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Description Cover Sheet Index Preface Foreword Approval Sheet Important Note Status of Amendments Welding - General Base Materials Welding Material Specification and Control Procedure for Welder Qualification Inspection of Welding Repair Welding Safe Practices in Welding Pre-Assembly & Welding of Ceiling Girders Pre-Assembly of High Crown Plates Erection Welding Practice for SA 335 P91 Material Argon Purity Level Use of resistance heating for PWHT of P-91 pipes General Tolerances for welding structures - (Form and position) (Doc. Ref. : AA0621105) Welding of pipes and pipes shaped connections in Steam Turbines, Turbo-Generators and Heat Exchangers (HW0620599) Instructions for carrying out condenser plate and neck welding Repair procedure of arresting the leakage of strength welds on tube to tube sheet joints of „U‟ tube HP heater Repair procedure of grey cast iron castings Special Instructions for the repair of Steam Turbine Casings Gas Metal Arc Welding Orbital Welding Edge Preparation Details Erection Procedure for Rear Water box and Rear water Chamber in condenser Welding & HT details of thermo couple pads & clamps for SH & RH Welding and PWHT sequence for lower ring header Demagnetization Procedure Erection Welding Practice for SA 213 T91 Material Selection Chart for Dummy end Covers for Hydraulic test / Nipples Free end Details (BHEL-Trichy) Schedule of Pipes
B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6 B-7 B-8 B-9 B-10 B-11 B-12 B-13 B-14 B-15 B-16 B-17 B-18
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125 128 132 135 139 146 150 161 164 170 172 174 175 182 185
CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS. WHEREVER SUPPLIED. WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS.6 IMPORTANT THIS WELDING MANUAL PROVIDES BROAD BASED GUIDELINES FOR WELDING WORK AT SITES. STATUTORY PLANT / CORPORATE STANDARDS. IF ANY AND SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY RESPECTIVE MANUFACTURING UNITS SPECIFIC TO THE PROJECT. DOCUMENTS. ERECTION WELDING SCHEDULE. HOWEVER. SITES MUST ENSURE ADHERENCE TO THE PRIMARY DOCUMENTS LIKE CONTRACT DRAWINGS. .
WELDING-GENERAL 7 STATUS OF AMENDMENTS Sl. Reference of Sheet(s) Amended Amendment No. & Date Remarks .WELDING MANUAL A1.No.
WELDING MANUAL A1.GENERAL . WELDING-GENERAL 8 CHAPTER – A1 WELDING .
2. Ensure selection.2 3. 3. Welder Qualification: Ensure. 2. WELDING-GENERAL 9 WELDING-GENERAL 1.1 3. storage. qualification of welders shall be as in this manual. Alternatively specific contractual requirements. V & IX ASME B31. where supplied Statutory documents Welding Procedure Specifications Contractual obligations. 3.1 IBR BHEL Manufacturing Units‟ Standards & practices PROCEDURE: 3.0 SCOPE: This manual deals with activities and information related to welding for site operations including P91 material.1 ASME sections I.4. where required.1 The following documents are referred in preparation of this manual.1 The following documents shall be referred as primary documents 3.1 . the same shall be adopted. 2. List of approved vendors of general purpose welding electrodes as provided by BHEL. AWS D1. DOCUMENTS REFERRED: 2. as detailed in this manual.2. if any may be followed. 3. if any. procurement. II (A&C). For welding not under the purview of statutory requirements. 5. Monitor performance of qualified butt welders as in this manual.3 3.WELDING MANUAL A1. 4. 1. personnel qualified as per statutory requirements are engaged.4 3.2 Contract drawings Erection Welding Schedule or equivalent Plant / Corporate standards. drying & issue of welding consumables. Tiruchy Unit shall be used for selection of brands at sites . Where specific documents are supplied by the manufacturers.
Such identification may be traceable through documents like drawings. date of PWHT. ceiling girder welds.4.4 3. Prior to PWHT operation.6.1 3.. Inspection: Inspection of welding may be done as per Chapter A5 and records maintained as appropriate. rate of heating.3 3. make. start and end time of operation . soaking temperature.1 Where Tiruchy list does not cover site requirements.5 Welding in-charge shall assign a unique identification for all the butt welds coming under the purview of statutory regulations. chart speed) .WELDING MANUAL A1.7.7. Use calibrated temperature recorders. inter pass.6. post heat and Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) requirements shall be as per applicable documents. range. sketches etc. A format of the job card is enclosed for illustration.1 3.3 3.7 3.6. 3.2 3. a “job card” containing material specification.5.8 3.8. piping welds. weld reference.6. such specific cases may be referred to concerned unit and Head(Qly) of the region. Temperature recorder details (like Sl. soaking time and rate of cooling shall be prepared referring to applicable documents.1 3.2 3.7.6 3.. Weld Joint No.1 .No. size. WELDING-GENERAL 10 3. and issued. The chart shall be evaluated and results recorded on the PWHT job card. Heat Treatment: Preheat. where these are not supplied. The PWHT chart shall contain the chart number.1. PSQ-HTM-COM) for details. A welding “job card” incorporating the welding parameters and heat treatment requirements is recommended to be issued for all critical welds like pressure part welds. Thermal chalks shall be batch tested prior to use. reference may be made to Welding / Heat Treatment Manual. Equipment & Instruments: Equipment/accessories used shall be assessed for fitness prior to use. 3. Refer Heat Treatment Manual (Document No.
1 3. shall be maintained by welding in-charge.10.9.8. WELDING-GENERAL 11 3. and results (including repair details) PWHT Chart No.9 3. if any.1 All records. Project / Unit reference Drawing No.10 3.2 Weld log containing the following information shall be prepared for all completed systems. Adequate protection shall be provided against excessive wind and rain water entry during welding. Records: 3. EWS / Equivalent Material specification Welder code Date of welding NDE report No.9. .2 Safety: Safe access to weld area shall be provided. as required. Weld Joint No.WELDING MANUAL A1. 3. and results Remarks.
15 mm 4. WELDING-GENERAL 12 WELDING JOB CARD WELDING JOB CARD Page 1 of 2 Project Unit No.(s) Date of welding Filler wire Specification Electrode Specification Preheat temperature Inter pass temperature Post Heat temperature PWHT temperature : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Welding Engineer Page 2 of 2 FILLER WIRE / ELECTRODE CONSUMPTION GTAW Filler wire SMAW 2. x thick) Material Specification Welder No. Joint No. System Description Size (Dia.5 mm 3. Drawing No. Job Card No.WELDING MANUAL A1.0 mm : : : : Area: Boiler / TG / PCP Date: Date of LPI for RG Plug Remarks Date of Return : : : .
: PWHT: Soaking time Preheating started at Root welding started at Welding started at Hrs.WELDING MANUAL A1. Rate of cooling: Rate of heating / cooling: Preheating completed at Root welding completed at Welding completed at C and C Holding completed at C for min. Hrs. HEAT TREATMENT & ND EXAMINATION) FOR P91 WELDS Card No. Contractor: Drawing No. of T/Cs: Welders‟ ID: Preheat Temp. Hrs. 300C reached at Calibration validity: Result : OK / Not OK Calibration validity: Result: OK / Not OK Calibration validity: Value: Hrs.: Rate of heating: Purging time: Distance bet.: Holding Temp. Soaking started at .: Thick(mm) Litres / min.: Project : System: PGMA: Material Specification: Filler GTAW metal: Joint fit-up: No. maintained between Holding temp. Hrs. DU No. on Hrs. Hrs. C Minimum Litres / min.5 minutes per mm) Cooling to: Interpass temp. BHEL Customer . for GTAW C Maximum C Hrs.: Purging flow rate: Shielding flow rate: Interpass Temp. . WT: Location : + Date: Unit No. with time: Contractor Hrs. 1 hour. of T/Cs: : PWHT started at Soaking completed at UT Equipment used: UT carried out on MPI Equipment used: MPI carried out on Hardness test Equipment used: Hardness test carried out on History of interruption if any. dams: C per hour Minutes Metres C per hour C per hour 300 C Hrs. on Hrs. reached at Location No. Min. Log sheet filled: mm Y/N Joint No. Hrs.: OD (mm): SMAW Root gap: Root mismatch: Distance from EP edge: M/c No. for post heating Minutes (2. WELDING-GENERAL 13 JOB CARD (WELDING.
maintained between Holding temp. Soaking started at . for post heating Minutes (2. of T/Cs: : PWHT started at Soaking completed at UT Equipment used: UT carried out on MPI Equipment used: MPI carried out on Hardness test Equipment used: Hardness test carried out on History of interruption if any.: Thick(mm) Material Specification: Filler GTAW metal: Joint fit-up: No. reached at Location No. dams: C per hour Minutes Metres C per hour C per hour 300 C Hrs. Log sheet filled: Y/N Joint No.WELDING MANUAL A1. Root mismatch: Distance from EP edge: M/c No. Holding completed at . for GTAW C Maximum C Hrs.: PWHT: Soaking time Preheating started at Root welding started at Welding started at Hrs. Min. BHEL Customer . with time: Contractor Hrs. DU No.: + OD (mm): SMAW Root gap: Location : C Minimum Litres / min. on Hrs.: Rate of heating: Purging time: Distance bet. Hrs. WELDING-GENERAL 14 Card No. HEAT TREATMENT & ND EXAMINATION) FOR T91 WELDS Date: Unit No.: Purging flow rate: Shielding flow rate: Interpass Temp. Contractor: Drawing No. Hrs. t: mm Litres / min. Rate of cooling: Rate of heating / cooling: Preheating completed at Root welding completed at Welding completed at C and C C for min. on Hrs. Hrs. of T/Cs: Welders‟ ID: Preheat Temp. 300C reached at Calibration validity: Result : OK / Not OK Calibration validity: Result: OK / Not OK Calibration validity: Value: Hrs. 1 hour. Hrs.5 minutes per mm) Cooling to: Interpass temp. Hrs.: Holding Temp.: Project : System: PGMA: JOB CARD (WELDING.
WELDING MANUAL A2 BASE MATERIALS 15 CHAPTER – A2 BASE MATERIALS .
2 Table A2.1 Table A2. For materials not covered in this chapter.0 CONTENTS: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Table A2.1 This chapter contains tabulations of chemical compositions and mechanical properties of various materials generally used in BHEL sites.WELDING MANUAL A2 BASE MATERIALS 16 BASE MATERIALS 1.4 Table A2.0 .6 Table A2. The corresponding P numbers are also indicated. 2.7 Pipes (ASME) Tubes (ASME) Forgings (ASME) Castings (ASME) Plates / Sheets (ASME) Pipes (Other specifications) Tubes (Other specifications) 3.0 The data are for general information purposes. the supplier shall be contacted.5 Table A2. 4.0 SCOPE: 1.3 Table A2.
40 Max.10 Min.080.60 8. 0. 0. 0.801.15 Max. 0. 0.S Kg / Kg / %E mm2 mm2 Min. 0.05 0.25 42(415) 42(415) 60(585) 21(220) 21(205) 42(415) 30 30 20 .15 Max. 0.01 Max.40 Max. 0. 0.40 Max.29-1.WELDING MANUAL 17 Table.300.12 0.035 Max.300.871.) T.10 Min.61 0. B (Remarks: Carbon 1 P1/1 restricted to CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 0. P.25% Max.035 Max.A2.60 0.S Y.35 Max.08 Max AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 0.06 0.300.50 Max.30 Max.50 0.035 Max.50 Max. 0.009.200.1 Pipes Chemical Composition (%) Sl. 0.18-0.40 Max. 0.851.60 0.50 0.025 Max.440. 0. 0.13 0. 0.025 Max. 0. 0.65 0. Material Specification Mechanical Properties (Min. 0.15 Max.035 Max.025 Max.025 Max.291.No. 0.15 Max.) SA 106 Gr. Group No.40 - 49(485) 28(275) 30 3 4 5 P4/1 P 5A / 1 P 15E /1 0. 0.25 1. 0.) SA 335 P 12 SA 335 P 22 SA 335 P91 0.02 Max. / No.25% Max. 0. C 2 P1/2 (Remarks: Carbon restricted to 0.902. (MPa) (MPa) 42(415) 25(240) 30 C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo V SA 106 Gr. 0.06 0. 0.
85.60 0.30-0.801. 0.0.04.40 Max.) SA 209 T1 SA 213 T11 SA 213 T12 SA 213 T22 SA 213 T5 SA 213 T9 SA 213 T91 SA 213 TP 304 H 0.60 2.15 0.44. 0.06-0.02 Max.01 Max.50 0.0011.06 0. 0.1. Si 0.44-0.10 2.20 0.) SA 179 SA 210 Gr C 4 P1/2 (Remarks: Carbon restricted to 0.025 Max.13 0.035 Max.50 Max.30-0.30-0.65 0.50 Max. 0.035 Max.) T.06-0. 0.902.10 Max.05-0. 0.035 Max. 0. Ni Cr Mo V Mechanical Properties (Min. - - 53(515) 21(205) 35 .025 Max.009.15 Max.00 0.50 1. 0.27 Max. 0.00 0. 0. - - - 42(415) 26(255) 30 3 P1/1 0.045 Max. 0.025 Max.87.27-0.90. 0.180.025 Max.0.30-0. - - - 49(485) 28(275) 30 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 P3/1 P4/1 P4/1 P5A/1 P5B/1 P5B/1 P15E/1 P8/1 0.0. 0.25 1.05-0.0.035 Max.30-0.45. P1/1 Material Specification (ASME) SA 192 SA 210 Gr A1 2 P1/1 (Remarks: Carbon restricted to 0.035 Max.025 Max.10 0.0.14 0.0.No.10 0.025 Max.10.2 Tubes Chemical Composition (%) Sl.65 0.30.00 Max.0013.S Y.00 1.03 Max. 0.035 Max.25% Max.035 Max.15 Max.025 Max.25 Max. 0.006.025 Max.65 0. / Group No.03 Max.15 0. 1.00 9.025 Max.0. 0. 0.20.025 Max.60 0.35 Max.00 20.60 0.65 0.63 P 0.00 17.045 Max.60 4. 0.04.00 Max.0. 0. 0.50 18.27-0.60 0.00 Max.63 - - - - 33(325) 18(180) 35 0.001. 0.WELDING MANUAL 18 Table-A2. 1 P.035 Max.93 Max.1.44-0. 0.18 Mn 0.05 0.10 Max.07. 0.00 19. C 0. No.18 0.50 Max.0010.25-1.10.025 Max.15 0.30.05-0. 0. 0.29. 0.0. 8.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min.1. S 0. 0.1.50 0.30% Max.025 Max. 0. 0. 0.0. 0.00 0. (MPa) (MPa) 33(325) 18(180) 35 0.00 8.25 - 39(380) 42(415) 42(415) 42(415) 42(415) 42(415) 60(585) 53(515) 21(205) 21(205) 22(220) 21(205) 21(205) 21(205) 42(415) 21(205) 30 30 30 30 30 30 20 35 13 P8/1 SA 213 TP 347 H (Cb + Ta Stabilised) 0.00 Max. 0. 0.00 8.80 0.61 0.50-1.
04 Max. 0. 0.40 Max.35 Max.25 49(515) 49(485) 53(515) 60(585) 28(310) 28(275) 32(310) 42(415) 20 20 20 20 .20 0.10-0.601. 0. 0. 0.60 0.15 Max.02 Max.WELDING MANUAL 19 Table A2.80-1.01 Max.85-1. P.40 Max. 0.12 0.3 Forgings Chemical Composition (%) Sl.50 0. 0.44-0. 0.80 0. Material Specification SA 105 (Remarks: Carbon restricted to 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min. 0.04 Max.87-1.80 0.30-0.50 0.30 Max.25 2.00 0. 0.001.00-9.30-0.35.05 0.60 0.50 8.13 0. 0.44-0.10.20-0.60 0.10-0.No.30-0.035 Max. No.04 Max. 0. (MPa) (MPa) 1 P1/2 0.65 0.12 Max. 0.) T.501. 0.05 0.65 0.04 Max. 1.300.50 0.00-2. 0. 0. / Group No.08 Max 49(485) 25(250) 30 2 3 4 5 P4/1 P4/1 P5A/1 P15E/1 0.20 0.04 Max.50 Max.25% Max.) SA 182 F11 Class 3 SA 182 F 12 Class 2 SA 182 F 22 Class 3 SA 182 F91 C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo V Mechanical Properties (Min.100.08-0.18-0.S Y.
0.04 Max.50 2.00-1.04 Max.50 Max. Material Specification (ASME) SA 216 WCB (Remarks: Carbon restricted to 0.00 9.04 Max.00 22. 0.) SA 216 WCC SA 217 WC6 SA 217 WC 9 SA 351 CF 8 SA 351 CF 8M SA 351 CF 8C SA 351 CH 20 C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Mechanical Properties (Min.S Y. 0.50 Max.20 Max. 2. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P1/2 P4/1 P5A/1 P8/1 P8/1 P8/1 P8/2 0.) T.50 Max. 0.20 1.18 Max.4 Castings Chemical Composition (%) Sl. 0.50 Max.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.08 Max.60 Max. 0.00 Max. 0.No.00 0.50 Max. 1.WELDING MANUAL 20 Table A2. 2. 0.04-0.50 Max. 1. 0.60 Max.90-1.20 Max.0021.0026.00 Max. 0.60 Max.045 Max.70 1.00 Max. 1.25 Max.04 Max. 0.0021. (MPa) (MPa) 49(485) 25(250) 22 1 P1/2 0.45-0.00 12.40-0.75 18. 0. 0. 0.50 Max.04 Max.20 Max.50 Max. 0.25% Max. 0.00 0.045 Max. 2.50 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.0011.08 Max. 0. 0. 1. 2.04 Max.50 Max.045 Max.00 0.20 0. 0.50 Max.65 0. 0.04 Max.00.00 Max.60 Max.0012.04 Max. 0.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min.3. No.045 Max. 0.20 Max. 0. 0.0021. 1.0012.04 Max.0015. P. 0.08 Max. 8.50-0.80 0.50 Max.00 18. 49(485) 49(485) 49(485) 49(485) 49(485) 49(485) 49(485) 28(275) 28(275) 28(275) 21(205) 21(205) 21(205) 21(205) 22 20 20 35 30 30 30 . 0. / Group No.30 Max. 0.00 9. 1. 0. 0.00 18.00-2.
21-0.30 Max.23 Max.040 Max.22 Max.31 Max.10 0.) T.035 Max.10 Max.00 0.20 Max. Cr 0. 0.17 Max.45 0.050 Max.50 Max.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min.40 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.13-0.012 Max. 0.45 0.03 Max S 0.045 Max.045 Max. 0.035 Max.90-9.04 0. 0.040 Max.A IS 2062 Gr.65 0.29 0. 0.62 1.84-1.035 Max. 1. 0. 0. 0.C IS 8500-540 BSEN10025Gr 420N .60 Max.35-0. 8.035 Max. 0. Ni 0.0020. 0.60 Max. 0.13-0. 1.74-1.40 Max.0010. 0. 0. 0. / Group No. 0.20 Max.050 Max. 0.0-1.62 7.75 Max. 1. 0.30 0.20 0.B IS 2062 Gr.035 Max. 0.27 0.80 Max.035 Max.15 0.45 0. Mo 0.08 Max.13-0.25-0.85-1. 0. No.045 Max.25-0.50 0.50 Max. 21 V 0.035 Max.15 Max. 1. 0. 0.03 Max.66 2. Mn 0. 0. Material Specification C 0. 0.80-1.7 P 0. (MPa) (MPa) 53(415) 49(485) 53(515) 49(485) 46(450) 52(515) 60(585) 53(515) 42 42 42 55 (500-650 21(220) 27(260) 29(275) 27(260) 28(275) 32(310) 42(415) 21(205) 25 25 25 40 320-420 25 21 19 21 22 18 18 40 23 23 23 20 1819 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 P1/1 P1/1 P1/2 P1/2 P1/2 P4/1 P5A/1 P15E/1 P8/1 SA 36 SA 516 Gr 60 SA 516 Gr 70 SA 299 SA 515 Gr 70 SA 387 Gr 12 Class 2 SA 387 Gr 22 Class 2 SA 387 Gr 91 SA 240 TYPE 304 IS 2062 Gr.40-0.05 0.5 Plates / Sheets Chemical Composition (%) Sl. 0. 0. 1.56 0.35 Max.035 Max.20 Max. 0.025 Max.S Y.50 Max.035 Max.25-0. 0. 0.30 Max.43 Max.16-0. 0.40 Max.30 0.15 0.55-1.73 0. 0. Mechanical Properties (Min. 0.045 Max. 0.21 1. 0. 0.45 0. Si 0.45 0.00 Max.025 Max. 0.WELDING MANUAL Table A2.13-0.20 Max. 0.18-0.80-1.30 Max.45 Max. 0.79-1.66 0.035 Max.60 18.No.13-0. P.27 0.50 Max.035 Max.06-0. 0. 0.045 Max.88-2.
