Absolute. A chemical substance relatively free of impurities, e.g., absolute alcohol. Absorb. To soak up.

The incorporation of a liquid into a solid substance, as by capillary, osmotic, solvent, or chemical action. See Adsorb ACGIH. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. An organization of professionals in governmental agencies or educational institutions engaged in occupational safety and health programs. ACGIH develops and publishes recommended occupational exposure limits for chemical substances and physical agents (see TLV and BEI). (1330 Kemper Meadow, Cincinnati, OH 45240; [513] 7422020.) Acid. An inorganic or organic compound that: 1) is usually corrosive to human tissue and must be handled with care; 2) has a pH of less than 7.0; 3) neutralizes bases (alkalis) to form salts; 4) dissociates in water yielding hydrogen or hydronium ions; 5) may react with metals to yield hydrogen; and 6) turns litmus paper red. Acidosis. A condition of decreased alkalinity of the blood and tissues. Symptoms may include sickly sweet breath, headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances; usually the result of excessive acid production. Tissues and CNS functions are disturbed. Acrid. Irritating and bitter (referring to smell). ACS. American Chemical Society. Professional society that establishes standards of purity for a number of reagents, e.g., the ACS Reagent Grade. They publish Chemical Abstracts and a host of professional journals and magazines dealing with various areas of chemistry, chemical engineering, and allied sciences. (1155 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036; [202] 872-4567.) Action Level. The exposure level (concentration in air) at which OSHA regulations to protect employees take effect (20 CFR 1910.1001.1052); e.g., workplace air analysis, employee training, medical monitoring, and record keeping. Exposure at or above action level is termed occupational exposure. Exposure below this level can also be harmful. This level is generally half the PEL. Acute Exposure. Exposure of short duration, usually to relatively high concentrations or amounts of material. Acute Health Effect. An adverse effect on a human or animal body, with symptoms developing rapidly. See Chronic Health Effect. Active Ingredient. The ingredient of a product that actually does what the product is designed to do. Acute Lethality. The death of animals immediately or within 14 days after a single dose of or exposure to a toxic substance.

Acute Toxicity. Adverse health effects resulting from brief exposure to a chemical (e.g. seconds, minutes, hours). ADI. Acceptable Daily Intake. Administrative Controls. A number of measures used to reduce worker exposure, including work practices, labeling and warning devices, training, environmental monitoring, assignment scheduling, housekeeping, maintenance, and management. Adsorb. To attract and retain gas or liquid molecules on the surface of another material. See Absorb. Aerosol. A fine suspension in air or other gas of liquid (mist, fog) or solid (dust, fume, smoke) particles small enough to stay suspended. See Smoke; Fog; Mist. Agent. Any substance, force, radiation, organism, or influence affecting the body. The effects may be beneficial or injurious. AICE. American Institute of Chemical Engineers (800-242-4363, Web site: www.aiche.org). AIHC. American Industrial Health Council (202-833-2131). AICS. Abbreviation for the Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances. This list contains chemical substances which can be used commercially in Australia. It is similar to TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory in the U.S. Airborne Release. Release of any chemical (gas, vapor, mist, dust) into the air. Alkali. An inorganic or organic chemical that: 1) is usually corrosive to human tissue and must be handled with care; 2) has pH of more than 7.0; 3) neutralizes acids to form salts; 4) dissociates with water yielding hydroxide ions; 5) turns litmus paper blue, and 6) may also be called a base or caustic. Examples are oxides of hydroxides of certain metals belonging to group IA of the periodic table (Li, Na, K, Rh, Cs, Fr). Ammonia and amines may also be alkaline. Common commercial alkalis are sodium carbonate (soda ash), caustic soda and caustic potash, lime, lye, waterglass, regular mortar, Portland cement, and bicarbonate of soda. See Acid; Base; pH. Allergen. A substance that causes an allergic reaction. Allergy. A condition in which an initial symptomless exposure to a specific allergen later gives rise to a sensitivity to further exposure. Symptoms may be exhibited in a variety of ways, sneezing and skin eruptions are common. In more serious instances the throat swells, leading to respiratory distress.

Ambient. Usual or surrounding conditions of temperature, humidity, etc. Anhydride. A compound derived from another compound (e.g., an acid) by removing the elements that compose water, i.e., hydrogen and oxygen. Anhydrous. "Without water." Describes a substance in which no water molecules are present in the form of a hydrate or as water or crystallization. Annual Report on Carcinogens. Published annually by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and available from NTIS, this report list substances either known or anticipated to be carcinogens. Anorexia. Loss of appetite. Anosmia. Loss of the sense of smell. Anoxia. A lack of oxygen in the blood or tissues (literally, "without oxygen"). See Hypoxia. ANSI. American National Standards Institute. A privately funded organization that identifies industrial/public national consensus standards and coordinates their development. Many ANSI standards relate to safe design/performance of equipment and safe practices or procedures. (1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018; [212] 6424900.) Antagonism. When the effect of one chemical or material counteracts (works against) the effect of another. Antidote. A remedy to counteract a poison’s toxic effects; it may act to eliminate, absorb, or neutralize the poison. APHA. American Public Health Association (202-789-5600 Web site: http://www.alpha.org). Appearance. A material’s physical state (solid, gas, or liquid), its color, and other visual attributes. If there is a difference between a material’s appearance and that listed on the MSDS, contact your supervisor. Aqueous, aq. Describes a water-based solution or suspension. Frequently describes a gaseous compound dissolved in water. Ash. The mineral content remaining after complete combustion of a substance. Asphyxiant. A vapor or gas that can cause unconsciousness or death by suffocation (lack of oxygen). Most simple asphyxiants are harmful to the body only when they become so concentrated that they reduce (displace) the available oxygen in the air

The accumulation of a substance.atsdr. Baume' degree increases as specific gravity decreases.cdc. See Alkali. nitrogen. Examples of simple asphyxiants are carbon dioxide.. fluid.7 lb/in. or 760 mm Hg or 101 kPa. [610] 832-9500.gov: 8080) Autoignition Temperature. or like cyanide. Be'. The danger of drawing material into the lungs. A unit of pressure equal to the average pressure that air exerts at sea level. Atomize. Aspiration Hazard. Not exhibiting symptoms atm. An organization that devises consensus standards for materials characterization and use. leading to an inflammatory response that can be fatal. Atmosphere. hydrogen. (100 Barr Harbor Dr. or exhaled air. Biological Exposure Indexes. ASTM. 1 atm =1. or 14. W. See the ACGIH publication Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices.(normally about 21%) to dangerous levels (18% or lower). An alkali. Asphyxiation is one of the principal potential hazards of working in confined spaces. Asphyxiation. Benign. interfere with the body's utilization of oxygen. To break up a liquid into very fine droplets by forcing it through a small orifice. A scale of specific gravities devised by the French chemist Antoine Baume' (c. The minimum temperature at which a substance ignites without application of a flame or spark.) Asymptomatic. Base. PA 19428. and helium. 2. Numerical values based on procedures to determine the amount of a material the human body absorbs by measuring the material or its metabolic products in tissue. pronounced bo-may) that indicates concentration of materials in a solution. Bioaccumulate. Baume'. such as a pesticide.013 x 10 5 N/m2. Do not heat materials to greater than 80% of this temperature. in a living organism. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (800-447-1544. A condition that causes asphyxia or suffocation. ATSDR. American Society for Testing and Materials. Chemical asphyxiants like carbon monoxide (CO) reduce the blood's ability to carry oxygen. Web site: http://atsdrl. Conshohocken. . 1800. BEI. Harmless. Generally used in connection with high pressures.

BLS. A pH stabilizer. butane. Bulk Density. The total toxic material a person has ingested or inhaled from all sources over time and retained in the body.5 C (31 F) gasoline. CAS Registry Number A unique accession number assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service. to determine the extent of hazardous material absorption or accumulation. Sometimes accompanied by a note such as dec (decomposes) or expl (explodes). Other than being guaranteed unique to a given compound. An organic material's capacity for decomposition as a result of attack by microorganisms. this number has no particular meaning. Btu. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water from 17 C (63 F) to 18 C (64 F). with voids between particulates containing air. Buffer. Bureau of Labor Statistics (202-219-5000. Analysis of body substances. Web site: www. so 'cis-2-hexene'. The process by which a chemical is passed through the food chain from soil to plants and animals where it accumulates and is ultimately passed to humans. BP = 0. BP. as well as from many industrial operations.org).bls. such as blood or urine. For mixtures.. Flammable materials with low BPs generally present special fire hazards [e. a division of the American Chemical Society. and '2-hexene' (a mixture with unspecified cis/trans composition) are all assigned separate CAS Numbers. Biodegradable materials do not persist in nature. Biological Monitoring. Sewage-treatment routines are based on this property. or flakes from painted surfaces. lead can be ingested from drinking water channeled through lead-soldered pipes. Also. Biodegradable. For example. a range of temperature is given. A substance that reduces the change in hydrogen ion concentration (pH) otherwise produced by adding acids or bases to a solution. lead glazes on dishes. British thermal unit.g. Usually expressed as lb/ft 3 or g/cm 3. Sometimes present as a temperature range if an exact value is unavailable. . or at which a gaseous substance condenses to a liquid. Boiling Point. Compare to Calorie. CAS Registry Numbers are assigned to every uniquely-identifiable substance. The temperature at which a liquid substance turns into a gas. The mass (weight) per unit volume of a solid particulate material as it is normally packed. Body Burden. BP = 38 C (100 F)]. 'trans-2-hexene'.Bioconcentration. the temperature at which a liquid's vapor pressure equals the surrounding atmospheric pressure so that the liquid rapidly vaporizes.

