Reg.No.

-IIMM/HP/2/2004/2617

Name-Shacheendra Sharma

Subject-Organisational Behaviour

Name Registration No. Subject

: Shacheendra Sharma : IIMM / HP / 2 / 2004 / 2617 : Organisational Behaviour

Ans-1(a)
Human Relations Movement: Three Milestone Events
Fred Luthans has described three major events in the field of human relation movement, which had changed the entire course of future human relations studies. These are: 1. the great depression; 2. the rise of trade unionism. 3. the Hawthrone experiments; 1. The great depression: The great depression occurred in the year 1929. Prior to that, the economy was running in full swing and the production and organizational specialists had achieved great results. After this crash, the management started to think on the lines that production alone is not the only responsibility of management. Marketing, finance and personnel are equally important for the business to grow and survive. The depression created unemployment, discontent and insecurity and highlighted the human problems. 2. The rise of trade unionism: Labour unions existed in America in as early as 1792. But in 1935, Wagner Act was passed which gave great thrust to labour movement. It made a great impact on management functioning style and its role in human relations. In India also, worker’s unions were in existence since later half of 19th century. But at that time, they were operating under legal constraints. In 1926, Trade Union Act
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1926 was passed and at that time the managers started realizing that the trade unions will stay in the industries and they will have to cope up with them for efficient running of the organization. The higher management realized that in order to avoid any friction with the trade unions, they must understand the human relations side of the management function. 3. The Hawthrone Experiments: From 1924 till 1933, Western Electric Company conducted a series of research experiments at its Hawthrone Works to study the effects of working conditions on morale and productivity of the workers. a. Illumination Experiments: The first experiment was “Illumination Experiment” conducted during 1924 to 1927. It was a joint effort of National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences and Western Electric Co. Later on, the company was guided by Prof. Elton Mayo and his associates from Harvard University. In the experiment, two groups were formed. First was the control group, for which, the illumination was kept fixed throughout the experiments. In second group called the experimental group, the illumination was enhanced. As anticipated, the productivity of 2nd group went up. But at the same time, the productivity of control group also increased. Then the illumination of control group was reduced and the output again went up. Thus it was concluded that there was something more than the intensity of light, which was playing a role in increasing the productivity. Although the results of these experiment were misleading and did not have any correlation with the independent variable (illumination), they encouraged further experimentation. b. Relay Room Experiments: During 1927~1932, Elton Mayo and his Harward colleagues selected two girls and asked these to choose four more girls of their choice to form a group of six. The group was monitored by an observer who also listened to the complaints of girls and asked for their advice.

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Under normal working conditions, the girls assembled 2400 relays per week (48 hrs) with no rest pause. These girls were then allowed to work on per piece basis for 8 weeks, and their productivity increased. Next, two five minute rest pauses were introduced which were increased to ten minutes each. The productivity increased sharply. After this, six five minute breaks were introduced and the productivity reduced as the girls complained of broken rhythm due to frequent breaks. Again, the breaks were reduced to two five minute breaks. Then the company introduced free of cost hot meal. The productivity again went up. The girls were allowed to go home half an hour before the scheduled time of 5 pm and the productivity increased. Subsequently, they were allowed to go at 4 pm and the productivity remained unchanged. After that, all the facilities were withdrawn and the girls returned to their normal working hours (48/ week). They were not allowed any breaks in between, no free meals were given and there was no piecework. This condition was kept for twelve weeks and the productivity was highest ever achieved. In brief, this experiment implies that the productivity of girls increased due to a change in their attitude. They were made to feel important and formed congenial group. A sense of belongingness grew hence the productivity improved. Medical examination revealed no signs of fatigue, etc. absenteeism also decreased by approximately 8%. c. Second Relay Room and Mica Splitting Test Room Experiments: These were follow-up studies. The experiments were conducted to assess the effect of wage incentives on productivity. A group of five workers was allowed to work on group piece rate scheme. All other conditions remained similar to the regular work. A 12% rise in productivity was observed. In Mica splitting study, the workers were allowed to work on individual piece rate plan rather than group piece incentive scheme. The results showed 15% rise in productivity of workers.

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So it was concluded that the results of wage incentive scheme were dependent on other variables also and wage incentive alone was not the deciding factor. d. Mass Interviewing Program: 21000 interviews were conducted during 1928 to 1930 to explore information which was used to improve supervisory training. The method was non-directive interviewing where the interviewer was supposed to listen. Following inferences were made: (i) if a person is allowed to express his grievances, his morale is heightened. (ii) Complaints were symptoms of other more deep rooted disturbances. (iii) Workers were influenced by the experience gained both inside and outside the company while making demands. (iv) The worker’s satisfaction level depends upon his social status in the company

Ans-1(b)
Organizational Behaviour:
Definition: Various scholars have defined Organizational Behaviour in different manner. Keith Davis says, “Organizational Behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about how people act within organizations. It is a human tool for human benefit. It applies broadly to the behaviour of people in all types of organizations such a s business, government, schools, etc. it helps people, structure, technology and the external environment blend together in to an effective operative system”. Fred Luthans defines OB as “understanding, predicting and controlling human behaviour at work”. Stephen Robins defines OB as “a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behaviour in organizations for the
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purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness”. Larry L. Cummings, the former head of organizational behaviour division of the Academy of Management and its past president, distinguished between organizational behaviour and other closely related disciplines as shown in the table. He emphasized that organizational behaviour is a way of thinking- a way of conceiving problems and articulating research and action solutions. He suggested several characteristics of organizational behaviour that reflect this point of view. They are: 1. Problems and questions are typically formulated within an independent variable-dependent variable framework. The models attempt to search for cause and effect. 2. The field is oriented toward change as a desirable outcome for organizations and persons within organizations. 3. The field has a distinctly humanistic tone, reflected in the concern for selfdevelopment, personal growth, and self-actualization. However, there is another side which emphasizes operant learning models and behaviour modification and which reflects a concern with environmental determinism rather than with self-actualization. 4. The field is becoming increasingly performance-oriented. Most studies include a performance-oriented dependent variable. 5. The field is greatly influenced by norms of skepticism, caution, replication, and public exposure of knowledge based on facts. In other words, it follows the scientific method. In summary, organizational behaviour is directly concerned with the understanding, prediction, and control of human behaviour in organizations. It represents the behavioural approach to management, not the whole of management.

