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TABLE 1

LIBERAL DEMOCRACY

- Limited government - Rule of law - Political rights and freedoms

- Common citizenship - Equality under the law - Social inclusion

- Accountable governance - Free and fair elections - Popular participation

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TABLE 2

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TABLE 3 DIFFERING PATHS TO DEMOCRACY

Democratising Democracy In functioning liberal democracies In democracies with adjectives

Post-Authoritarian Transitions to Democracy Pacted transitions from bureaucraticauthoritarian rule Delegitimisation of excommunist regimes Delegitimisation of weak (or patrimonial) authoritarian regimes

Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Making existing state institutions more democratic and inclusive in divided societies Democratisation simultaneously with rebuilding the state in collapsed states



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TABLE 4: DEMOCRACY DEFICITS AND DEMOCRATIC POLITICS Democracy Deficits


Citizenship In Formal Constitutional and Political Arrangements Socially or ethnically exclusive definitions of citizenship and political community Poorly protected civil and political rights Legal/political restraints on freedoms of expression and organisation Non-recognition of social and economic entitlements Access to legal and administrative systems skewed against minorities, the unorganised, the poor Elections not free or fair Electoral systems distort outcomes or disenfranchise minorities Few channels of citizen influence between elections Channels of accountability insufficiently decentralised (i.e. through federal/regional/ local representation) Few points of contact between civil society groups and political/administrative structures Majoritarianism: politics as a zero sum game Weak constitutional checks and balances Rule of law absent or weak Executive not sufficiently accountable to legislature Governmental secrecy, lack of transparency Over-centralisation vis a vis regional or local authorities Weak democratic control of military, police and intelligence bodies Key decisions made by international bodies (IMF, World Bank, UN and its agencies etc.) not national governments Democracy deficits within international bodies Constraints imposed through non-(re)negotiable international agreements (e.g. MAI) In Substance or Practices of Power Major societal inequities (on basis of class, gender, region, religion, ethnicity etc.) Exclusion from the public sphere of women, minorities etc. De facto disenfranchisement of the poor due to lack of resources and organisation Uncivil society: cultures of intolerance, lack of respect for difference Violence, intimidation, especially against marginalised groups Grassroots organisation (in villages, slums, of women etc.) Both class-based (e.g. TUs, peasants) and new (gender, environment etc.) social movements Non-exclusive identity politics (minority rights groups, ethnic associations etc.) Participatory development initiatives Islands of civility in conflict zones

Spaces For Democratic Politics

Vertical Accountability of Rulers to Citizens

Horizontal Accountability

International Accountability

Electorates offered little effective choice between alternative political programmes Few autonomous, effective, broadly-based civil society groups to challenge government and vested interests Weak interest aggregation by political parties, especially of interests of the poor and marginalised Civil and political society reproduce existing hierarchies of class, gender, race Political processes weakened and social capital destroyed through violent conflict A narrowed public domain:diminished scope for collective political action Patrimonial politics: government manipulation via patronage, ethnicity etc. Endemic corruption Political processes suborned by elite economic and social interests Judiciary weak or coopted Weak opposition parties Media lacking in independence Legacies of military/authoritarian governance Vulnerability in international markets Hegemony of international firms Exposure to capital flight Donor pressure via conditionality etc. Difficulties of aggregating democratic politics across national boundaries

Consensus on rules of political game Issue-based, non-zero sum politics, not based on gender, racial or ethnic hierarchies Synergies between autonomous civil society groups and political parties Effective, internally democratic parties Inclusive forms of corporatism, responsive to pressure from below Robust regional/local/municipal democracy Societal consensus supporting supremacy of constitution, rule of law Robust parliamentary processes Plural sources of wealth status and power Strong traditions of regionalism Civil society groups articulating democratic values (rights groups, law associations, anticorruption campaigns etc.) Independent, broadly-based media Donor support for political reform (with its contradictions) International human rights law and practice Embryonic international civil society (e.g. international development, human rights and environment NGOs) Cross-national political alliances