0. 0.30 47.030 Max.25-0. 0.70 1.8 DIN St.15 0. Si 0. Ni Cr 0.15 Max.10 0.21 Max. 0.58 22 60.15 0.45-0.80 26.450.80 17 5 P4/1 6 P5/1 7 - 0. S 0.9028.WELDING MANUAL 22 Table-A2.04 Max.8225 22 56.10-0.04 Max.10-0. 0.045 Max.04 Max.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min.22 44. 0. 0.S Y. 0.70 0.17-0. 36.100.80-1.23 Mn 0.10 41. 0. 0.36 22 62. 0.35 0.8026 21 54.6 Pipes (Other Specifications) Sl.045 Max.10-0.400.9029. / Group No.901.21 Max.35 0. P1/1 P1/1 P1/1 P1/1 Material Specification DIN St.8 BS 3602 / 410 BS 3602 / 460 BS 3604 620-460 HFS or CDS 620-440 BS 3604 622 HFS or CDS BS 3604 HFS 660 Or CDS 660 X20CrMoV121 DIN17175 Chemical Composition (%) C 0.30 30 17 8 P5B / 2 0.60 21 61.20 0.80 0. 1 2 3 4 P. 0. 0.22 Max.50 Max.04 Max.70 0.17 Max.No.18 0. 0.40 0.80 0. 0.70-1.40 Max. 0. 0.04 Max.22-0.045 Max.080.) T. 0.35 Max. 0.400.9018.10 46.65 0.10 2.50-0.00 P 0.40-0.04 Max.0012.045 Max.7024 25 48.35 0.50 10.10-0.04 Max.20 0.030 Max.20 V Mechanical Properties (Min. No.50 - 0. 35. 45.04 Max.35 0.20 0.10-0.50 0.04 Max.00 2.35 70-86 50 17 .10-0.70 0. 0.20 48. 0.45-1. 0.40-1.96 41.80-1.20 46.04 Max.35 Max.35 0. 0.400. 0.50 Mo 0.04 Max.65 0.30-0.25-0.04 Max.70-1.
35 0.10-0.80 0.9018.04 Max.50 0.50 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.96 41. 0.030 Max.00-2.90-1.035 Max.12-0. 0.21 Max.60 20 62. / Group No.90-1.20 V 0.WELDING MANUAL 23 Table-A2.00-2.65 0.70 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 P.8 BS 3059 / 360 BS 3059 / 440 15 Mo3 DIN17175 13 Cr Mo 44 DIN17175 BS 3059 / 620 10 Cr Mo 910 DIN17175 BS 3059 (622) 440 BS 3059 (622) 490 14 Mo V 63 DIN17175 X20CrMoV121 DIN17175 Chemical Composition (%) C 0.70 0.450.70-1.20 45.90-1.25-0.035 Max.08-0.85 20 60.040 Max.7 Tubes (Other Specifications) .04 Max.18 0.00 P 0. 0.15 0.030 Max.22-0.04 Max.08-0.040 Max.15 0.10-0.17 Max. 0. 35. 0.10 2.040 Max.20 0. S 0.50 Max. 0.400. 0.) T.10-0.40-0.15 0. 0.20 44.35 0.35 0. 36.18 0.30-0.045 Max.10 0.70 0.400. No.S T.40-0. 0. 0.035 Max.12-0.035 Max.50 0.400.23 Mn 0.35 0.70 0.60 20 61.8829.25-0.65 0.40 22 62.9028.9017.040 Max.040 Max.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min. 0.22 70-86 50 17 Table.400.50 Max.450. 0. 0.04 Max.08-0.35 Max. 0.10-0.8825 21 59.10-0.0012.80 0.035 Max.00 46.50-0.05 20 65.8 DIN St.20 0.10-0.035 Max.35 0.7 Tubes Sl.40-0.50 2.00 44.18 0. 0.35 0.035 Max. 0.10-0.18 49. 0. 0.04 Max.80 Ni Cr 0.60 22 60.50 22 61.8026 21 54.18 46.A2.30-0. 0.20 45.60 10.06 36.9032.70 0. P1/1 P1/1 P1/1 P1/1 P3/1 P4/1 P4/1 P5/1 P5/1 P5/1 P5B / 2 Material Specification DIN St.80 0.17-0.35 0.20 0.32 0. 0. Si 0.035 Max. 45.70 0.70 0.80-1. 0.40-0.00-2.10-0. 0.400.7024 25 48.10-0.70-1.35 Mechanical Properties (Min.04 Max. 0.17 Max.035 Max. 0.35 0.90-1.20 44.15 0. 0.No.9027.50 2.20 0.100. 0. 0.7022 24 51.20 0.40-1.20 0.50 Mo 0.9828.
WELDING MANUAL 24 CHAPTER .A3 WELDING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION AND CONTROL .
to headers. Drying and holding of welding electrodes. 10.4 . 13.Selection of electrodes. 2.8 .0 Table. 14. Table-A3.Selection of electrodes for welding nozzle attachments. PWHT for attachment to attachment welds.7 – Selection of filler wire and electrodes for non-pressure parts ( including structures ) Table-A3. pipes. 5. 4.1 . headers.A numbers Table-A3.A3.2 . 12. Table-A3. Table-A3. pipes.0 CONTENTS: 1. Storage and identification of welding electrodes/filler wires.Selection of electrodes for welding attachments to tubes.Mechanical property requirement for all-weld metal. relevant details may be obtained from the Manufacturing Units. 11. Table-A3.9 . 9. hand hole plate. . 2.6 . preheat. 3. 6. SMAW electrodes for butt welds in tubes. 8.0 SCOPE: This chapter gives details for welding material specification and control at sites.F numbers SFA Classification For welding consumables not covered in this chapter.WELDING MANUAL 25 WELDING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION AND CONTROL 1. RG plug etc. 3. Receipt inspection of welding electrodes/filler wires.3 . Table-A3.Selection of GTAW filler wire.Weld Metal Chemical Composition. Selection and issue of welding electrodes/filler wires. Table-A3. 7.5 .
0 Fe Al others Remf 1.03 0.03 0.50 2.50 18.75 NS NS V 0.0 Total 1.0021.03 0.5 5.00 0.50 Si 1.25 0.00 9.80 0.03 0.20 0.035 0.0014.30 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Cu NS NS NS NS NS NS 0.08-0.00 1. to 1.13 0.20 0.08 0.75 0.0021.4 5.20 1.00 18.WELDING MANUAL 26 Table – A3.00 22.15 5.50 8.08 2.04 0.04 NS NS Note : Single values are maximum permissible limits.90 0.08 0.65 0.04 0.04-0.035 0.80 0.00 NS NS Mo 0.65 0.04 0.03 0.30 0.90-1.50-2.03 0.00 12.04 0.0025.03 0.50 0.00 85 d min 45d-60 Other Elements % Cr 0.00 1.5e Cb+Ta 8XC Min.30 0.75 0.4 5.0 1.90 1.60 0.80 9.04 0. NS – Not Specified .1 5.50 0.75 0.00 4.03 0.30 1.00 18.20 0.5 5.15 0.03 0.20 0.50 0.1 5.00 1.75 2.01 0.03 0.01 0.90 0.00 2.75 0. % S Ni NS 0.00 Max.75 0.1 WELD METAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Electrode E 6010 E 6013 E 7018 / E 7018-1 E 7018-A1 E 8018-B2 E 9018-B3 E 9015-B9 / E 9018-B9 E 308 E 308-L E 309 E 309-L E 347 ENi-Cl ENiFe-Cl SFA No.00 1.0011.50-2.20 0.75 0.00 9.4 5.12 0.50-2.0 Total 1.50 2.85-1.1 5.50-2.05-0.20 1.50 0. Fe Al others 8.20 0.00-1.50-2.30 NS 0.40-0.15-0.05-0.08 0.03 0.00-2.75 0.50 2.5 5.0014.0011.0010.20 NS 1.5e 2.0 Combined Limit for Mn+Ni+Cu+Mo+V=1. 5.15 0.0021.00 12.5 5.00 P NS NS 0.4 5.30 NS NS NS 0.75 C 0.0011.30 0.12 0.12 0.20 0.75 0.08 NS NS NS 0.30 0.04 0.00 22.00 1.4 5.03 0.75 0.80 0.0025.03 0.00 Mn 1.40-0.15 Weight.00 4.
40-0.03 0.00-2. NS – Not Specified .03 0.00 9.00 19.30-2.40-0.08 0.75 0.75 0.03 0.40 Si 0.20 0.0011.28 5.50c 0.50-0.1(Contd…) WELD METAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Electrode ER70S-2 ER80S-G ER90S-G ER80S-B2 ER90S-B3 ER80S-D2 ER90S-B9 ER 308 ER 309 ER 309-L ER 347 SFA No.03 0.0025.35c 0.07-0.03 0.30-0.30 0.15-0.9 5.65 0.01 0.20 0.65 0. Note : Single values are maximum permissible limits.70 P 0.12 0.50 19.15 Other Elements % Ti 0.03 0.12 0.0021.28 5.28 5.50 Total other Elements 0. 5.10 1.025 0.13 0.03 Not Specified Not Specified 0.40-0. to 1.40-0.9 5.60 0.80 9.15 V 0.50 2.30-0.025 0.50 Cb+Ta 10XC Min.00 12.00 23.00-2.75 0.28 5.025 0.020.40-0.00 1.15 C 0.90-1.15 0.0014.20 0.50 Total other Elements 0.050.30-0.035 0.28 5.03 Cu 0.12 0.0025.00 23.025 0.00-2.75 Total other Elements 0.0010.65 0.40-0.60-2.50 1.0 Max.025 0.50 1.0011.23 NS NS NS NS 0.03 0.07-0.90-1.0014.70 0.70 1.50 0.20 1.025 0.75 0.40-0.80-1.9 Weight.20 0.50 1.20-1. % S Ni 0.15-0.15 Mo 0.01 0.30-0.07-0.15 Zr 0.07 Mn 0.5022.50b 0.50 0.65 0.025 Cr 0.12 0.18 5.9 5.WELDING MANUAL 27 Table – A3.75 0.70 0.08 0.75 NS NS NS 0.00-2.35c 0.050.75 0.20 0.80 0.12 Al 0.00 12.70 NS 8.50 Total other Elements 0.65 0.70 0.03 0.28 5.07-0.
50.1 (Contd…) WELD METAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION a) These elements may be present but are not intentionally added. . b) The maximum weight percent of copper in the rod or electrode due to any coating plus the residual copper content in the steel shall be 0. d) Nickel plus incident Cobalt. e) Copper plus incident Silver. h) Single values are maximum. II Part C is acceptable in cases where the chemical analysis are not reflected.WELDING MANUAL 28 TABLE – A3. c) The maximum weight percent of copper in the rod or electrode due to any coating plus the residual copper content in the steel shall comply with the stated value. f) “Rem” stands for remainder. g) Manufacturer‟s certification to have met the requirements of ASME Sec.
15 5.4 5.28 80 / 550 68 / 470 19 average minimum * .4 5.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENT FOR ALL-WELD METAL Electrode SFA No.1 5.8 mm) % 22 17 22 22 22 19 17 17 35 35 30 30 30 3-6 6-18 22 E6010 E6013 E7018 E7018-1* E7018-A1 E8018-B2 E9018-B3 E9018-B9 E308 E308L E309 E309L E347 ENi-CI ENiFe-CI ER70S-2 ER80S-B2 5. 5.15 5.1 5.4 5. ksi/ MPa 48 / 330 48 / 330 58 / 400 58 / 400 57 / 390 67 / 460 77 / 530 77 / 530 38-60 / 268-414 43-63 / 294 -434 58 / 400 Elongation In 2 inch (50.2% of Proof Stress.5 5.WELDING MANUAL 29 Table-A3. ( 27 Joules at – 46° C) .18 Tensile Strength Ksi / MPa 60 / 430 60 /430 70 / 490 70 / 490 70 / 490 80 /550 90 /620 90 /620 80 / 550 75 / 520 80 / 550 75 / 520 75 / 520 40-65 / 276-448 58-84 / 400 -579 70 /490 Yield Strength at 0.5 5.4 5.50°F.5 5.1 5.5 5.1 5.These electrodes shall meet the lower temperature impact requirement of 20 ft-lb at .4 5.
c) 1ksi is approximately equal to 6.8 mm) % 17 17 16 ER90S-B3 ER80S-D2 ER90S-B9 ER308 ER308L ER309 ER309L These values are not required in the test certificate ER347 5.A3. ksi / Mpa 78 / 540 68 / 470 60 / 410 Elongation In 2 inch (50.2 (Contd. 5.28 5.) MECHANICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENT FOR ALL-WELD METAL Electrode SFA No.28 5.9 5.2% of Proof Stress..28 5.WELDING MANUAL 30 Table.9 5.9 5.9 Tensile Strength Ksi / MPa 90 / 620 80 / 550 90 / 620 Yield Strength at 0.9 NOTE: a) Single values are minimum. b) Manufacturer‟s certification to have met the requirements of ASME-Section II Part C is acceptable in cases where the mechanical properties are not reflected.89 Mpa. .
Where filler metals are supplied by manufacturing unit. Ensure that electrode packets received are free from physical damage. 4.WELDING MANUAL 31 RECEIPT INSPECTION OF WELDING ELECTRODES / FILLER WIRES 1. inspect for damages. Endorse acceptance/rejection on the test certificate. Only electrodes identified in the “list of approved vendors of welding electrodes” are to be accepted. if any. Where electrodes are damaged. Refer tables of chemical compositions and mechanical properties for acceptance. 3. All electrodes/filler wires received at site stores shall be segregated for type and size of electrode. the same shall be removed from use. 2. 7. 6. . Ensure availability of relevant test certificates. 5.
g.2.4.3 2.4 2. Specification Brand Name* TGS-M / Union1 Mo TGS 1CM TGS 2CM / Union1CrMo 910 MTS-3 TGS – 347/ Thermanit H347 Colour Code Green Silver grey / White Brown / Red Yellow Blue RT 1/2 Mo (ER80S-G / ER 70S-A1) RT 1 Cr 1/2 Mo (ER80S-G / ER 80SB2) RT 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo (ER90S-G/ ER 90S – B3) RT 9 Cr 1Mo 1/4 V(ER90S-B9 ) RT 347 (ER347) (*or other approved equivalents) 2.1 2. . The electrodes/filler wire shall be segregated and identified for a.0 1.2 2. codify the filler wires as below.1 2. Both ends shall be colored. Maintain the temperature of the storage facility above the ambient temperature.3 2.g.2. in case embossing is not available on either ends.3 2.4.0 2.2 2. a suitable colour distinct from Table 1 shall be applied. maintain a record of coding used.4.5 Where another set of colour code is followed. E7018.2.1 2.2 2. b. Type of electrode e. 2. Where the filler wire is cut. Avoid storing wood inside the storage room. The storage area shall be clean and dry. Dia 3.4 2. PROCEDURE: Only materials accepted (based on receipt inspection) shall be taken into account for storage. For other filler wires. Size of electrode e. This can be achieved by the use of appropriate heating arrangements.WELDING MANUAL 32 STORAGE & IDENTIFICATION OF WELDING ELECTRODES/FILLER WIRES 1.4.2. apply the appropriate colour code at both ends of the piece.4.5 SCOPE: This procedure is applicable for storage of welding electrodes/filler wires used at sites.2. or brand name embossed end to be retained for identification. Access shall be restricted to authorised personnel.1 Colour coding for filler wires: On receipt of GTAW filler wires. Steel racks may be used for storage.4 2.15 mm. AWS No. Storage Facility: The storage facility shall be identified.
0 4.1.2 This section details activities regarding drying and holding of welding electrodes used at sites.5. 4. On opening a packet of electrodes. GTAW Filler Wires: These wires do not require any drying. Do not use oily or wet gloves.0 4.3 4.2 4. The electrode shall not be subjected to more than two cycles of drying. raise the drying oven temperature to the desired range as per table in 4. Note the time when the temperature reaches the desired range. grease with electrodes.2.WELDING MANUAL 33 DRYING AND HOLDING OF WELDING ELECTRODES 1. transfer the electrodes to holding oven.1.2.1 2. avoid contact of oil. Avoid mix up. They shall preferably have a temperature control facility upto 400°C for drying oven and 200°C for holding oven. After loading. PROCEDURE: While handling. Covered Electrodes: Drying and holding : Identify drying oven and holding oven. On completion of drying.0 3.2. A calibrated thermometer shall be provided for monitoring temperature.1.4 . segregate and place them in the drying oven.3 4.1 4. It is recommended that not more than two days‟ requirements are dried.2.1 4.0 4.0 2.2.1 4.2.0 SCOPE: 1.1.2 3.1 2. maintain a minimum temperature of 150°C till issue.2.5. Maintain this temperature for the duration required as per Table in 4.
Maintain a register containing following details: Brand Name Batch No. Baking Temp. reach time Time of transfer to holding oven
Sl.No. 1 2 3
Redrying and Holding Parameters AWS Classification E7018 E7018-1 E7018-A1 E8018-B2 E9018-B3 E8018-B2L E9018-B3L E9018-B9 E309 & E347 Redrying (*) Temperature °C Size- 300 250 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 Time (Hours) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 Minimum Holding Temperature °C (@) 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150
Note : (*) Guideline has been given however, supplier‟s recommendations shall be followed. Note : (@) Maintain the temperature in the oven till issue. 4.2.6 After issue, maintain the electrodes in a portable oven at a minimum temperature of 65°C till use (not applicable for E6013 electrodes) Unused, returned electrodes shall be segregated and kept in the holding oven.
SELECTION AND ISSUE OF WELDING ELECTRODES / FILLER WIRES 1.0 1.1 SCOPE: This procedure details methods for selection and issue of welding electrodes/filler wires for site operations. PROCEDURE: Selection: The type of filler wire/electrode for welding shall be based on the details given in the contract documents like Erection Welding Schedule, drawings, Welding Procedure Specifications as supplied by the manufacturing units. Where not specified by the manufacturing units, selection shall be based on the tables enclosed. Where electrodes/ filler wires are not covered in the documents mentioned in 2.1.1., 2.1.2, refer to manufacturing units. Issue : Issue of welding electrodes / filler wires shall be based on authorised welding electrodes issue voucher. It is recommended to restrict quantity issued to not more than 4 hours‟ requirements. Redried low hydrogen electrodes shall be carried to the work spot in a portable oven. Maintain the temperature in the portable oven at the work spot above 65°C. Unused electrodes shall be returned and kept in the holding oven till reissue.
2.0 2.1 2.1.1
2.2.2 2.2.3 220.127.116.11 2.2.4
Table- A3.3 SELECTION OF GTAW FILLER WIRE, SMAW ELECTRODE FOR BUTT WELDS IN TUBES, PIPES AND HEADERS
P1 Gr 1 P1 Gr 2 P3 Gr 1 P4 Gr 1 P5A Gr 1 P15 E Gr 1
Welding Process GTAW SMAW GTAW SMAW GTAW SMAW GTAW SMAW GTAW GTAW
P1 Gr 1 P1 Gr 2 ER 70S-A1 E7018-1 Note 1 ER 70S-A1 E7018-1 ER 70S-A1 E7018-1 ER 70S-A1 E7018-1
P3 Gr 1
P4 Gr 1
P5A Gr 1
P15 E Gr 1
Cr Mo V
ER 70S-A1 E7018-A1 ER 70S-A1 E7018-A1 ER 70S-A1 E7018-A1 ER 80S-B2 E8018-B2 ER 80S-B2 E8018-B2 ER 90S-B3 E9018-B3 ER 90S-B3 E9018-B3 ER90S-B9 ER90S-B9 Note-3 E 9015-B9 / E 9018-B9 ERNiCr3 ENiCrFe3 ERNiCr3 ENiCrFe3 ER 90S-B3 E9018-B3 ER347 E347 ER 90S-B3 E9018-B3
P15 E Gr 1 SMAW P8 CrMoV Note 2 GTAW SMAW GTAW
SMAW Note-1 : E7018-A1 for P1 Gr2 + P1 Gr2 when PWHT is involved. Note-2 : DIN14MoV63 or equivalent Note-3 : For t > 20 mm,use ER 90S –B3 for the root welding
WELDING MANUAL 37 Table.4 SELECTION OF ELECTRODES FOR WELDING ATTACHMENTS TO TUBES Attachment Material Tube Material P1 Group 1 P4 Group 1 E 7018 E 7018-A1 E 8018-B2 E 9018-B3 E 309 P5A Group 1 E 7018 E 7018-A1 E 8018-B2 E 9018-B3 E 309 P8 E 7018-A1 E 7018-A1 E 7018-A1 E 7018-A1 E 347 P1 Group 1 P1 Group 2 P3 P4 Group 1 P5A Group 1 P8 E 7018 E 7018-A1 E 8018-B2 E 9018-B3 .A3.
