You are on page 1of 16

CC B TRM TCH KAINOZOI VIT NAM: C CH HNH THNH V KIU B CENOZOIC SEDIMENTARY BASINS IN VIETNAM: EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISM AND

THEIR TYPES
Hong Ngc ang, L Vn C Cng ty Lin doanh iu hnh chung Lam Sn (Lam Sn JOC) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TM TT Mng nt n l thnh h cha du kh rt c bit, tng cha dy, dng khi, bn thn matrix khng cha du, v khng c thm khung i vi du, nhng du li tp trung trong cc hc, vi rnh ra la v c bit l trong cc nt gy h, to rng v thm th sinh, v th chng thng phn b khng u, c ch dng chy cng khc nhau, sn lng gia cc ging dao ng ln, tnh phn i cng khc nhau gia cc khi trong mt m, v ranh gii du-nc c khi khng c duy tr cng chiu su. c bit l c hin tng lc mao dn chi phi hot ng ca h vi nt n trong c ch cho dng. Kt qu nghin cu tnh bt ng nht v xu th phn b nhng i c kh nng cho dng v c h s sn phm cao s l tin quan trng trong tm kim v khai thc du kh. ABSTRACT Fractured basement is qualified as a very specific hydrocarbon bearing formation with thick and massive type of reservoir in which the matrix rock itself has no storage capacity and no permeability for oil. But oil is often localized in vugs, micro channels especially in open fractures creating secondary porosity and permeability. The porosity and permeability distribution is irregular; therefore the zonation and flow regime are quite different between structural blocks. The productivity varies highly from wells to wells. The oil/water contact (WOC) could not be maintained at the same depth. In particular the dual porosity and permeability are important properties of basement reservoir and related to macrofractures with hydrodynamic permeability and microfractures with capillary regime of permeability. Study results on fractures zonation and their distribution pattern related to oil flow capability and high productivity are important criteria in exploration and exploitation of oil and gas.

1. M U Cc b trm tch Kainozoi ni lin vi nhau thnh mt di t Bc xung Nam v chim phn thm lc a ca Vit Nam v mt phn bin su trn Bin ng, v hai vnh ln trn cng bin l Vnh Bc B v Vnh Thi Lan. Ngoi ra cn nm dc theo hai ng bng ln pha Bc l ng bng sng Hng v pha Nam l ng bng sng Cu Long.

Hu ht cc b trm tch ni trn u c mt lch s pht trin a cht tng t vi cc b khc ng Nam , t Eocen n ngy nay. Trong Paleogen xu hng tch gin chim u th cho n Miocen gia chng u c mt mt ct a tng gm nhng lot ln (megasequence) bt u bng trm tch lc a, chuyn dn sang ven b (paralic), ri n cc trm tch bin nng c thm cacbonat, cho n st kt (mudstone)

bin su. Cc ng bng ven bin ln, cc vnh gian chi lu (interdistributary bay) v cc h triu (tidal system) pht trin trong giai on ny. T Miocen gia mun n mun, cc b ng Nam tri qua mt s p nn nh n r nt, v nhiu ni dn n mt s nghch o (inversion) ca cc trung tm lng ng (depocenter). Tuy nhin mi b trm tch u c mt lch s pht trin a cht ring bit ca mnh do tt c cc b rt khc nhau, ty thuc vo v tr a l v cc yu t kin to (tectonic factors). Trong bi bo ny chng ti s phn tch, trnh by cc nt chung v ring ca chng v c
105

gng lm sng t mi quan h gia cc loi b v cc kiu cu trc cho n cc yu t kin to khng ch v t tc ng n s pht trin tin ha ca b. T Bc xung Nam, thm lc a Vit Nam c th phn chia thnh bn khu vc v c cc b sau (hnh 1). Phn thm lc a Bc B (vnh Bc B) v vng nc su pha Bc c hnh lang rng v thoi. i b ph hy pha Bc Sn, ni cc trm tch Kainozoi thng mng hoc vng mt. Phn pha Nam Sn l thm kt cu, mng trc Kainozoi b ph bi cc

110

TRUNG QUOC

HA NOI

20

HAI NAM

15

10

CHINA

INDIAN OCEAN

MALAY INDONESIA

105
0 100 200 300 Km

110 Cac be tram tch e tam an g day KZ 2km va t gay

Hnh 1: Cc b trm tch Kainozoi Vit Nam (theo Phan Trung in)

trm tch Kainozoi dy (5000-18000m) ngay c trong phn t lin, c bit l trm tch Pliocen t rt dy khu vc trung tm vnh Bc B. Trn phm thm ny c hng lot cc b trm tch nh: B Sng Hng bao gm Trng H Ni phn t lin v a ho Qung Ngi pha Nam b. B Hong Sa l b nm vng nc su, nm ngoi v c phng cu trc vung gc vi a ly Tri Tn. Pha Bc-ng Bc b Sng Hng l b Ty Li Chu (Beibu Wan), cn v pha ng Nam, pha Nam o Hi Nam l b Nam Hi Nam, b ny c phng gn vung gc vi b Sng Hng v gia chng khng c ranh gii b, to nn mt i ph trm tch hnh ch Y. Thm lc a Trung B c hnh lang hp v dc do s khng ch ca h thng t gy kinh tuyn. i b u th l qu trnh hy hoi, v vy thng l ra cc thnh to trc Kainozoi. Ngoi khi cc trm tch Kainozoi c chiu dy tng nhanh v cc b trm tch nh nh phn Nam ca a ho Qung Ngi, b Ph Khnh, y lp ph Pliocen- t mng pha t lin v chiu dy tng nhanh v pha bin. B Ph Khnh n i ct Tuy Ha (Tuy

Hoa Shear zone) bao gm c phn su di chn sn lc a. Phn thm lc a ng Nam B v vng nc su pha Nam c hnh lang rt rng v rt thoi vi xu th pht trin ca ng thi kt cu. Cc trm tch Kanozoi phn b rng vi cc b trm tch c din tch rng v trm tch dy nh b Cu Long, Nam Cn Sn, Khu vc T Chnh-Vng My, nm xa hn trong vng nc su, nhm b Trng Sa c chiu dy trm tch mng phn b trong cc trng nh hp, khu vc ny c cc b sau: b Cu Long, b Nam Cn Sn, nhm b T Chnh Vng My, nhm b Trng Sa. Phn thm lc a Ty Nam B c hnh lang rng v thoi thuc vnh Thi Lan. Mt s ni thuc khu vc Hn Chung n H Tin qu trnh hy hoi chim u th nn cc thnh to Paleozoi v Mesozoi thng c l r, cc trm tch Pliocen- t i ven b khng dy. Phn lnh hi Vit Nam thuc cnh ng-ng Bc ca b Malay Th Chu Tt c cc b ca Vit Nam k trn u nm trn v lc a v v chuyn tip nh minh ho trong hnh s 2 theo Mecalfe.

