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# Power o e Flow o

## Olga Lavrova Ivan Lopez p

Learning Goals
Power Flow: From the utilities point of view, they need to know the capacity of transmission lines - i.e. Power Flow in the system Need to calculate nominal power flow, as well as possible exceptional and boundary conditions How do we setup a transmission line ? What quantities do we know? Wh t quantities What titi do d we (or ( utilities) tiliti ) need d to t measure ?

## Description of the Power System

Load buses / PQ buses Generator buses / PV buses Slack buses What other components need / may be included ? Describe the Power Flow Equations.

Example:

## Understanding numerical methods

Newton Raphson Method Newton-Raphson
y Explain p the intuition behind Newton-Raphson p Method ( (We assume that they have not been exposured to Numerical Methods). y Obtain the recursive equation for the scalar case.

f ( xn ) xn +1 = xn ' . f ( xn )

## Understanding numerical methods

Newton Raphson Method Newton-Raphson
y Generalize it to the vectorial case.

x n +1 = x n J

( x n ) f ( x n ).

1 P V = J Q

## Understanding numerical methods

Fast Decoupled N-R NR
y Ignore g the terms: and solve:

V V

P = P

Q = Q

y Rewrite the Matlab code and compare it to the exact solution. y Compare number iterations.

## Understanding numerical methods

Fast Decoupled N-R NR
y Remark the fact that the decoupled p equations q help p for a Sensitivity Analysis. y Talk about other alternatives: Gauss-Seidel Gauss-Seidel. y Emphasize the case where a PV bus reaches the limit and has to be treated as a PQ bus in the analysis. analysis

## Solving the example

Go over how to solve previous example using numerical methods g over how to setup p the same example p using g Then , go PowerWorld and solve it How to test boundary conditions in your numerical example How to verify that your numerical solution gives you a correct answer ???