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Distinction between Organizational Behaviour, Organizational Phychology, Organization Theory, and Personnel and Human Resources:
Both fields focus upon explaining human behaviour within organizations. Organizational Behaviour v/s Organizational Psychology (OP) Their difference centres on the fact that OP restricts its explanatory constructs to those at the psychological level. OB draws constructs from multiple disciplines. As the domain of OP continues to expand, the difference between OB and OP is diminishing, perhaps to the point of identity between the fields.

The distinction is based on two differences: unit of analysis and focus of dependant variables. OB is defined as the study of individual and group Organizational Behaviour v/s Organizational Theory (OT) behaviour within organizations and the application of such knowledge. OT is the study of structure, processes, and outcomes of the organizations per se. The distinction is neither that OB is theoretical and concerned only with behaviour nor that OT is unique or exclusive in its attention to theory. Alternatively, the distinction can be conceived as between micro and macro perspectives on OB. This removes the awkward differentiation of behaviour and theory. The distinction usually depicts OB as the more basic of the two and P&HR as more applied in emphasis. OB is seen as more conceptOrganizational Behaviour v/s Personnel and Human Resources (P&HR) oriented, while P&HR is viewed as emphasizing techniques or technologies. The dependent variables, behaviour and affective reactions within organizations, are frequently presented as similar. P&HR can be seen as standing at the interface between the organization and the individual, focusing on developing and implementing the system of attracting, maintaining and motivating the individual within the organization

Basic Assumption: When we study the Organizational Behaviour, we keep in mind certain basic assumptions. These are: 1. an industrial enterprise is an organization of people; 2. the people are motivated to work effectively; 3. the goals of employee and employer may or may not concide; 4. the policies and procedures adopted in an enterprise may influence people in the directions not foreseen always by the policy makers.

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Ans-2(a)
Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behaviour:
When we study any discipline, we keep in mind some fundamental concepts, which have to be accepted and not questioned. They are the foundation stones on which the entire edifice of the discipline is developed. Following are the fundamental concepts which are applicable to organizational behaviour. They are: A. The concepts which revolve around the nature of the people. B. The concepts which revolve around the nature of organization. A. The concepts which deal with the nature of individual are: 1. Individual differences 2. Whole person 3. Motivation (caused behaviour) 4. Human dignity 1. Individual differences: This concept tells us that in spite of being similar physically, every individual is an entity in him. Every individual has to be treated differently. 2. Whole person: An organization hires the man as a whole and not merely his hands. As the man performs many roles simultaneously, one role is bound to affect his behaviour in other roles. This concept tells the managers that when solving behavioural problems of individuals, he must take into account all the possible roles the person might be doing. 3. Motivation (caused behaviour): The manager can influence the behaviour of his subordinates by his own behaviour. If he is respectful to his employees, they are bound to be respectful to him. The manager must lead by example. 4. Human dignity: This concept is more of an ethical philosophy than a scientific conclusion. It says that the people are to be treated differently from other factors of production. People must be treated with respect and dignity.
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B. The concepts which revolve around the nature of organization are: 1. Organization is a social system. 2. Mutuality of interests. 1. The organization is a social system: All the employees of an organization are members of society. Thus, the organization becomes a social system with the values inherited from society. Any organization that has inconsistent value system can not last longer. 2. Mutuality of interests: Organizations have human purpose. People and organizations have mutual interests and if the interests of one suffer, the interests of other are bound to suffer. Organizational Models: Keith Davis has described four Organizational Behaviour models. These models depict the evolution of thinking and behaviour on part of management and managers. The models are: (1) Autocratic: This model was in existence right from the beginning of industrial revolution. This model can be said to be the worst among theory X assumptions. (2) Custodial: This model gives some concessions or privileges to the employees to keep them happy. As there is no provision of motivating, guiding and developing the employees, in due course of time, this model got degenerated. (3) Supportive: This model is based on the assumptions of theory Y. This theory assumes that the employees are skillful and willing to contribute to the organization. Here, the manager is more of a leader than a boss. It is the responsibility of the leader to create an environment of motivation and willingness among the employees to contribute. (4) Collegial: This model is limited to dealing with scientific and professional employees. The manager’s role is that of a partner. The entire work is carried out by a team and demarcation between employee and manager is not very obvious. The following table shows the four models along with their characteristics:
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Model Type Æ Model depends on Managerial orientation Employee Orientation Employee’s Psychological result Employee’s needs met Performance result

Autocratic Power Authority Obedience Depends on boss Subsistence Minimum

Custodial Economic resources Money Security Depends on organization Maintenance Passive cooperation

Supportive Leadership Support Job performance Participation Higher order Awakened drives

Collegial Partnership Teamwork Responsibility Self-discipline Selfactualization Moderate enthusiasm

Ans-2(b)
Theory of Unconscious Behaviour:
Humans have base instincts (unconscious urges): In Freudian psychology, the unconscious is extremely important in determining behaviour. This is a pervasive theme of the approach: that a lot of desires, motivations and conflicts are seething below the surface, below the level of consciousness. Freud believed that people are driven, fundamentally, by unconscious, animalistic, instinctual urges, particularly lust (eros) and aggression (thanatos). These urges are often in conflict with the demands of society. For example, humans desire pleasure, but society places limits on the kinds of pleasure-seeking which it deems acceptable. Freud emphasizes the extent to which humans are motivated by psychosexual pleasure. Topography of the psyche (unconscious, pre-conscious, conscious): Using an iceberg metaphor, the unconscious is understood to be the large part of the mind, which is hidden from view. The pre-conscious is represented by the waterline but it is the zone in which there are fleeting glimpses of the unconscious, "flickering" across the screen of consciousness. Finally, the relatively small part of the iceberg which sticks of the water is seen as equivalent to the small amount of