A N O

20o

20o

MANG PHILIPPINE
BIEN ONG BIEN ANDAMAN
10o 10o

GHI CHU

BIEN CELABES

BIEN BANDA

10o

N
0 500 km

10o

AUSTRALIA

Hnh 2: Phn b ca v thch quyn trong khu vc ng Nam (theo Matcalfe)

2. M HNH V C CH TO B TRM TCH TAM VIT NAM 2.1. Cc yu t kin to chnh Trong khu vc ng Nam c ba yu t kin to chnh lin quan n c ch to b trm tch l: i ht chm pht trin t Min in qua vng cung o Indonesia. S va chm ca mng n vo mng chu u-. S hnh thnh v gin y Bin ng

u- xy ra ng thi vi s xoay v dch chuyn ln pha Bc ca vng cung Philipin to khng gian cho cc chuyn ng thc tri ca cc a khi dc theo cc t gy ln trong khu vc do s chn p ca mng n . Do cc a khi c xu th trt t pha n v pha Nam v ng Nam. Nm trong khung cnh , a khi ng Dng cng c cho l b thc tri mnh t pha Ty Bc xung ng Nam, dc theo h thng t gy Sng Hng v Three Pagodas v Maeping. Do mng n hc vo mng chu u- t Eocen n ngy nay v ngy cng chuyn ng v hng Bc, nn cc chuyn ng thc tri ca cc a khi ny cng c s thay i hng theo thi gian. Cc a khi nm pha Nam t gy Three Pagodas b thc tri sm hn (Eocen, u Oligocen) v b y ngc v pha Nam, to ra cc b trm tch c phng t gy B-N (v d nh Pattani Thi Lan). Tip theo l cc a khi nm gia h thng t gy Three Pagodas v Sng Hng b thc tri trong Oligocen n Miocen sm. Phn pha Nam b y sm hn
1130 1180

Dc theo vng cung o Indonesia, s hnh thnh cc b trm tch ch yu theo c ch sau cung (back-arc), l do tc ht chm thay i lc mnh, lc yu theo thi gian (roll-back velocity), so vi cc b khc ng Nam , cc b sau cung ny hnh thnh tng i sm, ch yu trong Eocen, trc khi s hc chi do va chm gia mng n v mng chu u- c tc dng mnh, gy x dch cc vi mng. S va chm ca mng n vo mng chu
980 1030 1080

Dien Bien Phu

HANOI

200

HAINAM
VIENTIANE Ut
VNH BAC BO Hue Da Nang

G HI CH U
1 Tram tch Mesozoic cua them Khorat 2 Bon trung Oligocene-Miocene 3 Trung tam bon trung Mesozoi & Eocene 4 i tram tch Paleozoi Viet Nam

150

KHORAT
BIEN ONG

BANGKOK KONTUM BLOCK PHNOM PENH

5 Khoi Kontum 6 Khoi Shan Thai 7 Vi mang kho phan biet & tram tch hien ai 8 Truc uon nep chnh

100
VNH THAILAND

Ho Chi Minh City

9a t gay 9b t gay thuan 10 Phng rt bang 11a Kainozoi 11b Pre-Triassic

i khau

50

VNH MERGUI

Bien

nh hng trc va mng n

nh hng do hc tri

nh hng do tch gin Bin ng

Hnh 3: m hnh kin to ca cc bn trng trm tch Vit Nam

vo u hoc gia Oligocen, phn pha Bc b y mun hn v kt thc vo cui Miocen sm. Cng va chm v khong cch b y thc tri ca phn pha Nam c l mnh hn, xa hn so vi phn pha Bc, to ra hnh ch S ca b bin Vit Nam hin nay (hnh 3). iu ny cng l gii giai on syn-rift pha Nam b Sng Hng ch kt thc vo cui Miocen sm. S hnh thnh v gin y Bin ng l yu t kin to sau cng (bt u vo gia Oligocen v kt thc vo cui Miocen gia), tc ng tng h vi cc yu t kin to trc , lm phc tp ha bc tranh kin to trong vng nh hng, c bit i vi b Nam Cn Sn, gy ra mt pha to rift mi vo Miocen gia. Tui hnh thnh cc b trm tch Tam Vit Nam: Tui hnh thnh b trm tch trng vi tui ca trm tch c nht trong b, mc d cc trm tch ny c phn b nh, i khi ch gp ra b. Tui hnh thnh b trm tch trng vi tui ca trm tch u tin c phn b rng ri trong b, n th hin giai on cng gin, st ln mnh m nht.

trm tch v giai on tch gin m rng b trm tch. Vit Nam cc giai on ny pht trin nh sau (hnh 4 v 5): Tui Eocen: giai on u gip v y b trm tch Tui Oligocen: giai on cng gin m rng b trm tch, mt vi ni giai on ny cn ko di n ht Miocen sm.

Cn phi ni thm rng, y mt s b c th c trm tch vn th, tng lc a tui Paleocen, c coi l tn tch ca cc trm tch hnh thnh trong cc trng gia ni ca giai on Yn Sn mun. 2.2. M hnh Hnh dng cc b: hnh dng cc b trm tch c lin quan cht ch v b khng ch bi cc yu t kin to trong qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin cc b. Chnh do cc yu t kin to ring tng khu vc to nn cc hnh dng khc nhau ca cc b trm tch tam Vit Nam. Trn c s cc bn cu trc, hnh dng cc b c phn ra cc dng nh sau: a. Dng hnh thoi, hnh bnh hnh, c trng cho kiu ko toc (pull-apart) B Sng Hng (phn Bc v Trung Tm b) Malay-Th Chu

Hai quan nim trn trng vi hai giai on pht trin b, l giai on u gip v y b

Hnh 4: M hnh qu trnh hnh thnh b trong giai on Paleocen-Eocen

Hnh 5: M hnh qu trnh hnh thnh b trong giai on Oligocen-Miocen v kiu b

b. Dng a hnh phn d vi cc a ho nh, song song, xen kp nhau, c trng cho kiu trt cc b i phn d Hu (Trng Hu, thuc Nam b Sng Hng) Ra Ty b Nam Cn Sn Cc b, nhm b Ph Khnh, Hong Sa, Trng Sa