PREHEAT.) Material Welding Requirements Electrode Preheat PWHT Electrode Preheat PWHT Electrode Preheat PWHT Electrode Preheat PWHT Electrode Preheat PWHT P1 P4 P5 A P8 Group 1 P8 Group 2 P 15E / 1 P1 P4 P5 A P8 E7018 Nil Nil E7018 (Note 2) 150 (Note 4) Nil (Note 2 & 3) E7018 150C (Note 4) Nil (Note 1 & 2) E309 Nil Nil - E8018-B2 150 (Note 4) Nil (Note 3) E8018-B2 150C (Note 4) Nil (Note 1) E309 Nil Nil - P 15 E / 1 E9018-B3 150C (Note 4) Nil (Note 1) E309 Nil Nil E9018-B3 220C 745 + 15 C E347 Nil Nil ENi Cr Fe3 220C 745 + 15 C E309 Nil Nil ENi Cr Fe3 220C 745 + 15 C E9015-B9 220C 760 + 10 C Note – 1 : When P5 A material thickness is more than 10 mm. PWHT FOR ATTACHMENT TO ATTACHMENT WELDS (Seal Bands. End Bars. .5 SELECTION OF ELECTRODES. preheat and PWHT requirement for welding end bar lifting lug are as follows: End Bar Lifting Lug P1 P1 End Bar P4 P5 Electrode E8018-B2 E9018-B3 Preheat C 150 150 PWHT C 640 – 670 680 – 710 Note – 3: When P4 material thickness is more than 13 mm PWHT required. PWHT is required. Note – 4 : Preheat is not required for P4up to 16 mm & for P5 A up to 12 mm. PWHT is required irrespective of thickness. Note – 2 : Electrode.A3. End Bar Lifting Lugs and Collector Plates etc. Note . if PWHT is carried out.WELDING MANUAL 38 Table. High Crown Bars.5: For load carrying members.
6 SELECTION OF ELECTRODES FOR WELDING NOZZLE ATTACHMENTS. PIPES. RG PLUG ETC. HAND HOLE PLATE. Pipe Material Attachment Material P1 P3 P4 P5 A P15 E/1 P8 P1 P4 P5 A P15 E/1 CrMoV Note 1 E7018-1 - - E7018-1 E8018-B2 - E8018-B2 E9018-B3 E9018-B3 E9018-B3 E9018-B3 E9015-B9 / E9018-B9 - ENiCrFe3 ENiCrFe3 ENiCrFe3 ENiCrFe3 Note 1 : DIN 14MoV63 or equivalent. Header. . TO HEADERS.WELDING MANUAL 39 Table.A3.
WELDING MANUAL 40 Table – A3.1 SAW Wires C O2 Wires Note 1 : E 6013 Electrodes can be used for all non-load carrying welds of all thickness of IS 2062 plates upto 20 mm thickness and 8 mm fillets.7 SELECTION OF ELECTRODES FOR NON-PRESSURE PARTS (INCLUDING STRUCTURES) (NOTE 1) Material SMAW Electrodes For butt welds 6 mm: E 6013 > 6 mm: E 7018 P1 + P1 For fillets 8 mm : E 6013 >8 mm: E 7018 Carton Steel + P1 Carton Steel + Carton Steel E 6013 or E 7018 E 8018 – B2 EL 8 EM 12 K EL 8 EM 12 K EM 12 K EB 2 E 81 T 1 – B2 E 71 T . .
60 1.20 2.00 0.252.25 0.00 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Types of Weld Deposit Mild steel Carbon-Molybdenum Chrome (0.75 0.00 6.00 0.00 1.00 2.15 0.65 0.50 1.250.0015.85 1.0037.50 11.00 15.65 0.WELDING MANUAL 41 TABLE. No.00 4.00 19.00 1.25 Si 1.00 3.15 0.00 2.0030.252. .401.401.70 1.15 0.15 0.00 1.20 0.0030.80 Mn 1.00 1.60 1.00 2.006.80 Ni – – – – – – – 7.804.5015.55 0.400.60 1.15 0.00 1.50 0.50 0.60 1.A3.00 14.00 1.15 0.4% to 2%)Molybdenum Chrome (2% to 6%)Molybdenum Chrome (6% to 10.50 Mo – 0.250.5030.15 0.15 0.0010.50 0.00 0.5%)Molybdenum Chrome-Martensitic Chrome-Ferritic Chromium-Nickel Chromium-Nickel Nickel to 4% Manganese-Molybdenum Nickel-Chrome-Molybdenum Analysis.00 2.00 – – 1.8 A NUMBERS CLASSIFICATION OF FERROUS WELD METAL ANALYSIS FOR PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION A.400.00 6.00 Note 1: Single values shown above are maximum.30 0.00 11.00 1.00 1.402.70 1.50 2.752. % (Note 1) C 0.15 Cr – 0.17 0.
5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.9 F.5 ASME Specification No.4 other than austenitic and duplex SFA-5.1 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.A3.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex SFA-5. .1 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.No.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.WELDING MANUAL 42 Table.1 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5. Steel and Steel Alloys EXX20 EXX22 EXX24 EXX27 EXX28 EXXX(X)-26 EXX20-X EXX27-X EXX12 EXX13 EXX14 EXX19 E(X)XX13-X EXX10 EXX11 E(X)XX10-X E(X)XX11-X EXX15 EXX16 EXX18 EXX18M EXX48 EXXX(X)-15 EXXX(X)-16 EXXX(X)-17 E(X)XX15-X E(X)XX16-X E(X)XX18-X E(X)XX18M E(X)XX18M1 AWS Classification No.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.4 SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex SFA-5.1 SFA-5.
4 austenitic and duplex SFA-5.10 SFA-5.18 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 E1100 E3003 ER1100 R1100 ER1188 R1188 ER5183 R5183 ER5356 R5356 ER5554 R5554 ER5556 .9 43 AWS Classification No.30 SFA-5.25 SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex SFA-5.No.28 SFA-5.9 SFA-5.22 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.29 SFA-5.3 SFA-5.30 EXXX(X)-15 EXXX(X)-16 EXXX(X)-17 All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications INMs-X IN5XX IN3XX(X) Aluminium and Aluminium-Base Alloys 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 SFA-5.10 SFA-5. SFA-5.23 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex SFA-5.WELDING MANUAL Table.17 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.2 SFA-5.30 SFA-5. 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ASME Specification No.20 SFA-5.26 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.3 SFA-5.A3. F.
10 SFA-5. SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.0 ER2319 R2319 Copper And Copper Alloys 31 31 32 32 SFA-5.0 R-A356.0 R357.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.0 R-C355.7 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5. R5556 ER5654 R5654 E4043 ER4009 R4009 ER4010 R4010 R4011 ER4043 R4043 ER4047 R4047 ER4145 R4145 ER4643 R4643 R206.No.WELDING MANUAL 44 TABLE.9(CONTD.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.A3.) F NUMBERS GROUPING OF ELECTRODES AND WELDING RODS FOR QUALIFICATION F.10 AWS Classification No.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.6 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.6 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.0 R-A357.10 SFA-5.7 ECu ERCu ECuSi ERCuSi-A .10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.3 SFA-5.10 SFA-5. 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 ASME Specification No.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.
7 ERCuNiAl SFA-5.8 RBCuZn-B SFA-5.8 RBCuZn-A SFA-5.14 ERNi-1 SFA-5.14 SFA-5.A3.30 IN61 ENiCu-7 ERNiCu-7 ERNiCu-8 IN60 .30 IN67 SFA-5.6 ECuNiAl SFA-5.14 SFA-5.7 ERCuNi SFA-5.7 ERCuAl-A3 SFA-5.6 ECuSn-C SFA-5.6 ECuSn-A SFA-5.7 ERCuAl-A1 SFA-5.6 ECuNi SFA-5.7 ERCuSn-A SFA-5.No.8 RBCuZn-D SFA-5. SFA-5.7 ERCuMnNiAl Nickel And Nickel Alloys SFA-5.30 SFA-5.8 RBCuZn-C SFA-5.6 ECuAl-B SFA-5.) F NUMBERS GROUPING OF ELECTRODES AND WELDING RODS FOR QUALIFICATION F.6 ECuMnNiAl SFA-5.WELDING MANUAL 45 TABLE.7 ERCuAl-A2 SFA-5.6 ECuAl-A2 SFA-5.9 (CONTD.11 ENi-1 SFA-5.11 SFA-5. 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 ASME Specification No. AWS Classification No.
16 SFA-5.9 (CONTD.WELDING MANUAL 46 TABLE.24 ERZr2 ERZr3 ERZr4 Hard-Facing Weld Metal Overlay 71 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 SFA-5. SFA5. 45 45 45 45 45 ASME Specification No.14 SFA5.11 SFA5.14 AWS Classification No. ENiCrMo-11 ERNiCrMo-1 ERNiCrMo-8 ERNiCrMo-9 ERNiCrMo-11 45 ERNiFeCr-1 Titanium And Titanium Alloys 51 51 51 51 52 53 53 54 55 SFA-5.No.16 SFA-5.14 SFA5.14 SFA5.16 ERTi-1 ERTi-2 ERTi-3 ERTi-7 ERTi-4 ERTi-9 ERTi-9ELI ERTi-12 ERTi-5 Zirconium And Zirconium Alloys 61 61 61 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.14 SFA5.A3.24 SFA-5.21 E Co Cr – A & All classifications ER Co Cr – A & All classifications .16 SFA-5.) F NUMBERS GROUPING OF ELECTRODES AND WELDING RODS FOR QUALIFICATION F.24 SFA-5.13 72 SFA-5.
14 5.7 5.15 5.16 5.3 5.5 5.9 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.18 5.WELDING MANUAL 47 SFA CLASSIFICATION SFA NO.4 5.6 5.2 5.20 Filler Metal Procurement guidelines Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Rods for Oxy fuel Gas Welding Aluminium and Aluminium Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Covered Copper and Copper Alloy Arc Welding Electrodes Copper and Copper Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes Filler Metal for Brazing and Braze Welding Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods Bare Aluminium and Aluminium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods Nickel and Nickel Alloy Welding Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting Surfacing electrodes for shielded metal arc welding Nickel and Nickel Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods Welding Electrodes and Rods for Cast Iron Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welding Rods and Electrodes Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Carbon Steel electrodes and rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding .17 5.10 5.1 5.8 5. DESCRIPTION 5.01 5.
WELDING MANUAL 48 SFA CLASSIFICATION SFA NO.26 5.25 5.23 5. DESCRIPTION 5.29 5.31 5.32 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electro-slag Welding Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electro-gas Welding Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding Consumable Inserts Fluxes for Brazing and Braze Welding Welding Shielding gas .21 5.24 5.28 5.22 Bare electrodes and rods for surfacing Stainless Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding and Stainless Steel Flux Cored Rods for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding 5.30 5.
WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER .A4 49 CHAPTER .A4 PROCEDURE FOR WELDER QUALIFICATION .
Figure.Welder Qualification Requirements.0 SCOPE: This chapter details the procedure for qualification of welder and performance monitoring. Figure-1 Fillet Weld Break Specimen.1 . Qualification of Welder. Figure.5 Pipe Butt Weld Specimen. 4.7 Bend Test Jig. 1. Record of Welder Performance Qualification Tests. Table. Figure.A4 50 PROCEDURE FOR WELDER QUALIFICATION 1.2 Method of Rupturing. Figure.WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER . Welder performance monitoring. Figure. 2.A4. 3.0 .3 Positions. Figure.4 Plate Butt Weld Specimen. CONTENTS: 1. 5.1 2.6 Bend Test Specimen.
2 For width and number of bend specimens.4 18.104.22.168 3.3 For Pipe Welder : 3. For structural tack welds. refer Figure-1.1 Break Test as per Figure-2. side bend test ( 2 Specimens) shall be done and the width of specimens shall be 10 mm .2. For Plate thickness greater than 10 mm.1 2.WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER .1 Minimum of 2 specimens for bend test. TEST COUPON: Depending on the range to be qualified.1 3. REQUIREMENT OF TESTS: For Structural Tack Welders: 1.1 2. details of edge preparation shall be as per Figure-4. 3. choose the appropriate test coupon from Table – A4. Width of specimen shall be 38 mm for plate thickness upto 10 mm.3 2. refer below: .1. For pipe butt welds. details of edge preparation shall be as per Figure-5.1 The order of removal of test specimens shall be as per Figure-6.2 2.2 For Plate Butt Welds: 3.0 2. 3.1 For plate butt welds. one for root bend and other for face bend.A4 51 QUALIFICATION OF WELDER 1.0 BASE METAL: For selection refer Tables in Chapter II. 3.
W . Base Metal : A change in thickness or pipe diameter beyond the limits prescribed in Table.0 10. Joint : A change from one type of bevel to another.1 4.6 < 50.1.8 <= 25.2 4.WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER . for other thicknesses (t) the dimension shall be as below : A B C D = = = = 4t 2t 6t + 3. ESSENTIAL VARIABLES : Changes to the following variables require requalification.101.1 4. sharp corners to be rounded off.Width of bend test specimen in mm.8 .0 4.2 mm 3t + 1.0 mm.1.1 4.6 50. Procedure and acceptance criteria are as per NDE Manual.5 Radiographic examination of test welds may be carried out in lieu of bend tests. 3.4 (**) for thickness substituted. Example : „vee‟ bevel to „u‟ bevel.Outer diameter of pipe in mm.0 mm may be (++) Cut into 4 equal sections (with allowance for saw cuts or machine cutting).A4 52 OD > 101.3 . 3.0 19. W 38. of Bend Specimens Face Root Side 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 10. OD .6 mm The above values are nominal.A4.4 For bend test jig refer Figure-7. Process : Example : Change from GTAW to SMAW or vice versa.1. for thickness of bend specimen 10.0 (++) greater than No. side bend test (**) (**) (**) of width 10.0 mm.
1.6 Gas: This procedure envisages test to pre-prescribed gas as for production welds. 4.1.4 Filler Metal: A change from one F number to another F-number. Not more than 1 porosity (max. 4. b) No lack of fusion or incomplete penetration. .1 4. Deviation to this is not recommended. diameter of porosity 2 mm). 4.1. DCEN (Electrode Negative) to DCEP (Electrode Positive) and vice versa. except as specified in Table-A4. porosity diameter 2mm).1.1. Deviation to this is not recommended. c) Not more than 1 porosity in a length of 100 mm of length of weld (max. Plate/Pipe Welding : Visual Inspection : a) No cracks.WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER .A4 53 4.7 Electrical Characteristics: a) AC to DC and vice versa.8 Technique : This procedure envisages only use of uphill progression technique.5 Positions: This procedure envisages qualification of welders to perform in all positions. Undercut not exceeding 1 mm. b) In DC. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA : Structural Tack Welding : No cracks. No lack of fusion.
A4 54 5. slag inclusions. For corrosion –resistant weld overlay cladding. as applicable.0 8. no open discontinuity exceeding 1/16 in.0 7. b. Due to non-engagement of the welder for a continuous period of 6 months. VALIDITY : When a welder meets the requirements of this procedure. with sufficient back up records.QW-163 ) The weld and heat-affected zone of a transverse weld-bend specimen shall be completely within the bent portion of the specimen after testing.(3mm) shall be permitted along the approximate weld interface. based on satisfactory performance. and no open discontinuity exceeding 1/8 in.1 RETESTS: A welder who fails to meet the acceptance criteria for one or more test specimens. (1. Where there is a specific reason to doubt the skill of the welder.0 Acceptance Criteria .Bend Tests ( ASME Sec IX. or other internal discontinuities.(3 mm). shall be permitted in the cladding. The guided –bend specimens shall have no open discontinuity in the weld or heataffected zone exceeding 1/8 in.1 8.WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER . . 7.1 REQUALIFICATION : Requalification is required for the following : a.0 6. the validity will be for a maximum of 2 years from the date of test. measured in any direction on the convex surface of the specimen after bending. The validity may be extended by one year each time. 6. limited to validity specified by statutory authority.5 mm). may be retested as per this procedure after adequate practice. Open discontinuities occurring on the corners of the specimen during testing shall not be considered unless there is definite evidence that they result from lack of fusion. measured in any direction.
Tested for pipe / tube / plate / tack. Figure-5 : Pipe Butt Weld Specimen.1 : Welder Qualification Requirements. Figure-6 : Order of Removal of Test Specimen. Age. Remarks. Figure-4 : Plate Butt Weld Specimen. 2. Performance Test No. 7.WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER . 10. RECORDS: The welding in charge at site shall maintain the following records: a) b) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Record of Welder Performance qualification Test (as per format).0 ENCLOSURES : 1. Figure-7 : Bend test Jig. 8. Table -A4. Validity. 3. Figure-3 : Weld Positions. 9.A4 55 9. 6. Record of Welder Performance Qualification Test. Pertinent radiography reports. Welder Code. Register of qualified welders (employer-wise) containing the following details: Name of welder. Copies of welder identity card (including details as in 9 b and relevant variables qualified). . 4. 5. The above register shall be updated for deletions also. Figure-1: Structural Tack Weld Specimen. Figure-2 : Break Test.
F1 F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below Remarks Refer Fig.3 Fig.3 Range Qualified Dia.3 Refer Fig. .do t<25mm t13mm .No. t t=10mm or 12mm t25mm . 1.3 Fig.3 Electrode6 to be used Note 2. 3G & 4G 2G.3 1 Structural tack P1 Gr 1 2 Plate Welder (Structural) Plate Welder (Other than structural) 3 * Also qualifies for welding fillet welds on material of unlimited thickness.3 Fig. Test For Weld Positions 3F & 4F 3F & 4F 3G & 4G Reference Figure Fig.do OD>73mm t<13mm t13mm F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 3G & 4G 2G. 4 F2. 1.& above 25mm & above 73mm & above T2t T-Unlimited Position Qualified All All All All All All All All All All All Electrode Qualified Note 2.1 Base6 Metal Note 1 Test Coupon Dimension OD.WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER .3 Fig.3 Fig.do t<13mm OD<25mm OD25mm & 73mm 4 Pipe Welder .3 Fig.2mm* 2t T-Unlimited OD610mm T2t OD610mm Test piece Dia.A4 WELDER QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Table – A4. 1 & 2 Fig. 4 (E6013) F2 (E7018) F4 F4 Sl. 3G & 4G 6G 6G 6G 6G 6G Fig.3 Fig. & T T-Unlimited T-Unlimited T3. 1 & 2 Fig.2mm* T>3.
D. Base material limitation: a. For P grouping refer Chapter II. b. B. for other base materials. 6. except as stated below in A. B. For F grouping refer Chapter III. 3. corresponding electrodes are to be chosen. Base material indicated is carbon steel. 5. Where qualification is for GTAW followed by SMAW. C & D..A4 57 Table – A4. Diameter and thickness limitations apply as per Table –A4. t = thickness of test coupon. qualifies for that F-number only. the welder is also qualified upto 6 mm thickness by GTAW process. Qualification is limited to the base material. T = thickness qualified. C. he is also qualified for alloy steel and vice versa. A. process and filler F group. the corresponding filler wire should be chosen. Use appropriate F group electrodes. For non-ferrous materials. . Qualification in F5 qualifies for F5 only.1 (contd. Qualification in any of F41 thro‟ F45 qualifies for F41 thro‟ F45. Where test coupons belong to P1 thro‟ P15F. welder is qualified for base materials P1 thro‟ P15F. Qualification in F4 qualifies for F4 and below. Also for GTAW process.. Qualification in one F number.( ASME Sec IX QW 423. Alternate base material for welder qualification) It means.) NOTES: 1. 4. 2.WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER . if a welder is qualified with carbon steel material.1 OD = outer diameter. the base materials shall be typical of production material and appropriate filler materials shall be selected.
WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER .A4 58 TACK WELDER QUALIFICATION .
A4 59 .WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER .
WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER .A4 60 .
WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER .A4 61 .
A4 62 .WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER .
WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER . of pipe): Shielding Gas(es) Filler Material: SFA No. & Results: Polarity: Post-heat Temp: Results Results Results Results Agency Conducting Test : We certify that the statement in this record is correct and that the test weld were prepared. welded and tested in accordance with requirements. This is valid upto __________________________ Welding In-charge / BHEL . ) Welding Process: Position(s) Qualified: Dia Qualified: TEST MATERIAL Specification: Thickness (and Dia. Site: Date: Welder’s Name & Address: Welder Code: Material Groupings permitted: Thickness Qualified: (This performance test is as per Procedure No.A4 63 RECORD OF WELDER PERFORMANCE – QUALIFICATION TEST Performance Test No.: AWS Classification: PROCESS VARIABLES Position of test weld: Pre-heat temp: Test Joint Sketch Current: Inter Pass Temp: Test Results Type of Bend Type of Bend Type of Bend Type of Bend Radiography Ref.
5.2 For welds dia.1.5% defects: performance is satisfactory else unsatisfactory. 2. 2. .1 Requalification of welder shall be called for when there is a specific reason to question his ability to make acceptable welds. 2.7 is not satisfied for any particular welder.5. 2.9 mm: 2.1 Under circumstances when clause 22.214.171.124 2.5. Extent of radiography shall be representative of weekly outputs of the welder.7. 2. he may be disengaged from the job till such time his performance is evaluated for the month in study.2.5 2.2 Upto and including 5% defects: Performance is satisfactory else unsatisfactory. This procedure is applicable where radiography is performed.0 2.1 The percentage of defects is calculated as a percentage of number of unaccepted welds to those radiographed.2. 88. 2.3 2.6 When a welder gives unsatisfactory performance for a continuous period of 3 months.1 2. > 88.9 mm and plate welds: 2. 2.1 The percentage of defects is calculated as a percentage of length of defects to the length radiographed.2 Upto and including 2.0 PURPOSE: This procedure deals with monitoring the performance of welders engaged at sites. 2.5.6. 2.4 PROCEDURE: The welder performance shall be monitored on a calendar month basis.6.7 Welds produced during any month shall be radiographed and evaluated latest by 10th of the succeeding month. This shall override requirements of clause 2.1 Welder performance evaluation: For welds dia.5. he shall be requalified.A4 64 WELDER PERFORMANCE MONITORING 1. Evaluation of welds radiographed shall be as per NDE manual or other documents as specifically applicable.WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER . Quantum of radiography shall be as per contractual requirements.