4 in. A substance that modifies (slows. Caustic Lime. cP. Celsius is now this temperature scale's preferred name. Carcinogen or carcinogenic. See Alkali.Calorie. Caustic Soda. Caustic. C. A malignant tumor or cancerous growth. is considered capable of causing cancer in humans. Carcinogen. Carbon Monoxide. See CO. abnormally regulated pace. detergents. See C. Calcium hydroxide. A material that either causes cancer in humans. . 2) the National Toxicology Program's (NTP) Annual Report on Carcinogens lists it as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen. The amount of heat required to raise 1 g of water 1 C. Catalyst. A cm = 0. The viscosity of water at 20 C (68 F) is almost 1 centipoise. See CO2. 1/100 meter. Centimeter. no matter where it occurs in the body. Carbon Dioxide. Carcinoma. because it causes cancer in animals. See Btu. An abnormal multiplication of cells that tends to infiltrate other tissues and metastasize (spread). Caustic Potash. Sodium hydroxide. Centipoise. Centigrade. cm. A metric (cgs) unit of viscosity equal to 1/100 poise. or 3) OSHA regulates it as a carcinogen. or more often quickens) a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction. CAR. CARC. Strong alkaline substance used in cleaning products. Unit of heat. Carcinogenic. A material is considered a carcinogen if 1) the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated and found it a carcinogen or potential carcinogen. Cancer-producing. Each cancer is believed to originate from a single "transformed" cell that grows (splits) at a fast. or. Potassium hydroxide Ceiling Limit. Cancer. The concentration not to exceed at any time. "An employee's exposure [to a hazardous material] shall at no time exceed the ceiling value" (OSHA).

interpretations. Federal legislation. Chemical Family. furfural. (202) 512-1800.1200. reflected by a collection of matching MSDSs. See CHP. CFS." The designated. (Canada) Environmental Protection Act.Central Nervous System (CNS). and headache caused by a chemical acting on the brain. For example. The number and kind of atoms comprising a molecule of a material. higher doses can cause unconsciousness. A collection of the regulations established by law. Cubic feet per second. List of hazardous materials in a workplace. CFC. Each water molecule consists of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen. Chlorofluoromethanes. CEPA. acrolein.1450. dizziness. Washington. Cubic feet per minute. Complex chemicals may have more than one name. qualified employee who assists in the development and implementation of the CHP. Central Nervous System (CNS) Depression. "Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. The OSHA regulation known as the Hazard Communication Standard. acetone. Copies are sold by the Superintendent of Documents. A chemical's scientific name. CFR. Chlorofluorocarbon. coma. Government Printing Office. gram. Drowsiness. Water's chemical formula is H2O. OSRA regulation. Associated with damage to the Earth's ozone layer. CFM. Per 29 CFR 1910. Chemical Hygiene Officer. etc. cgs. designed to protect the environment. and second. The brain and spinal cord. Metric units of measure based upon centimeter. Chemical Formula. Lung inflammation caused by inhaling a chemical that is . generally for compliance with OSHA and SARA. administered by Environment Canada. Chemical Inventory. and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) are of the ketone family. and acetaldehyde are of the aldehyde family. Chemical Name. Chemical Pneumonitis. CFM. Code of Federal Regulations. CFR 29 Section 1910. DC 20402. A group of single elements or compounds of a common general type. methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). Contact the agency that issued the regulation for details. corresponding to different naming systems. or death.

(CMA) to provide emergency information on materials involved in transportation accidents. CO2 does not burn and is relatively nontoxic and unreactive. or production of noxious substances can result. A dense. Established in Washington. usually applies to relatively low material amounts or concentrations. making it useful as a fireextinguishing agent to block oxygen and smother a fire. Continuous or intermittent exposure extending over a long time period. A chemical's tendency to react with other materials. See Central Nervous System. Personal protective clothing. Chemical Reactivity. years. Hemoglobin absorbs CO 200 times more readily than it does oxygen.g. Chemical-protective Clothing (CPC). Chemical Manufacturers Association (703-741-5000. 24-hr No. Carbon Dioxide.cmahq. colorless. CMA. odorless. Emission of light during a chemical reaction other than burning. . centimeter. CHEMTREC. A colorless. DC. it reduces the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. can crate hazardous oxygen-deficient environments that can cause asphyxiation. that is manufactured to be resistant to penetration by specific chemicals for a certain period of time. Undesirable and dangerous effects such as heat. apron.: (800) 424-9300 Chronic Exposure. CO2 is 1. CO2. Chronic Toxicity. flammable. cm. See Central Nervous System Depression. decades). CO. especially in confined places. by the Chemical Manufacturers Assoc.irritating or otherwise toxic to the lungs. and very toxic gas produced by incomplete combustion of carbon compounds and as a by product of many chemical processes. etc. Chronic Health Effect. suit. gas produced by combustion and decomposition of organic substances and as a by-product of many chemical processes. High concentrations. gloves. Carbon Monoxide. A chemical asphyxiant. explosions. CNS Depression. months.com. An adverse effect on a human or animal body with symptoms that develop slowly over a long time period and persist or that recur frequently. Chemiluminescence.5 times as dense as air. Adverse health effects resulting from long-term exposure to a chemical (e. Web site: www. Chemical Transportation Emergency Center.) CNS. See Acute Health Effect.

a Federal agency responsible for regulating hazardous materials used in consumer goods per the Hazardous Substances Act and Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970. or generic name. Contingency Plan. refrigerated gases are cryogenic materials that can cause frostbite on contact. and contained under pressure as a dissolved gas or liquefied by compression or refrigeration. Compliance. A materials that will burn under most conditions and may ignite easily depending on its flash point. Consumer Products. Consumer Products Safety Commission. CPSC. Documented plan for the course of action to be taken in the event of a fire. Cryogenic. They are not required to carry label information. which releases heat and light. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Products regulated by the Consumer Product Safety Act. Combustion. spill or other emergency involving the potential for exposure of humans to healththreatening conditions. Per the Hazardous Substances Act and Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970. A designation for a material other than its chemical name. Critical Pressure/Critical Temperature. A temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied by pressure.5 C) and below 200 F (93 C). Any material which is a gas at normal temperature and pressure.Combustible. The DOT defines combustible liquids as a liquid with a flash point above 141 F (60. Relating to extremely low temperature. A source of air pollution. Conc. NFPA and OSHA generally define combustible liquid as a liquid with a flash point at or above 100 F (38 C) but below 200 F (93. Common Name. See CPSC. Concentration. Compressed Gas. such as code name or code number or trade. The critical pressure is that pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature. Meeting the requirements of law and regulations.3 C). An exothermic chemical reaction due to rapid oxidation or burning. For example. To hold back a spilled material with dikes or absorbent material so as to prevent further spillage and contamination. Containment. brand. May be used as the "product identifier" in Canadian law [Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) regulations]. .

electrolysis. Dangerously Reactive Material. Dec. heat. Deliquescent. Derivation. The process by which a chemical substance is obtained actually or theoretically from parent substance(s). elements. Decompose. Means of quantifying the volume of air exchanged in a workplace in a period of time. polymerize) or with air or water to produce a hazardous condition. A material capable of soothing or protecting inflamed. irritation. chemical reaction. Cutaneous Hazards. See Specific Gravity and Bulk Density. Examples include ketones and chlorinated compounds. A material that can react by itself (e. ultraviolet exposure. Generally refers to the destruction or decomposition of material through the corrosive effects of chemicals. abrasion. oxidation.org) CTARC. decay. Pertaining to the skin (cutaneous). m3 is preferred. or simpler compounds. (202-872-8110. usually in grams per cubic centimeter or pounds per gallon. Cubic meter. Chemical Testing and Assessment Research Commission. Cubic foot. Breakdown of a material (by heat. A term used to characterize water-soluble salts (usually powdered) that tend to absorb moisture from the air and to soften or dissolve as a result. Cutaneous. Dermal.. A material. or other processes) into parts. m3. Decomposition. Ratio of weight (mass) to volume of a material. Cu ft is more usual.csma. Web site: www. Preventive measures can be taken if you know what conditions may cause the dangerous reaction. Degradation.g. irritated mucous membranes. cu ft. . A chemical that affects the skin by causing rashes. Defatting Agent. ft3. etc. Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM). Demulcent. Density. that upon repeated exposure or skin contact can remove fat causing in some instances drying. Chemical Specialties Manufacturing Association. Pertaining to the skin (dermal). Decomp. See Hygroscopic. irritation and/or redness. Hydrophilic.CSMA. or defatting. cu m.