Nh trnh by trn mt b trm tch, c bit l b Sng Hng hay b Malay-Th Chu, mt trong nhng kh nng sau c th xy ra: mt ko toc (pull-apart), to ra mt khu vc cng gin ln hay nhiu ko toc (pull-apart) nh hp li vi nhau to ra mt b trm tch c din tch ln. Mt pha cng gin ln to ra mt b trm tch nh l mt ko toc (pull-apart) ln rt kh c kh nng xy ra, i hi mt lc cng gin ln trong mt thi gian ngn cng nh c mt khng gian cng gin rng m cho vic hnh thnh cc t gy ln. Tuy nhin lc gy cng gin l mt qu trnh, khng gian cng gin cn c s sp xp li ca cc vi mng do chuyn ng xoay ca mng Thi Bnh Dng nn chng ti thy m hnh nhiu pha cng gin trong nhiu ko toc (pull-apart) nh hp li vi nhau to ra cc b trm tch nh quan st thy ngy nay l hp l. Quan st hnh dng phn lc a ca a khi ng Dng c ng b bin cong hnh ch S, trong phn bng nh ra bin v pha ng nhiu nht l a khi Kon Tum c kt rn chc, u ca ch S tng ng v lin quan n b Sng Hng, ui ca ch S tng ng v lin quan n b Malay-Th Chu, cn phn bng ca ch S lin quan nhiu n hai b Cu Long v Nam Cn Sn. V th chng ta c th gi thit rng a khi Kon Tum b y thc tri xa nht, phn Bc v Nam ca a khi ny, nng lng y b tiu hao vo cng gin, to cc b trm tch. Vai tr v nh hng ca cng gin y Bin ng Phn ln cc nh a cht Vit Nam coi vai tr ca gin y Bin ng l quan trng v l yu t chng ta vn cn quan st c n ngy nay, tuy nhin gin y Bin ng xy ra mun (32-17ma) nn n ch c tc dng m rng thm b hay c tc ng chng ln cc nguyn nhn trc, trc khi gin y l giai on cng gin, tuy nhin chng ti cho rng cc b trm tch

c. Dng hnh ht , c trng cho hai pha tch b c hng khc nhau B Cu Long

d. Dng khng phn nh ranh gii do nhiu nguyn nhn kin to chng ln nhau B Nam Cn Sn

M hnh bin dng to b trm tch do thc tri ca cc a khi (da theo Tapponier) C hai yu t chnh hnh thnh, pht trin mt b trm tch, l cn c lc gy cng gin v cn c khng gian cng gin xy ra. Nh trnh by phn trn, lc gy cng gin l lc hc ca mng n v pha Ty gy ra chuyn ng thc tri ca a khi ng Dng, cn khng gian cng gin tp trung vo khu vc thm lc a v Bin ng ngy nay. Khng gian cng gin ny c c cn phi c s sp xp li cc vi mng Bin ng, chnh cc chuyn ng xoay gp phn to ra qu trnh ny. y chnh l s kt hp gia hai m hnh ng lc, l quan im thc tri (Tapponier) v quan im m hnh ng nhiu vi mng (Rangin, Hall). Trng lc gy tch gin thay i theo thi gian v khng lin tc, nn cc chuyn ng thc tri ca a khi ng Dng cng b phn d v c cng khc nhau t pha Nam ln pha Bc, n chi phi s cng gin thnh nhiu pha cng nh qui m din tch ca cng gin, tuy nhin qui m din tch ny cng cn phi xem xt trong khung cnh cho php ca khng gian cng gin.

Vit Nam v cng gin y Bin ng chu cng cc nguyn nhn a ng lc v cng gin y Bin ng ch l biu hin r nht ca qu trnh cng gin v gin y. Giai on cng gin y Bin ng l giai on cho thy khng gian cng gin l thun li nht v l cng gin cc i to cc b trm tch Vit Nam, v th tt c cc b u c phn b rng ri cc trm tch Oligocen. nh hng ca cc yu t khc Nhng nguyn nhn c th khng quan st thy hay kh quan st thy hin nay c th c nhng vai tr nht nh, quan trng trong vic to b trm tch Vit Nam, c th k ra nhng yu t sau y: Chuyn ng ln pha Bc v xoay t ng sang Ty ca vng cung Philipin Chuyn ng xoay ca a khi Borneo Chuyn ng xoay ca Bin ng t Bc xung Nam

hoc nn p; cc b lin quan vi cc t gy trt bng. C nhiu kiu phn loi b ca cc tc gi khc nhau nh Perrodon, 1971; Bally, 1975; Klemme, 1975 v Dickinson, 1976 u gn vi cc kiu v lc a v kiu ra mng. Trong Ngnh du kh, ngi ta tp trung theo hng nh ngha cc qu trnh tin ha b lin quan n vic sinh thnh du kh, nn ngi ta thng theo hai hng: hnh dng, cu trc b v ngun gc, tin ha b. Mc tiu ca cc phn loi ny nhm tng t ha cc b cha thm d du kh t cc b thm d v khai thc du kh. Trn thc t c th phn loi cc b trm tch trn c s nhng tiu chun nh sau: V tr ca cc b trn cc mng thch quyn (lithospheric plate). a s cc b l nhng i ng (active zone) v c gp ranh gii cc mng, mt s trong , c bit cc b rng nht, nm ngay trn mng (b ni lc intracratonic basin). C ch dn n vic hnh thnh b (basin drive mechanism), bn cht ca qu trnh kin to (nature of tectonic process). B trm tch pht trin p li s chuyn ng tng i gia cc mng, trong phm vi nh hng ca cc ranh gii (boundary) tch gin, hi t hoc dch trt ca mng. Mt s b trm tch (b ni craton) hin xa cc gii hn ca mng ngy nay, nhng chng c th c lin quan n cc ranh gii mng c. S tin ha ca b v cu trc b: b qua ba thi k tin ha mi sinh (juvenile), trng thnh (mature) v gi ci (final). Mt b c th tri qua mt, hai hoc tt c cc giai on tin ha. Xa hn na, mt b c th qua mt chu k hoc nhiu chu k pht trin.