A4 65 2.1 RECORDS: Welding in-charge shall prepare and maintain Welder Performance Records.1 reviewing the situations for non-compliance with Cl.WELDING MANUAL CHAPTER .7 and may allow engagement of the welder in question for a period not exceeding one successive month to the month in study.7. .0 3.2.2 Site in-charge may waive the restriction imposed in 2. 3.7. welderwise.
INSPECTION OF WELDING 66 CHAPTER .A5 INSPECTION OF WELDING .WELDING MANUAL A5.
4 3.2 2. 2. The root opening of components to be joined shall be adequate to provide acceptable penetration.4 3. wall thicknesses and out-of-roundness as below: Maximum permissible mis-alignment at bore Bore (mm) Upto 100 Over 100 to 300 Over 300 4.0 2.2 While fit up. WELD FIT-UP INSPECTION: The surface to be welded shall be smooth and free from deep notches.6 mm . Erection Welding Schedule (supplied by Units) or equivalent. Misalignment (mm) For GTAW For SMAW 1. The condition of welded surfaces to be inspected must be clean and dry. Welding Procedure Specification. Indian Boiler Regulations (for boilers erected in India) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: Ensure that the components to be welded are in accordance with the contract drawings.3 4.0 3.0 1.6 2. oil. NOTE : Wherever pre heating is done. Root gaps shall be maintained at 1.3 Max. rust. Piping.2 3.0 4.WELDING MANUAL A5. INSPECTION OF WELDING 67 INSPECTION OF WELDING 1. where supplied.5 4. scale. Welding Schedule and other relevant documents. tubing and headers to be joined shall be aligned within allowable tolerances on diameters.1 2. There shall be sufficient lighting to allow proper interpretation of visual inspection. grease and other foreign materials.2. components to be welded shall not show any appreciable off-set or misalignment when viewed from positions apart. welding in progress and completed welds. although in most instances a small opening between the parts is desirable.6 1.4mm (refer relevant document).3 2.1 4. irregularities.4 4. On fillet welds.6 1. the parts to be joined shall be brought as close to contact as practical.0 PURPOSE: This procedure provides details for performing visual inspection of weld fit-ups.6 .0 1.1 REFERENCE: Contract drawings. ensure the root gap before welding 4.
INSPECTION OF WELDING 68 4. pin-holes or incomplete fusion. overlaps. grooves.0 or 1/8 of weld width .0 Max of 6.0 5. provided adequate reinforcement is present.5 6.0 4.0 6. Where inside surface is readily accessible. Tack welds are examined by the welder before they are incorporated in the final weld.6 For plate butt welds. abrupt ridges and valleys.0 Over 3 to 5 Over 5 to 13 Over 13 to 25 Over 25 to 50 Over 50 Reinforcement in mm 2. Excess penetration: up to and including 3.2 mm.5 mm or 20% of thickness at weld. CHECKS ON THE COMPLETED WELD: No visible cracks.3 6. The permissible limits are given below : Root concavity: max of 2. The weld surface must be sufficiently free of coarse ripples. to maintain inert gas shield.1 6.4 5.7 5.2 5.0 6. Ensure correct electrode / filler metal is used for welding.5 5. For circumferential joints in piping and tubing the maximum weld reinforcements permitted are given below : Maximum Permissible Reinforcements ( ASME Sec I –PW 35) Thickness of base metal in mm Upto 3. whichever is lesser. the weld reinforcement should not exceed 3.3 5.1 5. Undercuts not to exceed 0. Ensure proper cleaning of weld between beads.8 mm or 10% of wall thickness whichever is less. visible slag inclusions. Ensure proper re-drying / holding of electrodes prior to use. CHECKS DURING WELDING OPERATION: Ensure the required minimum preheat temperature is maintained during welding.4 6. 6. porosity and adjacent starts and stops. Ensure inter pass temperature is not exceeded during welding.6 6.0 5.5 3.2 mm.2 Weld area should be protected from drafts and wind. the same shall be inspected for excess penetration and root concavity.WELDING MANUAL A5.
6. The faces of fillet welds are not excessively convex or concave and the weld legs are of proper length. INSPECTION OF WELDING 69 6.8 In case of weld joints in pressure parts and joints like ceiling girder.7 There shall be no overlaps. the weld joint must be suitably identified. .WELDING MANUAL A5.
A6 REPAIR WELDING . REPAIR WELDING 70 CHAPTER .WELDING MANUAL A6.
2.0 2. based on visual inspection or NDE.1 .2.2.1 Where thermal gouging is done.1 2.0 4. NDE records shall be maintained. Repair welding shall be carried out as per the procedure for the initial weld.2 PURPOSE: This procedure details steps to be taken for weld repairs. PROCEDURE: Unacceptable welds. The profile of ground portion shall be smooth and wide enough to permit proper fusion during repair welding. 2. adopt the requirements of preheating as detailed in Heat Treatment Manual. Where the defect volume is high. Repeat steps 2.2. PT.6 2. Removal of Defects: The identified defect area shall be marked on the part. Repair weld shall undergo the same type of NDE as the initial weld.5 2.4 Removal of defects shall be verified by visual inspection.1 2.1 2.8 3. RT as appropriate.7 2.2. shall be repaired. 2.3 2. only grinding is permitted for the last 6 mm from the root.WELDING MANUAL A6. MT. RECORDS : Records pertaining to the repairs like Welder.6 till acceptable weld is made.0 4. REPAIR WELDING 71 REPAIR WELDING 1.1 to 126.96.36.199 2.0 1.2 However. Where a specific repair procedure is supplied by the Manufacturing Unit. the same shall be followed. 2. Cut and weld of joints is recommended. The defects may be removed by grinding/thermal gouging.
SAFE PRACTICES IN WELDING 72 CHAPTER .WELDING MANUAL A7.A7 SAFE PRACTICES IN WELDING .
of the safety aspects related to structural welding. The work lead should not be mistaken for a ground connection. SAFE PRACTICES IN WELDING 73 SAFE PRACTICES IN WELDING A7. or until a physician has arrived. Gases are produced during the welding process or may be produced by the effects of process radiation on the surrounding environment. To prevent shock. Worn. SAFE PRACTICES IN WELDING (This is included for information purposes only. Dry gloves and rubber soled shoes should be worn. equipment. Cables and connections should be kept in good condition. . However. Live electrical parts should not be touched. improper grounding. the power should be turned off immediately. A separate connection is required to ground the work-piece. Everyone associated with the welding operation should acquaint themselves with the effects of these fumes and gases. cutting. J2 Fumes and Gases Many welding. and any coating present on the base metal. the work area. In case of electric shock. Faulty installation. damaged or bare cables should not be used. it can be avoided. It includes many. and incorrect operation and maintenance of electrical equipment are all sources of danger. The hazards that may be encountered and the practices that will minimize personal injury and property damage are reviewed here.WELDING MANUAL A7. non-conducting materials should be used. If the rescuer must resort to pulling the victim from the live contact. A physician should be called and CPR continued until breathing has been restored. the base metal.) (Non-mandatory Information) This covers many of the basic elements of safety general to arc welding processes. The welder should stand on a dry board or insulated platform. but not all. Read and understand the manufacturer‟s instructions and recommended safe practices. J1 Electrical Hazards Electric shock can kill. All electrical equipment and the work-pieces should be grounded. and allied processes produce fumes and gases which may be harmful to one‟s health. Fumes and solid particles originate from welding consumables. and clothing should be kept dry at all times.
Personal protective devices such as ear muffs or ear plugs may be employed. and temporary or permanent. J4 Burn Protection Molten metal. dizziness. and hot work surfaces are produced by welding. there is evidence that excessive noise affects other bodily functions and behavior. Appropriate eye protection should be used at all times. Fumes can cause symptoms such as nausea. slag. SAFE PRACTICES IN WELDING 74 The possible effects of over-exposure to fumes and gases range from irritation of eyes. Insulated gloves should be worn at all times when in contact with hot items or handling electrical equipment. Excessive noise adversely affects hearing capability. these devices are only accepted when engineering controls are not fully effective. and respiratory system to more severe complications. exhaust at the arc. Workers should wear protective clothing made of fire resistance material. If any combustible substance is spilled on clothing it should be replaced with fire resistance clothing before working with open arcs or flame. should be worn. High top shoes or leather leggings and fire resistant gloves should be worn. and metal fumes fever. Exposure to excessive noise can cause a loss of hearing. Combustible materials should not be carried in pockets. should be used to keep fumes and gases from breathing zones and the general work area. as well as head covering to protect. Helmets or hand shields that provide protection for the face. This loss of hearing can be either full or partial. skin.WELDING MANUAL A7. In addition. Pant legs should be worn over the outside of high top boots. . Goggles or equivalent also should be worn to give added eye protection. and ears. Sufficient ventilation. cutting and allied process. Effects may occur immediately or at some later time. sparks. neck. or both. J3 Noise Excessive noise is a known health hazard. headaches. Clothing should be kept free of grease and oil. These can cause burns if precautionary measures are not used. Generally. Pant cuffs or clothing with open pockets or other places on clothing that can catch and retain molten metal or sparks should not be worn.
WELDING MANUAL A7. laser welding and torch welding. Containers should be cleaned and purged before applying heat. visible light. . vapours. If neither action is possible. Adequate ventilation should be provided in work areas to prevent accumulation of flammable gases. Heat should not be applied to a container that has held an unknown substance or a combustible material whose contents when heated can produce flammable or explosive vapours. All combustible materials should be removed or safely protected within a radius of 35 ft. move the work to a location well away from combustible materials. SAFE PRACTICES IN WELDING 75 J5 Fire Prevention Molten metal. Radiation can produce a variety of effects such as skin burns and eye damage. sparks. most arc welding and cutting processes (except submerged arc when used properly). Radiant energy may be ionizing (such as X-rays) or non-ionizing (such as ultraviolet. liquid. (11m) around the work area. vapours or dusts. and hot work surfaces are produced by welding. cutting and allied operations may produce radiant energy (radiation) harmful to health. or dust. J6 Radiation Welding. Everyone should acquaint themselves with the effects of this radiant energy. and allied processes. These can cause fire or explosion if precautionary measures are not used. brazing. Welding or cutting should not be done in atmospheres containing dangerously reactive or flammable gases. or dust. vapours. Where possible. cutting. liquid. combustibles should be protected with a cover or fire resistant material. if excessive exposure occurs. or infrared). Some processes such as resistance welding and cold pressure welding ordinarily produce negligible quantities of radiant energy. cutting. slag. However. Explosions have occurred where welding or cutting has been performed in spaces containing flammable gases. or soldering can produce quantities of non-ionizing radiation such that precautionary measures are necessary. All combustible material should b e removed from the work area.
walkways. 4. but rather. etc. or adequate distance from aisles. 2. Exposed skin should be protected with adequate gloves and clothing as specified. Safety glasses with ultraviolet protective side shields have been shown to provide some beneficial protection from ultraviolet radiation produced by welding arcs. 3. . Welding arcs should not be viewed except through welding filter plates. Transparent welding curtains are not intended as welding filter plates. 5. curtains. The casual passers by to welding operations should be protected by the use of screens.WELDING MANUAL 76 1. are intended to protect passers by from incidental exposure.
WELDING MANUAL 77 PART .B .
WELDING MANUAL 78 CHAPTER .B1 PRE-ASSEMBLY AND WELDING OF CEILING GIRDERS .
To accommodate weld shrinkage . Check. if required by grinding.Sweep by piano wire on bottom flange (max 3mm at joints & 10mm for assy) . Ensure temporary locking & welding of the pre-assembly before start of girder welding (Sketch-3) with provision for longitudinal movement during welding to avoid accumulation of thermal stresses & facilitates controlled weld shrinkage.Root gap (Flange=4 to 6mm. Check width between flanges and web height at fillet joint location (LHS & RHS) (Reduce web height before fit up. if any.Camber by water level on bottom flange (max 3mm at joint & 10mm for assy) . Web=6 to 8mm) . 3 .Length before welding = Drg length + root gap of flange joints 4 . Tolerances given above are indicative. so as to ensure minimum 3 mm gap at top & bottom for free expansion of web inside flanges on pre-heating). Check and repair damages of edge preparation of individual pieces.Web root gap 3-4 mm more than flange root gap . Identify Girder pieces – Check Work order / PGMA / DU No. 2 . after placement on bed before fit up. measure and record the following for the pre-assembly before welding (Sketch-2A/ Sketch 2B) (Also to measure & record after welding & PWHT) .Length between girder pin bolt hole centers (overall max 15 mm) .ASSEMBLY AND WELDING OF CEILING GIRDERS A) PREPARATION FOR PRE-ASSEMBLY: Prepare pre-assembly bed preferably inside boiler (Sketch -1A / Sketch 1B) . Use „L‟ clamps and wedges ( Tack welds are not permitted on the weld joints ) for web alignment to keep the joint free during welding of flange joints to facilitate weld shrinkage. . Ensure bottom support members are uniformly spaced and closer (approximately 1 metre) on either side of the joint to facilitate locking all around and avoid sagging during welding & PWHT. girder designation etc.Web verticality by plumb (To monitor distortion before & after welding) . Flange root gap will be absorbed during welding as weld shrinkage. B) PRE-ASSEMBLY FIT UP & ALIGNMENT: Do pre-assembly fit up and alignment of girder pieces following shop match marks.WELDING MANUAL 79 PRE .ensure . Place girder pieces on bed for pre-assembly in sequence as per drawing.Distance between punch marks at weld joints (To monitor weld shrinkage) NOTE: 1 .Diagonal difference (max 15 mm) .Boiler Main Columns on LHS & RHS may be used for supporting bottom beams of pre-assembly bed (Sketch-1A).
Ensure usage of approved welding electrodes with necessary baking before use. Engage qualified welders for welding. Carry electrodes always in portable ovens. Ensure pre-heating temperature after back grinding. Issue weld job card (Refer Exhibit) .WELDING MANUAL 80 C) PRE-ASSEMBLY WELDING WITH PRE-HEAT & POST-HEAT Weld thermocouples on top & bottom flange and web joints (Sketch-4). inter pass & post-heat temp of joints during welding including intermissions/stoppages with a calibrated temperature recorder. Record entire cycle of preheat. Start welding after ensuring required pre-heat and follow recommended weld sequence shrinkage. Arrange pre-heating of flange and web joints with electric resistance coil heaters. On completion of welding dress grind the welds for conducting NDE D) NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION (NDE): FLANGE BUTT JOINT: Root Back grinding : 100% LPI ( sketch-5 with 2 welders per joint) for effective control of weld Intermediate radiography for thickness > 80mm ( desired) On completion of weld 100 % RT for thickness >32mm & < 80mm 100 % UT for thickness > 80mm 100 % MPI for thickness > 25mm (after PWHT) WEB BUTT JOINT: Root Back grinding On completion of weld Spot RT for thickness <32mm 100% RT for thickness >32mm FILLET WELDS: Between flange and web 100% MPI (after PWHT) : 100% LPI .
WELDING MANUAL 81 E) PRE-HEATING. F) FINAL INSPECTION (AFTER PWHT): Grind / buff the Flange Butt & Fillet joints (site welds) and conduct MPI. apply grease. reassemble and lock the pin with pin assembly by tack welding of lock plates. buff clean the pin and seating surfaces. Buff Clean Cement wash in the HSFG bolt area and cleat angles at WB‟s location . (Refer Exhibit) Select midpoint of temperature range and control cycle within a tolerance of 15°C. Open the girder pin assembly. Arrange PWHT of flange and web joints with electric resistance coil heaters. Subsequently blue match girder pin top piece with girder. remove and complete lugs welding. Punch centre line of girder on flange thicknesses and top surface of top flange G) OTHER PREPARATORY WORKS FOR ERECTION: Blue match girder pin bottom piece with column and complete support lugs welding in position. Record PWHT cycle with a calibrated temperature recorder Identify PWHT chart with chart No & date and PWHT cycle with weld joint number. Clean all Site welds and paint with two coats of red oxide primer. Repeat all checks under section B and record measurements ( Sketch – 2A / 2B). Issue PWHT job card. tack weld support lugs in position. Review the cycle and record observations / acceptance on chart . POST HEATING & PWHT REQUIREMENTS : Refer WPS & Heat Treatment Manual PWHT CYCLE: Weld thermocouples on top & bottom flange and web joints (as per sketch-4). Mount the girder pin assembly on ceiling girder for easiness of erection of girder pins. Conduct LPI & maintain record.
WELDING MANUAL 82 CHAPTER – B1 PRE – ASSY SKETCHES .
WELDING MANUAL 86 .
WELDING MANUAL 87 .
WELDING MANUAL 88 .
WELDING MANUAL 89 .
WELDING MANUAL 90 Weld Sequence Sht. 1 of 2 .
7 alternatively and complete the web welding Weld root +two run (at flange +web) .WELDING MANUAL 91 WELDING SEQUENCE FOR CEILING GIRDER Sl.2 and 3 alternatively and complete the flange welding Weld three run at web Weld three run at web Weld three run at web Weld three run at web Follow steps 4.6. SEQ. 5.Fillet weld Weld root +two run (at flange +web) .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 5 4 5 3 1 2 Weld root run at flange Repeat step 1 and 2 and weld three runs Post heat and cool to room temperature Back grind and do LPI (at flange) Pre heat and weld Root + Three runs (at other side of the flange) Follow steps 1. 2 of 2 WELDING SEQUENCE Pre heat and weld root run at flange . No. post heat and cool to room temperature Back grinding and do LP (at web) Grind the flange welding and take intermediate RT if required Root run (at other side of the web) Root run (at other side of the web) Weld two run at web Weld two run at web Weld three run at flange Weld three run at flange Follow steps 1. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 6 7 6 7 1.Fillet weld Follow step 8 and 9 alternatively(each three run and complete flange +web fillet welding) Weld Sequence Sht. 2 and 3 alternatively and welding upto 60% of the thickness of the flange the mismatch and check the root gap of the web and grind if required Correct Weld root run (at web) Weld root run (at web) Weld two run (at web) Weld two run (at web).
.c/1 hour 250 deg. Drg Ref Dia X Thick Material Welder no.c/1 hour : 300 deg.WELDING MANUAL 92 BHEL : ___________________ SITE Unit No.c max 300 deg.(s) Date of welding Filler wire Electrode Preheat Post heat Inter pass temp : : 002 Area : Boiler/TG/PCP Date 26/11/2000 : 35/211 : GRBLHS : Flange : Web PL 40 x 25 PL 100X75 : IS2062Fe410B IS8500Fe540 : ST082(TOP) ST043(BOTTOM) : 26/11/200 : : E7018 E8018B2 : 150 deg c 150 deg.c max Welding Engr.c : 150deg. DU Joint No. PGMA. Card no.: _________________________ WELDING JOB CARD Unit no.
) JOB CARD Unit no. : Area Boiler/TG/PCP : Card no.R. PGMA. Drg Ref Dia x Thick Material NDE Cleared on : : : : 007 Date 04/01/2001 GRERWS (Unit-111) Flange : Web PL 36 x 25 PL 100X75 : IS2062Fe410B IS8500Fe540 : 04/01/2001 Report no. .c/hour : 630 635+/-15 : 165 165 : 62 65 Welding Engr.WELDING MANUAL 93 BHEL : ______________SITE Unit : ______________ (PWHT) Stress Relief (S. Actual Required Rate of heating Max deg c / hour 52 55 Soak temperature deg c Soak time Minutes Rate of cooling Max deg. DU Joint No.
WELDING MANUAL 94 .
WELDING MANUAL 95 CHAPTER .B2 ERECTION WELDING PRACTICE FOR SA335 P91 MATERIAL .