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TABLE 5. DIFFERENCES IN APPROACH: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT VERSUS DEMOCRATISATION

Conflict Management Inclusive approach Goal is reconciliation Pragmatic focus Emphasis on the process Particular norms and cultures of the societies in conflict Assume moral equivalence Conflict resolution is negotiable Outside actors should be politically neutral
Source: Baker (1996: 567)

Democratisation Exclusive approach Goal is justice Principled focus Emphasis on the outcome Universal norms endorsed by the international community Insist on moral accountability Justice is not negotiable Outside actors cannot be morally neutral

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TABLE 6: INSTITUTIONAL DESIGN: SYSTEMS OF GOVERNANCE AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN CONFLICT-TORN SOCIETIES

CONSTITUTIONAL & LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

CONSIDERATIONS

Majoritarian Systems include: i) Classic majoritarianism, where winner takes all. ii) Qualified majoritarianism, moderated by institutional arrangements to improve representation of minorities and ensure plural centres of power.

Encourages coherent, single-party executives and effective governance. Competition for power keeps governments on their toes and responsive to public opinion. Strong, legitimate opposition institutions provide channels for the disaffected to express grievances & encourages them to remain committed to the constitutional order. Qualified majoritarianism can help modify defects such as exclusion of minorities and overcentralisation of power. Ensures political power is shared between majority and minority groups. Decision-making by consensus fosters conflictresolution and political stability. Inclusive governance fosters broadly-based support for government policies. Integrative powersharing encourages political alliances on issues rather than ascriptive communal traits and ultimate reduction in the political salience of the latter.

Majoritarian systems can consistently exclude minorities from power, and create situations whereby they may turn to violence. Destabilising force in situations where winnertakes-all and loss of political office is equated with social and economic exclusion. Majoritarianism can be particularly damaging in semi-democracies, fostering arbitrary nonaccountable governance.

Power-Sharing Systems are based on the ethos of inclusion rather than exclusion: iii) Consociationalism: grand coalitions among autonomous cultural communities and minority vetoes written into constitutional settlements. iv) Integrative powersharing between all significant political forces including ethnic minorities, encouraging crosscutting political alliances.

Power sharing agreements not always sufficient to resolve deep-seated conflict and can entrench ethnic/racial/religious etc. divides. Consociational systems tend to be negotiated from above, resulting in elite pacts and ongoing power monopolies, in which minorities acquire a subordinate cum spoiler role. Consensus politics can result in political immobilism and failure to tackle issues like poverty. Not enough political space for opposition can breed political complacency and nonaccountable governance.

Does the institutionalisation of ethnic and other differences facilitate resolution of identity based conflicts, or harden lines of social division? Are ethnic, racial, religious etc. differences the most salient divides, or are there other faultlines, such as socioeconomic inequality and the need to democratise access to resources, which cut across identity politics and minority concerns? Are forms of power-sharing temporary or permanent? Are they informal or inscribed into constitutional arrangements? How can integrative tendencies be encouraged, while retaining the key inclusive confidence-building mechanisms needed in the short term?

Sources: Adapted from Reynolds (1999) and IDEA (1998); see also references to Appendix 1.



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APPENDIX: INVENTORY OF INSTITUTIONAL CHOICES IN DEMOCRACIES (i) Citizenship and Rights


CONSTITUTIONAL & LEGAL ADVANTAGES ARRANGEMENTS
Citizenship and Immigration Laws assuring equal and inclusive entitlement to citizenship through birth and residence. Reinforcement of civic conceptions of rights and responsibilities of citizenship No second-class citizens (e.g. ethnic minorities, those not speaking national language or practising the national religion). Necessary (but not sufficient) for political equality. Necessary (but not sufficient) for democracy and human rights.