Nhng chuyn ng ny nhn chung c nhiu nh nghin cu tha nhn qua cc ti liu c t, c sinh v kh hu v c cp n trong cc cng b ca Holloway, Longley v HallTt c nhng chuyn ng ny th hin s xp xp li ca cc vi mng trong Kainozoi, chng xy ra ng thi vi chuyn ng thc tri ca a khi ng Dng trong cng mt h thng kn v tng h ln nhau, to khng gian cho qu trnh cng gin, to b. 3. CC KIU B VIT NAM 3.1. Tng qut v phn loi b (classification) Theo Bally (1975) mt b trm tch c nh ngha l nhng phm vi (realm) st vng (subsidence) vi nhng chiu dy trm tch thng thng vt trn 1 Km ngy nay cn c bo ton di mt dng t nhiu gn lin nhau (coherent). Theo ch a ng lc hc, cc b nn c chia ra lm ba loi theo ba ch : cc b lin quan n ch tch gin hoc cng gin; cc b lin quan n ch hi t

Da vo cc tiu chun nu trn, hin nay trong cng nghip du kh p dng rng ri bng phn loi (n gin) cc kiu b trm tch sau y:

B cng gin (extensional basin) Trn c s c im qu trnh cng gin v v tr hnh thnh b c chia ra cc kiu b tch gin sau y: B st ln ni lc (intracratonic sag basin): l cc trng n l trn bnh gn nh ng thc, hin tng st ln khng b khng ch bi t gy, m do vm nhit dng ln trong v trn manti. B cng gin dng rift (extensional rift basin): hnh thnh trn ranh gii tch gin, ni quyn yu (asthenosphere) tri ln, y l kiu tch gin dng rift. Kiu ny cng c th hnh thnh trong ni mng, c pha rift ban u, sau l st ln nhit, c gi l aulacogen hay failed rift. B cng gin sau cung (back-arc extension basin): hnh thnh trn mt ra hot ng (active margin) trong ranh gii hi t vi mt bi cnh sau cung (backarc setting), y l kiu cng gin do s thay i tc nn p ngang. B cng gin kiu ra th ng (passive margin extension basins), y chnh l mt cnh ca mt b cng gin kiu rift giai on to v i dng. Kiu b ny khi c mt pha gn v p vo lc a, c ngun trm tch ln vo to ra cc nm ln lc nguyn t lc a ra bin cn c gi l b kiu ra lc a.

c ch ny, lc u l trt cng, tip theo l trt p trong ni mng. Kin to nghch o khng phi l thnh phn ca qu trnh hnh thnh b ban u, m l qu trnh th sinh xy ra trong cc b cng gin hnh thnh t s thay i trong ch cng khu vc t cng gin n nn p (compressional). B nn p (compressional basin) B b nn p trn cc ranh gii hi t thnh ai chm (thrust belt).

Cn phi ni thm v khi nim b, theo ngha rng hn ca Bally (1975) mt b trm tch l mt din tch ca v tri t c ph bi mt tp trm tch dy hn so vi vng xung quanh v theo cch hiu trn th khng c ranh gii r rng, c b c ranh gii khp kn, c b m v pha cc b ln hn. V th khi bn v cc b trm tch tam Vit Nam, c nhng b l b trm tch thc theo cch hiu thng thng, l mt i trng c ranh gii, nhng cng c nhng din tch c gi l b theo ngha rng, khng phi l i trng ln v cng khng c ranh gii r rng. 3.2. Tng quan v phn loi cc b trm tch Tam Vit Nam Ton b cc b trm tch Tam Vit Nam u nm trong phn cc Nam ca mng u-), gm nhiu vi mng, c khong cch tng i u nhau n ra mng hi t cc pha Ty, Nam v ng. Trong mng ny tch v gin y Bin ng (South China Sea spreading) c coi nh mt giai on to ra ra tch gin, i km theo ra tch gin ny l hai i ra th ng. T pha ng sang pha Ty, cc b nm trong v dng chuyn tip n lc a (hnh 2). Cc kiu b trm tch Tam Vit Nam c trnh by di y ch yu xt cc qu trnh a cht xy ra t thi im gin y Bin ng n nay, minh ha qua hnh 5. B Nam Cn Sn (s 3, hnh 5) c v tr ng vo phn ko di ca gin y Bin ng, th hin r nht qua bn t v trng lc, v th c

B ko toc (pull-apart basin) Cc b trt ngang cng/p (transtensional/transpressional strike-slip hay pull-apart basins), kiu b ny c cng gin (extension) v trt bng (stike-slip).

B trt ngang cng/p hnh thnh c trn cc ranh gii bin dng (transform boundary) ca mt mng v c trong ni mng, v d nh trong m hnh thc tri ca Tapponier cho vng ng Nam th mt s b c hnh thnh theo

th xp b ny vo kiu cng gin dng rift in hnh nht Vit Nam, nht l cho giai on to rift Miocen gia, b ny nm trn v lc a vi cc c thnh phn v tui khc nhau c hnh thnh c l c trong Paleozoi v Mesozoi. Hai vng nhm b Trng Sa v Hong Sa nm hai cnh ca gin y Bin ng, trong i ra th ng ca i tch gin, chng u c giai on to rift cng vi gin y Bin ng v c cu trc di dng bn a ho, sau b qu trnh gin Bin ng y trt sang hai pha (TB v N) v c ph bi trm tch bin, mng ca hai vng b ny nm trong i chuyn tip v c hai vng b ny c th xp vo cng gin ra th ng. Khu vc T Chnh-Vng My (nm gia s 3 & 5, hnh 5) cn t c nghin cu, v th c th coi l mt trong hai kiu sau: l phn nc su ca b Nam Cn Sn v u c giai on to rift vo Miocen gia hoc l i trung gian gia b Nam Cn Sn v khu vc Trng Sa, va c tnh cht rift va c tnh cht ra th ng. B Cu Long (s 4, hnh 5) l phn st ln ca i magma Lt trong Kainozoi, c ch to b Cu Long c l b nh hng nhiu ca s thc tri a khi Kon Tum theo kiu cng gin sau cung (do thay i nn p ngang) v c mt phn nh hng ca gin y Bin ng. Ton b b Cu Long nm trong lp v lc a v c th xp b Cu Long l mt b rift ni lc. C hai b Sng Hng v Malay-Th Chu 9s 1 &2, hnh 5) u hnh thnh gn lin vi hai h thng trt bng chnh l Sng Hng v Maeping nn u c c ch ko toc, tuy nhin chng cng c c ch p ngang cc b. Trong khi b Malay-Th Chu ch l mt phn din tch ca vnh Thi Lan th b Sng Hng chim gn nh ton b vnh Bc B. Mt im na l b Malay-Th Chu nm xa v gn nh khng b nh hng ca gin y Bin ng. B MalayTh Chu c th coi l mt pha ko toc ln i km vi mt t gy ln, ngc li, b Sng Hng i km vi nhiu t gy ln Bc Vit