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conscious awareness that the human experiences. Freud also believed that if there was information that was too painful for the conscious part to bear, that defense mechanisms would act to push it down it into the unconscious part of the mind. Structure of Mind (Id, Ego, Superego): The mind has an internal structure -- three parts with separate motivations: Id (irrational and emotional part of the mind); the Ego (rational part); and the Superego (the moral part). This has been depicted with the help of diagram:
Perception and Conscious

Ego Superego Id (full of wishes or instincts)

Outer world (full of objects)

Physical needs

Freud didn’t exactly invent the idea of the conscious versus unconscious mind, but he certainly was responsible for making it popular. The conscious mind is what we are aware of at any particular moment, our present perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, feelings, what we have. Working closely with the conscious mind is what Freud called the preconscious, what we might today call "available memory:" anything that can easily be made conscious, the memories we are not at the moment thinking about but can readily bring to mind. Now no-one has a problem with these two layers of mind. But Freud suggested that these are the smallest parts!
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The largest part by far is the unconscious. It includes all the things that are not easily available to awareness, including many things that have their origins there, such as our drives or instincts, and things that are put there because we can’t bear to look at them, such as the memories and emotions associated with trauma. According to Freud, the unconscious is the source of our motivations, whether they be simple desires for food or sex, neurotic compulsions, or the motives of an artist or scientist. And yet, we are often driven to deny or resist becoming conscious of these motives, and they are often available to us only in disguised form.

Characteristics of Motives:
Motivation is a basic psychological process. It is the most important focus in the micro approach to organizational behaviour. Many people equate the causes of behaviour with motivation. But it must be remembered that motivation should not be thought of as the only explanation of behaviour. Motivation is a hypothetical construct that is used to explain behaviour. People define motivation in many ways. Usually one or more of the following words are included in the definition: desires, wants, wishes, aims, goals, needs, drives, motives and incentives. The term ‘motivation’ can be traced to the Latin word ‘movere’ which means ‘to move’. Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. Following figure graphically depicts the motivation process. Needs set up drives aimed at incentives: NEEDS (deficiency) DRIVES (deficiency with direction) INCENTIVES (Reduction of drives and fulfills deficiencies

Modern psychologists believe that human behaviour is sparked by a motive. A motive is a felt need. Human behaviour is directed to satisfy these needs or motives. They have five basic characteristics: 1. the need having highest strength dominates the human behaviour.
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2. a need once satisfied ceases to influence behaviour. 3. when a need is satisfied, it gives rise to a new need. 4. needs are recurrent in nature. 5. needs are omnipresent. Classification of human motives: Primary motives: these are physiological motives and are unlearned. They include hunger, thrust, sleep, avoidance of pain, sex, etc. General motives: these are also unlearned motives but are not physiological. Primary needs seek to reduce the tension or simulation. The motives such as curiosity, manipulative activity, affection, etc. fall in this category. Secondary motives: These motives develop as human society grows economically and becomes more complex. Some examples are: need for power, need for affiliation, need for achievement, need for security, need for status, etc. The main secondary motives are: (a) The Power Motive (n-pow): It is the desire to control and direct others. The strong advocate of this motive was Alfred Adler, who was a pioneer in psychology. In context of organization, a person acquires power because of his competence. He must use it for the betterment of the organization. (b) The Achievement Motive (n-ach): It can be expressed as a desire to perform in terms of standard of excellence under competitive situations. The specific characteristics of a high achiever are: (i) moderate risk taking; (ii) need of immediate feedback; (iii) satisfaction with accomplishment and (iv) preoccupation with task. (c) Affiliation Motive (n-aff): This motive is indicative of the need of belongingness or being accepted by others. This motive is important in the group dynamics. The higher the need for affiliation, higher is the group cohesiveness.

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Ans-3(a)
Role of Defense Mechanism:
When need fulfillment is continually blocked, frustration occurs. Defense mechanisms are the behaviours exhibited to deal with frustration. The following points must be kept in mind when studying the defense mechanisms: 1. we are discussing only those defense mechanisms which we come across in daily life. 2. defense mechanisms are unconscious behaviours. 3. in actual situations, there can be a mixture of various defense mechanisms in exhibited behaviour. It is just for the sake of better understanding that we study each of them separately. 4. in real life, there is no prioritizing when it comes to defense mechanisms for dealing with frustration. 5. The major role of defense mechanisms is to keep the personality integrated.

The defense mechanisms
The ego deals with the demands of reality, the id, and the superego as best as it can. But when the anxiety becomes overwhelming, the ego must defend itself. It does so by unconsciously blocking the impulses or distorting them into a more acceptable, less threatening form. The techniques are called the ego defense mechanisms, and Freud, his daughter Anna, and other disciples have discovered quite a few. (a) Denial (resignation): It involves blocking external events from awareness. If some situation is just too much to handle, the person just refuses to experience it. As we might imagine, this is a primitive and dangerous defense -- no one disregards reality and gets away with it for long! It can operate by itself or, more commonly, in combination with other, more subtle mechanisms that support it. Some people faint at autopsies, people deny the reality of the death of a loved one, and students fail to pick up their test results. That’s denial.