The European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances. often produced by some mechanical process such as crushing. Dyspnea. Dysplasia. sometimes blistering. detergent on oil. Ordinarily used to denote effects on experimental animals. A single substance may have multiple codes. etc. Dusts may be inhalation. Skin rash. physical state. ELINICS. DOT Number. A list of approximately 400 chemicals identified by EINECS numbers.1990. Difficulty in speaking clearly. grinding.Dermal Toxicity. Dysarthia. Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area establishes MAK (maximum concentration values) for substances found in the workplace. established with the European Community from September 18. e. Adverse effects resulting from a material's absorption through skin. depending on its concentration. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). fire. Dermatitis. A list of chemical substances identified by CAS and EINECS numbers that were marketed in the European Community between January 11971 and September 18. Solid particles suspended in air. Difficulty in swallowing.S. Codes for use in the commercial transportation of hazardous materials. shortness of breath. abrading. inflammation of the skin. 1981 to June 30. Dysphagia. DFG (Germany) MAK. itching. Disinfectant. . or dustexplosion hazards. Chlorine is often used as a disinfectant. Department of Transportation. Federal Republic of German. Chemical agent with the property of separating concentrations of organic material. A chemical that kills pathogenic organisms.. 1981. Dysosmia. or blasting. Abnormal growth or development of organs or cells. A sense of difficulty in breathing. Impaired sense of smell. Dispersant. Eczema. MAKs are expressed as time weighted averages (TWAs) and peak exposures. Dust. A skin rash characterized by redness.g. EINECS. may become scaly or crusty. as mandaetd by 49 CFR 172 and the U.

3 of a MSDS that describes a material's appearance and gives an overview of the most significant immediate concerns for emergency personnel. Emergency Overview. and 3) C (ceiling value). water.g. and heat when subjected to abrupt shock.0. base. Endothermic.4. VM&P naphtha.8.1.6.g. salt) that dissociates into ions when in aqueous solution and that provides ionic conductivity.g. 2) STEL (short-term exposure limit).3. isobutyl alcohol. Electrolyte. causing impairment of CNS functions if not adequately replaced. 0. See Flammable Limits. The concentration in workplace air of a chemical deemed the maximum acceptable.6. high temperature.0. 8. A chemical reaction that absorbs heat. MIBK. evaporates) from the liquid solid state when compared to a known material's vaporization rate..0.6. 3) Slow evaporating if less than 0. A material that produces a sudden.8 to 3.. Explosive Limits. or an ignition source. with a vaporization rate designated as 1. Explosive.4. 0. 1) TLV-TWA (threshold limit value . An irreversible lung condition in which the alveolar walls lose resiliency. 1. 190-proof (95%) ethyl alcohol. The rate at which a material vaporizes (volatilizes.4. which is assigned an evaporation rate of 1. almost instantaneous release of pressure. e. 0. 1. hexane. 1. 2) Medium evaporating if 0. The rate of evaporation for a liquid.S. etc. The known reference material is usually normal butyl acetate (N-BuAc or n-BuAc). xylene.. 4-character codes used by the U. e. normal butyl alcohol. Exposed. Environmental Protection Agency to designate regulated contaminants in waste. e.6. Additional supplements will be added as necessary. A substance (as an acid. mineral spirits. 1991 and is a supplement to EINECS. Evaporation Rate. physical state. A brief summary usually found in Sec.3.8. in unitless values relative to butyl acetate. 0. 5. Exposure limits in common use are. Evaporation rate can be useful in evaluating a material's health and fire hazards. Exposure Limits. 0. depending on its concentration. Meaning that most workers can be exposed at given levels or lower without harmful effects. EPA Code.time-weighted average). Vaporization rates of other solvents or materials are then classified as 1) Fast evaporating if greater than 3. Electrolytes are lost from the body through perspiration as salts. gas. methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). A single substance may have multiple codes. 3. Emphysema. resulting in excessively reduced lung capacity.The list was published on May 29. acetone. Refers to an employee possibly endangered by a chemical because the .

so other methods. usually crystalline. Fiber. Susceptibility to burning 0 = Will Not Burn . FFDCA. Finely crushed or powdered material or fibers.chemical may have been permitted to enter that employee through some route of entry. Position A . with a high ratio of length to diameter. and Cosmetic Act. Fines. A basic form of matter.gov). mineral (asbestos.Health Hazard (Blue). and synthetic (rayon. Degree of hazard. Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (L). FEV 1. Fire Diamond (NFPA Hazard Rating). or similar emergency. Per "NFPA 704" publication. should be followed. Chemicals that affect the eye or visual capacity. Eye Hazards. Federal Emergency Management Agency (800-480-2520. and related hazards of a material that may exist due to a short-term. The type of fire extinguisher or extinguishing method appropriate for a specific material.fema. steel). Web site: www. Federal Food. A chemical reaction that gives off heat. The National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) visual rating system that addresses the health. flammability. such as the use of foam or CO2. acute exposure caused by a fire. Some chemicals react violently in the presence of water. high polymers). spill. vegetable (cotton). reactivity. Extinguishing Media. Drug. FEMA. A measurement of lung function. Agents. Examples: animal (wool). especially those smaller than the average in a mix of various sizes. Examples include acids and organic solvents. carbon. Exothermic. level of short-term protection 0 = Ordinary Combustible Hazards in a Fire 1 = Slightly Hazardous 2 = Hazardous 3 = Extreme Danger 4 = Deadly Position B .Flammability (Red).

See Combustible and Inflammable. Flammable. Immediate measures that can be taken by the victim or others in order to reduce or eliminate the potential effects of a chemical exposure or other injury. or gas that ignites easily and burns rapidly. while concentrations above the upper flammable limit (UFL) are too rich.Reactivity. Explosive Limits). OX = Oxidizer W = Use No Water. vapor. reacts! First Aid. or mixed 0 = Stable and Not Reactive with Water 1 = Unstable if Heated 2 = Violent Chemical Change 3 = Shock and Heat May Detonate 4 = May Detonate Position D . A gas that at normal atmospheric pressure forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13% by volume or less. Concentrations below the lower flammable limit (LFL) are too lean to burn. or over a concentration range greater than 12% by volume. liquid. Instability (Yellow). Flammable Limits (Flammability Limits. and special precautions are needed to prevent ignition or explosion.Special Hazard (White). . Flammable Gas. All concentrations between LFL and UFL are in the flammable range. Per OSHA 29 CFR 1910. Flammability Classification. regardless of lower limit.1 = Will Ignite if Preheated 2 = Will Ignite if Moderately Heated 3 = Will Ignite at Most Ambient Conditions 4 = Burns Readily at Ambient Conditions Position C . criteria to classify combustible and flammable liquids.106. Minimum and maximum concentrations of flammable gas or vapor between which ignition can occur. Describes any solid. Energy released if burned. decomposed.

5 C).Flammable Liquid. . or moisture absorption. Branch of the federal government responsible for enforcing the Food.gov). A solid. Setaflash Closed Tester. Fire Point. (800-532-4440. as a result of spontaneous chemical change. The means by which a flash point is obtained. The lowest temperature at which a liquid produces sufficient vapor to flash near its surface and continues to burn. FP is determined by laboratory tests in cups. other than an explosive or blasting agent.. used as a preservative and chemical feedstock. and Pensky-Martens closed cup (PMCC). or from retained heat from manufacturing or processing. flammable gas with pungent smell. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A liquid that gives off vapors readily ignitable at room temperature. Occurs when a distant spark or ignition source ignites a trail of flammable material (e. FP. .8 C). see TCC. Flammable solids are liable to cause fires under ordinary conditions or during transportation. Those products subject to the Act are not subject to labeling requirements of hazardous materials. Colorless. TCT. Web site: www.. including matters of consumer safety involving related products. The NFPA and OSHA generally define a flammable liquid as a liquid with a flash point below 100 F (37. Drug and Cosmetic Act.g. Probable human carcinogens. Flash Point Method. Any flash point based on the Tag Open Tester (TOC) or the Cleveland Open Cup (COC) will be identified by (OC).usually 10 to 30 C higher than the flash point. Combustion does not continue. The temperature at which the vapor of a liquid can be made to ignite in air.g. Flash Back. The DOT defines a flammable liquid as a liquid with a flash point of not more than 141 F (60. Lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface or within a vessel. Flash Point. that ignites readily and continues to burn so vigorously and persistently that it creates a serious hazard. See Fire Point. If possible. Flammable Solid. intensely irritating. flash point temperature is to be based on a closed cup (CC) method. through friction. Formaldehyde. gasoline vapor). e. water in air. Fog.fda. A visible suspension of fine droplets of liquid in a gas. The flame then travels along the trail of the material back to its source. Flash Point.

