BATCH & STEAM

DISTILLATION
DIFFERENTIAL DISTILLATION
 BATCH DISTILLATION
 DIFFERENTIAL
BECAUSE
EQUILIBRIUM
CHANGES AS THE
PROCESS PROCEEDS
 BASIC COMPONENTS
IN THE SYSTEM
 STILL
 CONDENSER
 DISTILLATE RECEIVER
DISTILLATE
RECEIVER
STILL
Q
R
CONDENSER
Q
C
BATCH DISTILLATION MODEL
 MODEL FOR THIS PROCESS IS THE
RAYLEIGH EQUATION
 INSTANTANEOUS MODEL:



 INTEGRATING OVER FINITE SEPARATION:
( )
x y
dx
L
dL
ydL xdL Ldx xL d dL
A
÷
=
= + = =
) 11 3 . 11 ( ) (
) 10 3 . 11 ( ln
2 1 2 2 1 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
÷ ÷ + =
÷
÷
= =
} }
avg
x
x
L
L
L L x L x L
x y
dx
L
L
L
dL
SOLUTION TO MODEL
 EVALUATION OF THIS INTEGRAL
REQUIRES EQUILIBRIUM DATA, y = y(x)
 IF DATA IS EMPIRICAL OR GRAPHICAL,
THEN GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION IS USED
 IF THERE IS A CORRELATION FUNCTION
FOR VLE, THEN ANALYTICAL
INTEGRATION IS POSSIBLE
SIMPLIFIED SOLUTIONS
 USING MODIFIED RAOULT’S LAW




 THIS APPROACH CAN BE USED TO DESIGN
THE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE BATCH
DISTILLATION
 Farschman, C. A.; Diwekar, U., Dual Composition Control in a Novel
Batch Distillation Column , Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.; (Article); 1998;
37(1); 89-96.
( )
} }
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= = =
u u
¸
¸
u
x
x
x
x
sys
sys
K x
dx
P
P
x
dx
L
L
Kx
P
P x
y
0 0
1
1
*
ln
*
0
SIMPLIFIED SOLUTIONS
 SYSTEM WITH CONSTANT RELATIVE
VOLATILITY:

AB
A
A
B
B
B
B
AB
A
A
B
B
AB
A
A
B
A
AB
B
A
B
A
B B A A
B
A
B
A
B
A
AB
B
A
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
dn
n
dn
RESOLVING
n
n
dn
dn
dn dn
dn dn
dn y dn dn y dn VAPORIZED dn FOR
n
n
x
x
x
x
y
y
o
u u u u
o
o
o
o
1
0 0 0 0
ln ln
:
& :
(
¸
(

¸

= = ¬
=
= =
= =
= =
}
BATCH DISTILLATION WITH
RECTIFICATION
 USED TO IMPROVE SEPARATION
 CONSTANT REFLUX
 CONSTANT OVERHEAD COMPOSITION
Ivonne, R. D.; Vincent, G.;
Xavier, J., Heterogeneous
Entrainer Selection for the
Separation of Azeotropic and
Close Boiling Temperature
Mixtures by Heterogeneous
Batch Distillation, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Res.; (Article); 2001;
40(22); 4935-4950
BATCH DISTILLATION WITH
RECTIFICATION
 HIGHER PRODUCT CONCENTRATION
 INCLUDE MASS BALANCE FOR REFLUX FROM
CONDENSER BACK INTO THE RECTIFICATION
COLUMN








 OPERATING LINE EQUATION:
D
L
R
R
x
x
R
R
V
Dx
x
V
L
y
n D
n
n
D
n
n
n
n
=
+
+
+
= + =
+ +
+
1 1
1 1
1
BATCH DISTILLATION WITH
RECTIFICATION
 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
 CONSTANT REFLUX
 CONSTANT COMPOSITION
PERRY’S, SECTION 13
DESIGN FOR BATCH WITH
RECTIFICATION
 ADDING REFLUX TO BATCH DISTILLATION
 SYSTEM THAT IS EQUIVALENT TO A
CONTINUOUS DISTILLATION
 FEED BELOW THE BOTTOM TRAY
 CONSTANT CHANGE OF OPERATING LINE
 CAN BE ANALYZED USING CONTINUOUS
MODEL
 A SERIES OF COLUMNS ARE CONSTRUCTED
 BOTTOMS FROM ONE COLUMN BECOMES THE
FEED TO THE NEXT COLUMN
 EACH COLUMN REPRESENTS A SHORT
INTERVAL OF TIME IN THE DISTILLATION
BATCH DISTILLATION MODEL
 USES CONTINUOUS DISTILLATION MODELS
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
10
25_PERCENT
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
10
50_PERCENT
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
10
75_PERCENT
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
10
100_PERCENT
M1
INITIAL_CONC
25_LIQ 50_LIQ
75_LIQ FINAL_STILL
25_VAP
50_VAP
75_VAP
100_VAP
FINAL_DISTIL
STEAM DISTILLATION
 DIRECT INJECTION
 USED WHEN WATER CAN BE MIXED WITH THE SYSTEM
 REPLACES THE REBOILER WITH DIRECT STEAM INJECTION
 MAY HAVE A FEED AT THE TOP TRAY AND THEN
PROCESS BECOMES STEAM STRIPPING
http://www.p2pays.org/ref/01/images/
0003421.gif
STEAM DISTILLATION DESIGN
 WHEN WATER IS INSOLUBLE IN THE
OTHER LIQUID
 VAPOR PRESSURE OF EACH
COMPONENT IS NOT INFLUENCED BY
THE PRESENCE OF THE OTHER
 FIND T
sys
BY TRIAL & ERROR
sys
B
B
sys
A
A
sys B A
P
P
y
P
P
y
P P P
* *
* *
= =
= +
STEAM DISTILLATION EXAMPLE
 RECOVERY OF CHAMOMILE
http://www.chamomile.co
.uk/distframe.htm
CONDENSED STEAM
AND OIL ARE
INSOLUBLE.
OIL IS RECOVERED
USING
DECANTATION,
LIQUID-LIQUID
SEPARATOR.
STEAM STRIPPERS
 TYPICAL CONFIGURATION WITH
RECTIFICATION
Yng Long Hwang, George
E. Keller, and James D.
Olson, Steam stripping for
removal of organic
pollutants from water. 1.
Stripping effectiveness and
stripper design,
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.;
1992; 31(7) pp 1753 - 1759;
STEAM STRIPPING
 AS APPLIED TO CRUDE COLUMNS IN OIL
REFINERIES
Ji, S.; Bagajewicz, M., On the Energy Efficiency of Stripping-Type Crude Distillation ,
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.; (Article); 2002; 41(23); 5819-5825
STEAM CONSUMPTION
 STEAM RATE IN TERMS OF PARTIAL
PRESSURES




 MINIMUM STEAM CONSUMPTION, IN
TERMS OF RELATIVE VOLATILITY
*
) (
B
B
B B
B
sys
B B
steam
B
steam
B B
steam B sys
B B
steam steam
B
steam
P
P
P
P
MW
MW
m
m
MW P
MW P P
MW P
MW P
m
m
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
= =
q q
q 



B
steam
B steam
B B
steam steam
B
steam
MW
MW
MW P
MW P
m
m
,
*
*
o = =