DISADVANTAGES/CONTRADICTIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

Clash with conceptions of national identity based on shared culture, language, ethnicity, religion etc. Difficulties of protecting status and interests of threatened indigenous groups and communities. Contradictory requirements of citizenship law, immigration control and protection of rights of non-citizens. Liberal conceptions of individuated citizenship can weaken sense of public obligation to communities and the state

Protections for Human Rights including classic liberal rights and freedoms of individual citizens group/community rights economic and social rights

Liberal rights ensure protection from tyrannical government Freedoms of expression and organisation are essential prerequisites of democracy Group/community rights accommodate diversity of culture, religion, language. Recognition of group rights etc. can facilitate conflict-management. Economic and social rights help ensure substantive and not merely formal equality of citizens. Greater socio-economic equality necessary for full enjoyment of political rights and freedoms. Provides special protection for rights and interests of socially excluded. Improved access of the latter to decisionmaking and public goods. Useful signal of government determination to combat discrimination.

Affirmative Action (AA) In favour of minority groups, women, and other groups who have experienced negative discrimination.

Formal rights in public sphere can be negated within the private sphere (e.g. through inequality of women within households). Individual rights (e.g. property rights) often coexist with high socio-economic inequality; may arguably increase it. Tensions between individual and group/community rights. Too much emphasis on group and community rights can endanger the rights of certain sections within the group (e.g. women). Competing conceptions of group rights can be cause of further conflict. Economic and social rights not easy to define or make justiciable. Governments may prioritise economic and social entitlements to justify depriving citizens of political rights. Potential contradictions with universal conceptions of citizenship. Problems of tokenism and continued de facto marginalisation. Can generate backlashes May not be consistent with requirements of efficiency.

Do citizenship laws enshrine inclusive/ civic or exclusive/communitarian conceptions of political community? How are disputes over citizenship resolved: via constitutional, legal or administrative procedures? Do social and gender inequalities undermine equal citizenship? How are such inequalities reproduced through established distinctions between public and private realms? How are rights/freedoms of non-citizens protected, if at all? How are legacies of previous human rights abuses dealt with: by normal judicial process or specially constituted tribunals, truth commissions? Are HRs formally incorporated in constitutions, in legislation or left to working of the courts? Are there special institutions (HR commissions, omsbuds etc.)? Are they easily justiciable through independent, transparent processes? Are economic and social rights constitutionalised? Are they purely declaratory or actually enforceable? Reinforced by international mechanisms, such as adoption of international protocols? Potential contradictions between different forms and actions. For example, group rights for particular ethnic or religious minorities may clash with affirmative action for women.



(ii) Vertical Accountability of State to Citizens


CONSTITUTIONAL & LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS
Independent Electoral Process: Autonomy of national electoral machinery from government. International monitoring of elections.

ADVANTAGES
Prerequisite of free and fair elections: thus cornerstone of democracy. Existence of independent electoral commissions etc. assure impartial evaluation of electoral system, process & results. International monitors can provide unbiased, external assessments.

DISADVANTAGES/CONTRADICTIONS
Dependence on administrative/ financial backup from government may compromise independence of electoral system in practice. Formal electoral equality cannot entirely offset effects of poverty, illiteracy and inequality. Formal electoral provisions insufficient per se to create level playing field where results can be affected by government advantages of incumbency, media biases, corruption and clientage. International monitors may have limited access and knowledge of local situations. FPTP tends to produce disproportional results; under-represent smaller parties and minorities; reduce the latters stake in the political system; encourage zero-sum political contestation; and increase the risk of conflict. PR encourages coalition governments, party system fragmentation & government instability; weak linkages between representatives and electorates; & is a difficult system in societies with embryonic party structures. Mixed systems can combine the disadvantages as well as the advantages of FPTP and PR.