Nam nh Sng Hng, Sng M v Ro Ny, v vy c th cho rng b Sng Hng l kt qu ca nhiu ko toc vi bin khc nhau, t ln vng trung tm b n b nht a ho Qung Ngi. Hp ca nhiu ko toc ni trn to ra b Sng Hng c din tch ln nh hin nay vi s a dng v cu trc cng nh tng trm tch. Khu vc b Ph Khnh (s 7, hnh 5) nm gia v k p vo khi c Kon Tum v gin y Bin ng, khu vc ny va mang tnh ra th ng va chu s tc ng ca chuyn ng trt v xoay ca a khi Kon Tum. Do mng c v rn chc nn ch c st ln nh trong cc a ho nh hp, cu trc b ch yu dng nm ln to thm v pha bin. c im khc bit ca b Ph Khnh so vi cc b khc l t trng rt cao ca tng sau-trm tch so vi tng ng- trm tch v c th coi l b kiu ra lc a. 3.3. c im hnh thnh cc kiu b trm tch Tam Vit Nam a. Cc b ko toc (b pull-apart) B Sng Hng B sng Hng theo ngha rng bao gm min vng H Ni trn t lin, b Sng Hng trong vnh Bc B, gii hn bi t gy sng L. V cu trc, trc ca b Sng Hng trong vnh Bc B gn nh vung gc vi b Ty Li Chu v Nam Hi Nam. Trc ca a ho H Ni v b Sng Hng theo hng TB N trong khi cc b Ty Li Chu v Nam Hi Nam theo hng B TN. Phn pha Bc t gy sng L trong lnh hI Vit Nam nn c coi l nm ngoi b Sng Hng, c l n l phn ko di ca b Ty Li Chu. im giao ba (triple point) nm ch giao nhau ca phn Nam b sng Hng, sn Nam b Nam Hi Nam v a ho Qung Ngi ngoi khi Nng. Theo nh ngha hin ti, b Sng Hng ko di t a ho H Ni n a ho Qung Ngi.

V c ch truyn ng (basin drive mechanism) b Sng Hng c c hai c ch cng ngang v p ngang dc theo h thng t gy Sng Hng. C ch cng ngang (transtension) mang tnh lin tc khi m s ng gia hai mng n v u- vn cn hot ng cho n ngy nay, tuy c yu i rt nhiu, nhng dc theo cc t gy Sng Hng v in Bin vn cn nhn thy nhng hot ng ng t biu hin s cng ngang vn cn tip tc, s cng ngang ny c l bt u t Paleocen-Eocen vi bin nh v li trm tch lc a tui ny trong nhng trng nh hp gp trn t lin, tuy nhin s cng ngang xy ra mnh m nht l vo Oligocen v giai on ny c coi l tui hnh thnh b. Tuy nhin b Sng Hng, s cng ngang c l khng xy ra ch mt t gy Sng Hng, m c nhng t gy khc nh Sng M, Ro Nyvi bin gim dn v pha Nam v din tch b hin nay l kt qu ca nhiu ko toc nh. C ch p trt (transpression) ch c mt pha mnh nht vo cui Miocen mun do s thay i t trt tri sang trt phi ca t gy Sng Hng, gy nn nghch o trong phn trung tm Graben H Ni (l phn Ty Bc B Sng Hng, in hnh l di nng Khoi Chu Tin Hi vi mt lot cu to vm nm dc theo mt t gy chm trn trng ng Quan lm cho a ho H Ni khc bit vi phn cn li ca B Sng Hng v cc b khc. B Sng Hng theo nh ngha hin nay l mt b c din tch ln dng hnh thoi ko di t a ho H Ni n i phn d Hu-Qung c cu trc l mt np lm ln, pha cnh c th quan st r cc lp trm tch xp xp kiu ta tia, c chiu dy tng dn v pha trung tm th hin s cng ngang v st ln nhit lin tc t lc m b cho n ngy nay, tuy nhin cu trc ny c tnh khng i xng, tng i thoi pha Vit Nam v dc pha o Hi Nam. Ring phn Ty Bc, trong mt din tch khng ln lm l mt di cu trc nghch o dng vm do p ngang trong Miocen mun, th

hin s thay i t trt bng tri sang trt bng phi ca t gy Sng Hng. Tip theo v pha Nam, trng Hu-Qung l mt i phn d c xen k cc di a ho, a ly nh va th hin cng ko toc cng nh bn cht mng thay i, v pha cc Nam b, a ho Qung Ngi c cu trc n gin, hp v ko di. Mt ct trm tch pha Nam b cho thy s cng ngang xy ra trong Oligocen v ko di n ht Miocen sm cho thy s phn d ln v cu trc b Sng Hng t pha Bc qua khu vc trung tm xung pha Nam b. B Malay Th Chu C khu vc vnh Thi Lan chu nh hng ca hai h thng t gy trt bng chnh l h thng Three Pagodas (trt tri) v h thng Ranong (trt phi). B Malay-Th Chu c dng hnh bnh hnh, i km vi h thng t gy Three Pagodas, c trng cho kiu ko toc (pull-apart), qu trnh tch gin ny xy ra ch yu vo Oligocen v ng vi tui hnh thnh b, to khng gian ln cho lng ng trm tch v c lp y bi trm tch lc a m h. Tip theo l giai on st ln nhit trong Miocen ch yu l trm tch sng, delta, Miocen digia c tng trm tch bin tin, cn Miocen trn c tng trm tch bin li. Vo Miocen gia-mun, b Malay b nn p v nghch o vi cng tng dn t Bc xung Nam. B Malay-Th Chu l b khng i xng, ra TN dc ng, lp y bi trn 8 km trm tch Tam, cn ra B thoi hn. Chnh hnh dng khng i xng ny cho thy ngun trm tch n ch yu t pha ng Bc v c s phn d tng trm tch trong Oligocen t Bc xung Nam t lc a, delta n m h v l nguyn nhn cho thy phn TN ca b ch yu cha du trong khi phn Bc ch yu l kh. b. Cc b cng gin kiu ra th ng Nhm b Hong Sa B phn ra Nam lc a Trung Quc b Bin ng gin y a v pha Bc. Khu vc ny