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Anna Freud also mentions denial in fantasy: This is when children, in their imaginations, transform an "evil" father into a loving teddy bear, or a helpless child into a powerful superhero. (b) Repression: Anna Freud also called "motivated forgetting," is just that: not being able to recall a threatening situation, person, or event. This, too, is dangerous, and is a part of most other defenses. Note that, to be a true example of a defense, it should function unconsciously. Usually, it is the irrational fears we call phobias that derive from repression of traumas. (c) Asceticism, or the renunciation of needs: It is one most people haven’t heard of, but it has become relevant again today with the emergence of the disorder called anorexia. Preadolescents, when they feel threatened by their emerging sexual desires, may unconsciously try to protect themselves by denying, not only their sexual desires, but all desires. They get involved in some kind of ascetic (monk-like) lifestyle wherein they renounce their interest in what other people enjoy. Anna Freud also discusses a milder version of this called restriction of ego. Here, a person loses interest in some aspect of life and focuses it elsewhere, in order to avoid facing reality. A young girl who has been rejected by the object of her affections may turn away from feminine things and become a "sex-less intellectual," or a boy who is afraid that he may be humiliated on the football team may unaccountably become deeply interested in poetry. (d) Isolation: (sometimes called intellectualization) involves stripping the emotion from a difficult memory or threatening impulse. A person may, in a very cavalier manner, acknowledge that they had been abused as a child, or my show a purely intellectual curiosity in their newly discovered sexual orientation. Something that should be a big deal is treated as if it were not. In emergency situations, many people find themselves completely calm and collected until the emergency is over, at which point they fall to pieces. Something tells you that, during the emergency, you can’t afford to fall apart. It is common to find someone totally immersed in the social obligations surrounding the death of a
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loved one. Doctors and nurses must learn to separate their natural reactions to blood, wounds, needles, and scalpels, and treat the patient, temporarily, as something less than a warm, wonderful human being with friends and family. Adolescents often go through a stage where they are obsessed with horror movies, perhaps to come to grips with their own fears. Nothing demonstrates isolation more clearly than a theater full of people laughing hysterically while someone is shown being dismembered. (e) Displacement: is the redirection of an impulse onto a substitute target. If the impulse, the desire, is okay with you, but the person you direct that desire towards is too threatening, you can displace to someone or something that can serve as a symbolic substitute. Someone who hates his or her mother may repress that hatred, but direct it instead towards, say, women in general. Someone who has not had the chance to love someone may substitute cats or dogs for human beings. Someone who feels uncomfortable with their sexual desire for a real person may substitute a fetish. Someone who is frustrated by his or her superiors may go home and kick the dog, beat up a family member, or engage in cross-burnings. Turning against the self is a very special form of displacement, where the person becomes their own substitute target. It is normally used in reference to hatred, anger, and aggression, rather than more positive impulses, and it is the Freudian explanation for many of our feelings of inferiority, guilt, and depression. The idea that depression is often the result of the anger we refuse to acknowledge is accepted by many people, Freudians and non-Freudians alike. (f) Projection: Anna Freud also called it displacement outward, is almost the complete opposite of turning against the self. It involves the tendency to see your own unacceptable desires in other people. In other words, the desires are still there, but they’re not your desires anymore. I confess that whenever I hear someone going on and on about how aggressive everybody is, or how perverted they all are, I tend to wonder if this person doesn’t have an aggressive or sexual streak in themselves that they’d rather not acknowledge.

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Let us see a couple of examples: A husband, a good and faithful one, finds himself terribly attracted to the charming and flirtatious lady next door. But rather than acknowledge his own, hardly abnormal, lusts, he becomes increasingly jealous of his wife, constantly worried about her faithfulness, and so on. Or a woman finds herself having vaguely sexual feelings about her girlfriends. Instead of acknowledging those feelings as quite normal, she becomes increasingly concerned with the presence of lesbians in her community. Altruistic surrender is a form of projection that at first glance looks like its opposite: Here, the person attempts to fulfill his or her own needs vicariously, through other people. A common example of this is the friend, who, while not seeking any relationship himself, is constantly pushing other people into them, and is particularly curious as to "what happened last night" and "how are things going?" The extreme example of altruistic surrender is the person who lives their whole life for and through another. (g) Reaction formation: Anna Freud called it "believing the opposite," is changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite. So a child, angry at his or her mother, may become overly concerned with her and rather dramatically shower her with affection. An abused child may run to the abusing parent. Or someone who can’t accept a homosexual impulse may claim to despise homosexuals. Perhaps the most common and clearest example of reaction formation is found in children between seven and eleven or so: Most boys will tell you in no uncertain terms how disgusting girls are, and girls will tell you with equal vigor how gross boys are. Adults watching their interactions, however, can tell quite easily what their true feelings are! (h) Undoing: involves "magical" gestures or rituals that are meant to cancel out unpleasant thoughts or feelings after they’ve already occurred. Anna Freud mentions, for example, a boy who would recite the alphabet backwards whenever he had a sexual thought, or turn around and spit whenever meeting another boy who shared his passion for masturbation.