2) Has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 1000 mg/kg. Germicide. See Flash Point. Harmful. Any compound that kills disease-causing microorganisms. FP. Chemical compounds used to prevent or destroy fungi. Gas. A phrase applied to food additives approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It can be changed to its liquid or solid state only by increased pressure and/or decreased temperature. water (H2O) has formula mass of 18. You are urged to acquire and become familiar with these regulations. Chlorox(Tm) is a tradename for bleach. Contact your local . Also known as dilution ventilation.1200). the atomic weights being [hydrogen: 2(1. The temperature at which a material changes from a liquid to a solid state upon cooling. name applied generally to a substance. Tiny solid particles formed by the vaporization of a solid which then condenses in air. particles are usually of a size which readily reach the air sac (alveoli) of the lungs.0.0) + oxygen: 16] = 18. Generic Name. A material is defined as harmful (defined as a chemical with a low degree of toxicity) if it falls into any of the following two categories: 1) Has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 500 mg/kg but no more than 2000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. possibly chemical. This information is important because a frozen material may burst its container or the hazards could change. An example of local ventilation is a laboratory fume hood. For example. when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours with bare skin of albino rabbits. but no more than 2000 mg/kg of body weight. Generally recognized as safe. Hazard Communication Rule. which is specific air changing in the immediate area of a contamination source. A chemical name may be used as a generic name. but tradenames are not generic names. General Ventilation. Material safety data sheets. The removal of contaminated air and its replacement with clean air from the general workplace area as opposed to local ventilation. Fungicide. often found in tanks or cylinders and may be created by a chemical reaction. The sum of atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule. A common. A formless fluid which disperses in air. labeling.Formula Mass. Requires chemical manufacturers and importers to assess the hazards associated with the materials in their workplace (29 CFR 1910.0. and training are all results of this law. when administered orally to albino rats. Fumes. GRAS. For example. Freezing Point (FP). bleach is the generic name for the chemical sodium hypochlorite.

may produce dusts. Material. and below 25 mppcf (million particles per cubic foot) for dusts. per the RCRA law (40 CFR 261. or hazardous materials. and phosgene gases when burned. Hazard Warning. In 1971 OSHA adopted the following definition in regulations affecting employers operations subject to the Federal Longshoremen's and Harbor Worker's Compensation Act. below 15 mg/m3 for fumes. any substance or mixture of substances having properties capable of producing adverse effects on the health or safety of a human. The equilibrium ratio of concentrations of a material in air . a compound used to make plastics. symbols. and agents which damage the lungs. carbon monoxide. sensitizers. Health Hazard. Hazardous products released when a material is burned. fume. or smokes which have one or more of the above characteristics. skin. 40 CFR 302. A breaking down or separation of a substance into its constituent parts. Hazardous Chemical. 4) Is subject to polymerization with the release of large amounts of energy. toxic. For OSHA purposes refers to a material considered hazardous to human health due to at least one statistically significant study conducted in accordance with scientific principles. Hazardous Decomposition. mucous membranes." Included are substances that are carcinogens. gas. 5) Is a strong oxidizing or reducing agent. or is subject to spontaneous heating. 3) Has a single dose oral LD50 below 500 mg/kg. etc. Henry's Law Constant (H). Hazardous Combustion Products. The continuing scrutiny of specific individuals for the purpose of identifying disorders or health states. An identification number assigned by the EPA. especially those which may relate to exposure to hazardous materials. In a broad sense. vinyl chloride. elements. 6) Causes first-degree burns to skin [from a] short time exposure.OSHA office. Hazardous Waste Number.33. to identify and track wastes. 2) Has a threshold limit value below 400 ppm for gases and vapors. eyes. mists. Hazardous products resulting from decomposition of a material. or 7) In the course normal operations. vapors. Health Surveillance.4). For example. releases poisonous hydrogen chloride. or combination thereof appearing a label or other appropriate form of warning which convey the hazard(s) of the chemical(s) in the container(s)". closed cup. or is systemically toxic by skin contact. irritants. gases. Hazardous Decomposition Products. Defined by OSHA as "any word pictures. corrosives. See OSH Act. "The term Hazardous Material means a material which has one or more of these characteristics: 1) Has a flash point below 140 F (60 'C). or into simpler compounds accompanied by the release of heat.

HSDB. Readily adsorbing available moisture in any form. High-efficiency particulate air filter. Process by which chemical compounds are decomposed by reaction with water. The hazardous materials identification system developed by the National Paint and Coatings Association (NPCA) to provide information on the acute health. Hydrophilic. 2) Has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours with the bare skin of albino rabbits. from 0 for the least up to 4 for the most severe. Capable of burning or causing a fire. reactivity.) See NPCA. if the LC50 value is 3000 parts per million (ppm) or less when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour to albino rats. or dust. fume. 4) Is a liquid having a saturated vapor concentration (ppm) at 68 F (20 C) equal to or greater than its LC50 (vapor) value (ppm). maintained. Also called absolute. This system also includes temperatures under fire conditions (especially for flammability and reactivity). See Deliquescent. Highly toxic by inhalation and strong irritant to eyes and mucous membranes. Has a 99. Ignitable.that contain only hydrogen and carbon. (Details from Labelmaster. IL 60646. .97% removal efficiency for 0.3-micron particles. A number is assigned to a material indicating degree of hazard. when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour to albino rats. Smells like rotten eggs. Highly Toxic. causing them to swell and frequently to gel. or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist. and flammability hazards encountered in the workplace. Materials with a high H are more volatile. A data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. Chicago. Hydrolysis. Hazardous Substance Data Bank. See Deliquescent. Hygroscopic. Describing materials having large molecules that tend to absorb and retain water. Chemical compounds . HEPA. 3) Has a median lethal concentration (LC50) of gas or vapor in air of 200 parts per million (ppm) or less by volume. Highly flammable. [312] 478-0900. HMIS.most often combustible fuels . and updated by the National Library of Medicine. Hydrocarbons (HCs). and natural emission from rotting organic matter. 5724 N Pulaski Rd. A by-product of oil refining. Built. reviewed. Hydrogen Sulfide (HS). A material is classified as highly toxic (a poison) if it falls into any of the following four categories: 1) Has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats. Letters designate personal protective equipment.and in water.

Impervious. may inadvertently result from eating. n-pentane and 2-methylbutane. . the propellant gas in aerosol spray. polymerization. Inflammation. impermeable. symptoms include swelling. CO2. Inhalation. Describes materials that could cause dangerous reactions and the release of energy from direct contact with one another. Anything other than the active ingredient in a product. may be flammable. Chemical compounds with the same molecular weight and atomic composition but differing molecular structure. pain. Incompatible. Irritant. For example. drinking. Capable of being easily set on fire and continue burning. cyanides). alpha. Inhibitor.. especially violently. A material added to another to prevent an unwanted reaction. such as hair spray. An electrically charged atom or radical. Insoluble. Inflammation of the eye's iris and its ciliary body. beta. Iridocyclitis. carbonates.g. Radiation (e. infection. or chemical irritation.Ignition Temperature. Entry of a chemical substance to the lungs by breathing. A substance capable of causing a reversible or irreversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact as a function of concentration or duration of exposure. e..g. Some simple carbon compounds are considered inorganic (e. not having active properties.. Swallowing a chemical substance. Ionizing Radiation. redness. and gamma radiation) that has the effect of removing electrons from atoms leading to the formation of free radicals. Inert ingredients may be hazardous. Insol. See Combustible and Flammable.g. Isomers. Inorganic Materials. A local response to cellular injury due to trauma. Inflammable. Compounds derived from other than vegetable or animal sources that do not generally contain carbon atoms. and loss of function.g. Inert Ingredients.. Ingestion. The lowest temperature at which a combustible material ignites in air and continues to burn independently of the heat source. or smoking in the workplace or with contaminated hands. Ion. Describes a material that does not allow another substance to penetrate or pass through it. Do not confuse with nonflammable. e. tenderness.

importer. printed. LEL. Changing a solid into a liquid. Rinse with water. Any written.057 quarts. Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level. The basic metric measure of length equivalent to 39. The drawing off of contaminated air directly from its source. Lower Explosive Limit. Lay Language. Latency Period. Lavage.Isotope. Lower Flammable Limit. Liter.371 in. Time that elapses between exposure and first manifestations of disease or illness. Lipid-soluble substances will disperse through the environment via living tissue. Linear feet per minute. See Lower Explosive Limit. LFM or lfm. or other responsible party. and name and address of the chemical manufacturer. Lowest Observed Effect Level. appropriate hazard warnings. LFL. Local Ventilation. LOEL. A label should identify the hazardous material. Language that is easily understood by the general public without specialized training. Measure of the maximum concentration of a chemical that will dissolve in fatty substances. Liquefaction. m. Treatment of exhausted air to remove contaminants may be required. One liter a water weighs 1 kg and is equal to 1. Lipid Solubility. depending on hazardous material and disease produced. Label. LOAEL. l. or graphic sign or symbol displayed on or affixed to containers of hazardous chemicals. A variant of an element characterized by having the same atomic number but a different mass because of its neutrons Job Hazard Analysis. This type of ventilation is recommended for hazardous airborne materials. . Meter. Latency periods can range from minutes to decades. Basic metric unit of volume. L. See Lower Flammable Limit. A process by which work place hazards are determined and safe work practices are instituted to adequately protect workers.

