-fugere rēgnum -ī m re-gredī -ior -gressum re-icere -iō -iēcisse -iectum re-lēgāre relinquere +dat pass relinquī relinquēbātur ut reliquum -ī n nihil reliquī reliquus -a -um: tempus r. re-migrāre remissus -a -um re-mittere re-mollēscere re-nūntiāre re-pellere reppulisse -pulsum ā spē repulsus repentīnus -a -um reperīre re-petere re-portāre re-poscere ratiōnem r. ab reprehendere re-scindere -scidisse -scissum re-scīscere -īvisse/-iisse re-servāre re-sistere -stitisse re-stituere -uisse -ūtum re-tinēre -uisse -tentum rettul- < re-ferre rota -ae f S sagulum -ī n sānus -a -um sarcina -ae f satis habēre satis-facere +dat saucius -a -um scalae -ārum f pl scapha -ae f scindere scrīptor -ōris m

recover, regain retire, (ex fugā/timōre) recover object to, reject not hesitate to drive back bring under the power (of) make, render restore, renew return return bring back, carry back, report go back, withdraw restore, repair run away, recoil kingship, kingdom retreat throw back, drive back, repulse banish leave, allow be left, remain add to this that what is left nothing left future move back, return mild, moderate relax become soft report (back) repel, repulse disappointed in one’s hopes sudden find out, discover request again bring back, carry back claim call to account censure break down, demolish get to know, learn reserve resist set up again, rebuild, restore, give back detain wheel

shave rapidity plunder sparse, scattered account, register, transaction, system pay regard to demand an account revolt, rebel rising, revolt fresh, recent retreat retreat

soldier’s cloak sane, sensible pack, soldier’s kit be content (with) give satisfaction, make amends, satisfy wounded ladder light boat, skiff tear apart, demolish writer, author

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sēdēs -is f sēmentis -is f sēmita -ae f senātor -ōris m senātus -ūs m sentīre sēnsisse sēnsum sēparāre sēparātim adv sēparātus -a -um sepelīre -īvisse -ultum sepultūra -ae f sērō adv servāre servīre +dat ses-centēsimus -a -um siccitās -ātis f sīc-utī conj signa īnferre significātiō -ōnis f silvestris -e simul conj (= simul atque) simulāre simulātiō -ōnis f simultās -ātis f singillātim adv singulāris -e socer -erī m socius -ī m sōlitūdō -inis f sollicitāre solvere (nāvēs) spatium -ī n speciēs -ēī f in s.em spectāre ad speculātor -ōris m speculātōrius -a -um sponte, suā stabilis -e stabilitās -ātis f stāre stetisse statiō -ōnis f statuere -uisse -ūtum +acc +inf stipendium -ī n strāmentum -ī n sub-dūcere sub-ductiō -ōnis f sub-esse sub-fodere -iō -fōdisse -fossum sub-icere -iō -iēcisse -iectum (+dat ) sub-iectus -a -um sub-īre sublāt- < tollere

seat, homeland sowing path, track senator senate feel, realize separate separately separate bury burial late, too late watch, keep, maintain be guided by, go by 600th dryness, drought as, just as, just as if launch an attack sign, indication wooded as soon as pretend pretence animosity, quarrel one by one, singly single, one at a time, singular, unique father-in-law ally loneliness incite cast off, set sail area, space, distance, interval, time look, semblance in semblance, speciously face, lie towards scout, spy scout-, reconnaissanceof one’s own accord, by oneself, alone firm, stable stability stand post, guard, picket decide, judge, consider tax straw draw up, (nāvēs) haul up, beach hauling up be close stab from below (in the belly) throw from below subject (to) situated below undergo, expose oneself to

sub-ministrāre sub-mittere sub-movēre sub-sequī subsidium -ī n (venīre/mittere) s.ō dat sub-sistere sub-venīre +dat suc-cēdere