3. Edge preparation (EP) shall be done only by machining. lamination. If confirmed.1 When any defect like crack.0 SCOPE: This document details salient practices to be adopted during erection of SA335 P91 material. 2. b) At 1000 mm from the EP for identifying weld during PWHT. (1) Heating methods: Induction heating (2) Thermo couples : Ni-Cr / Ni-Al of 0. During machining /grinding. Root gap shall be 2 to 4 mm.WELDING MANUAL 96 ERECTION WELDING PRACTICE FOR SA335 P91 MATERIAL 1.1. a) At 200 mm from the EP for UT.1.1. Partial root weld of minimum 20mm length by GTAW and fit-up by a clamping arrangement is recommended. 3) Paint / Stencil : WO DU. In extreme cases .1 and 3. deposit noticed during visual examination the same shall be confirmed by Liquid Penetrant Inspection.2.0 3.2 All Edge Preparations done at site shall be subjected to Liquid Penetrant Inspection Weld build-up on Edge Preparation is prohibited. Heat No. 3.3 The weld fit-up shall be carried out properly to ensure proper alignment and root gap. 3.Recorders : 6 Points / 12 Points.0 FIXING OF THERMOCOUPLE (T/C) AND HEATING ELEMENTS DURING PREHEATING AND PWHT 3. grinding can be done with prior approval of Welding Engineer/Quality Assurance Engineer. it shall be referred to unit. 3. (LPI). as per the relevant drg & document.4 3.2 The fit-up shall be as per drawing.1 No Preheating is required for fixing T / C with resistance spot welding Following are the equipment / facilities for heating cycles. . root mismatch shall be within 1-mm. Suitable Reference punch marks shall be made on both the pipes (at least on three axis). Size.1 Cutting of P-91 material shall be done by band saw / hacksaw / machining / grinding only. (3) Temp.The necessary preheat and purging shall be done as per clause 4.5 mm gauge size. Use of site manufactured clamps for fit up is acceptable . care should be taken to avoid excessive pressure to prevent heating up of the pipe edges.1 ERECTION: Edge Preparation and fit up 3.2. Neither tack welds nor bridge piece shall be used to secure alignment.1.1 2.2.0 1. MATERIAL: Pipe materials shall be identified as follows:1) Colour Code : Brown & Red 2) Hard Stamping : Specification.
The flow rate is to be maintained during purging is 10 to 26 litres/minute and for shielding during GTAW is 8 to14 litres/minute. If not possible. The Argon to be used shall be dry. Provide continuous and adequate Argon Gas to ensure complete purging in the root area. Purging is not required in the case of nozzle and attachment welds. when they are not full penetration joints. The purging dam (blank) shall be fixed on either side of the weld bevel prior to pre-heating. solid purging gas chambers are to be used which can be removed after welding. The minimum pre-flushing time for purging before start of welding shall be 5 minutes.2. Start purging from inside of pipe when root temperature reaches 220deg C.99% conforming to Gr 2 IS 5760 –1998 shall be used for purging the root side of weld. Purging is to be done for root welding(GTAW) followed by two filler passes of SMAW in case of butt welds. After completion of the root welding followed by two filler passes. The Aluminium discs shall be firmly secured with a thin wire rope.2. only water-soluble paper is to be used. irrespective of the pipe size. CAUTION : ENSURE REMOVAL OF PURGE DAM ARRANGEMENT AFTER WELDING . The dam shall be fixed inside the pipe and it shall be located away from the heating zone. the purging dams made of Aluminium (or other suitable material like mild steel) and permanent gaskets may be provided during the weld fit-up work as indicated in the sketch.3 USING ALUMINIUM DAM ARRANGEMENT: In order to retain the Argon gas at the inside of the pipe near root area of the weld joint.2 ARRANGEMENT FOR PURGING : Argon gas of 99. Wherever possible.WELDING MANUAL 97 3. 3. the disc may be pulled outwards softly.(A minimum flow rate as per welding Procedure specification shall be maintained). Plastic foils that are watersoluble are NOT acceptable.
4 USING OF WATER SOLUBLE PAPER: The dams can be made of water-soluble paper for creating the purging chamber. The advantage in such dam arrangement is that dissolving in water can flush the dams. The following are different methods used.4:- . 3.3.2.WELDING MANUAL 98 .2.
CAUTION:. oil and dirt.0 WELDING / WELDERS QUALIFICATION: Only qualified welding procedures are to be used. Gas burners shall be employed to maintain the Temperature until the power resumes. taking care of shelf life. b. SMAW electrodes used must be dried in drying ovens with calibrated temperature Controller.100 deg C and hold it at this temp for one hour minimum. Welding filler wires are received with proper packing and marking which includes the relevant batch number for easy identification. 4. After completion of Welding bring down the temp to 80 .(Ref Fig . Welding shall be carried out with short arc and stringer bead technique only. The drying temp shall be as recommended by the electrode manufacturer. The electrodes shall be kept at minimum100 deg C in the flask. Preheating temp shall be maintained at 220 deg C (min) by using Induction heating. The PWHT shall commence after completing one hour of soaking.WELDING MANUAL 99 4. 4. .1034.3.1 The electrode GTAW wires issued to the welders should be controlled through issue slips. Electrodes are stored in their original sealed containers / packages until issued and kept in dry and clean environment as per the instructions of electrode manufacturers. The preheating arrangements shall be inspected and approved by welding engineer /Quality Assurance Engineer. c. The Temperature shall be ensured by using a Calibrated autographic recorder and two calibrated thermo couples fixed at 0 deg and 180 deg positions on both pipes 50 mm away from the EP. Welders log book to be maintained and welders performance to be monitored by site welding engineer / Quality assurance engineer. The drying Temp shall be 200 . d. Two additional spare thermocouple to be fixed(as described above) for emergency use.300 deg C for two hours if it is not specified by the manufacturer.2 WELDING: Root Welding shall be done using GTAW process ( as per WPS) five minutes after the start of argon purging. 4. Filler wire shall be cleaned and free from rust or oil. The applicable WPS for P91+P91 shall be WPS N0.No LPI / Wet MPI shall be carried out on weld before PWHT.3 STORAGE OF WELDING CONSUMABLES: a. 4. The thermocouple shall be welded with the condenser discharge portable spot welding machine.4 The inter-pass temperature shall not exceed 350 deg C. Portable flasks shall be used by the welders for carrying electrodes to the place of use.1) Alternate arrangements shall be made during power failure. Argon Purging shall be continued minimum two filler passes of SMAW. Welding consumables are received with proper packing and marking which includes the relevant batch number for easy identification.1 PREHEATING: Prior to start of pre heating ensure that surfaces are clean and free from grease. Welders Qualified as per ASME Sec IX and IBR on P91 material shall only be engaged. 4. The filler wires are stored in their original packages until issue and kept in dry and clean environment.
During the above period temperature shall be recorded through contact type Thermometer.(max) Thickness above 75mm . (Ref : Fig4) . The width of the heated circumferential band on either side of the weld must be at least 5 times the thickness of the weld. standby welding and heating equipments. (a) During start of preheating: In case of any power failure/interruption during preheating. In case of fillet joints the heating band shall be six times the thickness of the base material.55 deg C / hr.(max) (above 350 deg C) Thickness 50 to 75mm .) Following preventive measures shall be adopted until normal power supply or backup power supply through diesel generator is restored. The recording of time & temp shall be continuously monitored with a calibrated recorder right from preheating.100 deg C upto a length of 50mm on either side from weld centre line along the complete circumference of the pipe.. All records shall be reviewed by Welding Engineer prior to PWHT clearance. welding . An insulation of about 10mm thickness shall be provided between the cable and weld joint.75 deg C / hr.WELDING MANUAL 100 5.Thickness up to 50mm . Two stand by thermocouple shall also be provided on the weld in case of any failure of the thermocouple.2). PREVENTIVE MEASURES DURING POWER FAILURE AND NON-FUNCTIONING OF EQUIPMENT'S: No interruption is allowed during welding and PWHT.110 deg C / hr. 5. Root welding shall be continued after power is restored and preheating temperature is raised to 220 deg C. Heating shall be done by Induction heating only.0 POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT: Arrangements: . subject to a MINIMUM OF TWO HOURS.3 (b) During GTAW / SMAW: Use gas burner arrangement to maintain the temperature at 80 deg . shall have alternative arrangements. This will be ensured at every one hour by site authorized personnel. (diesel generator for providing power to the welding and heating equipments. the weld fit-up shall be insulated and brought to room temperature.A minimum of four thermocouples shall be placed such that at least two are on the weld and the other two on the base material on either side of the weld within the heating band at 180 degrees apart about 50mm from the weld joint. The PWHT temp for P91 with P91 material shall be 760 + 10 deg C and the soaking time shall be 2. 5.(max) Thickness = Actual thickness as measured. reserve thermocouple connections. Hence all the equipment for the purpose of power supply.5 minutes per mm of weld thickness. The rate of heating / cooling :. (Ref: Fig 3) 5. After the electric supply resumes the joint shall be preheated as per Clause No: 4.2 INSULATION: The width of the insulation band beyond the heating band shall be at least two times the heating band width on either side of the weld ment. gas burner arrangement for maintaining temp etc.1 Obtain the clearance for post weld heat treatment cycle from QAE / Welding Engineer.1. (Ref Fig . heating etc.
During post weld heat treatment. 3) During cooling (above 350 deg C ).UNDER TO COME NO IN CIRCUMSTANCES ANY WATER/LIQUID IS ALLOWED CONTACT WITH WELD AS WELL AS PREHEATED PORTION OF PIPE. (Ref: Fig 5) Care shall be taken to avoid faster cooling rate by adequate insulation. . The actual PWHT chart shall be monitored for the following: a) Preheat b) Inter pass Temperature (GTAW + SMAW) c) Controlled cooling and Holding at 80-100 Deg C for minimum one hour under insulation. Gauges shall be employed to record the temperature at regular Intervals of 15 minutes in the log book by Quality Assurance Engineer /Welding Engineer. In all the above cases (a to d) the temp. WILL ADVERSLY AFFECT THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WELDMENT AND MAY LEAD TO REJECTION OF THE WELDMENT. Gas burner arrangement shall be used to maintain the temperature. (Ref: Fig 6) *2) During soaking Heat treat (soak) subsequently for the entire duration.100 deg C shall be maintained by gas burner arrangements till power resumes / start of PWHT.5 CAUTION: THE PWHT TEMP. The following shall be followed *1) During heating cycle The whole operation to be repeated from the beginning. d) Heating to PWHT e) Soaking at PWHT f) Cooling to 350 Deg C g) Cooling to Room Temperature (under insulation) (d) 5. Start PWHT after minimum one hour of soaking. TEMPERATURE MONITORING: The welding and heat treatment chart given in Figure 9 shall be followed for the following details. Measurement on the weld joint by means of contact type calibrated temp. THE WELD JOINTS SHOULD BE KEPT DRY. SHALL NOT DEVIATE FROM THE VALUES SPECIFIED IN THE CHART RANGE SINCE ANY DEVIATIONS TO THE SPECIFIED HOLDING TEMPERATURE RANGE.WELDING MANUAL 101 (c) During cooling cycle after SMAW welding to holding temperature at 80 to 100 deg C for one hour. (Complete period). The required temp 80 . (Ref: Fig 7) The heating rate shall be as per the chart. ( Ref : Fig 8) * Temp should not be allowed to fall below 80 – 100 deg C.4 5. Reheat to soaking temperature and cool at the required rate.5 5.
3&4 Spare TC THERMOCOUPLE (TC) .WELDING MANUAL 102 INDUCTION HEATING (for all Thickness) TOP 1 50mm 3 50mm Induction Cable 4 50mm 1 3 2 50mm 4 30 mm Insulation 4 X T Min OR as recommended by equipment supplier. 1&2 Measurement TC.PREHEATING ARRANGEMENT Fig . 2 30mm Insulation 4 X T Min OR as recommended by equipment supplier.1 .
270° to TC3 Fig-2 . TC6 ( Spare TC) shall be fixed at 90°.WELDING MANUAL 103 ARRANGEMENT FOR POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT Insulate 2 Times Heating Band Width fibre glass cloth or Ceramic wool Heating Band W= 8 X T min or as recommended by the equipment supplier TC1 Induction Cable 50mm 1&2 Measurement TC. 3&4 Spare TC TC 3 50mm TC 4 at 180° apart TC2 TC5.
if welding has not been started.100°c by immediate BHARAT CHENNAI PAGE 2 80 HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED PIPING CENTRE During power cut RT OF 25 insulation and heating by burners Time Fig .4.1 after power resumes Fig .4 .WELDING MANUAL 104 Power Failure during Preheating Temp in deg c Theoretical curve Actual curve 350 220 100 80 RT POWER CUT After power resumes Time Immediately cover the joint by insulation. Start preheat as per Cl.3 Power Failure during GTAW/SMAW Temp in deg c Theoretical curve Actual curve 350 BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED PIPING CENTRE CHENNAI 220 100 PAGE 2 OF 25 After power resumes Maintain 80 .
WELDING MANUAL 105 Power Failure during cooling / holding Temp in deg c Theoretic al curve 350 220 Actual curve After power resumes 100 80 RT During power cut Maintain 80 .5 .100°C for a min period one hour by immediate insulation and heating by gas Time Fig .
6 Power Failure during PWHT soaking cycle Temp in deg c 760 ± 10 Actual curve T T1 350 Power cut Theoretical curve 220 100 80 RT Time T1 =T Fig .7 .WELDING MANUAL 106 Power Failure during PWHT heating cycle Temp in deg c Theoretical curve 760 ± 10 Actual curve 350 220 100 80 RT Power cut Time Rate of heating shall be adhered Fig .
8 .WELDING MANUAL 107 Power Failure during PWHT cooling cycle Temp in deg c Theoretical curve 760 ± 10 Actual curve 350 220 100 80 RT Free fall (While heat insulated) Rate of cooling shall be adhered Time Fig .
WELDING MANUAL 108 .
Solvent cleaner & Developer) and medium (dry/wet particles) used in MPI shall be of BHEL approved brands only. projection surface distance (probe position) and beam-path shall be attached to UT test report. The equipment calibration data for specific weld as well as the hard copy of „Static echo-trace pattern‟ – Showing the flaw-echo amplitude with respect to DAC. butt-welds and all full penetration welds shall be examined by UT. capable of storing calibration data as well as ultrasonic test results as per UT-21 All record able indications will be stored in memory of – either the digital flaw detector or a PC for review at a later period. The calibration reports shall be reviewed and accepted by Calibration In-charge at site prior to use. In addition to MPI. The UT equipment shall be calibrated prior to use and should be of „digital type‟ – Krautkramer Model USN 50 or equivalent or higher version . b) c) d) . e) The examination as well as evaluation will be performed by a qualified Level II personnel.WELDING MANUAL 109 5.0 NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION ( Refer NDE Manual ) : 6. and a test report will be issued. All weld s (fillet & butt) shall be subjected to MPI (MPI shall be done by YOKE type only). LPI procedure shall be BHE: NDT : PB : P T : 01 and MPI procedure shall be BHE: NDT : PB : MT: 05 The penetrant materials (Dye Penetrant. thermocouple. Any defect noticed during NDT shall be marked with marker.1 All NDE shall be done after PWHT only. flaw depth. should have valid calibration carried at BHEL approved labs. Prior to testing all welds shall be smoothly ground. oven thermostat etc. This hard-copy of echo-trace with equipment calibration data will form part of test documentation. 6. UT procedure shall be as per BHE:NDT:PB: UT21 with additional requirements as in (a) through (e) a) The calibration blocks used shall be of same material specification (P91) dia & thickness.7 CALIBRATION: All equipments like recorder. compensating cable.
100 deg.The readings on the parent metal shall be taken within 15mm from the weld fusion line. Incase of cut & weld joints HAZ (5mm) will have to be removed by grinding. of the weld is to be maintained at preheat temp. e) All the specified precautions w. C before starting SMAW. . The NDE shall be conducted for the entire weld joint. At each location three readings shall be taken on weld and parent metal . d) Carry out SMAW using the same procedure as that of welding. (B) WELD REPAIR ON COMPLETION: Any defect observed on the weld shall be brought to the notice of Quality assurance engineer. f) If any further defects are observed on the repaired weld. c) The temp.T after completion of PWHT. All the hardness values shall be recorded. The equipment used for the hardness measurement shall be calibrated as recommended by the manufacturer and also on a P91 calibration block provided by PC. heating cycles. post weld heat treatment etc.WELDING MANUAL 7. Hardness survey shall be done on each joint at three locations along the circumference.0 HARDNESS SURVEY: The equipment recommended to measure the hardness are EQUOTIP or MICRODUR make or equivalent portable equipment. C and re welded with GTAW maintaining 220 deg. the same shall be removed by grinding maintaining temperature 80 . b) Surface examination (MPI/LPI) on the ground and welded area to be performed to ensure a sound base metal before depositing weld layers using SMAW. If any defects are noticed on the fully completed weld while performing U. The surface shall be cleaned and prepared as per hardness test instrument manufacturer‟s recommendation prior to hardness survey. The defect area shall be marked and repaired as below: a) The weld shall be removed by grinding (gouging not permitted) such that the area for repair welding is free from sharp corners and provided with sufficient slope towards the weld face sides. the same may be further reworked as mentioned above. the same may be assessed in order to find the seriousness of the defect and to locate where exactly the defect lies from the weld outside surface. The size and nature of defect shall be reviewed.0 110 REPAIR OF WELD JOINTS: (A) WELD REPAIR AT ROOT: On visual examination during root welding if it reveals any surface defects.t to welding consumables. shall be strictly adhered. as followed for original welding.r. 8. Any repair on weld to be carried on their approval only.
The max allowable hardness at weld and parent metal shall be 300 HV10. Joints having hardness above 300 HV shall be reheat treated and hardness shall be checked again. If hardness is still more refer to unit. PM 1 WELD PM 2 0
180 Figure – 10 LOCATION PM 1 READINGS 1 0 90 180 270 2 3 AVE 1 WELD 2 3 PM 2 AVE 1 2 3 AVE
PM : PARENT MATERIAL 9.0 COMBINATION WELDING:
AVE : AVERAGE
For other combination of material like P22 with P91, and X22 with P91 the applicable WPS for the involving material shall be obtained from equipment supplier / WTC / PC and the same shall be used . 9.1 SOAKING TIME FOR COMBINATION WELDING: WPS N0. Material 1035 P91+P22 MS W0454. P91+X22 Soaking time 2.5mts / mm minimum one hour 2.5mts / mm minimum two hour for thickness upto 50 mm and minimum four hours for thickness above 50 mm. However the precautions as required for P91shall be fully taken care of. Temp., 74515C 75010C
DEMAGNETISATION: Refer NDE Manual Ch 1.11
TRAINING: The personnel engaged in P91 piping fabrication shall be trained in the following areas. a. Method and Care during fit-up. b. Argon gas root purging arrangement. c. Fixing of thermocouple and wires. d. Arrangements for Pre/Post heating requirements and methods. e. Adjustment of heating pads/cables at the time of controlling the temperature within specified tolerance limits during welding or PWHT in case of induction heating. f. Good appreciation of the WPS requirements. g. Handling of P91 welding consumables and re-drying conditions. h. Special precautions during the power/equipment failure. i. Weld joints of dissimilar thickness / material specification.
Weld defect control and weld repair systems.
SPECIFIC TRAINING FOR WELDERS: a. The qualified welders who will be engaged in P91 welding shall be given training on pipe joints simulated with P91 welding and heating cycle conditions. b. The acquaintance on welding positions, as applicable shall be given using P91 pipes and P91 welding consumables. c. Welding techniques and instructions on Dos and DON‟Ts of P91 welding. d. Welders only who are qualified on P91 welding alone shall be engaged. e. Whenever new welders have to be engaged they shall undergo all the training as above and shall be qualified with P91 material only.
CONTROL ON WELDERS: The welder during welding at site follow the following procedures. The welder shall interact with the HT operator (Induction equipment operator) to ensure that preheat and interpass temperature during welding are maintained as per requirements. The welder shall not mix the welding electrodes with that of the other welder. At the end of the shift, the unused electrodes shall be returned to the stores.
PERSONNEL / CONTRACTORS ENGAGED FOR HEATING CYCLES (HT Operator):
11.4.1 The Personnel / Contractor shall have adequate heat treat experience on P91 or similar material. 11.4.2 HT operator shall be aware of the following: a) The equipment used and its working principle and operation. a) The procedures to be followed in using heating equipments. b) Procedure to be followed in case of power failure or equipment non-functioning so that heating cycle is not disrupted. c) Calibration of equipments. d) Method of fixing thermocouples and compensating cables leading to HT recorder. e) Fixing of heating pads or elements on the pipe joints and also in maintaining the temperature within the specified limits. 11.5 NDE PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS: All NDE personnel performing NDT like UT & MPI/LPI shall be qualified in accordance with BHEL Procedure meeting the requirements of recommended practice SNT – TC - IA. MPI & LPI shall be carried out by level I qualified personnel and shall be evaluated by level II qualified personnel. However UT examination and evaluation shall be done by level II qualified personnel. 11.6 LEVEL OF SUPERVISION Site Incharge shall be responsible for the completion of all activities from weld fit-up to final clearance of weld joints after satisfactory NDE and acceptance by BHEL/Customer/IBR.
