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Lecture 9 Propagation Modelling

Multipath Fading

Quiz

1) Propagation models that characterizes the rapid fluctuations of the received signal strength over very short travel distances or short time durations are called Small scale propagation models 2) Propagation models that predicts the mean signal strength for an arbitrary transmitter-receiver (T-R) separation distance are called large scale propagation models 3) Isotropic antenna is an ideal or theoretical antenna which radiates equal power in all directions with unity gain 4) In free space transmission, the signal attenuation increases a) proportionally with distance b) proportionally with the square distance c) proportionally with distance cube

Quiz

5) When transmitting over a perfectly reflecting, smooth, plane earth, the path loss tends to increase a) linearly with distance b) with the square of distance c) with distance cube d) with the fourth power of distance 6) Consider a cellular operator, who must select an appropriate frequency reuse distance. If radio propagation attenuation increases rapidly with distance, his cellular systems will be a) relatively inefficient. b) relatively efficient 7) In space wave approximation the Received field strength = LOS + Ground reflected wave

Quiz

8) The path difference Δ in two ray model is given by 2hthr/d 9) EIRP is given by Pt x Gt 10) Propagation around a corner’ is due to the Diffraction mechanism. 11) Total path length increases by λ/2 for successive circles in fresnal zone geometry 12) Majority of power reaching the receiver is contained in first Fresnal zone

Quiz

13) diffraction loss will be minimal when 55% of first fresnal zone is clear 14) Write down the relation for hsurf. hsurf < λ/(8sin(θi)) 15) In terms of hsurf. When is the surface rough ? When hsurf > λ/(8sin(θi)) 16) the ref coefficient for rough surfaces must be modified by Γrough= Γ ρs 17) Log-distance model is given by Path Loss(dB)~PL(d0)+10 n log(d/d0) Write down what each variable represents?

PL is the path loss to a reference distance d0(measured) d is the distance between r/r and d0 n is path loss exponent and depends upon the environment

Quiz

18) The difference between area mean power and local mean power is area mean power is an average over 100 m - 5 km whereas local mean power is an average over 40 λ (few meters) 19) The instantaneous power is related to the manufacturer Whereas the area mean power and local mean power are related to the operator 20)The okumara model is represented by L50(dB)=LF + Amu(f,d) – G(hte) – G(hre) – Garea Write down what each variable represents. LF= free space loss, Amu(f,d)= median attenuation (urban), G(hte)= effective transmitter antenna height Gain, G(hre) = effective receive antenna height Gain, Garea = gain due to area (geographical)

Quiz

21)Okumara developed set of curves which gives median attenuation relative to free space in an urban area Amu. Where ht=200m & hr=3m These curves are plotted both as a function of frequency and distance between the base station and mobile terminal. 22) Hata model is valid for frequencies 150 – 1500 MHz whereas okumara’s model is valid for frequencies 150-1920MHz(extrapolated to 3000MHz)

Assignment 1

Assignment 1 A radio link has a base station transmitter power of 100 Watts, with a transmitter antenna gain of 20dBi with a connecting cable of length 2m connecting the transmitter antenna to the transmitter. The cable has a loss of 0.1 dB per meter. The receiving end of the link has a receiving antenna gain of 3.2 dBi with the receiver cable length 2m. If the system operates with a 1 GHz carrier frequency develop the link budget in tabular form for transmit to receive path lengths of 1)10 Km 2) 36000 Km

Solution

Given data Pt = 100 Watts = 20 dB Gt = 20dBi Lt= 2 x 0.1 = 0.2 dB Lr= 2 x 0.1 = 0.2 dB Gr=3.2 dBi F= 109 Hz λ=c/f =0.3 m 1) Link budget is given by

assume ht= 30m and hr= 10m

Pr,= Pt-Lt+Gt+20Log(4πR/λ)+Gr-Lr+F Where F=(2+2cos(phase diff))1/2 Phase diff = path difference x 2π/λ For path difference we have Δ= 2 ht hr/d so phase difference = 0.06 x 2π/λ = (0.4 π) rad phase diff = 0.4 π x 180/ π = 72˚ F=1.61 so Pr = 20 – 0.2 + 20+ 20log[(4π x 10000)/0.3] + 3.2 – 0.2 + 1.6 = 157.65 dB Do the same for part 2)

**Doppler spread & Coherence Time
**

These are the parameters which describe the time varying nature of the channel in a small scale region. Doppler spread • Range of frequencies over which the received Doppler spectrum is non-zero. • Components are fc + fd, fc – fd ; where fd is Doppler spread. • Depends on relative velocity of the mobile and angle θ.

**Doppler spread & Coherence Time
**

Coherence time • Describe the time varying nature of the frequency dispersive ness. • A statistical measure of the time duration over which the channel impulse response is essentially invariant. • Coherence time is the time duration over which received signals have a strong potential for amplitude correlation. • Tc = 1/fm inverse relation b/w Tc and doppler spread. • Tc=9/16πfm for 0.5 time correlation function. • Tc=0.423/fm popular equation used in modern digital communication ; geometric mean of the first two.

Example

Determine the proper spatial sampling interval to make small-scale propagation measurements which assumes that consecutive samples are highly correlated in time. How many samples will be required over 10m travel distance if fc= 1900 MHz and v= 50 m/s. How long will it take to make these measurements, assuming they could be made in real time from a moving vehicle, what is the doppler spread.

Assignment 2

Q1)Determine the maximum and minimum spectral frequency received from a stationary transmitter that has a centre frequency of exactly 1950 MHz, assuming that the receiver is travelling at speeds of b) 1 km/hr c) 5 km/hr d) 1000km/hr Q2) describe all the physical circumstances that relates to a stationary transmitter and a moving receiver such that the doppler shift at the receiver is equal to a)0 Hz , b) fdmax, c) – fdmax and d)fdmax/2

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