One-millionth (10-6) of a meter. A vague. mg. often referred to as a micron. Malignant. MIBK. Assumed to be at standard pressure unless otherwise indicated. Cubic meter. Minute. mg/m3. The temperature at which a solid substance becomes a liquid. Sometimes present as a temperature range if an exact value is unavailable. One thousandth of a liter. mg/kg. Micron (u). Microgram (ug). l0-3 of a gram). See MSHA. While gases mix with one another in all proportions. One cubic inch is about 16 ml.m3 or Cu m. When two liquids or two gases are completely soluble in each other in all proportions. Miscible. Sometimes accompanied by a note such as dec (decomposes) or subl (sublimes). Mine Safety and Health Administration. Cancerous. Dosage used in toxicology testing to indicate a dose administered per kg of body weight.45 at 25 C. mg/m3 = ppm x MW/24. One-millionth (10-6) of a gram. m3 is preferred. MEK. min. Milligram per cubic meter of air. Milliliter (mL). Listed in Celsius degrees on the ChemFinder WebServer. See micrometer. Methyl Ethyl Ketone. . the miscibility of liquids depends on their chemical natures. Micrometer (um). for all practical purposes equal to 1 cubic centimeter. MIC. Material Safety Data Sheet. Milligram (1/1000. 1/1000 (10-3) of a meter. Malaise. or at which a liquid substance solidifies. Methyl Isobutyl Ketone. A metric unit of capacity. See MSDS. generalized. Methyl Isocyanate. Milligram per kilogram. ill feeling. Melting Point. Millimeter (mm).

and use hazardous materials responsible for effective communication. Material safety data sheet.1% for carcinogens and 1. hazardous ingredients. See Formula Mass. Momentary Value (DFG). health. MS.5 g. Suspended liquid droplets in the air generated by condensation from the gaseous to the liquid state or by mechanically breaking up a liquid by splashing or atomizing. See atm. Mass Spectrometry. The thrust of the law is to have those who make. and disposal procedures. "If a hazardous chemical is present in the mixture in reportable quantities (i. 35. chemical reactivities and incompatibilities. or difference of level in a U-tube. The CMA has recently drawn up a set of guidelines for developing a consistent MSDS format. Millions of particles per cubic foot of air.38A). Molecule. 23. 12.5). A measure of pressure in millimeters of a mercury column above a reservoir. 29 CFR.e. See also Schedule I. MSDS. g. based on impinger samples counted by light-field techniques (OSHA). 0. Sec. it must be reported unless the mixture has been tested as a whole" (OSHA CPL 23-02. OSHA has established guidelines for descriptive data that should be concisely provided on a data sheet to serve as the basis for written hazard communication programs. . A level which the concentration should never exceed. Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A fact sheet summarizing information about material identification. Part 1910. table salt (NaCl) has a formula mass of 58.0% for other health hazards). For example. mppcf. See Hazard Communication Rule.. physical. Uniform liquid mixtures are called solutions. spill.1200. and fire hazards. Smallest representative particle of a covalently bonded chemical compound. This standard format has been accepted by ANSI. A heterogeneous association of materials that cannot be represented by a chemical formula and that does not undergo chemical change due to interaction among the mixed materials. Thus. leak. distribute. as amended. first aid.5 (Na. Mole or mol. Mixture. The constituent materials may or may not be uniformly dispersed and can usually be separated by mechanical means (as opposed to a chemical reaction). and Cl. MITI. one mole of NaCl is 58. of the Canadian Hazardous Products Act.Mist. Molecular Weight. The quantity of a chemical substance that has a mass in grams numerically equal to the formula mass. Sec. Moderate irritation effects. MOD. mm Hg. and protective measures required for safe handling and storage.

Normal.. Mutagen. The NFPA Fire Diamond is divided into four parts listing the health hazards.. NICS. Mucous Membrane. See Molecular Weight. See DOT Identification Numbers. N (Newton). along with recommended protective equipment. mouth. The metric unit of force. An international voluntary membership organization formed to promote and improve fire protection and prevention and establish safeguards against loss of life and property by fire. not determined. of a gram. and urinary tract. (Batterymarch Park. National Institute for Chemical Studies. National Fire Protection Association. NFPA 704 System. [617] 770-3000. See NFPA. Chromosomes are the "blueprints" of life within individual cells. NFPA Hazard Rating.e.e. bronchial tubes. NA. flammability concerns. Nanogram.MSST (Maximum Safe Storage Temperature). Not applicable. no branches. Mutagens may affect future generations if sperm or egg cells are affected. i. l0-9. stomach. MA 02269.nfpa. See SADT (Self-Accelerating Decomposition Temperature). NFPA. Quincy. A chemical name prefix signifying a straight-chain structure. Each section is rated on a scale of 0 (minimal hazard) to 4 (extreme). approximately equal to the weight of a 102. recommended practices. [800] 344-3555. n-. 16 volumes of standards. To render less chemically reactive.org). intestine. . not available. MW. and manuals developed (and periodically updated) by NFPA committees. NA Number. A material that induces genetic changes (mutations) in the DNA of chromosomes. Web site: www. to change the pH to about 7 (neutral) by adding acid to a basic compound or base to an acidic compound. i. NFPA 704M publication is the code for showing hazards of materials using the familiar diamond-shaped label with appropriate numbers or symbols (NFPA hazard rating). and reactivity of a compound. The mucous-secreting membrane lining the hollow organs of the body. nose. The NFPA Fire Diamond. ng.5 g mass. Neutralize. ND. One billionth. Best known for the National Fire Codes. See Fire Diamond.

No observed effect level.. NTP. Web site: www. Not otherwise regulated. MD B2-04 . NOAEL. DC 20005.) Nuisance Particulates. of Health and Human Services with resources from the National Institutes of Health the Food and Drug Administration. Not otherwise classified. Radiation that does not change atom structure (e. National Technical Information Service (703-487-4600. or low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Research Triangle Park.) See HMIS NRC. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Also. National Response Center. (800-424-8802). NW. (NIOSH. NTIS.nlm. National Library of Medicine.NIH. Dusts that do not produce significant organic disease or toxic . (1500 Rhode Island Ave. NOS. and researches occupational safety.nih. or an oil or chemical spill or other environmental accident occurs. OH 45226.) NOR. 4676 Columbia Parkway. micro waves. a DOT hazard class for any compressed gas other than a flammable one. The trade association of manufacturers that developed the HMIS labeling system. to develop toxicological profiles of materials.ntis. investigates incidents. NOEL. Cincinnati.) NLM. Its goals are to develop tests useful for public health regulations of toxic chemicals. Box 12233. [202] 462-6272. NPCA. or burns very slowly. Not otherwise specified.g. Does not burn. A notification center that must be called if a RQ (reportable quantity) released. and to communicate the results for use by others. The agency of the Public Health Service that tests and certifies respiratory and air-sampling devices.gov) NIOSH. and the Centers for Disease Control. National Toxicology Program.. Washington.nih. National Institutes of Health (Web site: www. (NTP Information Office. National Paint and Coatings Association. Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Federal activity overseen by the Dept. Nonflammable. to foster testing of materials.gov). ME containing medical documents (l-888-FINDNLM. A government library in Bethesda. NC 27709. NOC.gov). No Observed Adverse Effect Level. Incapable of easy ignition. radiowaves. Web site: www. [513] 533-8328. It recommends exposure limits to OSHA for substances.