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In "normal" people, the undoing is, of course, more conscious, and we might engage in an act of atonement for some behavior, or formally ask for forgiveness. But in some people, the act of atonement isn’t conscious at all. Consider the alcoholic father who, after a year of verbal and perhaps physical abuse, puts on the best and biggest Christmas ever for his kids. When the season is over, and the kids haven’t quite been fooled by his magical gesture, he returns to his bartender with complaints about how ungrateful his family is, and how they drive him to drink. One of the classic examples of undoing concerns personal hygiene following sex: It is perfectly reasonable to wash up after sex. After all, it can get messy! But if you feel the need to take three or four complete showers using gritty soap -perhaps sex doesn’t quite agree with you. (i) Introjection: It is sometimes called identification also, involves taking into your own personality characteristics of someone else, because doing so solves some emotional difficulty. For example, a child who is left alone frequently, may in some way try to become "mom" in order to lessen his or her fears. You can sometimes catch them telling their dolls or animals not to be afraid. And we find the older child or teenager imitating his or her favorite star, musician, or sports hero in an effort to establish an identity. Identification is very important to Freudian theory as the mechanism by which we develop our superegos. Identification with the aggressor is a version of introjection that focuses on the adoption, not of general or positive traits, but of negative or feared traits. If you are afraid of someone, you can partially conquer that fear by becoming more like them. Two of my daughters, growing up with a particularly moody cat, could often be seen meowing, hissing, spitting, and arching their backs in an effort to keep that cat from springing out of a closet or dark corner and trying to eat their ankles. (j) Regression is a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress. When we are troubled or frightened, our behaviors often become more childish or primitive. A child may begin to suck their thumb again or wet the bed when they need to spend some time in the hospital. Teenagers may giggle uncontrollably when introduced into a social situation involving the opposite sex. A freshman college student may need to bring an old toy from home. A gathering of
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civilized people may become a violent mob when they are led to believe their livelihoods are at stake. Or an older man, after spending twenty years at a company and now finding himself laid off, may retire to his recliner and become childishly dependent on his wife. Where do we retreat when faced with stress? To the last time in life when we felt safe and secure, according to Freudian theory. (k) Rationalization is the cognitive distortion of "the facts" to make an event or an impulse less threatening. We do it often enough on a fairly conscious level when we provide ourselves with excuses. But for many people, with sensitive egos, making excuses comes so easy that they never are truly aware of it. In other words, many of us are quite prepared to believe our lies. A useful way of understanding the defenses is to see them as a combination of denial or repression with various kinds of rationalizations. All defenses are, of course, lies, even if we are not conscious of making them. But that doesn’t make them less dangerous -- in fact it makes them more so. Lies breed lies, and take us further and further from the truth, from reality. After a while, the ego can no longer take care of the id’s demands, or pay attention to the superego’s. The anxieties come rushing back, and you break down. And yet Freud saw defenses as necessary. You can hardly expect a person, especially a child, to take the pain and sorrow of life full on! While some of his followers suggested that all of the defenses could be used positively, Freud himself suggested that there was one positive defense, which he called sublimation. (l) Sublimation is the transforming of an unacceptable impulse, whether it be sex, anger, fear, or whatever, into a socially acceptable, even productive form. So someone with a great deal of hostility may become a hunter, a butcher, a football player, or a mercenary. Someone suffering from a great deal of anxiety in a confusing world may become an organizer, a businessperson, or a scientist. Someone with powerful sexual desires may become an artist, a photographer, or a novelist, and so on. For Freud, in fact, all positive, creative activities were sublimations, and predominantly of the sex drive.
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Ans-3(b)
Work Motivation Theories:
So far, we have presented motivation as the basic psychological process consisting of primary, general and secondary motives and drives such as n Pow, n Aff and n Ach motives. In order to understand organizational behaviour, these basic motives must be recognized and studied. However, these serve as only background and foundation for the more direct work-motivation approaches. The following figure graphically summarizes the various theoretical streams for work motivation:
1900 Scientific Management (Wage Incentives)

Human Relations (economic, security conditions)

Lewin and Tolman (expectancy concerns) Festinger and Homans (cognitive dissonance/exchange)

Maslov (hierarchy of needs)

Vroom (valence/expectancy)

Herzberg (motivators-hygiene factors)

Porter and Lawler (performancesatisfaction) Adams (equity)

Heider, demand Charmes, and Bem (cognitive evaluation/selfperception)

Present

CONTENT MODELS

WORK MOTIVATION THEORY

The pioneering scientific managers such as Frederick W. Taylor, Frank Gilberth, and Henry L.Gantt proposed sophisticated wage models to motivate workers. Next came the human relations movement, and then the content models of
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Allderfer (GRE needs)

Lawler (E P and P O expectancies)

Kelley and Rotter (attribution/locus of control)

PROCESS MODELS

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Maslow, Herzberg, and Alderfer. More recent developments have come from process models but recently, equity and attribution theories have received attention. The process models are cognitively based.

The Content Theories of Work Motivation:
The content theories of work motivation attempt to determine what it is that motivates people at work and are concerned with identifying the needs/drives that people have and how these needs/drives are prioritized. They are concerned with the types of incentives or goals that people strive to attain in order to be satisfied and perform well.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
Abhram Maslow outlined the elements of an overall theory of motivation based on his clinical experience. He established that a person’s motivational needs can be arranged in a hierarchical manner and once a given level of need is satisfied, it no longer serves to motivate. In order to motivate the individual, the next higher level need has to be activated. Maslow identified five levels in his need hierarchy:
5. SELFACTUALIZATION

4. ESTEEM NEEDS

3. LOVE NEEDS

2. SAFETY NEEDS

1. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1. Physiological needs: The most basic level in hierarchy, these are needs of hunger, thirst, sleep and sex. 2. Safety needs: These are roughly equivalent to security needs. Maslow stressed emotional as well as physical safety. The whole organism may become a safety-seeking mechanism.
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3. Love needs: These correspond to the affection and affiliation needs. A more appropriate word describing this level would be belongingness or social needs. 4. Esteem needs: This represents the higher needs of humans. The needs of power, achievement, and status are examples of this level. 5. Needs for self-actualization: This level represents culmination of all the lower, intermediate and higher needs of humans. People who have become self-actualized are self-fulfilled and have realized all their potential.

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory of Motivation:
Herzberg developed a specific content theory of work motivation. He conducted a study on about 200 accountants and engineers using critical incident method of obtaining data for analysis. The subjects in the study were asked two questions: 1. When did you feel particularly good about your job? 2. When did you feel exceptionally bad about your job? Responses obtained from this critical incident method were fairly consistent. Good feelings were generally associated with job experience and job content. Bad feelings were generally associated with the surrounding or peripheral aspects of the job- the job context. Thus Herzberg concluded that job satisfiers are related to job content and that job dissatisfiers are allied to job context. Herzberg labeled satisfiers motivators, and he called dissatisfiers hygiene factors. Taken together, they became known as Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation.