tng t nh nhm b Trng Sa nhng gn ngun trm tch lc nguyn hn so vi Trng Sa nn c chiu dy trm tch tng i dy tuy vn nm trong vng nc su. Khu vc ny c c trng bi cc bn a ho Eocen?Oligocen c tng lc a v c ph bn trn bi trm tch bin su t Miocen n nay. Tui ca nhm b ny c coi l trng vi giai on gip v Bin ng trc gin y vo cui Eocen. Nhm b Trng Sa B phn ra Nam lc a Trung Quc b Bin ng gin y a v pha Nam. Khu vc ny xa ngun trm tch lc nguyn nn c chiu dy trm tch mng. Khu vc ny c c trng bi cc bn a ho Eocen?-Oligocen c tng lc a v c ph bn trn bi trm tch bin su t Miocen n nay. Cng nh nhm b Hong Sa tui ca nhm b ny c coi l trng vi giai on gip v Bin ng trc gin y vo cui Eocen. c. Ko toc ni lc/Ra th ng B Ph Khnh Di hp gn theo kinh tuyn dc theo b bin min Trung bao gm thm lc a v sn lc a. Pha Bc tip gip vi a ho Qung Ngi, pha Nam gii hn bi i ct Tuy Ha (Tuy Hoa shear zone), tip gip vi b Cu Long v Nam Cn Sn nhng khng c ranh gii r rng. V c ch truyn ng c l ch yu l cng ngang, b Ph Khnh c th c mng tng c kt v gn lin vi a khi Kon Tum v mt phn pha ng ca a khi ny b st xung to ra b Ph Khnh do b cng ngang dc theo t gy kinh tuyn 109o. Do mc c kt ca a khi Kon Tum, lc cng ngang ny ch to ra cc a ho nh, khng lin tc c tui hnh thnh vo Oligocen. V y b Ph Khnh c bin st ln nh nn trm tch t pha b ra, ty vo su ca mc nc bin m c dng song song hay ta tia c gc dc thp trong Oligocen-Miocen di, song song bin cao ca trm tch carbonat Miocen gia v dng

nm ln v pha bin trong Miocen trn. y l b va c tnh ko toc ni lc va kt hp vi ra th ng, nhng do thm lc a hp, sn lc a tng i dc v ln v pha Bin ng t Miocen n hin ti, cho nn phn ln b vng nc su. Do nhng c im nu trn b Ph Khnh cn c th xp vo kiu b ra lc a. d. B cng gin ni lc (cng gin kiu sau cung ) B Cu Long B Cu Long (trc c ngi gi l MKng) nm phn thm lc a ngoi khi Nam Vit Nam. Din tch khong 25.000 km2, trong phm vi 50 100 km cch b Nam Vit Nam. y l b trm tch c din tch tng i nh nhng quan trng nht ca Vit Nam v du kh, b ny c ranh gii b r rng vi cc n v cu kin to xung quanh. B Cu Long l b kiu rift ni lc in hnh, cng gin theo c ch sau cung (rollback velocity) do thc tri ca a khi Kon Tum trong Eocen mun cho n cui Miocen sm. b ny c hai giai on cng gin, giai on cng gin th nht vo Eocen (?) Oligocen sm v c th coi giai on ny ng vi tui hnh thnh b, y l giai on to ra cc trng nh hp v cc b c hng TB-N v -T ch yu phn pha Ty b, c lp y bi cc trm tch aluvi, gp mt s ging khoan trn t lin cng nh ngoi thm lc a (tp F, E1), c thnh phn thch hc rt khc nhau, kh xc nh tui. Giai on cng gin hai vo Oligocen mun Miocen sm ch yu hng B-TN, y l giai on cng gin m rng to thnh mt b trm tch c ranh gii bn pha, t chu nh hng ca bin, nh l mt h ln, trm tch c nhiu st trung tm cc trng su v th dn v pha cc i cao v ven b. T Miocen gia n nay l giai on st ln nhit bnh n, chu nhiu nh hng ca mi trng bin. V cu trc c cc di cu trc mng nng v st xen k nhau, cc tng trm tch c th nm

k p (onlap) v ph chng ln cc cu trc mng nng cao. V pha Ty, cc di cu trc mng nng c hng -T, t trung tm b v pha ng cc di cu trc mng nng c hng B-TN. Nm onlap trn mng ch yu l cc trm tch aluvi v m h ca tp a chn E, cn nm ph chng ln cc khi mng cao l cc trm tch m h ca tp a chn D hay cc trm tch tr hn na. Vo cui Oligocen, phn pha Bc b b nn p v gy nn nghch o a phng cng vi mt s cu to li hnh hoa. Cng phn pha Bc b, hot ng ni la xy ra mnh m trong Miocen sm v c phn b rng. e. Cng gin dng rift B Nam Cn Sn y l b c din tch rng, ra Ty gip vi nng Khorat, ra Bc gip vi nng Cn Sn, ra ng v Nam ca b khng c xc nh r (c th ni vi cc b ng Natuna v vng nc su v pha ng v c th ni vi nhm b T Chnh Vng My). Trong b ny c hai h t gy r nt l h t gy B-N phn b sn pha Ty b v h t gy B-TN phn b t Trung Tm b v pha ng v chng c th th hin hai giai on kin to, hai giai on cng gin c c ch khc nhau, l s trt bng cc b theo phng B-N trong Oligocen pha Ty v tc ng ca s m rng do gin y B-TN ca Bin ng trong Miocen gia c nh hng ch yu Trung Tm v pha ng b. Cng nh b Cu Long, b Nam Cn Sn c hai giai on cng gin vo hai thi gian khc v th hin r trong cu trc b. Giai on cng gin th nht vo Oligocen v c coi l tui hnh thnh b vi tng ng trm tch aluvi-sng v m h, tng sau-trm tch c tng sngng bng ven bin. Cu trc ca giai on ny quan st r hn na Ty b, cn na ng b bin ci, xa nha bi giai on cng gin th hai. Giai on cng gin th hai vo Miocen gia c tng bin t bin nng n bin su v