Highly toxic." Organic Materials. Otherwise known as "Particulates not otherwise classified" (PNOC). Impervious to light rays. These compounds tend to be reactive and unstable. (Documents are available from the OSHA Technical Data Center Docket Office. Oral. Occupational Safety and Health Act. Opaque. as does an individual's ability to detect chemical odors. Organic Peroxide. OEL. An exposure route "through the mouth. and other elements with chain or ring structures. Odor Threshold. Washington.S. and in fertilizers. The 1992-93 ACGIH TLV is 10 mg/m3. The regulatory and enforcement agency for safety and health in most U. OSHA. alkyl tin compounds widely used as stabilizers for plastics (rigid vinyl polymers) and some as catalysts. but many compounds of this type are manufactured and do not occur naturally. NW. note that published values vary greatly. A compound containing the bivalent . [202] . Synthetic organic compound containing phosphorus used as insecticides. Occupational Exposure Limit. Almost all chemical constituents of living matter are of this type. ORM-D: materials such as consumer commodities that present limited hazards during transportation due to their form.structure and which is a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) where one or both hydrogen atoms are replaced by an organic radical.O . plasticizers. industrial sectors. and packaging. DC 20210. of Labor. hydrogen. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration.. insecticides affect the central nervous system by causing cholinesterase inhibition. The lowest concentration detectable by odor. See Exposure Limits. Occupational Exposure. Dept. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.O . 200 Constitution Ave. air monitoring is a much more reliable way to detect chemical hazards for many substances. See Action Level. Rm N-3670. quantity. Pant of the U. Organophosphates. flame-retardants. See OSHA. Other Regulated material. Compounds composed of carbon. The value is for total dust containing no asbestos and <1% crystalline silica. See OSH Act. DOT hazard classification of a particular hazardous material to label in transport. ORM.S. Many are highly toxic. Organotins.effect from "reasonable" concentrations and exposures.

The agent may. the volume of which makes up 99% or more of the mixture's total volume.8 C (73 F).8 C (73 F).3 C (200 F) or higher. boiling point at or above 38 C (100 F). Flammable/combustible liquid is a standard classification used to identify the risks of fire or explosion associated with a liquid. See Hazard Communication Rule for details. A chemical or substance that brings about an oxidation reaction. and Class IC -.flash point at or above 22. OX. do not. Its goal is to set standards of safety that prevent injury and illness among the workers. 1915. flash point at or above 93. boiling point below 38 C (100 F). liquids (flash point below 38 C [100 F]) are divided into: Class IA -. flash point at or above 38 C (100 F) and below 60 C (140 F). 1) provide the oxygen to the substance being oxidized (in which case the agent has to be oxygen or contain oxygen). the volume of which makes up 99% or more of the mixture's total volume. Others. Class IB -. Osmosis. OSHA Flammable/Combustible Liquid Classification. The regulatory vehicle to ensure the safety and health of workers in firms larger than 10 employees. . (29 CFR 1910. Many oxidizers. The passage of a fluid through a semi-permeable membrane to equalize the concentrations on both sides of the membrane. permanganate (MnO4). Class III liquids are divided into two subclasses: Class IIIA. Found at 29 CEP 1910.3 C (200 F). Web site: www. Oxidizing Agent.106). A reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen or another oxidizer.3 C (200 F) or higher. Combustible liquids (flash point at or above 38 C [100 F]) are divided into two classes: Class II. except any mixture having components with flash points of 93. Oxidizer. Oxide Pox. flash point at or above 60 C (140 F) and below 93.3 C (200 F). boiling point below 38 C (100 F). except any mixture having components with flash points of 93. Regulating employee exposure and informing employees of the dangers of materials are key factors. and Class IIIB.flash point below 22.osha. Dermatitis caused by contact with metal oxides under poor personal hygienic conditions. and nitrate (NO3) compounds contain large amounts of oxygen (O). The DOT defines an oxidizer or oxidizing material as a substance that yields oxygen readily to cause or enhance the combustion (oxidation) of other materials. 1918. such as chlorate (C1O3). 1926. Oxidation. or Class I. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Public Law 91-596. OSH Act.1200). Flammable.flash point below 22. 1971.8 C (73 F). An abbreviation for oxidizer. and Class III. such as chlorine. flash point at or above 140 F (60 C). This act established the Hazard Communication Rule (29 CFP 1910. even though it contains no oxygen.gov). or 2) receive electrons being transferred from the substance undergoing oxidation. OSHA jurisdiction.219-7500. (Chlorine is a good oxidizing agent for electron-transfer purposes. Effective April 28.) See Reducing Agent.

The passage of a chemical through an opening in a protective material. a short-term exposure limit (STEL).Peak Exposure Limit (DFG). arms. The percentage of a liquid or solid (by volume) that evaporates at an ambient temperature of 70 F (20 C) unless another temperature is stated. This may be expressed as a time-weighted average (TWA) limit.g. a measure of hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. A short-term exposure level established for a certain duration and frequency per shift. OSHA PELs have the force of law. This includes keeping hands. This physical characteristic reflects the potential for releasing harmful vapor into the air. Nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord. See PEL. Percent volatile by volume. and other parts of the body. and autonomic nerves to control a variety of organ functions. legs). or as a ceiling exposure limit. applying makeup. E. often referring to absorption of a chemical. Allows passage of water through soil or rock or other fluids such as solvents through gloves. Permissible Exposure Limit. including motor nerves control the function of muscles. Permeable. Hydrogen ion exponent. pH. feet. A ceiling limit must never be exceeded instantaneously even if the TWA exposure limit is not violated. Personal Protective Equipment. but over a period of time each evaporates completely. Established by OSHA. See PPE. Note that ACGIH TLVs and NIOSH RELs are recommended exposure limits that OSHA may or may not enact into law. An abnormal or degenerative state involving the nerves of the extremities (hands. Percutaneous. Permeation through protective clothing occurs on a molecular level and may occur even if there are no signs of degradation. gasoline and paint thinner (mineral spirits) are 100% volatile. PEL. or using toilet facilities where a material is in use. sensory nerves to carry sensations to the brain. Personal Hygiene. See also chemical-protective clothing. Penetration. Precautionary measures taken maintain good health when exposed to potentially harmful materials. work clothing. A scale (0 to 14) representing an aqueous solution's acidity or alkalinity. as well as not eating.. Low pH values . Peripheral Neuropathy. Permissible Exposure limit. and equipment free of a material's residue. Percent Volatile. their individual evaporation rates vary. Holes and rips can allow penetration as can space between zipper teeth stitch holes. drinking. Through the skin. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). and open jacket and pant cuffs.

.S. explosive. respirable fraction). Strong bases have excess OH ions and a pH of 11 to 13 (NaOH. An ACGIH term for "particulates not otherwise classified. used in Canada under the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulation for use by emergency personnel to identify a material in the event of an accident. i.indicate acidity and high values. Aromatic organic compounds with one or more hydroxy groups directly attached to the benzene ring. PMCC. Condition of a material. such as a fall. or explosive). The scale's mid-point. Principle Hazardous Constituent. An OSHA term for "particulates not otherwise regulated. 5 mg/m3. pH = 1). and stabilizers that can be molded or shaped. colorants. Poison Control Center. PHS. (U. PHC.6 C (200 F) or higher. See DOT identification number. It displays DOT identification number and applicable warning symbols (for ex. or gas. or form surface films. solid. flammable. at room temperature. Product identification number. Strong acids have excess H ions and a pH of 1 to 3 (HC1. Provides medical information on a 24-hr basis for accidents involving ingestion of potentially poisonous materials. compressed gas." (TWA: 15 mg/m3. strong tissue irritants. is neutral. Toxic.e. PNOC. A four-digit number. unstable (reactive). Phenols. A diamond-shaped marker required by the DOT on vehicles transporting hazardous materials. 7. Some substances in aqueous solution ionize to various extents giving different concentrations of H and OH ions. organic peroxide. liquid. a hazard of physical origin. A substance for which there is valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid.S. flammable. PNOR.. Physical Hazard. The Pensky-Martens closed tester (ASTM D93-79) is used for liquids that: have a viscosity of 45 SUS (Saybolt universal seconds) or more at 38 C (100 F). corrosive. Plastics. etc. pyrophoric. contain suspended solids. PIN. or water reactive. Pensky-Martens closed cup. heat burn. One of several types of apparatus for determining flash points. oxidizer. Placard. Man-made materials comprised of large molecules (polymers) and modifying agents such as fillers. the same numbering system used in the U... and not a chemical or infective disease hazard. prefaced by UN or NA. have flash points of 93. alkalinity. Physical State." See Nuisance Particulates. Call your area's largest hospital to find the one nearest you. total dust.) Public Health Service. In the general safety sense. pH = 12).