CONSIDERATIONS
Whether or not political contestation is regarded as a zero-sum game will affect acceptance by all of declared results. Is autonomy of electoral arrangements entrenched in constitution and enforceable by courts? Degree of government control over appointment of electoral bodies. How far do the latter depend on government finance and administrative support? Are there strong civil society organisations able to monitor electoral processes and results? Extent to which international monitors are perceived to represent foreign interests or to be impartial. Important to clarify which criteria (stable government, proportionality, political inclusion, accountability to constituents, etc.) are most important in a particular national context. Needs of transitional and consolidated democracies tend to be quite different. Hard to disentangle effects of electoral system per se from other determinants of electoral and political behaviour. Electoral systems do not always produce the patterns of electoral behaviour predicted by their proponents.

Forms of Electoral Representation include: First past the post (FPTP) Proportional representation (PR) Mixed systems Electoral quotas, separate electoral rolls etc.

Party Systems: Conventional criteria by which party systems are compared include: Number of parties (multiparty, two party, single dominant, single and, noparty systems) Degree of ideological polarization. Degree of institutionalisation of the party system. Devices of Direct Democracy: Referenda & recall provision

FPTP increases accountability of elected representatives to their constituents in defined geographical constituencies. FPTP tends to deliver government working majorities in legislatures; hence facilitates policy stability and effective government. FPTP makes it easier for electorates to "throw the rascals out" on the basis of policies and record in government. PR reduces the disparity between a partys share of national votes and its share of parliamentary seats. PR facilitates political inclusion of minorities, women and other excluded groups. PR can counterbalance winner takes all political contestation. Mixed systems (e.g. single transferable vote (STV) versions of PR or alternative vote (AV) variants of FPTP) involve varying tradeoffs between the advantages of both systems. Well institutionalised party systems are transmission belts between state and civil society. Single dominant, single and no-party systems assure national unity and policy stability. Two and multi-party systems promote checks and balances, accountability, and competition for power; although the latter may also be present in certain single dominant party systems. Two party systems allow governments and oppositions to appeal to electorates on the basis of their policies and political programmes. Multiparty systems are potentially more inclusive, allowing the representation of a greater variety of political groups and interests Can provide for more direct and active participation of all citizens.

Potential tensions between strong party organisation and internal party democracy. Single and no-party systems are frequently authoritarian and delegative providing few channels for dissent. Two and multi-party systems may exacerbate conflict, especially where parties form along ethnic, racial etc. lines. Weakly institutionalised party systems tend to be volatile; personalities rather than issues and party organisations dominate political scene; and elections and democratic politics lack legitimacy. Open to media manipulation and populist political appeals.

Are no-party, single, and single-dominant party systems compatible with democratic politics? Are there legal restrictions on party formation (e.g. bans on ethnic/regional parties; requirements that parties have minimum share of vote in regions)? How to ensure well organised, rather than weak and fragmented parties. Contradictory relations between party discipline and intra-party democracy; potential impact of legal requirements concerning the latter. Reciprocal relations between party and electoral systems. Logistical and communication difficulties of organising referenda, especially in developing countries with low literacy and poor communications



(iii) Devolution and Decentralisation

CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES/CONTRADCITIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

Federalism and other forms of spatial decentralisation: Confederalism Federalism Forms of decentralisation and autonomy within a unitary state.

Multiple points of contact between citizen and state promote responsiveness and accountability to local communities, particularly in large, complex societies. Can grant opposition groups and minorities a measure of state power, not merely parliamentary representation, thus increasing their stake in the political system. Offers minorities better prospects of preserving their cultural and linguistic identities. A solution to conflict by accommodating regional, ethnic or other diversity. May forestall demands for secession.

Can entrench ethnic, racial, religious etc. divides if federal etc. units are defined and constituted in such terms. Does not necessarily address (and may worsen) the persistent problem of the political weakness of the poor and other socially excluded groups. Can exacerbate tensions between richer and poorer regions. Can engender majority resentment and increase risk of conflict where leaders fear losing electoral support. May encourage other communities to mobilise for autonomy. May generate fears that autonomy will be a springboard to secession and state disintegration.