tng sau-trm tch c tng bin t Miocen trn n nay. y l giai on th hin r nht nh hng ca gin y Bin ng c v cu trc cng nh mi trng trm tch. V cu trc b t Ty sang ng c th quan st thy ba i ring bit c chiu dy trm tch, thnh phn trm tch cng nh ch a p khc nhau, l i Phn d Ty, i Trung tm v i nng ng, tip theo l phn nc su khu vc T Chnh-Vng My. Nguyn nhn to ra nhng i ny ngoi yu t kin to cn c nguyn nhn trm tch. l nh hng ca ti trng nm ln trm tch sau-rift (t Miocen mun) ln cng gin ban u (cc tp syn-rift), lm st vng cc tp ny. Cc i xa b do vn ni cao do ti trng trm tch cha gy ra st vng to iu kin cho ccbonat thm pht trin. V l b chu nh hng trc tip ca gin y Bin ng nn b Nam Cn Sn c nh hng sm nht ca bin tin t Bin ng vo so vi cc b khc nh Cu Long, Sng Hng v Malay-Th Chu. Nhm b T Chnh Vng My Gn vi b Nam Cn Sn ca Vit Nam v pha Ty v ng Natuna thuc Indonexsia v pha Nam. Nhm b ny c ranh gii khng r rng, c th coi n l phn ko di trong vng nc su ca b Nam Cn Sn, chuyn tip t phn rift n phn ra th ng khu vc Trng Sa. Khu vc ny cng c hai giai on cng gin, m u bng to cc bn a ho a phng theo phng TB N vi nhng t gy BTN c l hnh thnh sm hn b Nam Cn Sn, vo cui Eocen (?)-Oligocen v c coi l tui hnh thnh nhm b ny, n giai on cng gin hai hnh thnh nhng a ho gn vi Bin ng t Oligocen n Miocen gia. Cui Miocen gia hi b nn, nng, bo mn to ra bt chnh hp khu vc. St vng nhit t Miocen mun n hin ti, lm phn d li a hnh c ca bt chnh hp cui Miocen gia. Khu vc ny c c im pht trin a cht t Oligocen n ht Miocen

gia ging vi b Nam Cn Sn, cn t Miocen trn do thiu ngun trm tch lc nguyn nn pht trin rng ri cc m tiu san h. 4. CC GIAI ON PHT TRIN CHNH V CC LOT LN (MEGASEQUENCES) Qu trnh pht trin a tng-kin to ca c ng Nam ni chung theo Ian M. Longley c th chia thnh 4 giai on chnh v c th xem xt chng di lng knh ca cc nh a cht du kh Vit Nam nh sau: Giai on va mng n vo mng u- v hnh thnh i ht chm dc cung Sunda (5043.5 triu nm): y l giai on hnh thnh cc b trc v sau cung. Giai on ny c cc nh a cht Trung Quc gi l pha to ni Himalia (cn Liang Dehua [6] (1990) gi l pha to ni Yn Sn mun) v hnh thnh cc trng gia ni bit lp thm lc a Trung Quc nh ca sng Chu Giang v b Li Chu. Vit Nam c th c mt vi trng nh hp trung tm b Sng Hng, hin b chn vi su v kh xc nh trn ti liu a chn, do khng tm thy mt lng ng k trm tch c tui Paleocen Vit Nam nn cc nh a cht Vit Nam xp giai on ny nh l giai on san bng kin to trc khi hnh thnh cc b trm tch Tam Vit Nam. Giai on ngng tch gin n Dng, ngng ht chm ca mng n v sp xp li cc vi mng Thi Bnh Dng (43,5-32 triu nm): y l giai on hnh thnh cc b pha trong cung do ngng lc y i ht chm, Vit Nam c th coi giai on ny l giai on gip v v vt mng v lc a, xy ra b Cu Long v Nam Cn Sn cng nh ti khu vc Hong Sa, Trng Sa hnh thnh cc bn a ho hp trong giai on ny vi s c mt hn ch cc trm tch lc a Eocen mun-Oligocen sm, lm tin cho giai on tch gin m rng trong giai on sau, c th gi y l giai on gip v trc gin y Bin ng v l tui hnh thnh b cc b nu trn.

Giai on tch gin mng Nam Cc v p xoay ca mng Thi Bnh Dng (32-17 triu nm): S tch gin mng Nam Cc tip tc gy ra chuyn ng ca mng n ln pha Bc, to ra cc chuyn ng thc tri ca khi ng Dng, vic sp xp li cc vi mng gy ra chuyn ng xoay cng nh gy ra gin y Bin ng, s thc tri ca khi ng Dng c l l kt qu ca c hai qu trnh p n v khng gian m do gin y Bin ng. y l giai on trng vi giai on gin y Bin ng v l giai on chnh ca vic hnh thnh cc b Sng Hng, Ph Khnh v Malay-Th Chu cng nh m rng cc b trm tch khc nh Cu Long, Nam Cn Sn, T Chnh-Vng My to ra cc tp syn-rift, tuy nhin s kt thc cc tp synrift khc nhau v thi gian, c ni kt thc vo cui Oligocen nh b Cu Long, c ni kt thc vo Miocen sm nh Nam b Sng Hng. Giai on kt thc gin y Bin ng trong khi tip tc chuyn ng thc tri ca a khi ng Dng (17-0 triu nm): Ngng gin y Bin ng sau khi to pha rifting ln hai vo Miocen gia b Nam Cn Sn, y l giai on post-rift hu ht cc b, ring b Sng Hng, chuyn ng thay i t trt bng tri sang trt bng phi gy ra nn p cc b pha bc b ny vo cui Miocen mun.

Giai on hai v ba l hai pha to cc b trm tch vng bin Vit Nam, trn c s qui m phn b trm tch xp tui hnh thnh b vo giai on hai hay ba, tuy nhin, tt c cc b, giai on ba mi l giai on chnh. So vi cc cch phn chia khc, cch phn chia cc giai on bI bo ny c phn hi khc, tuy nhin ch l s khc nhau gia c im chung ca cc b trong ton khu vc ng Nam A v c im ring ca cc b Vit Nam, s khc bit ny nm ch vo Eocen mun-Oligocen sm cc b nm dc ra hi t tch cc b cng gin

mnh hnh thnh cc b sau cung, th Vit Nam, do nm xa cc ra ny, y cc b trm tch hin nay mi giai on dp v v s cng gin mnh ch xy ra vo giai on sau. Hu ht cc b u c trm tch Tam chia thnh hai lot ln (megasequence), lot ln synrift v lot ln post-rift vi nh ca syn-rift thay i cc b trm tch khc nhau: b Cu Long l nc Oligocen, b Nam Cn Sn l nc Miocen gia, Nam b Sng Hng l nc Miocen di, cn Bc b Sng Hng l nc Miocen trn. 5. TM TT V KT LUN Nhn chung lch s hnh thnh v pht trin cc b trm tch Vit Nam c nghin cu kh k cho giai on t Oligocen ti nay, tuy nhin cho giai on trc Oligocen th cn t c nghin cu do hn ch v ti liu, do vy cn tn ti nhiu cch hiu khc nhau v lch s a cht ca giai on ny. V d cc b tui Paleocen c th hiu l giai on to rift sm hay trng gia ni ca pha to ni Yn Sn mun hay Himalia, cng nh cng gin v gin y Bin ng l nguyn nhn to ra cc b trm tch khc hay ch l biu hin r nht ca cng mt nguyn nhn, cc b trm tch cng c hnh thnh. D cn nhiu vn cn phi tip tc nghin cu, chng ta vn c th rt ra c s kt lun sau: Tt c cc b chnh l nhng b nm trn lc a, mt s khc nh Hong Sa, Trng Sa, Ph Khnh l nhng b ra lc a nm trn v chuyn tip. Do v tr ca vng ngoi khi Vit Nam nm v tr trung tm ng Nam v l ni ni tip ca nhiu yu t kin to: ng , ht chm, tch gin y bin v vi mng xoay, s tch gin ca cc b c c ch khc nhau t dng rift, dng sau cung n ko toc (pull-apart). Cc c ch to b ch yu to ra khng gian trm tch khc nhau v iu ny li dn n tc trm tch, tng trm tch khc nhau.