in which molecules consist of three or more carbon ring structures fused so that some carbon atoms are common to two or three rings. Personal protective equipment. Polymer. ppm =(mg/m3 x 24. A material. A family of chemical compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. A large molecule formed by the union of five or more identical combining units (monomers). Parts per billion. A natural or synthetic high-polymer substance containing ionic constituents. Parts per trillion. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). At 25 C. A chemical reaction in which one or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules. They are common in smoke.45) divided by molecular weight. A large number of this chemical family's members are carcinogens. . respirators. ppb. or are converted to carcinogens when metabolized by animals or humans. and are also important industrial contaminants in coal gas or coke manufacture and other processes involving heating of coal tar and pitch. The temperature at which a liquid either congeals or ceases to flow. ppt. Polyelectrolytes. Devices or clothing worn to help isolate a worker from direct exposure to hazardous materials. ppm. Parts per hundred. which is known (on the basis of animal tests) to be so toxic to humans or causes such extreme irritation as to afford a hazard to health during transportation. Pour Point. A tough. other than a gas. Examples include gloves. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). Polymerization. PPE. PAHs are formed during incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Materials that can polymerize usually contain inhibitors that can delay reactions. Parts per million. pph.Poisonous Material. Major uses include treatment of paper-mill wastewater and flocculation (clumping) of solids in potable water. Hazardous polymerization takes place at a rate that releases large amounts of energy that can cause fires or explosions or burst containers. environmentally indestructible plastic that when burned releases hydrochloric acid. such as that of vehicle exhaust or tobacco. "Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of air by volume at 25 C and 1 atm pressure" (ACGIH). safety glasses. or ear plugs.

All have specific uses and limitations. temperature increase. Reducing Agent. A chemical substance or mixture that vigorously polymerizes. toxic. gas. burning.. A variety of devices that limit inhalation of toxic materials. or temperature. Respirator. the reducing agent is the chemical or substance that 1) combines with oxygen or 2) loses electrons to the reaction. Describes materials that ignite spontaneously in air below 54 C (130 F). or formation of noxious.a substance or mixture that reacts with water releasing heat or flammable. . or becomes self-reactive due to shock. psig. Their use is covered by OSHA. Recommended Exposure Limit. See SCBA.an organic compound that contains the bivalent -O-O. Reactivity. or other conditions in use or in storage. or comprises the contents of a self-pressurized container.a substance or mixture that causes sudden.134. pressure. 29 CFR 1910. toxic gas. direct contact with other materials. and heat when subjected to sudden adverse conditions.ppth. In a reduction reaction (which always occurs simultaneously with an oxidation reaction). almost instantaneous release of pressure. decomposes to release gas in its container. Pyrolysis. or corrosive by-products may occur because of the substance's reactivity to heating. Pyrophoric. 2) organic peroxide . decomposes. in which one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic radical. above atmospheric pressure). Parts per thousand. Reagent.a substance or mixture that spontaneously polymerizes with an increase in pressure unless protected by the addition of an inhibitor or by refrigeration or other thermal control. Pounds per square inch gauge (i. See REL. usually for 10-hr work shifts. Chemical decomposition or breaking apart of molecules produced by heating. See Oxidation. may be regulated (by the EPA) as a hazardous waste and assigned the number D003. REL. Pounds per square inch absolute. which can be considered a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide.structure. A solid waste that exhibits a "characteristic of reactivity. A substance's tendency to undergo chemical reaction either by itself or with other ma terials with the release of energy. Reactive Material. Undesirable effects such as pressure buildup." as defined by RCRA. Oxidizing Agent. The NIOSH REL (Recommended Exposure Limit) is the highest allowable airborne concentration that is not expected to injure aworker. 4) water-reactive material . They range from disposable dust masks to self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). 3) pressuregenerating material . condenses. Substance used in a chemical reaction to aid in qualitative or quantitative analysis of another substance.e. psia. Includes materials or mixtures within any of these categories: 1) explosive material . It may be expressed as a ceiling limit or as a time-weighted average (TWA).

Alternatively. and federal governments to make information on chemical hazards readily available to workers and communities. or as grams of solute dissolved in 100 g of water. appreciable. Fine particles. Water is the most common solvent. Its objective is to identify all known toxic substances and to reference the original studies. Solubility in Water. and ingestion. Solvent. The way a chemical enters the body. soluble in all proportions. published by NIOSH. must be reported to the DOT (Section 311 of the Clean Water Act). (IMO.0%. A material that on first exposure causes little or no reaction in humans or test animals. but upon repeated exposure may cause a marked response not necessarily limited to the contact site. Skin sensitization is the most common form. and more usually. 1 to 10%. Group III). Also includes the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard and SARA Title III. Sensitization. More information is available at the RTECS home page at NIOSH. formed by combustion (complete or incomplete) and consisting chiefly of carbon. inhalation.1.1%. Presents basic toxicity data on thousands of materials. The amount of a material that.Chemical Cartridge Respirator. . Slurry. Skin. Soot. and eyes by direct or airborne contact.1 to 1. Soot gives smoke its color. less than 0. Solution. A pourable mixture of solid and liquid. it may be expressed as a percentage by weight in a solution. skin contact. See also Hazard Communication.S. slight. A material that can dissolve other materials to form a uniform single-phase mixture. See Synthetic Organic Chemicals. moderate. RTECS. means harmful stow away from foodstuffs. and updated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). A term expressing the percentage of a material (by weight) that dissolves in water at ambient temperature. A uniformly dispersed single-phase mixture of a solvent (water or other fluid) and a dissolved substance. A term applied to a variety of laws and regulations enacted by local. complete. Sensitizer. a database compiled. as grams of solute per liter of solution. more than 10%. Respiratory sensitization to a few chemicals also occurs. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. eye contact. X. Material Class 6. Saint Andrew's Cross. when spilled. RQ. Route of Entry or Route of Exposure. SOC. Reportable Quantity. Smoke. Right-to-Know. called the solute. Used in packaging for transport. mucous membranes. Soln. A notation to exposure limits (TLVs) indicating possible significant contribution to overall exposure to a material by way of absorption through the skin. A substance's identification number on the U. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. 0. A state of immune-response reaction in which exposure to a material elicits an immune or allergic response.Solubility information is useful in determining cleanup methods for spills and fire-extinguishing methods for a material. usually black. state. Dry particles and droplets (usually carbon or soot) generated by incomplete combustion of an organic material combined with and suspended in gases from combustion. Community Right-to-Know. maintained. Solubility may be expressed as negligible.

the specific gravity (unitless) is numerically equivalent to its density (in grams per ml). See Unstable. Spill Prevention.0 and. Insoluble materials with specific gravity greater than 1. Synergism. Synonyms. float on water. Conditions such as temperatures above 66 C (150 F) or shock from being dropped that may cause instability (dangerous change) are stated on the MSDS. Since the mass of one ml of water at 4 degrees celsius is exactly 1 gram. To change from the solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase. Action of soaking up or attracting substances. The ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of distilled water at 4 degrees celsius. SUS. Spontaneously Combustible Material. Prescriptive norms that govern actual limits of airborne contaminants in the workplace and the amount of pollutants or emissions produced by industry. A combined action of two or more toxic substances to give an effect greater than the sum of their activity when each toxic substance is alone. or 1 g/cm3 at 4 C) is the reference for solids and liquids. Synthetic Organic Chemicals (SOCs). The ability of a material to remain unchanged. For example. A material which undergoes self-heating to the point of ignition without requiring heat from another source. For example. protein. Standard Operating Procedure. TCLo. Sorption. if insoluble. Adverse effects induced by a substance which affects the body in a general manner rather than locally.8). rosin. The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance. or 1 g/mL. the danger of lung cancer is far greater than just adding together the separate risks from the two exposures. Water (density 1 kg/1. Systemic Toxicity. A unitless quantity. Toxic concentration low. Man-made organic chemicals including products manufactured from coal. and their derivatives. Specific Gravity. Specific gravity is an important fire suppression and spill cleanup consideration since most (but not all) flammable liquids have a specific gravity less than 1. grain.29 g/l at 0 C and 760 mm Hg pressure) is the reference for gases. however. If a volume of a material weighs 8 g. Standards.0 will sink (or go to the bottom) in water. For MSDS purposes a material is stable if it remains in the same form under expected and reasonable conditions of storage or use.SOP. a substance absorbed through the skin of the hands may result in kidney damage. Saybolt Universal Seconds. Alternative names by which a material may be known. See TLV-STEL. Specific Gravity. A unit measure of viscosity determined by the number of seconds required for an oil heated to 54 C (130 F) (lighter oils) and 99 C (210 F) (heavier oils) to flow through a standard orifice and fill a 60-ml flask. and an equal volume of water weighs 10 g. crude petroleum. the material has a specific gravity of 0.8 (8 divided by 10 = 0. Specific gravity is a dimensionless number. natural gas. vegetable oils. SPCC. and certain natural substances such as fats. carbohydrates. Sublime. Stability. Short-term exposure limit. both smoking and exposure to asbestos can cause lung cancer. while air (density 1. Control. and Counter-measure plan. ACGIH terminology. Dry ice exhibits sublimation. The lowest concentration of a substance in air to which humans or animals have been exposed for any given period of time that has produced . at a specified temperature. STEL. if a smoker is also exposed to asbestos.