Relative size of component units; do they reflect or crosscut ethnic, linguistic, religious divisions? To what extent is there real devolution of power to the component units? Do the latter have independent budgets and revenue sources? How are revenues and resources are allocated between centre and units? Is this formalised in constitution, open to negotiation or at centres discretion? Role of independent judiciaries in maintaining viable federal systems. How far law and order functions of state (including police, judiciary) are decentralised. Is the federal character of state reflected in affirmative action and quotas for political, administrative and military posts? Interaction between party systems and federalism: are parties nationally or regionally based? Do the component units have right to withdraw (as formally in Ethiopia)? Extent to which corporate and spatial forms of devolution coincide. Are corporate devolution and powersharing permanently embedded in constitution or are they temporary and informal? Scope for creating countervailing mechanisms, e.g. voting by different communal groups for each others representatives, in order to encourage moderate rather than extremist candidates and political programmes.

Corporate (ethnic, religious, etc.) forms of devolution such as powersharing on a communal basis; ethnic etc. recruitment quotas in state and military bureaucracies; representation of groups in a second chambers; electoral lists on the basis of ethnicity; or communal vetoes over policies which have a negative impact on groups rights.

Gives all groups including minorities a stake in political system. May therefore help resolve intercommunal conflicts. Can foster inclusive governance, assuring broad support for government policies.

May entrench differences based on ethnic/racial/ religious etc. markers, and hence perpetuate antagonisms. Easily manipulated by elites and can lead to neglect of socio-economic inequalities that breed conflict. Quota systems bad for efficiency and perpetuate communal rivalries. Powersharing can result in political immobilism.



(iv): Horizontal Accountability I: Relations Between Executive, Legislature and Parties


CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS
Executive-Legislature Relations: Presidential systems Parliamentary systems Semi-Presidential systems

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES/CONTRADICTIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

Parliamentary systems can potentially promote greater inclusiveness (by including all or most parties in executive); consensus and compromise; flexibility (coalitions can change without recourse to elections); checks and balances (executive is answerable to peoples representatives); and (at least in two-party systems) more coherent debate between alternative policies. Presidential systems can provide a unifying figure, identifiable and accountable to voters, initiative and dynamism, and lead to stability & continuity in policymaking. Semi-presidential systems sometimes advocated as a way of combining advantages of both parliamentary and presidential systems.

Parliamentary systems with multi-party cabinets can result in problems of accountability, executive deadlocks, immobilism, and political instability. Presidential systems can result in over centralised authority and delegative democracy; are inherently majoritarian and exclusive. Presidential systems may reinforce winner takes all approaches to political contestation, and hence breed political instability and conflict. Semi-Presidentialism can produce deadlocks between president and parliament, and ambiguous divisions of powers can contribute to lack of accountability.

No one design for executive-legislative relations is appropriate to all circumstances. The legislature, the executive and the party system form interdependent parts of larger political system. Reciprocal impact of party systems on executive-legislative relations include number of parties, impact of party discipline, extent of intra-party democracy, majority party versus coalition governments and different forms of coalition.

Types of Legislature: Unicameral or bicameral Different systems of representation in upper and lower houses Corporate representation

Second chambers provide supplementary perspectives on public policy. Appropriate design of second chambers can diversify opportunities for representation and power sharing. Corporate representation, of ethnic, religious etc. groups in second chamber can provide for special forms of representation & enhance inclusiveness

Two separate chambers with equal legislative powers can lead to procedural deadlocks; resulting delays and conflicts may lessen legitimacy of the whole institution. Corporate representation can result in ethnic & other group identities becoming permanent, entrenched within state structures.

