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Presented by Sakshi Kukreja (12DM141) Sameer Mirani (12DM143)
how inputs are converted into outputs .WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY ? • • • • • Information Equipment Techniques Processes In simple words.
• Interests included development of Bureaucracy in the 19th century. DNA research and chemical plants and protecting nation’s infrastructure etc. award winning THE AIDS DISASTER (1990) and others.D. . from the University of California.award winning Normal Accidents: Living with high risk technologies (1984). radical movements of the 1960s . • Author of 6 books and over 50 articles including Radical Attack on Business(1972). 1960. Berkeley. accidents in high risk zones like nuclear plants.CHARLES PERROW • Ph.
which represented less than half of the population of Organizations • Charles Perrow identified that technology needed to be operationalized for all organizations. .LIMITATION OF WOODWARD’S PERSPECTIVE ON TECHNOLOGY • His theory was limited only to the manufacturing firms.
with or without the aid of tools or mechanical devices. in order to make some change in that object.” .CHARLES PERROW’S DEFINITION OF TECHNOLOGY • “The action that an individual performs upon an object.
well defined versus ill defined. of exceptions encountered in one’s work.DIMENSIONS OF KNOWLEDGE TECHNOLOGY • Task Variability: No. • Problem Analysability: The type of search procedures followed to find successful methods for responding adequately to task exceptions. In other words. .
PERROW’S TECHNOLOGY CLASSIFICATION Intuitive problems: Cell 3 and 4 Systematic problems: Cell 1 and 2 Familiar problems Unfamiliar problems .
DEPARTMENTAL TECHNOLOGY WITH STRUCTURAL AND MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS .
• Engineering technology requires centralized decisions but maintain flexibility because exceptions are many. more highly structured the organization • Non-routine Technology requires greater structural flexibility • Craft technology requires problem solving with greatest knowledge & experience.PERROW’S CONCLUSIONS • Control & coordination methods should vary with technology type • More routine the technology. .