Chamila Sumathiratna-FIVT

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Locked rotor torque Pull up torque Break down torque Full load torque

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 When the resistance of the rotor bars are lowered the pullout torque comes closer to synchronous speed 7 .

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   High efficiency at normal operating conditions requires a low rotor resistance. more expensive than squirrel-cage motors. Woundrotor motors are. a high rotor resistance is required to produce a high starting torque and to keep the magnitude of the starting current low and the power factor high. . The wound rotor is one way of meeting the above mentioned need for varying the rotor resistance at different operating conditions. Effect of the rotor resistance the torque-slip curves . On the other hand. however.

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consequently. The upper bars are small in cross-section and have a high resistance. they have a low leakage inductance. both short-circuited by end rings. a lower resistance and a high leakage inductance. They are placed near the rotor surface so that the leakage flux sees a path of high reluctance. It consists of two layers of bars. The lower bars have a large cross-section. Double squirrel-cage rotor bars .     Following double squirrel-cage arrangements can also be used to obtained a high value of effective resistance at starting and a low value of the resistance at full-load operation.

the effective resistance of the rotor is then the high resistance upper bars. and the rotor current flows largely through the low resistance lower bars. leakage reactance are negligible. Double squirrel-cage rotor bars . rotor frequency is high and very little current flows through the lower bars.  At starting. At normal low slip operation. the effective rotor resistance is equal to that of the two sets of bars in parallel.

At starting.    The use of deep. At full-load operation. the current is concentrated towards the top layers of the rotor bar. . narrow rotor bars produces torque-slip characteristics similar to those of a double-cage rotor. Leakage inductance of the top crosssection of the rotor bar is relatively low. the lower sections have progressively higher leakage inductance. due to the high rotor frequency. the current distribution becomes uniform and the effective resistance is low.

    At low slip rotor frequency is low therefore less leakage reactance allow to conduct current during running At high slips reactance are large compared to resistance so the current is forced through the bars at surface which reactance is low compared to deeper bars. These conductors closer to surface have higher resistance A high torque at starting could be obtained 14 .

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16 . pumps etc.    Class A Standard motor design Full load torque and pull out torque occurs at low values of slip High inrush currents 500% to 800% rated current Applications-fans . blowers .

Class B Normal starting torque Same starting torque as class A Applications are similar to class A 17 .

Class C Has high starting torque Double cage motors Applications –need high starting torque like compressors and conveyors 18 .

Class D Very high starting torque Pullout torque occurs at low slip Used for high inertia loads like fly wheels and punch press 19 .

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 Why need a starting mechanism? 21 .

      Direct On Line/Full Voltage starting/Across the line starting Star Delta Auto-Transformer Primary Resistance Reduced Voltage Rotor Resistance Electronic Soft Start 22 .

    apply full line voltage to the motor upon starting when the high starting current does not affect the power supply system and the machinery will stand the high starting torque manual or magnetic. When the supply voltage fails. the motor will stop and restart automatically when supply is restored(manual) Double Pole manual Starter Three pole manual starter 23 .

24 .the magnetic starter motor starter contacts are closed by energizing a holding coil. Unlike the manual starter in which the power contacts are closed manually .

While reducing the current. In effect the voltage drop across the resistors gives a reduced voltage to the motor terminals. than for a star-delta starter 25 . Resistors inserted into the primary of the motor increase the overall impedance of the circuit and reduce the starting current. we should also remember that the torque will also be reduced.

This applies a reduced voltage for the initial starting of the motor. 26 . This momentarily places the transformer in-line with the motor (as an inductance).   the transformer is connected in star (-KM1) and the line contactor (-KM2) closed. the line contractor (-KM3) is closed putting the line voltage onto the motor and the autotransformer isolated by contactor (-KM2) opening. until step 3 is complete. when the motor has reached full speed the auto-transformer star contactor (-KM1) is opened.

  KM1 is initially closed to put the motor in star configuration same time KM2 also closed At the end of starting KM1 is opened and KM# is closed to place the windings in delta  27 .

ensuing a smooth acceleration. Spikes at reduce voltage start Voltage limiting Current limiting 28 . Soft starters use a combination of power electronics and electronic control circuitry to slow increase the voltage on the motor during starting.

  Electronic soft starters contain the thyristors control the firing Modern soft starters can set varying start and stop ramps. setting of the initial starting voltage. firing of thyristors other than a zero voltage (current) will create a non-linear load characteristic 29 . current limiting control and thermal overload protection.

      Soft start Current limit start Full-voltage start Linear speed acceleration Preset slow speed Soft Stop 30 .

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