Alderfer’s ERG Theory of Motivation:
Clayton Alderfer formulated a need category model that was more in line with the existing empirical evidence. Alderfer identified three groups of core needs: a. Existance: The existence needs are concerned with survival (physiological well-being). b. Relatedness: The relatedness needs stress the importance of interpersonal, social relationship.
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c. Growth: The growth needs are concerned with the individual’s intrinsic desire for personal development. The following figure shows how these groups of needs are related to Maslow and Herzberg categories. Obviously, they are very close, but the ERG needs do not have strict lines of demarcation.
Herzberg’s Two Factors Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
SELF-ACTUALIZATION GROWTH MOTIVATORS ESTEEM: Self, Others

Alderfer’s ERG Needs

LOVE

RELATEDNESS

HYGIENE FACTORS

SAFETY EXISTANCE PHYSIOLOGICAL

Alderfer is suggesting more of a continuum of needs than hierarchical level or two factors of prepotency needs. Unlike Herzberg and Maslow, he does not contended that a lower-level need has to be fulfilled before a higher-level need is motivating or that deprivation is the only way to activate a need.

The Process Theories of Work Motivation:
The process theories are more concerned with the cognitive antecedents that go into motivation or effort with the way they relate to one another.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation:
This theory has its roots in the cognitive concepts of pioneering psychologists Kurt Lewin and Edward Tolman. Vroom proposed his expectancy theory as an alternative to the content models. The following figure summarizes the Vroom

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model. The model is built around the concepts of valence, instrumentality, and expectancy and is commonly called the VIE theory.
INSTRUMENTALITIES EXPECTANCY First Level Outcomes OUTCOME-1 Second Level Outcomes OUTCOME-1a

OUTCOME-1b

MOTIVATIONAL FORCE F= ¦ Valence x Expectancy

OUTCOME-2a

OUTCOME-2b OUTCOME-2 OUTCOME-2c

Meaning of the variables: 1. Valence: It is strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome. Other terms that might be used include value, incentive, and expected utility. 2. Instrumentality: It is input to valence and relates the first-level outcomes and second-level outcomes. The superior performance (first-level outcome) is seen as being instrumental in obtaining promotion (second-level outcome). 3. Expectancy: It relates efforts to first-level outcome. In other words, expectancy is the probability that a particular action or effort will lead to a particular first-level outcome.

The Porter-Lawler Model:
Porter and Lawler refined and extended Vroom’s model that the relationship between satisfaction and performance was dealt with directly by a motivation model. The relationships are expressed diagrammatically rather than mathematically, there are more variables, and the cognitive process of perception plays a central role. Porter and Lawler start with the premise that motivation (effort or force) does not equal satisfaction and/or performance. Motivation, satisfaction and performance
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are all separate variables and relate in ways different from what was traditionally assumed. Porter and Lawler point out that effort (force or motivation) does not directly lead to performance. It is mediated by abilities/traits and role perceptions. What happens after the performance is important. The rewards that follow and how these are perceived will determine satisfaction.

The Porter-Lawler Motivation Model

Value of reward

1

Abilities and traits

Perceived equitable rewards

4

7A
Intrinsic rewards

8

Effort

Performance (accomplish ment)

Satisfaction Extrinsic rewards

3

6

9

7B
Perceived effort reward probability
¡

2

Role perception

5

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Ans-4(a)
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory of Motivation:
Herzberg extended the work of Maslow and developed a specific content theory of work motivation. He conducted a study on about 200 accountants and engineers employed by various firms in and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He used critical incident method of obtaining data for analysis. The professional subjects in the study were essentially asked two questions: 3. When did you feel particularly good about your job- what turned you on? 4. When did you feel exceptionally bad about your job- what turned you off? Responses obtained from this critical incident method were interesting and fairely consistent. Good feelings were generally associated with job experience and job content. Bad feelings, on the other hand, were generally associated with the surrounding or peripheral aspects of the job- the job context. Tabulating these reported good and bad feelings, Herzberg concluded that job satisfiers are related to job content and that job dissatisfiers are allied to job context. Herzberg labeled satisfiers motivators, and he called dissatisfiers hygiene factors. Taken together, they became known as Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation. Relation to Maslow: Herzberg’s theory is closely related to Maslow’s need hierarchy. The hygiene factors are preventive and environmental in nature. They are roughly equivalent to Maslow’s lower level needs. These hygiene factors prevent dissatisfaction, but they do not lead to satisfaction. In effect, they bring motivation up to a theoretical zero level and are a necessary floor to prevent dissatisfaction. By themselves, the hygiene factors do not motivate. Only the motivators motivate human on job. They are roughly equivalent to Maslow’s higher level needs. According to Herzberg, an individual must have a challenging job content in order to be truly motivated.

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Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene Factors Company policy and administration Supervision, technical Salary Interpersonal relations, supervisor Working conditions Motivators Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement

Contribution to Work Motivation: Herzberg’s two factor theory cast a new light on the content of work motivation. Up to this point, management had generally concentrated on the hygiene factors. When faced with morale problem, the typical solution was higher pay, more fringe benefits, and better working conditions. Motivators cater to the higher order needs of human being. In order to build these factors into the job design, a manager should load the job with motivators. Job loading can be done either horizontally or vertically. The horizontal job loading is known as Job Enlargement and the vertical job loading is known as Job Enrichment.

Job Enlargement: The principles are: 1. challenging the employees by demanding more production 2. adding other tasks to the job 3. job rotation Herzberg came to conclusion that the theory of job enlargement does not give dividends for long. Job enrichment is a preferred method.