DO‟s and DON‟T‟s during P 91 welding, heat treatment and NDE at construction site:
12.1 DO‟S: a) Cutting by Band saw/Hack saw/Machining. b) Pipes Edge Preparation by machining. Machining shall be done without excessive pressure to prevent heating up of pipe c) Grinding may be done on exceptional cases after approval and taking adequate care to prevent overheating. d) Thermocouple wire (hot/Cold junctions) shall be welded with condenser discharge portable spot-welding equipment. e) Reserve Thermocouples shall be made available , incase of failure of connected thermocouple elements. f) Ensure adequate Argon Gas for complete purging of air inside the pipe before starting GTAW root welding. g) Ensure Preheating at 220 Deg.C minimum before GTAW root welding. h) Start preheating only after clearance from Welding engineer / Quality assurance engineer for weld fit-up and alignment of the joint as well as fixing of Thermocouple connections ( for Induction heating)
i) Do visual inspection on root weld maintaining weld preheating temp. j) Continue Argon purging until the GTAW root welding followed by minimum two filler passes of SMAW, is completed. k) Perform partial root welding to facilitate fit-up if necessary. l) Ensure that only one layer of root welding using TGS 2CM filler wire (2 ¼ Cr 1 Mo) is deposited. (wherever specified). m) Ensure proper use of TIG wires as identified by colour coding or suitable hard punching. n) Keep the GTAW wires in absolutely clean condition and free from oil , rust, etc. o) Dry the SMAW electrodes before use. p) Ensure the interpass temperature is less than 350 Deg.C. q) Hold at 80-100 Deg.C for a period of Minimum 1 hour before the start of PWHT. r) Record entire heating cycle on Chart through recorders.
s) Exercise control during grinding of weld and adjoining base metal while removing surface/sub-surface defects or during preparation for NDE. t) Ensure no contact with moisture during preheat, welding, post heat and PWHT of Weld Joints. u) Ensure removal of argon purging arrangements after welding. v) Use short Arc only. The maximum weaving shall be limited to 1.5 times the dia of the electrode.
0 DON‟T‟s: a) Avoid Oxy-Acetylene flame cutting.0 .1 2) Dry Magnetic powder: (a) MAGNAFLUX . c) Avoid Arc strike on materials at the time of weld fit up or during welding.WELDING MANUAL 114 13. n) Do not Interrupt the Welding/heating cycle except for unavoidable power failures o) Do not use uncalibrated equipment for temperature measurement during heating. h) Do not stop argon purging till completion of GTAW root welding and two layers of SMAW. water. i) No Tack welding or Bridge piece welding is permitted. 14.PRODUCT GREY. to come in contact with the weld zone or heating zone during the entire cycle from preheat to PWHT. b) MAGNA FLUX – Product 14 AM – Prepared bath of 14A and MG/MX carrier II ready to use without measuring and Mixing in aerosol container with MX/MG carrier II oil vehicle DOCUMENTATIONS: The documentation shall be as per the customer approved BHEL Quality Plan. welding. d) Do not Tack weld the Thermocouple wires with Manual Arc/TIG welding. 3) 15. post weld. b) FERROCHEM–PRODUCT NO: 146 A with oil vehicle (with high flash point 92C) c) SARDA MAGNA CHECK INK with oil vehicle (with high flash point 92C) 4) Fluorescent magnetic ink: (Prepare bath as instructed by supplier) a) MAGNA FLUX – Product 14A with MX/MG carrier II oil vehicle. cold draft etc.200 (SPECIAL) Non-fluorescent magnetic ink: (Prepare bath as instructed by supplier) a) MAGNAFLUX – Product 9C RED with MX/MG carrier II oil vehicle. m) Do not exceed the limits of PWHT soaking temperature. b) Avoid Weld-build up to correct the weld end-d1 or to set right the lip of the weld bevel. f) Do not use Oxy-acetylene flame heating for any heating requirements.. 8A – RED (b) FERROCHEM PRODUCT NO: 266 (c) K-ELECTRONICS PRODUCT – RD. g) Do not use Thermal chalks on the weld groove. rain. j) Do not use unidentified TIG wires or electrodes. k) Do not exceed the maximum interpass temperature indicated in WPS l) Do not allow moisture. cold wind. e) NO GTAW root welding without thorough purging of root area. heat treating etc.0 1) NDE Consumables: For LPI consumables list refer NDE Manual CH 1.
most metals exhibit a strong tendency to combine with Oxygen.: 1 of 2 ARGON PURITY LEVEL WHAT IS ARGON: Argon is chemically-inert. For the most part. catalytically burning the trace oxygen to water. In a cryogenic process. Argon protects welds against oxidation as well as reduces fume emissions during welding. Root Shielding and Plasma cutting. PRODUCTION OF ARGON : A co-product of oxygen and nitrogen production. During distillation. brittle materials that in no way resemble the metal from which they are formed. Atomic weight is 40. APPLICATION OF ARGON IN BHEL: In the welding process. The crude stream. Argon is a shield gas used in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). drying and. but even a thin film of oxide on the surface of metals to be welded can lead to difficulties. producers can achieve an argon product with 99. is refined in a separate distillation column to produce argon with 98 percent purity. The atmosphere in which we live is composed of about 4/5th of Nitrogen and 1/5th Oxygen. A layer of oxide can easily prevent the joining of two pieces by welding. the air is fractionally distilled based on the different boiling points of each component. Following liquefaction. Manufacturers can further refine the stream by mixing the argon with hydrogen. The welding process when exposed to air. monatomic gas.9995 percent purity. containing approximately 10 percent argon. especially when in the molten condition. finally.).WELDING MANUAL 115 TECHNICAL DIRECTIVE Sht no. atmospheric air is compressed and cooled. the oxides are relatively weak. a stream containing oxygen and argon (plus other gases) is withdrawn. liquid nitrogen is the first product extracted from the high-pressure column. Using this process. The rate of oxide formation will vary with different metals. and to lesser extend with Nitrogen. Molecular weight is 40. (The boiling point of argon is between those of nitrogen and oxygen. Its chemical symbol is Ar. argon is manufactured commercially by means of air separation technology. Argon is used for SHIELDING and BACKING purpose. distilling the stream to remove remaining hydrogen and nitrogen. Next. heavy and available in quantity at reasonable cost. .
5 2.0 10.WELDING TECHNOLOGY CENTRE. iii.5 m length.: 2 of 2 ARGON PURITY LEVEL The compressed argon is supplied in cylinders and liquid argon is supplied in tanks. The cylinder used for argon will have the body colour of BLUE without band.99%. Trichy recommends the specifications for purchasing the Argon for welding process is. ppm.0 0. capacity of 6. iv. ppm. Carbon dioxide. IS 5760: 1998 shall be referred. Max. Oxygen. Max.WELDING MANUAL 116 TECHNICAL DIRECTIVE Sht no. v. vi. ppm. ppm. Water vapours.5 0. & 1. ---.5 4.0 10. • Grade 2 : High purity argon for use in lamp and allied industries and • Grade 3 : Commercial grade argon for use in welding industry and for other metallurgical operations.5 0. ii. No. PURITY LEVEL OF ARGON INDIAN STANDARD for ARGON.O ---- . Nitrogen. Compressed & Liquid Specification no. ppm. Max. Accordingly the argon shall comply with the requirements given below: Sl. CHARACTERISTIC i.2 M3 and pressure when fully charged at 150C (approx) 137 Kg/Cm2 (1949 psi). Max. Max.5 5.0 2.0 300 1. size of 25 cms dia. namely: • Grade 1 : Ultra high purity argon for use in electronics and allied industries and indirect reading vacuum spectrograph. Hydrogen. 7 PPM each and with Argon purity level of min. The supply should accompany Test Certificate for the batch indicating individual element „PPM‟ level and overall purity level.0 0. 99.0 7. Max. “Argon as per Grade 3 of IS-5760: 1998 Rev 02 with Oxygen & Water Vapours restricted to max. ppm.5 3.2 0.5 - PURCHASE SPECIFICATION FOR ARGON: BHEL . There are 3 grades of argon.0 2. Max. vii. Hydrocarbons. ppm. REQUIREMENT Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 0.0 0. it is recommended to purchase the Argon with above specification by BHEL as well as by our Sub-contractors engaged at sites.0 0.0 5. Carbon monoxide.” Hence.
Tiruchirappalli-620014 Use of Resistance heating for Post weld heat treatment of P91 pipes. The conventional method of PWHT using continuous coil type heating method were found to give higher temperature gradients of the order of 25C and required a close monitoring by skilled personnel to obtain the right results. (For Reference only – WPS of concerned Unit shall prevail) The subject of the use resistance heating for PWHT has been raised over the past few years especially for application to P91 steel pipes. it was felt by all that the automatic resistance based heat treatment can be applied in one of the 500 MW sites. 2. In response to this WRI had taken up extensive studies on the effectiveness of this method in P22.B pipes using the conventionally used continuous coil type heating method and flexible ceramic pad based resistance heating. P91 and SA106 Gr. Representatives from various power sector regions attended this workshop. The digital printer could give the temperature values along with real time and were found to be reliable. During deliberations. Some people opined that prior to the actual use it could be demonstrated in Bellary site as a next step for implementation of the technique. a workshop was conducted in Nov 2003 at PSSR chennai to communicate the results to all construction engineers. The studies were primarily aimed at evaluation of the effectiveness of the method to achieve close temperature gradients of the order of 15C across the wall thickness of the pipe during soaking period of Post weld heat treatment. Subsequent to this study. The studies were conducted with different parameters such as heating dimensions. . though it is not done in actual situations to enable measurement of temperature gradients at various stages of PWHT across the wall thickness. This automatic method could be easily used to control the preheat temperature as well as the inter pass temperature required to be controlled during welding of P91 steels. In view of this thermocouples were attached on the inner walls of the pipe also in this study. 3. Close temperature gradients up to 15C could be achieved across the circumference of the pipe when an automatic heat treatment is carried out using Flexible ceramic type pad elements along with Programmable temperature controller energized by a thyristorised power source that gives an output supply of 65/80V and a digital temperature indicator cum printer is used. The study reveled the following 1.WELDING MANUAL 117 Welding research institute Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. soaking times etc.
In response to this the same contractor who was engaged earlier for WRI trials was engaged and a demonstration was carried out at SIPAT site. interpass temperature control and during welding and PWHT cycle was applied. In view of the above it can be concluded that the automatic resistance based heating method can be used for the entire heating cycle for welding P91 grade pipes up to 32 mm to achieve temperature gradients of the order of 10C which is required as per specification. 3. In tune with this two trials were conducted at site. Similar results were observed in the case of 45 mm thick pipe also and the results were highly reliable. The contact address of the contractor through whom the trials were carried out is given in annex II.WELDING MANUAL 118 In the meanwhile. The method could be effectively used for the entire heating cycle. Their addresses are also given in annex II. This would enable the contractors to stabilize the process and serve as a measure of quality assurance for site heat treatment. 5. interpass temperature control during welding. Secondly one more pipe of 45 mm thickness was also tried to study the effectiveness of the method with thermal cycle simulation only without welding. 4. consistent and can be applied in site with ease. Besides this. As the entire set of equipments is made indigenously many contractors would come up with the automatic heating facilities when BHEL specifies the usage of this method. The first pipe was a P91 pipe with 25 mm thickness in which the entire preheating. The welded pipe was also subjected to procedure qualification tests at WRI. WRI was recently requested (July 2006) to assist L&T ECC division to establish the resistance heating method for heating and PWHT of P91 pipes at SIPAT site for the 660 MW boiler being erected by them. Temperature gradients within 8-10C could be obtained between the outer and inner walls with the automatic resistance heating method. The temperature chart showed that no interruptions or kinks in the time-temperature record indicating the steady maintenance of temperature throughout the PWHT cycle. cooling to intermediate temperature and regular PWHT cycle. some more contractors have also shown interest in carrying out the PWHT in the automatic mode. The results of the above study reveal the following 1. The details of the various components of the automatic resistance heating equipment and system that are to be used in are given in Annex I. including preheating. The trials at WRI shop as well as SIPAT site has given good and satisfactory results indicating that the automatic local PWHT is more reliable. . 2. In this context it is recommended to carry out Procedure qualification test with the largest thickness pipe at site to establish the process with the contractors prior to application for the actual pipe. The primary aim of this demonstration was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automatic method to get temperature gradients to levels of 15C in P91 pipes up to 30 mm thickness.
2/3/4 way splitter cables to connect heating pads and power source.WELDING MANUAL Annex I 119 Details of the automatic resistance heating based equipment recommended for PWHT. Suitable temperature compensating cables to connect thermocouples and Power source and temperature recorder 1. Microprocessor based Programmable cycle controller (0-1200°C) with easy setting of time and temperature for setting heating/soaking and cooling rates. Calibrated Digital multi point recorder (12 channel. Suitable plug in type copper cables. Calibrated thermocouples (type K). 6 way thyristorised switching. 2. Mineral wool /ceramic wool Insulation pads of min 25 mm thick for insulation of the pipe. Sl. 02 Power supply 03 Controller 04 Temperature recorder 05 Power cables 06 Accessories . 4.no Key components of the Description of the items that are essential equipment 01 Type of heating element Flexible ceramic pads containing stranded heating elements of standard width and breadths to cover various diameters of pipes. The pads can be of 2. energy regulators. 50 Hz supply to provide a secondary output voltage of 65/85V and 225 Amps per phase. Steel banding machine with 1” thick steel band for securing the heating pads with the pipe. 3.0 to 1200°C) cum printer with suitable connecting cable for real time recording temperature with time for the entire heating cycle.7/3. Capacitor discharge based Thermocouple fixing unit.6 kW power with 65/80V Power source: 50/70 KvA transformer power source with 3 phase input supply with 415 / 440 V.
com Mobile: 98213 29436 03 04 Mr. A-374. 44. Pune Ph: 022.Aharya commercial center Near Basant Cinema Dr. Sathe Cell: 9822499002 05 .com 204.WELDING MANUAL 120 Annex II List of vendors /contractors who can carry out the automatic local PWHT at site Vendor used for the study at WRI and at SIPAT site Mr.com Mr. 9 Cell no: 9892592329 Wagle Industrial Estate Email: email@example.com Thane –400 504 01 02 Vendors who are ready to offer PWHT services with auto equipments K.G.556 7654/ 5581766/556 6096 East West Engineering & electronics company eastwestndt@vsnl.Road Chembur Mumbai –400 074 Injo tech services Office No. 25831948 Plot No.B.25833882 Road No.Ltd 25822175. Kannan Shastra NDT services 131. Mumbai 400 074 Shri .V. Fax: 022. Acharya complex center Dr. Fernandez Phone Indo therm engineers Pvt. Gidwani road Chembur.5575 1279 Kannan1559@yahoo. Ingale 020-5621 2833. C. Jetly 022 .25805563. 5621 6833 Mobile of Mr.25830410. Ingale: 09822036600 injotech@vsnl. Erandwane Pune 411 038 OPI services. 5th floor Yugay Mangal complex Near ICICI bank.C.
B3 GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR WELDING STRUCTURES – (FORM AND POSITION) .WELDING MANUAL B-3 GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR WELDING STRUCTURES – (FORM AND POSITION) 121 CHAPTER .
FLATNESS AND PARALLELISM Nominal Dimension Range (larger side length of surface) .(FORM AND POSITION) 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F 1 1.2 For technical and economic reasons other degrees of accuracy may be appropriate which have to be specifically stated.5 3 4.0 3. assemblies and structures. assemblies and structures.5 1 1.mm Grade Above Above Above Above Above Above Above Above Above of accu1000 2000 4000 8000 12000 16000 Above 30 to 120 to 315 to racy to to to to to to 20000 120 315 1000 2000 4000 8000 12000 16000 20000 E 0.: AA 0621105 GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR WELDED STRUCTURES .1 REPRESENTATION ON DRAWING : The required degree of accuracy shall be specified in all fabrication drawings. The standard covers tolerances on straightness. 2.3 General tolerances for machined are covered in corporate standard AA 023 02 08. Ref. For example Class E of AA 062 11 05 (DIN 8570 Part 3).5 6 8 10 12 14 16 G 1.1 GENERAL : Tolerance on form and position as defined in this standard are permissible variations from the geometrically ideal form and position corresponding to the accuracies commonly obtained in workshops.2 This standard is based on DIN 8570 Part 3 .5 3 5. flatness and parallelism. Doc. 4.0 2.1987 B3. (FORM AND POSITION) 1.5 9 11 16 20 22 25 25 H 2.0 4. 2.0 1.WELDING MANUAL B-3 GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR WELDING STRUCTURES – (FORM AND POSITION) 122 Doc. 3. Ref. flatness and parallelism are given in Table-1.1 DEVIATIONS : The values of deviations for different classes of accuracies of straightness. TABLE 1 : TOLERANCES ON STRAIGHTNESS.4 Refer Corporate Standard AA 062 11 04 for general tolerances for lengths and angles of welded components.1 SCOPE : This standard prescribes four degrees of accuracies taking into account the function dependent and the fabrication dependent differences along with appearance aspects of welded components. GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR components WELDED STRUCTURES 1.: AA 0621105 1.5 5 9 14 18 26 32 36 40 40 . These values apply to overall dimension and to part lengths.
hmin t Note : The tolerance on form and position as per this standard may be mentioned on the drawing in addition to the linear tolerances as per AA 062 11 04 wherever required. clamp plates.2 STRAIGHTNESS : The edge of the welded component and the straight edge can be arranged in relation to each other so that the end points of the measured length are the same distance apart from the ends of the straight edge. The distance The position of the reference surface (= surface after machining) is dimensionally determined. from the actual surface to the measuring plane is measured. 5.3 FLATNESS : A measuring plane can be set up outside the welded component parallel to the limiting planes at any desired distance. Maximum variation is hmax .g. e. Dimension a2 gives the minimum thickness of the support. Dimension a1 gives the required finished height of the foundation. The measured values apply to the conditions on the day of testing. flexible tube liquid levels. flatness and parallelism. The distance between the reference plane and the measuring plane is greater than : hmax by the minimum possible thickness of the machining allowance “b”. The distances between the edge and the straight edge should be measured. .1 TESTING : Figures 1 to 3 illustrate the mode of testing for straightness. 5. The test method should be selected on the basis of current measuring practice. strong sunshine. surface plates and machine beds. The variation of the actual surface (=surface before machining) from the reference plane must be within the tolerance on parallelism.4 PARALLELISM : Any of the measuring devices mentioned above can be used to set up a measuring plane outside the welded component parallel to its reference plane. tension wires. For example this can be done with optical instruments.WELDING MANUAL B-3 GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR WELDING STRUCTURES – (FORM AND POSITION) 123 5. There should be no unusual temperature or weather conditions.0 5. 5.
WELDING MANUAL B-3 GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR WELDING STRUCTURES – (FORM AND POSITION) 124 .
TURBO-GENERATORS AND AUXILIARIES .WELDING MANUAL - 125 CHAPTER .B4 WELDING OF PIPES AND PIPES SHAPED CONNECTIONS IN STEAM TURBINE.
must be made with the same filler metal and must be performed by qualified welder.7 3. are ordered with edge preparations carried out at supplier‟s work. The weld joints are to be purged by inert gas in case of high alloy steels.8 4.4 3.6 3.0 5.0 2.0 SCOPE : These guidelines cover edge preparation. elbows. Shaped parts of piping e. 2.0 4. 5.1 WELD EDGE PREPARATION : Various forms of edge preparation to be used for shop weld.0 3. site weld and edge preparations for pipes manufactured from rolled plates are covered in this standard. In all such cases edge preparation must be given on the drawing. T-sections etc.WELDING MANUAL - 126 WELDING OF PIPES AND PIPES SHAPED CONNECTIONS IN STEAM TURBINE.1 INSPECTION : The weld seams are subjected to internal examination in accordance with HW 0850199. 2.003. The linear misalignment between weld edges must be maintained according to specifications No. Tack welds. method of welding for pipes and pipe shaped connections to be used in Steam Turbine. Welders qualified as per ASME Section IX are to be employed. The root is gouged / ground and welded from back side.1 . PIPES ROLLED FROM PLATES : Weld seams of rolled pipe are welded by Shielded Metal Arc welding.g. Turbo-generator and heat exchanger of KWU design. Machined weld end preparations of the components being despatched to site must be protected with a metal cover. Welding processes are selected in accordance with Annexure-I. edge preparation may be altered in case where pipe connections are made between customer‟s pipe line and BHEL supply. 0623.2 3.5 3. flanges.: HW 0620599 1. HW 0620099.1 3. The external characteristics are examined in accordance with HW 0620099.3 3.Ref. However. if not to be removed. TURBO-GENERATORS AND AUXILIARIES Doc.2 3. reducer. The distinction is to be made between shop and site welds in the drawing as per Plant Standard No. ASSEMBLY AND WELDING PROCEDURES : Before tacking the weld edges must be aligned.
WELDING MANUAL - 127 ANNEXURE-I .
B5 INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT CONDENSER PLATE AND NECK WELDING .WELDING MANUAL - 128 CHAPTER .