supply, furnish send (relief) remove, drive off follow closely reinforcements, reserves, help in support, to the rescue stand firm come to help, give assistance to move up, come close, take the place of, follow suc-cendere -disse -cēnsum kindle successus -ūs m success suc-cīdere -disse -sum cut down suc-currere +dat run to help sudis -is f stake suī gen (< sē) themselves summa -ae f total, whole summa imperiī total power, supremacy summus -a -um the top of superāre overcome, defeat, win super-esse be left, survive superior -ius higher, upper, earlier, previous, superior sup-petere be available supplex -icis, adv -iciter suppliant supplicātiō -ōnis f thanksgiving suprā adv above sus-cipere -iō -cēpisse -ceptum take up, undertake suspicārī guess, imagine suspīciō -ōnis f suspicion sustentāre endure T tālea -ae f tam-etsī tangere tantulus -a -um tegere tēxisse tēctum tēlum -ī n temere adv temeritās -ātis f tēmō -ōnis m temperāre temperātus -a -um tempestās -ātis f tenuis -e tergum -ī n testimōnium -ī n t.ō esse testūdō -inis f tolerāre tollere sus-tulisse sub-lātum sublātus (+abl ) tormentum -ī n torrēre -uisse tostum trā-dūcere trāgula -ae f trā-icere -iō -iēcisse -iectum trā-iectus -ūs m

bar, ingot even though reach, border on so small cover spear, weapon recklessly, without reason recklessness pole refrain (loca) temperate, mild weather faint, weak terga vertere, turn tail evidence be evidence, demonstrate tortoise, shield-cover bear, endure lift, remove, take away, take on board uplifted catapult scorch bring/lead across spear cross, pierce way across

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tranquillitās -ātis f trāns prp +acc trān-scendere -disse -ēnsum trāns-fīgere trāns-īre trāns-missus -ūs m trāns-mittere trāns-portāre trepidāre trepidus -a -um tribūnus -ī m: t. mīlitum trīduum -ī n tri-ennium -ī n trīnī -ae -a tri-pertītō adv triplex -icis adj triquetrus -a -um turma -ae f turris -is f (acc -im, abl -ī) U ubi conj ubi prīmum ulcīscī ultum ulterior -ius Gallia (prōvincia) u. ultimus -a -um ultrō adv ululātus -ūs m ūnā adv : cum… ūnā undique adv ūnī -ae -a ūnus: ad ūnum (omnēs) ūsus -ūs m ūsus est ūsuī esse utī conj = ut ūtilis -e ūtilitās -ātis f utrīque m pl

calm on the other side of cross pierce go over crossing cross carry across be in a panic alarmed military tribune (senior officer) three days three years three in three parts triple triangular troop (of cavalry) tower, assault/defense tower

when as soon as take revenge on, avenge more distant Transalpine Gaul most distant even, of one’s own accord, without any reason howling, yelling together with from all parts/sides only, alone without exception, one and all use, practice it is needed be of use useful utility both parties

V vacāre vadum -ī n vagārī vagīna -ae f vagus -a -um valēre vallēs -is f vāstāre vectīgal -ālis n vectīgālis -e vectōrius -a -um: nāvis vectōria vehementer adv vēnārī vēnātiō -ōnis f venīre: ventum est perf pass ventitāre vergere verērī +dat versāre vērus -a -um: vērum est verūtum -ī n vestīgium -ī n in vestīgiō vestītus -ūs m vetāre -uisse -itum veterānus -a -um viātor -ōris m vīciēs adv vīcus -ī m vidērī vīsum esse sī (tibi) vidētur vigiliae -ārum f pl vinculum -ī n -vīs: quī-vīs, quam-vīs, quantus-vīs vitrum -ī n voluptās -ātis f vulgō adv vulgus -ī n

be empty, be unoccupied ford, shallow wander, roam sheath roaming be strong, have power valley lay waste, devastate tax, toll tax-paying, tributary cargo vessel strongly hunt hunting ‘they have/had come’ come often, keep coming slope towards, face be anxious about turn this way and that it is fair spear footprint, spot on the spot, at once clothes forbid, prohibit veteran traveller twenty times village seem right if you think fit wakefulness, keeping watch bond, fetter -ever, however…, no matter how… woad (plant), blue dye made from woad leaves pleasure, delight commonly the common people

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