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# NPSHA

## A practical Approach Technique

for Assessment the NPSHA in
Fire Pump Installation

## Horizontal split casecentrifugal pump

NFPA
20 () [6]

Cavitation

Cavitation
NPSHA
Static pressure

NPSHA
Bernouli
equation

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Static pressure

Cavitation

:

Abstract

Fire pumps are critical and essential
components of water-based fire protection
systems. Their proper installation and
operation is vital to the success of the
system. Horizontal split case centrifugal
fire pumps are commonly used because of
their high efficiency and convenience of
maintenance. These kinds of pumps shall
not be used where a static suction lift is
required according to NFPA 20 (standard for
the installation of stationary pumps for fire
protection) [6] in order to prevent cavitation
problems. This phenomena occurs when the
static pressure of the water entering a
pump approaches the vapor pressure of the
water. As a consequence, a vapor bubble
will form in the impeller passages. This
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## condition is detrimental to pump

performance, and the collapse of the
bubbles is noisy and may damage the
pump. Therefore, the water level will need
to be above the pump for the system to
work correctly. Some pumps are installed
under wrong conditions by placing the
pumps at the tops of the water tanks. This
makes modification difficult, and cavitation
is possible. Theoretically, the investigation
is performed via NPSHA (Net Positive
of static pressure entering a pump is
required. Practically, it is difficult to
determine this value. This research work
introduces a practical approach to analyze
NPSHA without the requirement of static
pressure measurement. Bernoulis equation
is applied to the suction line of the water
pump. The variable of static pressure is
transformed into atmospheric pressure,
elevation, and friction loss in the suction
pipeline which are more convenient to find
without the requirement of pressure
can be used to determine the minimum
wa t e r l e ve l i n t h e t a n k b e f o r e t h e
occurrence of cavitation problems.

Keywords: fire protection, fire pump
installation, cavitation, bernouli equation

Horizontal split casecentrifugal pump

[1,2,4,8] NFPA 20 (
) [3,6,7]

Cavitation
1

23
10,000

( )

NFPA

Net

Static pressure

NPSH Bernouli equation

Cavitation

1 Horizontal split
casecentrifugal pump [6]
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()

(absolute value)

vapor pressure
NPSHA
NPSAR
cavitation

Variable transformation
Bernouli equation

(Streamline)

=

=

= elevation

= pressure

=

()

Cavitation

shock wave

[8, 9]
Cavitation

(NPSHR)

NPSHR

specification

Net Positive Suction

(NPSHA)

integration

C integration

integrate

incompressible fluid
inviscid

Bernouli equation

1)
inviscid flow

3) incompressible flow

4)
streamline

Bernouli equation

= constant on a streamline

(energy per

static
velocity

2

2

( A)
( B)

PA = A

= 1 bar abs
VA =

A = 0
ZA = A = 0
PB = B

VB = B
ZB = B

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lf = friction loss A B X =

ft

Y =

m

Static pressure Allen Hazen Gardner S.
Williams C-factor

C-factor

C-factor

Hori-

zontal split casecentrifugal pump, Rated
Hazen-Williams horse power 200 Hp, Rated Pressure 157
PSIG, Rated flow rate 1,500 GPM
formula NFPA13

(

) NPSHA

3 NPSHA

P = psi
Q =

gpm
NPSHA
C =
D =
NPSHR
cavitation NPSHA

NPSHR
L = ft


3 Vertical 4 Ver tical
distance between inlet suction and water distance between inlet suction and water
surface NPSHA
surface NPSHA

cavitation

NPSHA

6-10 NPSHA
4

NPSHA

2 6
NPSHA 7.1
8 NPSHA

7.6

(friction loss)

/

30-40 C
NPSHA 5

NPSHA

2 30 C
NPSHA 7.1
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40 C NPSHA
6.7

(Vapor pressure)

10 C
74
NPSHA

5 Vertical
distance between inlet suction and water
surface NPSHA

## (Coef ficient of pipe

roughness) C C
120-75
0-15
NPSHA
6

NPSHA

2
(working time=0 year) NPSHA
7.1 10 (
C=90) NPSHA 6.7

(friction loss)

1
3.6

2
5.6

NPSHA

6 Vertical
distance between inlet suction and water
surface NPSHA

NPSHA
Bernouli equation

NPSHA

cavitation

[1] Cote AE and Bugbee P, Principle
of fire protection, NFPA 1995.
[2] Cote AE and Linville JL, Fire
protection handbook, 18th edition,
NFPA, 1997.
[3] Gagnon RM, Design of waterbased fire protection systems,
Delmar Publishers 1997.
[4] L a d w i g T H , I n d u s t r i a l f i r e
prevention and protection, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991
[5] N F PA 2 0 , S t a n d a r d f o r t h e
Installation of Stationary Pumps for
Fire Protection, 2007 Edition.
[6] Puchovsky MT and Isman KE, Fire
pump handbook, NFPA 1998.
[7] Schroll RC, Industrial fire protection
handbook, CRC press, 2002.

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