Hu ht cc b u c tch gin nhiu pha do nhiu nguyn nhn kin to nh hng n khu vc ny. Tuy nhin c th chia thnh hai giai on chnh: 1) pha gip v y b trm tch (pha ny xy ra trc gin y Bin ng) v 2) pha cng gin m rng b trm tch (v thi gian pha ny ng v sau gin y Bin ng). S trng hp hay khng trng hp v thi gian kt thc tp ng-trm tch cc b khc nhau so vi cc pha ca gin y Bin ng cho thy mc nh hng khc nhau ca bin c a cht ny. Vic nghin cu v s hiu bit v lch s pht trin a cht cho giai on trc gin y Bin ng c y ngha ln v giai on ny cng c tim nng du kh ln trong khu vc, khi c s hiu bit thu o s gip chng ta nh gi ng tim nng du kh ca vng nuc su v vng cha c ging khoan. Phn ha cc b mang c tnh khng i xng v cu trc b, s cung ng v trm tch v phn b tng vi s thay i t ng b v pha bin, do c s phn d v trin vng du kh trong cc b. S k tip ca cc nhp trm tch thun li cho h thng du kh. Cc loi ct bin tin di v mt bin trn ngp cui Miocen sm c th to nn mt chui tng cha v chn khu vc. Cc trm tch Oligocen ph sa, sng v h nm di, gp phn nh mt ngun hn hp m, cha v chn trong phm vi a phng ca mi b. Cc thm carbonat u hnh thnh trong mi trng bin in hnh, thng nm xa b, pht trin mnh m nht t Miocen gia, k tha cc i nng cao vo thi k ny, v tim nng du kh ca chng ty thuc vo tim nng sinh nm di v chn nm trn. Cc tng chn trn carbonat thng c tui hnh thnh mun, nn cc by carbonat thng c tim nng kh cao hn du.

Trong tng th cc b trm tch cn c cch nhn tng th v c a l v mi trng trm tch, t c s nhn bit u, khi no trm tch c tnh cht lc a hoc bin v tc ng ca phc h trm tch lc a / bin ny ln m, cha v chn.

6. Liang Dehua et al. The genesis of the South China Sea and its hydrocarbon-bearing basins, Jurnal of Petroleum Geology, vol. 13 (1990), pp.59-70. 7. Longley I.M.. The tecyonostratigraphic evolution of SE Asia, Petroleum Geology of Southeast Asia, Geological Society Special Publication No.126 (1997), pp.311-339. 8. Percy P. H. Chen et al. Sequence Stratigraphy and Continental Margin Development of the Northwestern Shelf of the South China Sea, The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, V.77, No.5 (1993), pp.842-862. 9. Perrodon A., Masse P.,. Subsidence, Sedimentation and Petroleum Systems, Journal of Petroleum Geology, Vol. 7 (1984), pp.5-26. 10. Phan Trung in. Mt s bin c a cht Mesozoi mun-Kainozoi v h thng du kh thm lc a Vit Nam. Hi ngh KHCN, PetroVietnam (2000). 11. Todd S. P. et al,. Characterizing Petroleum Charge Systems in the Tertiary of SE Asia, Petroleum Geology of Southeast Asia, Geological Society Special Publication No. 126 (2000), pp. 25-48.

TI LIU THAM KHO 1. Cole J.M et at,. Early Tertiary basin formation and the development of Lacustrine and quasi-lacustrine/marine source rocks on the Sunda Shelf of SE Asia, Petroleum Geology of Southeast Asia, Geological Society Special Publication No. 126 (1997), pp. 147-184. 2. Hall R.,. Cenozoic Tectonics of SE Asia and Australia. Proceedings of the Petroleum Systems of SE Asia and Australia Conference, Jakarta (1997), pp.47-62. 3. Holloway N.H. North Palawan Block, Philippines Its Relation to Asian Mainland and Role in Evolution of South China Sea, AAPG, v.66 (1982), pp.1355-1383. 4. Kingston D.R. Global Basin Classification System, AAPG, v.67 (1983), pp.2175-2193. 5. Klemme H. D.,. Petroleum Basins Classifications and Characteristics, Journal of Petroleum Geology, vol 3 (1980), pp.187207.

Bng 1. Tng hp cc c im hnh thnh cc kiu b trm tch Tam Vit Nam B Nam Cn Sn Loi v tri t V lc a pha Ty V chuyn tip pha ng Nhm b T V chuyn tip Chnh-Vng My B Cu Long B Ph Khnh V lc a V lc a C ch to b Trt cc b pha Ty Cng gin pha ng Rn nt to bn a ho trong EocenOligocen, cng gin vo Miocen gia Ko toc cc b v cng gin Ko toc Kiu b Cng gin dng rift Tui hnh thnh Oligocen Cc chu k hot ng Oligocen Rift 1 Miocen gia Rift 2 Oligocen Rift

B cng gin, Eocen-Oligocen chuyn tip n ra th ng Cng gin ni lc Eocen-Oligocen

Oligocen Rift

Nhm b Hong V chuyn tip Sa Nhm b Trng V chuyn tip Sa Bc Sng Hng Nam Sng Hng B Chu V lc a vt mng V lc a

Ko toc ni Oligocen lc/Ra th ng (cn c th coi l b kiu ra lc a) Rn nt to bn a B ra th ng Eocen-Oligocen ho trong EocenOligocen Rn nt to bn a B ra th ng Eocen-Oligocen ho trong EocenOligocen Trt bng cng/p Trt bng cng/p Eocen-Oligocen ngang ngang, ni lc Ko toc Ko toc, ni lc Oligocen Trt bng cng/p Oligocen ngang, ni lc

Malay-Th V lc a b vt Ko toc v cng/p mng

Cng ngang trong Oligocen Ep ngang cui Miocen mun Cng ngang trong Oligocen n ht Miocen sm Cng ngang trong Oligocen