P. 1
Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

|Views: 1,578|Likes:
it deals with water transmission and distribution system and components.
includes design of transmission lines and analysis of water distribution network.
includes information valves, flow measurement, service reservoirs, etc.
it deals with water transmission and distribution system and components.
includes design of transmission lines and analysis of water distribution network.
includes information valves, flow measurement, service reservoirs, etc.

More info:

Categories:Types, Presentations
Published by: Dr. Akepati Sivarami Reddy on Sep 07, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See more
See less

06/22/2015

Head
•Total energy per unit weight of the flowing water is called head

–includes three components: kinetic, potential and pressure heads

•Units of pressure are Pascals (N/m2)
•Pressure head (h) is defined as pressure upon specific weight (p/ρg)

–1kPa = 01.02 m

Head loss (hL)
•Due to friction, water flow in a pipe/channel results in development of
shear stress between the flowing water and the wetted wall

–Friction depends on flow rate, roughness of the surface, length of the
channel/pipe and hydraulic radius of the channel/pipe

•Head loss due to friction (major losses) is calculated by

–Darcy-Weisbach formula
–Hazen-Williams formula
–Chezy formula - Mannings formula combined with Colebrook-White formula

•Turbulence due to appurtenances and fittings on the pipelines/channels
also causes head loss (minor losses)
HGL: Imaginary line corresponding to the sum of the potential head and the
pressure head drawn for a pipeline/channel
•For pipe flow it corresponds to the height to which water will rise
vertically in a tube attached to a pipeline

85
.
1

17
.
1



KC

V

RL

hf

V is velocity (m/s)
L is length of pipe (m)
Hf is frictional head loss
R is hydraulic radius
K is conversion factor (0.849 for SI units)
C is roughness coefficient

Hazen-Williams equation

g

V

dL

f

hf

2

2

f is coefficient of friction
L is length of pipe (m)
d is diameter of pipe (m)
V is mean velocity (m/s)

Darcy-Weisbach equation

f = D'Arcy-Weisbach friction coefficient
Re = Reynolds Number
k = roughness of duct/pipe/tube surface (m)
dh = hydraulic diameter (m)



f

R

d

k

f

e

h

51

.

2

72

.

3

log

2

1

Colebrook-White formula

ρ = density (kg/m3)
dh = hydraulic diameter (m)
u = velocity (m/s)
μ = dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2)
ν = kinematic viscosity (m2/s)

h

h

e

d

u

d

u

R

Reynolds Number

dh = hydraulic diameter (m)
A = area section of the duct (m2)
p = wetted perimeter of the duct (m)

pA

dh 4

Hydraulic diameter

85
.
1

87
.
47

.

10



CQ

D L

hf

For circular pipe flow
D is pipe diameter (m)
Q is flow rate (m3/sec.)

n

R

C

fg

C

where

S

R

C

V

6

1

8

Chezy formula

2

1

3

2

1

S

R

n

V

Manning formula

‘V’ is velocity (m/sec.)
‘C’ is Chezy coefficient (m1/2/Sec.)
‘R’ is hydraulic radius (m)
‘S’ is slope
‘n’ is Manning coefficient of roughness
‘f’ is Darcy-Weisbach friction factor

‘V’ is velocity (m/sec.)
‘C’ is Hazen-William’s coefficient
‘R’ is Hydaulic radius (m)
‘S’ is slope
‘Q’ is flow (m3/sec.)
‘d’ is pipe diameter (m)

54
.
0

63
.
2

54
.
0

63
.
0

2785

.
0849

.

0

S

d

C

Q

S

R

C

V

Hazen-Williams formula

‘C’ is carrying capacity factor and

also referred to as roughness
coefficient
‘C’ value icreases with increasing
internal smoothness, and
increasing pipe diameter, but
decreases wih pipe age

‘C’ value to a negligible extent is

affected by changes in flow rates

Plastic pipes have higher ‘C’ value

(140) then iron pipes (130)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->