of fume. Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ). "Workers" means healthy individuals. male. even for very brief times. when administered orally to albino rats. TCRI. with at least 60 minutes between exposure periods. A unit of pressure.). Threshold Limit Value. 4) Is a liquid having a saturated vapor concentration (ppm) at 68 F (20 C) for more than one-fifth its LC50 (vapor) value (ppm). or naturally susceptible have lower tolerances and need to take additional precautions. The degree of a chemical substance's ability to produce deleterious effects. 2) Has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 200 mg/kg. if the LC50 value is not more than 5000 mL/m3 (ppm) when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour to albino rats. 3) Has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 (parts per million (ppm). Time-Weighted Average. Toxicity. process. when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour to albino rats. See TLV. Per 40 CFR 302. and Ceiling (C). Toxic. ACGIH expresses TLVs in three ways: TLV-TWA. Threshold limit value. torr. Copies are available from ACGIH (q. Toxic Chemical Release Inventory. or use toxic chemicals listed under SARA Title III. The young. See also Acute Toxicity. TLV-Ceiling Limit. TLV-Skin. TDLo. TLV-STEL. Toxic Chemical Release Reporting Form. TLV. short-term exposure limit or maximum concentration for a continuous exposure period of 15 minutes (with a maximum of four such periods per day. Chronic Toxicity. . A material is defined as toxic if it falls into any of the following four categories: 1) Has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 50 mg/kg. The amount of material at a facility that require emergency planning and notification per CERCLA. The lowest dose of a substance introduced by any route other than inhalation over any given period of time and reported to produce any toxic effect in humans or to produce tumorigenic or reproductive effects in animals or humans. or dust. but no more than 500 mg/kg of body weight. allowable time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour week. and provided that the daily TLV-TWA is not exceeded). A term ACGIH uses to express the maximum airborne concentration of a material to which most workers can be exposed during a normal daily and weekly work schedule without adverse effects. concentration not to exceed at any time. See TLV. but no more than 20 mg/L. ill. or more than 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The ceiling exposure limit or concentration not to exceed at any time. An agent capable of being toxic. but no more than 1000 mg/kg of body weight. "healthy" is defined as a 150 lb. old. Toxicant. equal to 1 mm Hg. when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours with the bare skin of albino rabbits. age 25 to 44. mist. A form required to be submitted by facilities that manufacture.any toxic effect in humans or produced a tumorigenic or reproductive effect in animals or humans. See Skin. The ACGIH publishes a book annually that explains and lists TLVs called: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. See atm (atmosphere). but no more than 2000 ppm of gas or vapor by volume.v. TLV-C.

UFL. usually not the chemical name. Upper Explosive Limit. UEL. Typically these would be ingredients of a formulated product. or has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of less than 2000 ppm by volume of gas or vapor. effects. polymerizes vigorously. Urticaria. Web site: www. The study of the nature. has a median lethal dose (LD50) of less than 500 mg/kg of body weight when administered orally to rats. pressure. United States Public Health Service. Confidential information (formula. Tradename. or flame).) that gives the owner an advantage over competitors. The same or similar products can be marketed under different tradenames by different companies. TPQ. and detection of poisons in living organisms. Reactive Material. spark. . and 3) the properties and health effects are included. A colorless. provided that the substance causes harm at any dose level causes cancer or reproductive effects in animals at any dose level. Toxic Substances Control Act. Trichoroethylene (TCE). 2) the MSDS indicates that data is being withheld.Toxicology. Irritating and toxic to the central nervous system. process. See Stability.gov) USPHS. Hives caused by a systemic allergic reaction. electric arc. United States Department of Agriculture. some states require a trade secret registration number to be assigned to a material. OSHA permits this provided 1) the trade secret claim can be substantiated. Trace Impurities. A name. See Threshold Planning Quantity. See Flammable Limits. decomposes. Any chemical or material that 1) has evidence of an acute or chronic health hazard and 2) is listed in the NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS). The basic assumption of toxicology is that there is a relationship among the dose (amount). Tending toward decomposition or other unwanted chemical change during normal handling or storage. The highest concentration of a material in air that produces an explosion or fire or that ignites when it contacts an ignition source (high heat. Upper Flammable Limit. and the resulting effects. State laws vary on this practice. Toxic Substance. or less than 20 mg/L of mist. There are procedures to obtain necessary trade secret information in emergency situations. fume. mobile liquid used as a degreasing solvent in electronics and dry cleaning and a diluent in paint and adhesives.usda. USDA. Manufacturers may choose to withhold proprietary data from an MSDS. Also. given to a product by the manufacturer or supplier and usually protected as a Registered Trademark. the concentration at the affected site. (202-720-2791. Unstable. or dust when administered to albino rats. See TSCA. device. or becomes self-reactive under conditions of shock. Any concentration above the UEL in air is too rich to be ignited. An unstable chemical in its pure state. substances that are otherwise harmless but prove toxic under particular conditions. Trade Secret. etc. or as commonly produced or transported. or temperature. has a median LD50 of less than 1000 mg/kg of body weight when administered by continuous contact to the bare skin of albino rabbits. condenses. Small amounts of impure substances present due to natural occurrences or formation or contamination during the derivation process.

However. Volatility. The lower a substance's boiling point. This is accomplished through labels.1200). Guides established by the American Industrial Hygiene Association for certain substances which do not have exposure guidelines (such as TLVs) established.Vapor. flammable and reactive (polymerizes) material. 19. and worker education. Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. and dividing the sum by 29 and multiplying by the density of pure air (1. Vapor pressures are useful (with evaporation rates) in learning how quickly a material becomes airborne within the workplace and thus how quickly a worker is exposed to it.e. A human carcinogen. Temperature differences and turbulence create density differences between volumes of air and often have a greater influence on the movement of contaminated air than the actual saturated vapor density the chemical. Using this ratio. both at standard temperature and pressure. The saturated vapor density is then determined by multiplying the % of the compound in air by its FM and the % of air by its FM. Workplace Environmental Exposure Level. Used in coatings and paint because they evaporate very rapidly. Vapor Density #2. A chemical compound. Vinyl Chloride. but not as heavy as formula mass ratios indicate. WEEL. VOC. This scale was developed by a certified industrial hygienist for compliance with the OSHA Labeling Standard (29 CFR 1910. The charge of a substance from a liquid to a gas. MSDSs. A unitless quantity. the higher its vapor pressure. Vapor Density (Definition # 1) The ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of air. Vapor pressures reported on MSDSs are usually stated in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) at 20 C (68 F). Measure of a material's tendency to vaporize or evaporate at ambient routine conditions. An acute hazard rating scale unique to Genium's MSDS Collection. Wilson RISK Scale. It is similar to the United States' OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. Volatile organic compounds. Saturated air/liquid vapor mixtures may be heavier than air. A liquid cannot liberate vapors more concentrated than its saturated vapor concentration. Vaporization.3% air) can be calculated. and temperature are included. Toxic. the % of the compound in air and the remaining % of air at saturation (i. 0. A nationwide Canadian system providing information to workers on hazardous materials in the workplace. This formula mass ratio is correct for a pure gas at room temperature.. This numbering system (of 0-4) & four . The pressure a saturated vapor exerts above its own liquid in a closed container. WHMIS. Unit of measurement. VCM. Viscosity. and the higher the vapor pressure. usually centipoise (cP). adding this air/liquid vapor mixture at saturation. The saturated vapor concentration of a liquid is the ratio of its vapor pressure at a given temperature to the atmospheric pressure. Vapor Pressure.7% hexane and 80. Vinyl Chloride Monomer.2 kg/m3. Gases given off by a substance normally encountered as liquid or solid at standard temperature and pressure. the greater the material's tendency to evaporate into the atmosphere. Measurement of a fluid's thickness or resistance to flow. Regulated by the EPA per the Clean Water Act. The ratio of the formula mass (FM) of the compound to the average formula mass of the gases in air (29 grams per mole). this ratio does not accurately express the vapor density of a liquid solvent. used in producing some plastics.075lbs/ft3).

and kindling (K) represents a material's degree of hazard based on documented values and/or the best judgments of certified industrial hygienists. Water Solubility An indication of the solubility in a substance. sometimes listed in relative terms (very soluble). sometimes listed quantitatively (5mg/ml) . skin contact (S). The higher numbers indicate an increased hazard.hazard categories . inhalation (I).reactivity (R).

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