How is upper house selected: by election, selection by lower house or nomination? Procedures for resolving deadlocks between the houses: do both enjoy mutual powers of veto, or does the lower house ultimately prevail? Resource constraints; bicameral systems more costly. Number and structure of Committees. Membership of Committees and distribution of Committee chairs. How inclusive and representative are they? How flexible are committee procedures; do they allow full discussion of issues not addressed by the legislature as a whole?

Legislative Oversight: Committee systems, White Papers, Questions, etc.

Small size and relative privacy of Committees allows for more discussion as well as compromises across party lines. Committees able to make use of specialised expertise. Committees can provide additional means of representing interests beyond party system. Committees can increase government accountability on issues (e.g. intelligence and security) where open public discussion not possible.

Majority party or government coalitions may be unwilling to share power in Committees with other smaller parties. Committees may be less transparent and public than full parliamentary debate.



(v) Horizontal Accountability II: Embedded Autonomy of State Decision-Making


CONSTITUTIONAL & LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS
Measures to Strengthen the Capacity of Civil Society/Organised Public Opinion to Influence Government: Lobbies, public interest groups, NGOS, the press etc. Consultation/ Cooperation with Policy Stakeholders

ADVANTAGES
Only strong, organised civil society and public opinion can provide effective checks against government abuse of power. Needed to ensure that a broad spectrum of opinion and interests have an impact on government policy. Marginalised groups/interests (women, poor, minorities etc.) require mobilisation and organisation to ensure they are not ignored by government. Institutionalised consultation between governments and stakeholders (e.g. business, unions, community associations) improve quality and reach of government policies and programmes. Also can give a voice to a wide variety of social interests, allowing the latter to influence government Autonomous state bureaucracies insulated from direct pressures of powerful political and economic interests facilitate long term planning and policy effectiveness. They can counteract abuse of power by governments, including elected governments with populist or authoritarian learnings. They can (potentially) ensure interests of poor and unorganised are taken into account. Same as above. Can prevent or limit encroachment of one state agency upon lawful authority of another. Can provide checks against corruption or abuse of power by public officials. Crucial for survival of democracy itself: to prevent coups, political instability, return to authoritarian governance. Need for more open government in the most secretive, least transparent branches of the state. Provides protection against human rights violations and other abuses of power. Democratic control means more than just control by the civilian authorities: need for parliamentary and public accountability

Civil society not always civil; may itself be arena of inequality and conflict. Disproportionate influence of well-resourced lobbies/interest groups as opposed to the poor and unorganised. Excessively influential civil society groups can undermine capacity & effectiveness of the state. Can result in cooptation by government or powerful interests. Tends to leave out unorganised, marginal groups and interests.

DISADVANTAGES/ CONTRADICTIONS

CONSIDERATIONS
Whether and how far governmental regulation of lobbies, public interest groups, professional association etc. is desirable or feasible.. Interactions between media ownership and media freedom; capture of media by powerful private interests. Role of external assistance to civil society groups: whether it supports or undermines their capacities and those of the state. Should there be consultation only or more structured dialogue and cooperation? Balance between government and non-governmental representation. How to assure an equitable balance between more powerful, better resourced groups and those with grass roots membership? How to establish appropriate mechanisms to assure arms length relationships between politicians and officials without diminishing the effectiveness of elected government itself. Should there be restrictions on lobbying, influence buying, and what form should they take? Need for transparent mechanisms of public influence, such as public hearings. Need for such institutions to be adequately, and if possible, independently resourced. Degree to which authority and remit of such bodies constitutionalised. Extent to which supported by civil society, media, public opinion. Faustian bargains with armed forces etc. often the price that has to be paid for democratisation. How to deal with deep-rooted legacies of military influence, human rights abuse and impunity in post-authoritarian states. Institutionally weak and unprofessional military and police etc. establishments are also a danger to democracy. Yet professional autonomy & political impartiality also have their limits. Dangers of cooptation of armed forces by civilian politicians of both ruling & opposition parties. Mechanisms of control by civilian executive, including strong Ministries of Defence. Mechanisms of parliamentary oversight and control. Central vs regional, local government and community control of policing; mechanisms to ensure balance between them.