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Job Enrichment: According to Herzberg, the principles are:
Principle
1. removing some control while retaining accountability 2. increasing accountability for individual’s own work 3. giving a person a complete natural unit of work 4. granting additional authority to an employee in his activity 5. making periodic reports directly available to the worker 6. introducing new and more difficult tasks 7. assigning specialized tasks, enabling them to become experts Growth and learning Responsibility, growth and advancement Internal recognition Responsibility and recognition Responsibility and recognition Responsibility and recognition

Motivators Involved
Responsibility and personal achievement

Criticism of Herzberg Theory: 1. From academic perspective, the theory over simplifies the complexities of work motivation. 2. there seem to be job factors which lead to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. 3. it is not corroborated by subsequent research. 4. Herzberg advocated building challenges and freedom into job. A challenge to one may be perceived as a threat to other. 5. it is not possible to re-design every job.

Ans-4(b)
Morale:
Definitions: Various thinkers have defined morale in different ways. Keith Davis: Morale means: the attitude of employees and group towards their work environment and towards voluntary cooperation to the full extent of their ability in the best interests of the organization.

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Morris Viteles: Morale refers to the condition of a group where there are clear and fixed group goals that are felt to be important and integrated with individual goals; where there is confidence in the attainment of these goals and the confidence in the means of attainment in the leader, associates and finally in one self. Morale indicates the happiness of the employees with the organizational environment. It also refers to the preparedness of the group of employees to subordinate the individual and the group goals. Morale is akin to job satisfaction. Generally, it can be assumed that morale has a positive relationship with productivity. However, it not always true, as it is clear from the following graph: A B
Job Satisfaction Æ

C

Productivity Æ

Higher productivity involves ability, training, work habits, performance goals, etc. The curve A indicates management’s failure in discharging its functions, mainly, the planning function. Productivity can be high in spite of low morale (curve C). It is due to rigid systems and controls imposed by management. The curves A and C are not permanent states and equilibrium will bring them both towards curve B. Every manager is interested in curve B where both morale and productivity are high. But morale is not always static. So the managers must
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constantly keep an eye on the morale indicators which will give him the state of morale prevailing at that time among employees. Morale Indicators: As morale can not be quantified, managers conduct morale surveys to make assessment of morale. Following are the morale indicators: 1. the rate of rejection of finished products by quality assurance department. 2. the rate of wastage of raw material 3. number of petty grievances 4. absenteeism 5. resignation of skilled personnel 6. exit interviews

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Ans-6(a)
Perception:
Perception can be defined in many ways. A few definitions are: 1. It is a process of receiving, selecting, organizing, interpreting, checking and reacting to sensory stimuli or data. 2. Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. 3. Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his environment- seeing, hearing, feeling, teasting and smelling. 4. Kolasa defines perception as “selection and organization of material which stems from the outside environment at one time or the other to provide the meaningful entity we experience”. There are two basic elements in this definition: 1. perception is a process of screening or selection which prevents us from processing irrelevant or disruptive information; 2. perception is highly complex and comprehensive process and involves a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation of data. Perception involves five sub-processes: a. stimulus, b. registration, c. interpretation, d. feedback, e. consequence Perception is initiated with the presence of stimulus situation. Registration involves the physiological mechanism including both sensory and neural. Interpretation of stimulus situation is determined by a person’s motivation, personality and learning. Feedback is important for interpreting the perceptual data. Reaction may be in overt or covert form. The following figure depicts the various sub-processes of perception and their inter-relationship:

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The sub-processes of Perception

External Environment Sensual stimulation Physical Environment: Office Factory floor Research lab. Store Climate Sociocultural Environment: Mngt. Styles Values discrimination

CONFRONTATI ON of specific stimulus (e.g. supervisor or new procedure)

REGISTARTI ON of stimulus (e.g. sensory and neural mechanism)

INTERPRET ATION of stimulus (e.g. motivation, learning and personality)

FEEDBACK for clarification (e.g. kinesthetic or psychological)

BEHAVIOUR (e.g. overt such as rushing off or covert such as an attitude)

CONSEQUENCE (e.g. reinforcement/puni shment or some organizational outcome)

Principles of Perceptual Selection: There are many stimuli which need attention of the individual at the same time. An individual can sense only a limited amount of stimuli at a time. While dealing with selective phenomenon, two terms are involved: Attention and Set. Attention incorporates all aspects of the selective process. Set refers to specific factors or processes within the individual himself that has a bearing on what he attends to. Thus the factors which attract attention lie in the situations and some are within the individual. The factors that are in the situation are called External Attention Factors and those within the individual are called Internal Set Factors. External Attention Factors: (a) Intensity: More intense the stimulus, more likely it will be perceived. (b) Size: Any odd size attracts attention. However, larger the object, chances are more that it will be perceived. (c) Contrast: The external stimuli which stands out against the background or which is unexpected, will attract attention.

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(d) Repetition: Repeated external stimulus attract more attention. (e) Motion: Individuals are attracted more to the dynamic environment than static objects. (f) Novelty and Familiarity: A novel object in familiar situation or a familiar object in a novel situation tends to attract attention. Internal Set Factors: (a) Habit: Most of the individuals will react to any external stimuli on the basis of their habits. E.g., while walking on road, a Hindu person will automatically bow if he sees a temple. (b) Motivation and Interest: Motivational factors increase the individual’s sensitivity to those stimuli which he considers a srelevant to the satisfaction of his needs. (c) Learning and Perception: Learning affects set by creating an expectancy to perceive in certain manner. The role of learning is more pronounced in respect of complex forms of perception where some symbolic content creeps in. (d) Organizational Role and Specialization: The modern organizational setup demands specialization. The specialty of a person casts him in a particular organizational role predisposition. He, then selects certain stimuli.