2.4 1.1. Pass out and fit the pipe work to the connecting piping system through the connection holes.2 All the welding shall be carried out by qualified welders. This operation is not performed until all internals have been welded to one another. 1. from tack weld to tack weld.WELDING MANUAL - 129 INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT CONDENSER PLATE AND NECK WELDING 1.2 Subsequent filling welds after tack welding are always performed in the opposite direction. Assemble the shields for the cooler tube nests. . Set down the shields on the flat iron supports. During alignment. Then align the various sections of the air extraction line. verify that the holes in the support plates lie in the vertical and horizontal planes. Enter the actual measurements on the measurement data record provided. ensure that the air extraction openings are directed towards the bottom plate and that therefore the connection holes for the connecting piping systems are necessarily in the correct positions.1 GENERAL: 1.1.1. Welding to be carried out as per requirement envisaged in drawing / field welding schedule. weld them together to form one unit and tack weld to the tube support plates. NOTE:The steam baffles and bracing units must not be tacked to the tube plates of the water boxes. After tack welding. 1. align and tack weld them in accordance with the plantspecific drawing.1 Tack weld the tube support plate sections aligned with the centre point to the slot profiles on the bottom plate and the side walls. The thin steel wires and alignment devices can now be removed.1.1 The welding of the condenser is performed by „step back seam method‟ i. Move the internals temporarily housed in the spaces in the tube support plate sections into their correct positions. Assemble the central fishing and the bracing assemblies such as flat irons and tubes. align and tack weld.e. 1.3 Condenser Erection Manual as well as instructions issued by manufacturing unit may also be referred in conjunction with this manual. as they are no longer required for further assembly of the condenser shell internals. CONDENSER SHELL INTERNALS WELDING: 1.
to allow for welding warpage. from the upper edge of the tube support plate to the bottom plate. 1. tack and weld the steam baffle plates.e. Steam space (top view) 2. welders should as far as possible work simultaneously. NOTE:To prevent welding warpage. i. Then weld the vertical slot profile strips to the side walls and tube support plates. the welding sequence being of up most importance. During this procedure. ATTENTION:- THE PERTINENT WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION AND WELDING INSTRUCTIONS MUST BE OBSERVED WHEN WELDING. Vertical joints must be welded from top to bottom. Welding locations . all welds must be performed simultaneously from both sides using the back-step method. may only be tack-welded. NOTE: The feed water heater platform must be mounted and welded in place prior to the assembly of the condensate drain sheets as there is only a gap of approximately 200 mm between the feed water heater platform and the air cooler sheet. When all welding work has been concluded.WELDING MANUAL - 130 After assembly of all the steam space internals which. When the condenser shell internals have been completely welded together. commence welding of all the condenser shell internals. the bracing assemblies and the air extraction line and the connecting piping system at the front and rear tube plates. remove all weld residue from the weld seams and weld zones in the entire condenser shell. Tube support plate 3. Vertical slot profiles 4.
each in a single pass.2). clean the weld zone using suitable tools. ATTENTION:AND WELDING INSTRUCTIONS MUST BE OBSERVED WHEN WELDING. Weld the joint using the back-step method from tack to tack (see Fig. After welding. these giving rise to stresses in the material.1). Tack these parts to the condenser dome with welds with a tack length of three times the plate thickness at intervals of 25 times the plate thickness. Erect scaffolding inside the condenser in accordance with applicable accident prevention regulations to facilitate access to the weld locations.1 In any weld connection. 1. In order to keep these stresses as low as possible.3.WELDING MANUAL - 131 1. THE PERTINENT WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION . prepare for welding the condenser to the low-pressure turbine. make the following filler weld layers. by laws of physics cause transverse and longitudinal contractions.3. corner and web plates (as called for) and prepare the weld edges. and reversing direction for each layer (see Fig.2 WELDING THE CONDENSER TO THE LOW-PRESSURE TURBINE After the condenser has been brought to operating weight and the spring supports have been adjusted to compensate for welding contraction. it is imperative that the weld is prepared as specified in the drawings. Please see also the assembly plans.3 WELD CONNECTIONS BETWEEN CONDENSER AND LOW PRESSURE TURBINE NOTE :. the cooling of the locally heated material in the weld zone will. 1. Then fit the intermediate. When the base layer has been completed. Before welding is commenced the semi-circular structural profiles must be bolted to the dome end walls. drawings and other instructions for the plant in question.The assembly welding instructions given herein are of a general nature.
WELDING MANUAL B-6 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR ARRESTING THE LEAKAGE OF STRENGTH WELDS ON TUBE TO TUBE 132 CHAPTER . HEATER .P.B6 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR ARRESTING THE LEAKAGE OF STRENGTH WELDS ON TUBE TO TUBE SHEET JOINTS OF ‘U’ TUBE H.
4 Face the defective weld as identified earlier by using face cutter and ensure the elimination of defect by dye penetrant (LPI) test. Inconel tubes to inconel weld overlayed tube sheets Carbon steel tubes on stainless steel overlayed tube sheets. Procedure : 1. 2.WELDING MANUAL B-6 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR ARRESTING THE LEAKAGE OF STRENGTH WELDS ON TUBE TO TUBE 133 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR ARRESTING THE LEAKAGE OF STRENGTH WELDS ON TUBE TO TUBE SHEET JOINTS OF ‘U’ TUBE H. 3. clean the penetrant thoroughly and weld with manual TIG using the specific WPS according to Tube sheet material and tubes. 1.e.6 After welding test the weld by dye penetrant and ensure the sound weld metal deposition.7 Pressurise the shell side again to 7 Kg / cm2 with Nitrogen or Pneumatic air and test the soundness of welds.1 to a length of 38 mm as shown in sketch such that the OD of plug is machined for the interference fit with the tube hole i. This procedure explains the method of plugging of tubes on overlayed tube sheets of : 1. 4. Prepare the plug made of either SA 105 or 11416. 1. Stainless steel tubes on Stainless steel overlayed tube sheets. . Carbon steel tubes on inconel weld overlayed tube sheets.3 Reduce the pressure to zero and also ensure the removal of Nitrogen from the shell. Clean the hole inside thoroughly with the solvent. 2. 1. 1. Face the tube end (to be plugged) such that the face of the tube is 4 mm below the surface of the tube sheet using the facing cutter as shown in sketch. 1. 1. tight fit having plug Φ 0.05 mm less than the actual inside Φ of tube as shown in sketch.5 If found satisfactory.P. 3.8 Plugging of tube of „U‟ tube HP Heater on weld overlayed tube sheets.1 Pressurise the shell side with Nitrogen or Pneumatic air to 7 Kg / cm2 and apply soap solution over the complete area of welding on tube sheet. HEATER 1. 1.2 Find out the leakage of tubes and identify by marking either with chalk or colour.
5. Fit tightly the plug inside the hole as shown in sketch and weld by GTAW (manual) using the suitable filler rod. 6. After completing the weld pressurise the shell to the operating pressure and then inspect the weld by dye penetrant. Inspect the soundness of weld after each layer by dye penetrant.WELDING MANUAL B-6 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR ARRESTING THE LEAKAGE OF STRENGTH WELDS ON TUBE TO TUBE 134 4. TUBE PLUG PROCEDURE SKETCH .
B7 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS .WELDING MANUAL B-7 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS 135 CHAPTER .
2. Defects revealed during machining shall undergo weld repairs.WELDING MANUAL B-7 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS 136 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS 1. 25 1. . 3. 3. 3.0 2. rust.0 1.2 The defective area shall be ground or machined to obtain a sound base for welding.3 Before starting weld repair free graphite shall be removed by flame heating and cleaned with a wire brush.0 3. separated from one another by atleast 100 mm.1 PREPARATION OF SURFACE : The surface around the defective area shall be free from foreign materials such as oil. Where repairs are carried out on pressure retaining areas special care should be exercised to ensure sound weld repair. Isolated pores or sand inclusions of size < 3 mm and separated from one another by atleast 25 mm can be left without weld repairs. 2. shrinkage etc. the skin should be similarly ground or machined. 20 & Gr. and size < 10 mm. can be dressed smooth by grinding provided the depth of such defect is < 5 % of the specified wall thickness.2 Non-Machinable surfaces : Foundry defects other than cracks. 3.1 DEFECTS THAT DO NOT REQUIRE WELD REPAIRS : Machinable surfaces : Foundry defects can be left without weld repairs on Machinable areas provided the depth of such defect is less than 50% of the machining allowance provided. In the case of surface defects. grease. shallow or deep grooves shall be formed by grinding / machining. cold shuts.4 Depending upon the size of the defect.2 Defective castings can be salvaged by sound welding practices provided the defects are accessible to repair are not extensive and are economical to reclaim by welding. paint. sand etc.1 SCOPE This quality control procedure is valid for the repair of grey cast iron castings covering the following specifications : IS 210 Gr.
sufficient material shall be removed to permit a satisfactory welding operation. . of the electrode.4 Manipulation of the electrode : It is preferable to use stringer bead technique. then continued forward. The following brands are recommended for repairs : ENi CI : 1) NFM (D&H Secheron) 2) CASTRON KALT ( Modi) 3) FERROLOID -4 (ESAB) ENiFe-CI : 1) ESAB 802 2) 1111CI (D&H Secheron) Any other equivalent approved by BHEL may also be used. this will taper the run rather than ending it abruptly in a large weld pool.0 ELECTRODES : Low heat nickel iron electrodes (ENi CI and ENiFe-CI type) should be used. but in no case the width of the deposit should be > 3 times the nominal dia. 5.5 Where defects are located in relatively inaccessible positions. with beads not > 50 to 75 mm in length.0 5.6 It is essential to clean the slag from each crater before making a re-strike and to remove it completely from each weld run before depositing the adjacent weld. 5. 5. nickel iron electrodes should be re-baked for atleast one hour at 260˚C in a well ventilated electric oven and either used immediately or stored in a similar oven at 120˚C until used. 4. When re-striking the arc should be started ahead of the previous weld run. When extra long welds or several repair positions are involved it is preferable to stagger the welding operation to distribute the heat and to minimise the distortion.7 To ensure maximum weld soundness the forward movement of the electrode tip should be accelerated as the end of the weld run is approached. 5.1 WELDING PROCEDURE : To ensure maximum freedom from porosity in weld deposits. move back over the tapered portion.2 The welding current should be kept as slow as possible consistent with smooth operation and a good wash at the sides of the joint. 5. slight weaving of the electrode may be done to obtain better wash. 5.5 It is preferred to butter the surface of the weld preparation first and then fill gradually towards the centre of the repaired area.3 Wherever possible the casting should be positioned for down hand welding operation. 5.WELDING MANUAL B-7 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS 137 3.
6. the entire casting should be preheated. slag etc.0 INSPECTION : In addition to visual examination. sand or ashes.0 6. 8.2 Peening of the weldment after the weld cools down may be done to reduce the shrinkage stresses. Where preheating is resorted to. it is sufficient merely to cool under a cover of heat insulating material such as asbestos.0 WORKMANSHIP : The weld profile should perfectly merge with the contour of the casting and shall be free from spatter. Interpass temperature should not exceed 250˚C.WELDING MANUAL B-7 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS 138 The defective zone must be adequately prepared to permit correct manipulation of the electrode. 7. 6. .2 It is advisable to cool as slowly as possible after welding although in most cases. 6.1 PREHEATING : Preheating is normally not required. non-destructive tests like liquid penetrant inspection might be employed on repaired areas to ensure freedom from cracks.
WM B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS 139 CHAPTER .B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS .
the electro-magnetic crack test must be applied.0 3. It is forbidden to carry out any repair by welding on castings which were not annealed or subjected to the prescribed heat treatment.WM B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS 140 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS Note : These instructions are only guidelines.1 2. The welding engineer has to certify whether the preparation has been carried out properly.0 1.1 EXECUTING THE REPAIR : The defects in castings ascertained by the manufacturing unit. 1.2 The repair by welding may be carried out only by qualified welder having enough experience in this line. 422744. GS17CrMo55. GS 17CrMoV511.0 2. . The materials for which this instruction is applicable are: CSN 422643.MoV57. 1.air method is permissible only with non alloyed cast steel like CSN 422643. Even then the gouged portion must be ground in order to obtain a metallic surface. 21CrMoV57V.2 DECISION ON REPAIR : No repair must be carried out without the approval of the manufacturing unit. 422743. GS C 25. Specific written approval is to be taken from the Manufacturing units prior to carrying out repair works. There must be no sharp edges and the transition from the defective portion to the faultless material must be done in a smooth way. 1. 422710.2 The defective portions must be removed in such a way as to enable the welder to carry out the welding successfully. Gouging by flame or arc . In case of doubts whether the defect has been completely removed or not. 3. 21Cr. would it endanger the proper operation and safety of the equipment. 3.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS : This instruction is valid for the repair of steam turbine castings by welding. No repair must be undertaken. must be chipped off or ground out or drilled out in such a way as to obtain a clean metallic surface. The manufacturing department takes the decision about the repair based on a strict visual and defectoscopic examination taking into consideration the type and size of the defect and its location with regard to the possibility of repair. SA216WCB.3 The castings of casings supposed to be repaired by welding must be in the heat treated state specified in the respective drawing. 422745. 2.
3. it is recommended to heat the whole casting upto the required temperature.3 Defects found in the weld must be again repaired following the same procedure as stated above. If the preheating temperature falls during welding below the minimum required value.0 4. 4. The temperature of preheating is being checked during welding by means of suitable temperature indicating aids like thermo-chalks etc.).3 The exact procedure of welding different types of cast steels can be found in the enclosure of this instruction. 3. Only small repairs like local porosity need not be recorded. 3. glass wool etc. It is essential to protect the casting during welding against any sudden cooling which could cause the increase of inner stresses. .7 In case of large welds intermediate annealing has to be carried out according to the enclosure of this instruction. The preheating temperature has to be maintained through out the welding operation. The same procedure has to be followed when concluding the welding operation. welding must be interrupted and the temperature regained.6 Welding must proceed without any interruption. In case welding is interrupted for any unexpected reason the casting must not cool down fast but must be heated by gas burners in order to cool down slowly to the room temperature. 4.2 The welds shall be inspected visually. Larger repairs shall always be inspected by applying defectoscopic methods. 3.WM B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS 141 3.4 In case cracks develop during welding. The weld must be homogenous without any cracks. The manufacturing unit / inspection department is obliged to keep these records (including a sketch about the location of the defect).5 If preheating for welding is prescribed. 4.1 INSPECTION OF THE REPAIR : All major repairs done on casing by welding must be recorded. the welder is obliged to stop the welding operation and call the welding engineer immediately who will instruct the welder how to proceed further on. Heating by means of heating fixtures (producer gas) is permissible. The surface exposed to the atmosphere should be covered by suitable insulating materials (asbestos mats.
WM B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS
HEAT TREATMENT : The repaired and inspected castings must be again heat treated. The type of heat treatment will be given by the welding engineering department from case to case.
RESPONSIBILITY : The manufacturing unit is responsible for : a) b) c) d) The exact determination of the repair to be carried out on the casing. Ascertaining that the found defects were nicely removed. Inspection of the executed repair. Record keeping on repairs. The welding engineering department / manufacturing unit is responsible for : a) Certifying that the places on which welding is supposed to be done are properly prepared for undertaking the repair.
b) Follow up of welding procedure specification.
c) d) e)
Supervision of the welding operation. Ascertaining that the preheating temperature has been reached if prescribed. Cooperating with the manufacturing unit when evaluating the result of the welding operation. Prescribing the necessary heat treatment after welding if required.
WM B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS
REPAIR WELDING PROCEDURE Material specification : GS-C25, 422710, 422643, SA 216 WCB : Defects shall be removed by grinding / machining.
Removal of defects
Inspection of pre-welding
: Complete elimination of defects shall be ensured by LPI / MPI /
Radiography. 4 Welding procedure : a) Welder b) Process c) Electrode : Qualified as per ASME Sec.IX / IBR : SMAW : E7018-A1. Properly baked electrodes to be used. d) Position : The welding shall be done in the flat position as far as possible. e) Arc current : Φ 2.50 mm (60-80 amps) Φ 3.15 mm (90-130 amps) Φ 4.00 mm (140-180 amps) Φ 5.00 mm (190-240 amps) f) Preheating : Upto 30 mm thickness } 10ºC 30-100 mm thickness } 100ºC 101-200 mm thickness } 150ºC g) Inter pass te perature 5 Stress relief : 350ºC max. : Below 40 mm thickness no stress relief is required. Above 40-200 mm thickness stress relieve at 600-620ºC for 3 hours. 6 Inspection of Post welding : MPI followed by UT.
WM B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS
REPAIR WELDING PROCEDURE Material specification : GS-17CrMoV511, 21CrMoV57V, 21CrMoV57, 422731.1, 422743.1, 422744.1, 422745.1
Removal of defects
: Defects shall be removed by grinding or machining and ensure complete removal by LPI / MPI.
Welding procedure : a) Welder b) Process c) Electrode : Qualified as per ASME Sec.IX / IBR : SMAW : E9018B3. Properly baked electrodes to be used. d) Arc current : Φ 2.50 mm (60-80 amps) Φ 3.15 mm (90-130 amps) Φ 4.00 mm (140-180 amps) Φ 5.00 mm (190-240 amps) e) Preheating : 300ºC, continue this temp. throughout the welding operation. f) Inter pass temperature : 375ºC max. : The casing has to be stress elieved as
Post weld heat treatment
per code of practice in welding procedure specification. 6 Inspection after Post weld heat treatment : MPI followed by UT.
A182F12.00 mm (190-240 amps) e) Preheating : 250ºC. : Maintain the temp.WM B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS 145 9. maintain this temp. at 300ºC for about 2-3 hours and allow it to cool under asbestos. 3 Welding procedure : a) Welder b) Electrode : Qualified as per ASME Sec. Note : If weld repair is extensive. throughout the welding operation. i.IX : E8018B2. thickness of weld metal is more than 10 mm.e. 6 Inspection after Post weld heat treatment : MPI followed by UT.0 1 REPAIR WELDING PROCEDURE Material specification : GS-17CrMo55(P4).00 mm (140-180 amps) Φ 5. f) Inter pass temperature 5 Post weld heat tr atment : 350ºC max. A387-12 2 Removal of defects : Defects shall be removed by grinding or machining and ensure complete removal by LPI. d) Arc current : Φ 4. the casing has to be stress relieved as per the code of practice. Properly baked electrodes to be used. A217WC6. .
B9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING .WELDING MANUAL B 9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING 146 CHAPTER .
ADVANTAGES OF GMAW The advantages of GMAW over SMAW are : (a) High welding speed due to continuous feed of filler metal and high deposition rate (b) No slag removal and no slag inclusion (c) Higher deposition efficiency (d) Higher arcing time (e) Low hydrogen content in weld metal 3. This consumable as well as the shielding gas come out through a hand held torch and the torch is moved manually. 2. This method thus combines the flexibility of manual methods with the high productivity of motorised consumable wire movement. VARIABLES AFFECTING WELD QUALITY The variables which affect weld quality in GMAW ARE: (a) Welding current (b) Polarity (c) Arc Voltage (d) Travel speed (e) Electrode extension (f) Weld joint position (g) Electrode diameter (h) Shielding gas composition (i) Gas flow rate . Carbon Dioxide or Carbon Dioxide with Argon is used for MAG welding. In GMAW the consumable is a wire spool. which is continuously fed by a motor. GENERAL Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) can be used as a faster alternative to Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) . The method has two commonly used variants : (a) Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding (an example is the welding of aluminium bus ducts at site) (b) Metal Active Gas (MAG) welding (an example is steel chimney fabrication at site) While Argon is almost always used in MIG welding for shielding the arc.WELDING MANUAL B 9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING 147 GAS METAL ARC WELDING 1.
however. The relevant information from welding techniques and welding procedure data used in one of the BHEL sites in construction of steel chimney is given below for guidance. welding position and the specified quality requirements. Condenser etc. electrode composition. depend on type of base metal. Ceiling Girders. procedure shall be developed at site and get it vetted by respective Engineering centres / Manufacturing units.WELDING MANUAL B 9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING 148 The optimum process variables. WELDING TECHNIQUES Joint details : 8mm 8 mm Fillet 8 mm Current range Voltage range Electrode consumed (cm / M) Current AC or DC Polarity Size of reinforcement Whether removed Inspection and test schedules : 120 to 160 Amps : 19 to 22 Volts : 3 to 3.5 to 2 mm : No : As per IS 7307 PT-1 . If site wants to adopt GMAW process. Power House Structurals. Some suggestive areas where this process can be used to great advantages are CW piping.8 M / Min. : DC : EP : 1.
A : 8 mm : -: IS-6419 84-C504 (ER-7086) : NA FLUX OR SHIELDING GAS Flux trade Name or composition Shielding gas composition Trade Name Flow rate Backing strip used Pre-heat temperature range Interpass temperature range Post Weld Heat Treatment : NA : 99. : 265C Max.7% CO2 : NA : 10-15 LPM : NA : 10C Min.2 mm : CTTOFIL(ADVANI) : NA : NA .WELDING MANUAL B 9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING 149 WELDING PROCEDURE DATA SHEET Welding Process Material specification Thickness Plate Pipe diameter Filler metal specification Weld metal analysis : Semi-Auto : IS 2062 Gr. : NA WELDING PROCEDURE Single or Multi-pass Single or Multiple Arc Welding position(s) : Multi-pass : Single : Horizontal – Vertical FOR INFORMATION ONLY Electrode and filler wire diameter Trade Name Type of backing Fore hand and back hand : 1.
