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RADIO PLANNING AND OPTIMISATION

Drive Test Log file Analysis- A Case Study


(Presentation/Discussion – 19/06/2009)

By
Grant Chivandire

Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and


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Optimisation Specialist
Objectives
This presentation will cover the following:
 Key drive-test log-file aspects
 Layer 3 Messages
 Call Drops
 Handover Issues
 Case Analysis 1
 Case Analysis 2

Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and


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Optimisation Specialist
Key Drive Test Log-file Aspects

 BCCH of serving cell ad neighbours


 CGI – MCC, MNC, LAC, CI
 RxLev of serving cell and neighbours
 BSIC of serving cell and neighbours
 Time Slot
 Channel type/mode
 Hopping Information – HSN, frequencies
 Timing Advance
 Tx Power
 Radio Link Timer
 C/I, C/A
 RxQual, BER, FER, SQI

Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and


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Optimisation Specialist
Layer 3 Messages

 Synchronization Channel Information


 Synchronization of MS to BSS
 Repeated many times during a call
 Contains BCCH, BSIC, Frame number etc
 System Information Type 5
 Contains BCCH Allocation list
 List used to determine the neighbour list
 Measurement Report
 Contains the created neighbour list
 BCCH, BSIC, RxLev and RxQual
 System Information Type 6
 Contains Location Area Identification information
 MCC, MNC, LAC, RLINKT, NCC PERM
Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and
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Optimisation Specialist
Call Drops - Summary

Fishbone Diagram: Call Drops

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Optimisation Specialist
Call Drops – Summary (cont…)

Fishbone Diagram : Call Drops

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Optimisation Specialist
Handover Issues - Types
HANDOVER TYPES
 Power Budget Handover
 Difference in RxLev > PBGT margin

 Level Handover
 DL/UL RxLev < HO Threshold DL/UL

 Quality Handover
 Quality level < Quality thresholds

 Interference Handover
 High RxLev but poor quality

Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and


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Optimisation Specialist
Handover Issues – Layer 3 Messages
Layer 3 Messages
 Handover Command
 Cell description
 Handover reference number
 Power command
 Synchronization indicator
 Channel mode/description
 Frequency channel sequence
 Mobile Allocation
 Time stamp
 Handover Access
 Handover reference number
 Handover Complete/Failure
 When MS establishes signaling link successfully/unsuccessfully
Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and
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Optimisation Specialist
Handover Issues - Problems
 Short Neighbour List
 Less than 6 neighbours in neighbour list
 Confirm you do not need to define more neighbours

 Late Handover
 Check handover margins between neighbours
 Hierarchical Cell Structure
 Power control

 Ping pong Handovers


 No dominant server
 Adjust hysteresis, handover margins and power
 May require new site

Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and


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Optimisation Specialist
Handover Issues – Problems (cont…)
 Unnecessary Handover
 Increasing number of Handover increases quality problems

 Missing Neighbours
 No handover to neighbour cell that seems like best server
 Sudden appearance of strong cell in neighbour list after handover
 Stepping stone effect

 Fake Neighbours
 Good candidate but handover does not take place leading to a call
drop
 Fake neighbour – same BCCH with defined neighbour, itself not
defined
 Missing BCCH in measurement list, NCC Perm, Co-BCCH
Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and
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Optimisation Specialist
Handover Issues – Problems (cont…)
 Overshooting
 Island effect
 No good candidate to handover to
 Timing Advance much greater than half of your inter-site distance

 Handover to another BSC


 Data configuration should be consistent across the 2 BSCs
 CGI, BCCH, BSIC and Power parameters

 Target Cell congested


 HO signalling performed over FACCH by stealing bits from TCH
 Penalties applied to that particular MS
 High HO Failure rate and drop due to dragging

Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and


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Optimisation Specialist
Handover Issues – Problems (cont…)
 Interference
 Causes difficulties in decoding corrupt MRs on BCCH
 Signalling failures due to high interference on TCH (FACCH)

 Too many neighbours


 Increase BSC CP load and leads to signalling congestion
 Small window period to measure every neighbor may lead to incorrect
decisions

 Swapped sectors
 Defined neighbours will show poor levels
 May exhibit “stepping stone” effect
 May lead to drag and drops

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Optimisation Specialist
Handover Issues - Summary

Fishbone Diagram : Handover Failure

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Case Analysis 1

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Optimisation Specialist
Case Analysis 1 (cont…)

 Log file
 Central_longCalls_20090514_CELLC_CENTRAL004.dlf
 Analysis
 High interference at call drop
 Handover failure 8seconds before call drop
 Serving Cell =>BCCH=1012, BSIC=57, CI=41776, RxLev=-78, RxQual=7
 Confirm serving cell details with Signalling messages and other
database – BSCplan, Asset etc
 Channel => Hopping TCH
 Handover Failure => look at Handover Command and Handover Failure
messages
 Check if neighbour is defined properly in database
 Measurement Reports => observe target cell is 4th candidate in
neighbour list
Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and
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Optimisation Specialist
Case Analysis 1 (cont…)

 Analysis
 Confirm neighbour cell information in database
 Notice the proximity of the MS to nearest neighbour cells
 Formulate ideal behaviour – why did the MS try to handover to the
fourth candidate leaving the better 3?
 Suspect fake neighbour problem
 In Actix map, show CI properties on cells
 In database, look for the BCCH of the 3 candidates and identify
defined cell and CI
 Notice that the 2nd sector of serving site, a defined neighbour, has the
same BCCH as the first candidate
 Missing neighbor has been detected

Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and


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Optimisation Specialist
Case Analysis 1 (cont…)

 Analysis
 Notice the distance of serving cell compared to nearby cells
 Check terrain profile using Asset, clutter using Google Earth and
neighbour candidates levels to see if acceptable
 Site is overshooting, consider down tilting

Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and


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Optimisation Specialist
Case Analysis 2

Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and


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Optimisation Specialist
Case Analysis 2 (cont…)

 Log file
 Central_longCalls_20090514_CELLC_CENTRAL004.dlf
 Analysis
 High interference at call drop
 Handover failure 15seconds before call drop
 Repeated inter-cell handover failures following a series of intra-cell
handover
 Neighbour defined correctly
 Handover failure due to timer expired
 Deduce that high interference corrupted signalling information
 Notice intra-cell handover did not help interference problem
 Review hopping parameters

Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and


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Optimisation Specialist
Case Analysis 2
 Analysis
 From the map, notice that 21626 is facing the location but not in
neighbour list
 Check from database if it is defined as a neighbour
 Perform site audit and do coverage check
 Check for swapped sectors
 Perform scans with drive-test tool and determine best server
 Observe the cell reselection after call drop – CI=21962
 Check if defined in database
 Notice that the defined cell with same BCCH is CI=31622
 This is a fake neighbour
 Explain that after failing to HO to 31626, an attempt to 21962 was
expected
 Make corrections and propose new site to enhance coverage
Grant Chivandire - Radio Planning and
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Optimisation Specialist
THANK YOU !