Ans-6(b)
Attitude, belief and Ideology:
Attitude: Attitude may be defined as a tendency to react positively or negatively in regard to an object or situation. An attitude is a tendency to react in a certain way. A person who has a positive attitude for some object or event, has a readiness or a disposition to react favourably. Attitudes are for or against things. We have favourable attitude towards sources of gratification and unfavourable attitude toward sources of punishment and frustration. Belief: A belief is a judgement about something. E.g. a belief that the earth is round is a judgement about its form. Many of our beliefs are emotionally neutral
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while others are either favourable or unfavourable towards some object. Beliefs are influenced by attitude. For example, a favourable attitude towards the religion may generate belief that the religion helps to curb delinquency, that worshippers are better citizens than non-devotees, etc. Ideology: When beliefs become organized into system, they are called ideologies. The capitalist ideology is a set of belief that a free enterprise economy is a maximally productive and that the competition, in long run, brings down prices and raises quality. Ideologies give us an interpretation and justification for our practices. They give us social definition of reality.

Ans-6(c)
Stress and state of exhaustion:
The theory of General Adaptation Syndrome states that when an organism is confronted with a threat, the general physiological response occurs in three stages viz. alarm reaction, resistance reaction and state of exhaustion. Alarm Reaction: It includes initial shock phase in which resistance is lowered and defensive mechanism becomes active. The characteristics of alarm reaction are: autonomous excitability, adrenaline discharge, increased heart beat, muscle tone, and blood content, gastro-intestinal ulceration, etc. Stage of Resistance: This is maximum adaptation stage. The bodily signs of the alarm now subsidize. The resistance increases above normal level. if the stress persists or the defense reaction proves ineffective, the organism deteriorates to the next stage. State of Exhaustion: At this point, the adaptation energy is exhausted. The signs of alarm reaction reappear and the resistance level begins to decline irreversibly and organism collapses. The major shortcoming of this theory is that the research was carried out on animals where the stresses are physical and environmental. This not the case with human beings. Present day human is confronted with stresses from various sources such as his own psychological and physical make up, family and social demands, job stresses, etc.
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A pictorial view of the three stages is shown below:

Level of Resistance Æ

Normal State

Alarm Sense

Resistance Sense

Exhaustion Sense

Ans-6(d)
Leadership and its styles:
Leadership style is the total pattern of leader’s actions in relation to followers. It represents their philosophy, skills and attitudes. Managers need more positive leadership skills in order to be rated satisfactory. Better employee education, greater independence, etc. have made employee motivation more dependent on positive leadership. There ar basically three leadership styles. Actual behaviour of leaders is a mixture of all the three styles, one style tends to dominate the others: (a) Autocratic Leadership Style: The main characteristics of this style are: 1. centralized power and decision making; 2. full authority and responsibility with leader; 3. negative behaviour based on punishment and threats; 4. positive behaviour based on rewards (called benevolent-autocratic) Advantages: 1. provides strong motivation and reward for leader;
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2. permits quick decision making; 3. best suited for emergencies; 4. gives good results when applied to unskilled employees doing repetitive tasks. Disadvantages: 1. not liked by employees; 2. developes frustration, dissatisfaction, fear and conflict; 3. low involvement of employees as their drives and creativity are suppressed. (b) Participative Leadership Style: The major characteristics are: 1. leader’s trust in the abilities of subordinates; 2. decentralized authority, participative decision making; 3. controlling force from within the group; 4. ideas and suggestions welcomed from subordinates; Advantages: 1. motivated employees; 2. leader and group work as unit, so more harmony; Disadvantages: 1. not suited for emergency situations; 2. assumption that people have skill and will to help organizational effort, may not be true. (c) Free-rein Leadership Style: The basic characteristics of this style are: 1. avoids power and responsibility; 2. dependency on group to establish own goals and strategies; 3. all decision making responsibility and prerogative in favour of followers;

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Advantages: 1. very useful when applied to scientific and professional employees, who require job-freedom; 2. useful in situation when decisions are to be taken in absence of leader; Disadvantages: 1. can lead to chaotic situations; 2. leader fails to guide, motivate and develop subordinates

Ans-6(e)
Path goal theory of Leadership:
The theory was first developed by Robert House of University of Toronto, Canada and later on, it was refined by Mitchell. The reason why it is called path goal approach is that its primary concern is the leaders’ influence on his followers’ perception of their professional and personal goals and paths to achievement of these goals. According to this theory, leadership is closely related to motivation and power both. This theory attempts to explain the impact of leader’s behaviour on followers’ motivation, satisfaction and performance. According to this theory, there are four basic styles of leadership behaviour: 1. Directive Leadership: Here the subordinates know exactly what is expected from them. The directions of leader are specific. There is no participation by subordinates. When the demands of task are ambiguous or when th organizational procedures, rules and policies are not clear, a directive leader may provide the necessary guidance to his followers. 2. Supportive Leadership: In this style, the leader is friendly and approachable. He shows a genuine interest in proceedings. It has the most positive effect on the satisfaction of followers who perform tasks that are full of stress. 3. Participative Leadership: In this style, although the leader asks for suggestions from the subordinates, he takes decision by himself.

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4. Achievement–oriented Leadership: In this style, the leader sets challenging goals for the subordinates and encourages them to perform well and attain the goals. For followers performing ambiguous and non-repetitive tasks, the higher the achievement orientation of the leader, the more confident they would be that their efforts would pay-off in effective performance. The path-goal theory suggests that these styles can be used by the same leader depending upon the characteristics of the subordinates and the environmental pressure. We can draw the following conclusions from the above discussions: 1. a high degree of direction in autonomous or ambiguous situations increases satisfaction by clarifying the path to goal achievement. 2. Strongly defined tasks are performed best with greater employee satisfaction when the leader demonstrates high consideration. 3. The autonomous jobs are more intrinsically satisfying than structured activities. As a result, leader behaviour will be les relevant to the needs or performance of subordinates than when the path is more difficult to negotiate.

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