Procedures to Enhance Capacity of the State Bureaucracies to Act Against Vested Interests (including those of ruling party/government of the day).

Procedures to Ensure Independent Public Service: public service commissions, auditor generals, human rights commissions, ombudspersons, electoral commissions. Control of Armed Forces, Police and Intelligence Establishments:

State bureaucracies have their own vested interests, can create policy rigidities and may not be responsible to civil society or organised public opinion. Danger of conflicts between unelected officials and elected governments & legislatures. Not easy in practice to prevent hijacking by government and ruling party. Same as above. Proliferation of institutions and procedures can create confusion & reinforce institutional rigidities. Dangers of such bodies being perceived as partisan against the government of the day. Too much political interference can undermine professionalism, effectiveness and impartiality of military and security bureaucracies. Potentially conflicting requirements of state security and public accountability; secrecy sometimes necessary.



(vi) Horizontal Accountability III: Constitutionalism, Rule of Law and Judiciary


CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL ARRANGEMEMENTS
Constitutions & Constitutionalism:

ADVANTAGES
Required to check over-powerful and potentially tyrannical government. Reinforce and reinforced by rule of law. Widely used to entrench human rights protections. Essential for federal and semi-federal systems of government. Provide framework for the impartial and non-violent resolution of disputes.

DISADVANTAGES/CONTRADICTIONS
May restrict the freedom of action and political programmes of legitimate elected governments. Can be used by well resourced groups to defeat redistributive programmes. Constitutional rigidities and ambiguities can themselves be a source of conflict.

CONSIDERATIONS
Should constitutions be detailed and provide for all possible contingencies, or outline broad principles? What should be entrenched, and how should this be balanced against the need for constitutional and political flexibility? How much scope should there be for judicial review; what is appropriate balance between the latter, parliamentary sovereignty and executive autonomy? The legacies of Faustian bargains with outgoing authoritarian governments; how far do they impose unwarranted constitutional restrictions upon elected governments and should they be regarded as binding? Variations in autonomy of legal systems from state. Is rule of law possible under non-democratic regimes? Narrowly or broadly constructed and interpreted? Is the emphasis on formal or substantive justice? Balance among different sources of law, especially in plural societies. How far is interpretation of law litigation-driven? How much scope is there for judicial initiative? Is the emphasis on private property, individual rights and narrow public sphere, or on broader interpretation of law? How far is the law more accessible to the rich and powerful than to the poor and unorganised and does this diminish its broader public legitimacy? Is judicial independence purely formal or does judiciary have real capacity to stand up to government? Is judiciary proactive in interpreting constitution and shaping law, or confined by narrow conceptions of judicial interpretation? How are judicial appointments etc. protected from political interference; do other legal roles enjoy similar protections?

Rule of Law:

Reinforces and reinforced by constitutionalism. Prerequisite of stable, rule-bound governance. Provides infrastructure for private property, market economy, resolution of commercial disputes. Framework for the non-violent resolution of disputes. Provides procedures under which citizens may challenge irregularities and abuse of power by government. Strong, autonomous judiciary crucial for constitutionalism, rule of law and human rights. Important to ensure impartial adjudication of disputes. Helps assure public respect for the law and the legitimacy of constitutional government.

The Judiciary & Judicial Independence:

Legal system itself doesnt assure rule-bound governance or protect rights of citizens: depends how it is used. Law is never a completely neutral instrument and tends to favour those with the resources, abilities and skills to use it. Excessive legalism may frustrate popularly supported government measures, including redistributive programmes. Potential conflict between different sources of law in plural societies. Excessive legalism may reduce access to the legal system, especially of the poor. Potential clashes between non-elected judges and elected governments. Judicial conservatism may result in biases and block redistributive programmes. Possible judicial biases in favour of police and other public authorities versus ordinary citizens.



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