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Heat Sensor Here is a simple circuit which can be used as a heat sensor.

In the following circuit diagram thermistor and 100 Ohms resistance is connected in series and makes a potential devider circuit . If thermistor is of N.T.C (Negative temperature Coefficient ) type then after heating the thermistor its resistance decreases so more current flows through the thermistor and 100 Ohms resistance and we get more voltage at junction of thermistor and resistance. Suppose after heating 110 ohms thermistor its resistance value become 90 Ohms.then according to potential devider circuit the voltage across one resistor equals the ratio of that resistors value and the sum of resistances times the voltage across the series combination. This concept is so pervasive it has a name: voltage divider. The input-output relationship for this system, found in this particular case by voltage divider, takes the form of a ratio of the output voltage to the input voltage. This output voltage is applied to a NPN transistor through a resistance. Emitter voltage is maintain at 4.7 volt with a help of Zener diode.This voltage we will use as compare voltage. Transistor conducts when base voltage is greater than emitter voltage. Transistor conducts as it gets more than 4.7 base Voltage and circuit is completed through buzzer and it gives Sound.

Circuit Diagram of Heat Sensor

Rain Alarm Project Water is a conductor of electricity. When water is in contact with the probe then there is a flow of current which reaches to the base of Q1. Transistor Q1 is a NPN transistor which conducts. With the conduction of Q1 electron reaches to Q2 which is a PNP transistor .Q2 also conducts and current flows through the speaker. In a speaker there is inductive coil which causes motion in one direction and also produce induce current which is in opposite direction to the flow of current this induce current in the form of pulse flows through a capacitor, resistance and switches off Q1 and relax .this process repeats again and again till probe is in contact with water or we can say there is a oscillation in the circuit thus speaker diaphragm vibrates and gives a tone. Frequency of the circuit depends on the value of Speaker Coil impendence, Capacitor and Resistance Value.

Circuit Diagram of Rain Alarm