You are on page 1of 9

NPSHA

A practical Approach Technique


for Assessment the NPSHA in
Fire Pump Installation

Horizontal split casecentrifugal pump


NFPA
20 () [6]


Cavitation





Cavitation
NPSHA
(Net Positive Suction Head Available)
Static pressure

NPSHA
Bernouli
equation

72 23 - 2553

Static pressure








Cavitation



:



Abstract

Fire pumps are critical and essential
components of water-based fire protection
systems. Their proper installation and
operation is vital to the success of the
system. Horizontal split case centrifugal
fire pumps are commonly used because of
their high efficiency and convenience of
maintenance. These kinds of pumps shall
not be used where a static suction lift is
required according to NFPA 20 (standard for
the installation of stationary pumps for fire
protection) [6] in order to prevent cavitation
problems. This phenomena occurs when the
static pressure of the water entering a
pump approaches the vapor pressure of the
water. As a consequence, a vapor bubble
will form in the impeller passages. This


condition is detrimental to pump


performance, and the collapse of the
bubbles is noisy and may damage the
pump. Therefore, the water level will need
to be above the pump for the system to
work correctly. Some pumps are installed
under wrong conditions by placing the
pumps at the tops of the water tanks. This
makes modification difficult, and cavitation
is possible. Theoretically, the investigation
is performed via NPSHA (Net Positive
Suction Head Available). The measurement
of static pressure entering a pump is
required. Practically, it is difficult to
determine this value. This research work
introduces a practical approach to analyze
NPSHA without the requirement of static
pressure measurement. Bernoulis equation
is applied to the suction line of the water
pump. The variable of static pressure is
transformed into atmospheric pressure,
elevation, and friction loss in the suction
pipeline which are more convenient to find
without the requirement of pressure
measurement. In addition, this approach
can be used to determine the minimum
wa t e r l e ve l i n t h e t a n k b e f o r e t h e
occurrence of cavitation problems.


Keywords: fire protection, fire pump
installation, cavitation, bernouli equation




Horizontal split casecentrifugal pump

[1,2,4,8] NFPA 20 (
) [3,6,7]


Cavitation
1



23
10,000

( )



NFPA



Net
Positive Suction Head (NPSH)

Static pressure




NPSH Bernouli equation








Cavitation


1 Horizontal split
casecentrifugal pump [6]


72 23 - 2553


= velocity head


= static vapor pressure head

()

head
(absolute value)

vapor pressure
NPSHA
NPSAR
cavitation


Variable transformation
Bernouli equation


(Streamline)





=

=

= elevation


= pressure


=







= static head
()


Cavitation





shock wave

[8, 9]
Cavitation



Required Net Positive Suction Head
(NPSHR)

NPSHR

specification


Net Positive Suction
Head (NPSH) NPSHR

Available Net Positive Suction Head
(NPSHA)

integration




C integration

integrate


incompressible fluid
steady state
inviscid

Bernouli equation




1)
inviscid flow

2) steady state

3) incompressible flow

4)
streamline

Bernouli equation
head equation



= constant on a streamline



(energy per
weight) (head)
pressure head

static
velocity
head
elevation head

2


2

( A)
( B)

PA = A

= 1 bar abs
VA =

A = 0
ZA = A = 0
PB = B


VB = B
ZB = B

72 23 - 2553


lf = friction loss A B X =

ft

Y =


m



Static pressure Allen Hazen Gardner S.
Williams C-factor

C-factor

C-factor











Hori-


zontal split casecentrifugal pump, Rated
Hazen-Williams horse power 200 Hp, Rated Pressure 157
PSIG, Rated flow rate 1,500 GPM
formula NFPA13




(

) NPSHA

3 NPSHA

P = psi
Q =


gpm
NPSHA
C =
D =
NPSHR
cavitation NPSHA

NPSHR
L = ft



3 Vertical 4 Ver tical
distance between inlet suction and water distance between inlet suction and water
surface NPSHA
surface NPSHA



cavitation


NPSHA

6-10 NPSHA
4

NPSHA

2 6
NPSHA 7.1
8 NPSHA

7.6

(friction loss)




/

30-40 C
NPSHA 5


NPSHA

2 30 C
NPSHA 7.1


72 23 - 2553

40 C NPSHA
6.7

(Vapor pressure)

10 C
74
NPSHA


5 Vertical
distance between inlet suction and water
surface NPSHA







(Coef ficient of pipe


roughness) C C
120-75
0-15
NPSHA
6

NPSHA

2
(working time=0 year) NPSHA
7.1 10 (
C=90) NPSHA 6.7


(friction loss)




1
3.6

2
5.6





NPSHA


6 Vertical
distance between inlet suction and water
surface NPSHA

NPSHA
Bernouli equation



NPSHA

cavitation





[1] Cote AE and Bugbee P, Principle
of fire protection, NFPA 1995.
[2] Cote AE and Linville JL, Fire
protection handbook, 18th edition,
NFPA, 1997.
[3] Gagnon RM, Design of waterbased fire protection systems,
Delmar Publishers 1997.
[4] L a d w i g T H , I n d u s t r i a l f i r e
prevention and protection, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991
[5] N F PA 2 0 , S t a n d a r d f o r t h e
Installation of Stationary Pumps for
Fire Protection, 2007 Edition.
[6] Puchovsky MT and Isman KE, Fire
pump handbook, NFPA 1998.
[7] Schroll RC, Industrial fire protection
handbook, CRC press, 2002.

72 23 - 2553