WELDING MANUAL 150 CHAPTER – B 10 ORBITAL WELDING .
which interrupt the full 360-weld sequence such as for better puddle control (often used for MIG/MAG welding. by Bernard Mannion and Jack Heinzmann III Orbital welding was first used in the 1960s. The concept Orbital Welding is basically a loosely defined term that is usually used for process only. Hence.) for the trajectory of a manmade or natural satellite or around a celestial body. Orbital Tube Welding Understanding the basic principles behind orbital tube welding may help you arrive more rapidly at the optimum weld procedure for your specific application. can not truly be called orbital welding. The combination Orbital and Welding specifies a process by which an arc travels circumferentially around a work piece (usually a tube or pipe). The arc welding current was regulated with a control system thus automating the entire process. A mechanism was developed in which the arc from a Tungsten electrode was rotated around the tubing weld joint.WELDING MANUAL 151 ORBITAL WELDING ( FOR INFORMATION ONLY ) WHAT IS ORBITAL WELDING 1. the skills of a certified welder are thus built into the welding system. Definition The term Orbital-Welding is based on the Latin word ORBIS = circle. In the early 1980s. . where the arc travels at least 360 degrees around the work piece without interruption. This has been adopted primarily by aerospace and used in terms of Orbit (n. where welding parameters for a variety of applications can be stored in memory and later called up for a specific application. The result was a more precision and reliable method than the manual welding method it replaced. Orbital welding became practical for many industries when combination power supply/control systems were developed that operated from 110 VAC. using the down-hand welding sequence in 2 halfcircles). when the aerospace industry recognized the need for a superior joining technique for aerospace hydraulic lines.) or Orbital (adj. processes. Consequently. These systems were physically small enough to be carried from place-to-place on a construction site for multiple in-place welds Modern day orbital welding systems offer computer control.
Larger diameters and wall thicknesses can be accommodated with open style weld heads. An orbital welding system will drastically outperform manual welders. 4. offer many benefits to the user: 1. and defects of manual welding.WELDING MANUAL 152 producing enormous numbers of identical welds and leaving significantly less room for error or defects. the arc welding current. consistent welds repeatedly. An orbital welding system consists of a power supply and an orbital weldhead. Skill level.154 inches (3. With orbital welding equipment. Consistency. Once a weld program has been established. Productivity. and provide an inert atmosphere chamber that surrounds the weld joint. the power to drive the motor in the weldhead. Certified welders are increasingly hard to find. 2. tubes/pipes are clamped in place. Quality. errors.6 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) with wall thicknesses of up to . In applications such as semiconductor or pharmaceutical tube welding. The quality of a weld created by an orbital welding system (with the correct weld program) will be superior to that of manual welding. at a speed close to the maximum weld speed. This supply provides the control parameters. inconsistencies. and switches the shield gas(es) on/off as necessary. Reasons for Using Orbital Welding Equipment There are many reasons for using orbital welding equipment. you don't need a certified welding operator.9 mm). eliminating the normal variability. an orbital welding system can repeatedly perform the same weld hundreds of times. The power supply/control system supplies and controls the welding parameters according to the specific weld program created or recalled from memory. 3. orbital welding is the only means to reach the weld quality requirements. Orbital Welding Equipment In the orbital welding process. . All it takes is a skilled mechanic with some weld training. Standard enclosed orbital weld heads are practical in welding tube sizes from 1/16 inch (1. The ability to make high quality. Orbital weld heads are normally of the enclosed type. and an orbital weldhead rotates an electrode and electric arc around the weld joint to make the required weld. many times paying for the cost of the orbital equipment in a single job.
as the source of the electric arc that melts the base material and forms the weld. and surface condition may already be written into a specification covering the application. in order to arrive at the optimum welding solution. A capacitor dumps current into this electrical path. this section is only intended as a guideline for those applications where no specification exists. that successive welds created by an automatic machine with the same input parameters should also be sound. which reduces the arc voltage to a level where the power supply can then supply current for the arc. WELDING BASICS AND SET-UP The Physics of the GTAW Process The orbital welding process uses the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process (GTAW).WELDING MANUAL 153 5. Weld heads may be used in rows of boiler tubing. tip geometry. By making a sample weld coupon that passes certification.5 to 7 KV) is used to break down (ionize) the insulating properties of the shield gas and make it electrically conductive in order to pass through a tiny amount of current. Each orbital welding equipment supplier differs slightly in recommended welding practices and procedures. Orbital welding may be used in applications where a tube or pipe to be welded cannot be rotated or where rotation of the part is not practical. shield gas type and purity. where it would be difficult for a manual welder to use a welding torch or view the weld joint. For example. applications where inspection of the internal weld is not practical for each weld created. and Tungsten electrode material. General Guidelines for Orbital Tube Welding For orbital welding in many precision or high purity applications. weld joint and part fit-up requirements. Where possible. and derive the welding parameters. Many other reasons exist for the use of orbital equipment over manual welding. In the GTAW process (also referred to as the Tungsten Inert Gas process . an RF or high voltage signal (usually 3. orbital welding may be used in applications where access space restrictions limit the physical size of the welding device. The engineer responsible for the welding must create the welding setup. the logic holds that if the sample weld is acceptable. especially in areas that pertain to warranty issues. Versatility. In addition. follow the recommendations of your orbital equipment supplier for equipment set-up and use. arc length. To start the arc. Note that.TIG) an electric arc is established between a Tungsten electrode and the part to be welded. the base material to be welded. The power supply responds to the demand and provides weld current to keep the arc . the tube diameter(s).
The chemical composition of each heat batch number will have minor differences in the concentration of alloying and trace elements. Accommodation must be made for the potential differences of different material heats. a significant amount of testing will be necessary to ensure the long-term suitability of the chosen material from a functionality and cost viewpoint. reinforcement. Minor changes in amperage may be required to return the weld to its original profile. stability. These trace elements can vary the conductivity and melting characteristics slightly for each heat.WELDING MANUAL 154 established. but may require post weld heat treatment. Weld Joint Fit-Up Weld joint fit-up is dependent on the weld specification requirements on tube straightness. If no specification exists. and corrosion resistance requirements of the application will dictate the material chosen. The mechanical. For complex applications. which contain additives for ease of machining. can vary the fluid flow in the weld pool. thermal. Differences in tube diameter or out-ofroundness will cause weld joint mismatch and arc gap variations from one welding set up to another. Four hundred series stainless steels are often weldable. weld concavity. the most commonly used 300 series stainless steels have a high degree of weldability with the exception of 303/303SE. Tubing is produced according to tolerances that are rigid or loose according to the application for which the tube was purchased. It is important that certain elements of the material be held to close tolerances. Material Weldability The material selected varies according to the application and environment the tubing must survive. When a change in heat number is made. completely changing the weld profile and causing arc wander. In general. and drop through. Minor deviations in elements. The metal to be welded is melted by the intense heat of the arc and fuses together. a test coupon should be made for the new heat. the laws of physics will require that the molten material flow and compensate for tube mismatch and any gap in the weld joint. . It is important that the wall thickness is repeatable at the weld joint from part to part. such as sulfur.
ultra high purity gas or gas with a local purifier is employed. Wall thickness variations at the weld zone should be +/. should be burr free with no chamfer. This system also removes the mechanical requirement of aligning the tubes from the orbital weld head. Shield Gas (es) An inert gas is required on the tube O. is one of the most important elements of the welding system that is commonly ignored by welding systems .D.When two tubes are butted together for welding. two of the main considerations are mismatch and gaps. and O. Alignment mismatch (high-low) should be avoided by using engineering stands and clamps to align the two tubes to be welded. Again. Tungsten Electrode The Tungsten welding electrode. and repeatability will become an issue. where the concern for micro-contamination is paramount. Argon is the most commonly used shield gas (for the O.five percent of nominal wall thickness.D. for simplicity and reduction of shield gas cost.D. the laws of physics will allow welding with mismatch of up to 25 percent of wall thickness if this is the only challenge.WELDING MANUAL 155 Tube and pipe end prep facing equipment is recommended in order to help ensure end squareness and end flatness.D. the following rules apply: Any gap should be less than five percent of the wall thickness. Again. Mixed gases. but the resultant quality of weld will suffer greatly. The objective of the welder should be to create a weld that has zero tint at the weld zone I. such as semiconductor and pharmaceutical applications. during welding to prevent the molten material from combining with the oxygen in the ambient atmosphere. In these applications. 95 percent Argon/five percent Hydrogen. For high purity situations.D.D.1" or above). It is possible to weld with gaps of up to 10 percent (or greater) of wall thickness. Both the I.D. the shield and purge gases must minimize the heat tint that could otherwise be undesirable. In general. or 75 percent Helium/25 percent Argon may be used when the wall thickness to be welded is heavy (. and I. Gas purity is dictated by the application. and repeatability will also become a significant challenge. Helium is often used for welding on copper material. commercial grade argon gas may be used. often causing hydrogen embrittlement in the resultant weld. Using mixtures of 95 percent Argon/five percent Hydrogen is incompatible with carbon steels and some exotic alloys. the resultant quality of weld will suffer greatly. 90 percent Argon/10 percent Hydrogen. of the tube) and the purge gas (for the I. For non-critical applications. As a general rule. of the tube). use 100 percent Argon gas. such as 98 percent Argon/two percent Hydrogen. the source of the welding arc.
Electrode Tip Geometry Given the ever-increasing weld quality requirements of the final weld. Alternative. more and more companies are looking for ways to ensure that their weld quality is up to par. Many users of the TIG welding process do not realize that the welding electrode they use contains Thorium. Basically. While these materials are commercially available they have been largely ignored until recently. Users continue to manually grind and wonder why they produce inconsistent results. especially with the radioactive dust that is generated when grinding the electrodes to a point for welding. this is the area where manufacturing organizations can improve the consistency of their welding output with minor effort.WELDING MANUAL 156 users. non-radioactive Tungsten materials are now available. Recommended Electrode Materials Cerium. . In the orbital welding industry. tip geometry. Tungsten manufacturers have added an oxide to pure Tungsten to improve the arc starting characteristics and longevity of pure Tungsten electrodes. it brings an issue of danger. not only do ceriated electrodes offer an advance in electrode safety. Once a weld procedure has been established. which often offer superior arc welding. However. Electrode Materials For quite some time. Safety The safety issues of Tungsten electrode material are now being looked at more closely. So. and surface condition be used. has a lower work function than Thorium. such as two percent ceriated electrodes. as a base material. it is always best to follow the advice of your orbital equipment manufacturer. offering superior emission characteristics. While the radioactivity is of a low level. Consistency and repeatability are key to welding applications. Whether in manual or automatic welding. they also improve the arc starting ability of the orbital equipment. it is important that consistent electrode material. a radioactive element added to the Tungsten. as mentioned earlier. the objective for the choice of Tungsten parameters is to balance the benefits of a clean arc start and reduced arc wander with good weld penetration and a satisfactory electrode life. The shape and quality of the Tungsten electrode tip is also being recognized as a vital process variable. the most commonly used electrode materials are two percent thoriated Tungsten and two percent ceriated Tungsten.
Larger and smaller tip diameters offer the following trade-offs: Smaller Tip Easier to start Less arc wander Less electrode life Less weld penetration Larger Tip Usually harder to start More chance of arc wander More electrode life More weld penetration Tungsten Electrode Grinders and Pre-Ground Electrodes . However. it is best for a welder to leave a flat spot or tip diameter at the end of electrode. and reduces the concern that the tip may fall into the weld. Below is a summary chart that illustrates how different tapers offer different arc shapes and features: Sharper Electrodes Last less than blunt Less weld penetration Wider arc shape Handle less amperage Less arc wander More consistent arc Blunter Electrodes Last longer Better weld penetration Narrower arc shape Handle more amperage Potential for more arc wander Less consistent arc To demonstrate graphically how the taper selection will effect the size of the weld bead and the amount of penetration. because they have usually performed a significant amount of qualifying and troubleshooting work to optimize electrode preparation for their equipment. the following drawing shows typical representations of the arc shape and resultant weld profile for different tapers. the following guidelines apply: Electrode Taper This is usually called out in degrees of included angle (usually anywhere between 14° and 60°). In most cases.WELDING MANUAL 157 Welders should follow an equipment supplier's suggested procedures and dimensions first. This reduces erosion at the thin part of a point. however. especially where arc starting is difficult or short duration welds on small parts are performed. Electrode Tip Diameter Grinding an electrode to a point is sometimes desirable for certain applications. where these specifications do not exist. or the welder or engineer would like to change those settings to possibly improve and optimize their welding.
This minimizes the possibility of Tungsten inclusions in the weld. preground electrodes are the preferred electrode choice to maintain the consistency of your welding. tip geometry. the important points to remember are: Orbital welding has been used by many industries to improve the quality and quantity of tube welding when compared to what can be accomplished by manual welders. The output of a $20 per hour skilled welder actually costs over $72. Longer electrode life before electrode wear or contamination.000 and $20. .000 per year (almost twice his yearly base wage). offers the following benefits to the user in their welding process: Improved arc starting. Reduction of Tungsten shedding. Since a small difference in the dimensions of an orbital electrode can produce a big difference in the weld results. Tungsten electrode grinding equipment requires less skill to ensure that the Tungsten electrode is ground correctly and with more consistency. and constantly endure the variability of each operator grinding the electrodes with a slightly different touch. and ground electrode surface input to the welding process is constant. Conclusion In conclusion. The effective cost of an employee computes to be significantly more than just his base salary.000 and can output over twice the amount of welding that a manual welder can produce then the equipment will pay for itself in a matter of months. Pre-Ground Electrodes Rather than risk electrode radioactivity issues. If a complete orbital welding system costs between $15. This low-cost option ensures that the electrode material quality. and more consistent weld penetration. Consult electrode charts or a pre-ground electrode supplier to obtain the electrode diameter and tip geometry that is most suitable for your welding application. increased arc stability. many manufacturing organizations have chosen to purchase electrodes pre-ground. A dedicated electrode grinder helps ensure that the welding electrodes will not become contaminated by residue or material left on a standard shop grinder wheel.WELDING MANUAL 158 Using electrodes pre-ground to requirements or a dedicated commercial electrode grinder to provide electrode tip quality and consistency.
Process: Weld Head Type: Tube Size Model 424: 10mm . provides precise and positive wire feeding. Tubesheet Weld Heads . GTAW Open arc. Configured for fast and simple operation.4" .Orbital Welding Equipment / Automated Welding Equipment These Magnatech weld heads are specifically designed for making tube-totubesheet welds.78mm (0. TUBE GEOMETRIES Model 424 is ideal for all tubesheet geometries. Multiple torch positioning adjustments allow virtually all tubesheet joint designs to be welded. the Head is inserted into the tube to be welded. an optional wire feeder can be mounted on the weld head. the volume of welds that are produced by an automated welding system will far exceed that of a manual welder. mounted directly on the Head.07") OD . For welds requiring filler wire addition. and the operator pushes the START WELD switch. All three models weld a wide range of tube sizes and operate in any position. Two. ranging form simple to operate analog models to microprocessor-based systems with program storage capability. lowered scrap and rework costs due to improved weld consistency. this will bring two additional financial benefits: One. A standard wire spool. In addition to weld quality improvements. These weld Heads bring the productivity and repetitive precision of machine welding to the fabrication and repair of steam generators and heat exchangers. All three weld Heads models are used with Magnatech power sources. not possible with floormounted feeders. Model 425 with AVC is for multipass welding Model 426 is ideal for fusion welding where preheat is not required. increased output per day at lower cost.3.WELDING MANUAL 159 Finally.
) spools Three point standoff for welding "extended tube" geometries Transparent purge gas chamber for titanium floods the enclosed weld area independent of torch shielding gas.140.4" .eliminating wire entry problems common with floor-mounted feeders (Models 424 & 425) No cable wrap-up Options: Filler Wire feeder using standard 1kg (2lbs.2.52") OD Model 426: 10mm .70. reducing purge time and weld oxidation Arc Voltage Control parallel to tungsten electrode .WELDING MANUAL 160 Range: Model 425: 10mm .4" .1mm (0.76") OD Water-cooled torch and weld Head body (models 425 & 426 only) allow use on pre-heated tubesheets Features: Lifting eye allows use on a counterbalance for weightless operation Multiple torch angle and wire feed positioning mechanism allow optimum torch position and wire entry angle Simple centering cartridge design allows quick installation without requiring prior installation of expensive custom-fabricated locating fixtures Inexpensive centering cartridges fit the exact tube ID Filler wire spool rotates with the torch .2mm (0.even when the torch is angled for a fillet weld Torches for internal bore welding Extension Cables Dual Head Switcher allows two Heads to be used alternately maximizing "arc on" duty cycle Applications: Heat exchanger seal and strength welds Power generation Petrochemical Sanitary Food and beverage @@@@ .5.
WELDING MANUAL 161 CHAPTER – B11 EDGE PREPARATION DETAILS FOR PIPES .
WELDING MANUAL 162 .
WELDING MANUAL 163 .
WELDING MANUAL 164 CHAPTER – B12 Erection Procedure for Rear Water Box & Rear water Chamber .
flanges have been removed from rear water box & water chamber and both have been directly welded together. 3. I.r. Remove the water box after completing the activity as per A (6) above. Weld 4 number channels (2 horizontal & 2 vertical) of size 100x50 along the length and width to stiffen the water chamber. Refer Fig. 2. In Rear water chamber (GS) backing strip will be welded inside on all the four walls and on Rear water chamber (TS) it will be welded inside on three walls and outside on vertical wall near condenser centre line. .Assembly : Assembly can be done in two ways as per site‟s convenience. With the use of stainless steel.t. If logged dimensions indicate any mismatch. Place both Rear water chambers on horizontal surface with water side surface of tube plate on top position. This is to facilitate retubing in case it is required. 4. Option –1 1. A. 2. Water box inside length & width and corresponding dimensions of water chamber to be checked w. Mark top & bottom position of water chambers.Pre assembly 1. Space for re-tubing has been kept on front water box side. (Front & rear). same may be corrected Match Rear water Box (TS/GS) by lowering it over respective water chamber / backing strip such that the weld edges of water chamber and water box match for proper welding. Measure tube sheet flatness as per recommended procedure and record the dimensions in log sheet L-02.t tube plate. the same to be rectified. Weld backing strip on all four walls of water chambers as shown in Fig. 6. B . reliability of condenser tube material has increased and chances of failures and re-tubing has reduced tremendously.r.I. In case of mismatch. Level the water chambers w. 5. In Amarkantak 210 MW.WELDING MANUAL 165 Erection Procedure for Rear Water Box & Rear water Chamber Condensers supplied by Haridwar for 210/250/500 MW ratings are having flanged connection between water box and water chamber at both the ends. horizontal & vertical centre lines and recorded in log sheet to ascertain trueness of dimensions. Holes in the tube plate to be suitably protected.
4.-2) 1. Tack weld / final weld water chamber with side walls and bottom plate.Welding sequence for water box & water chamber (Refer Fig-3) 1. 5. 2. (Naveen Prakash) (S. Carry out tubing.WELDING MANUAL 166 3. Weld the water boxes using proper welding sequence as given (C ) below. Repeat steps 1-4 indicated above. 5. 4.K. 7. Tack weld / Final weld water chamber with side walls and bottom plate. Welding of Generator side water box-Water chamber to be completed first as it has all welds from outside. Weld the water boxes using proper welding sequence as given (C ) below. 8. 6. Root run on all sides. Lower water box and chamber together for erection. 5. 3. Weld water box and chamber with the help of technological plates (12 x 100 x 250) as shown in the drawing. Bring Turbine side water box in position. 3. Over head welding is required for carrying out bottom welding of water boxes and water chambers. Remove water box to facilitate tubing & expansion by cutting stiffening plates. 6. Tack weld Water box (GS) and Chamber(GS) -100 (200). All welding is from outside except vertical welding of Rear water box & water chamber (TS) near condenser centerline which is from inside. Option – II (Refer Fig. Final welding to be done as per Detail-I. 6.Baveja) (Lalit Kishore) . Carry out tubing. C. Direction of welding shall be as indicated in the drawing. Lower the water chamber (without water box) on bottom plate for erection as per standard procedure. 4. 2.
WELDING MANUAL 167 .
WELDING MANUAL 168 .
WELDING MANUAL 169 .
WELDING MANUAL 170 CHAPTER – B13 WELDING & HT DETAILS OF THERMOCOUPLE PAD & CLAMPS FOR SH & RH .
0 SA213 T22 8. 321 SA213 TP347 H 12.0 to 12. 310 SS 304. 321. 310 SS 304. 310 Sl. 316.0 NIL NIL NIL 7500C to 7700C (min. Thermocouple pad Material SS 304.0 8. 321. 310 SS 304.50 mm Welder shall strike ARC on Thermocouple pad or "Run-on Run-off" Block and bring arc up to side of thermocouple pad using as low a current as possible to avoid burn-through. 316.6 NIL E7018 A1 3 t<8. 30 minutes) NIL NIL E7018 A1 E 309 E 309 E 309 4 SA213 T91 ALL THICKNESS SS 304.No Tube Material (SH & RH) Thickness in mm (t – max). 316. 316. A1 7.6 NIL 1250C 1500C NIL 1500C ON T22 Side 2200C ON T91 Side NIL E7018 A1 2 SA213 T11 8. .0 to 12.WELDING MANUAL 171 WELDING & HT DETAILS OF THERMOCOUPLE PAD & CLAMPS FOR SH & RH Pad / Clamp Material : SS 304. 316.0 (max. 316. 321. 321. 316. 321.) SS 310 NIL NIL E 347 E 309 NOTE : 1 2 3 The above can be taken as the general guidelines for all the boilers. 310 5 6 SA213 TP347 H ALL THICKNESS SS 304. Electrode size : 2. 321 SS 310 Pre-heat (min) Post-weld heat Consumable Treatment Electrode 1 SA210 Gr.
WELDING MANUAL 172 CHAPTER – B14 WELDING AND PWHT SEQUENCE FOR LOWER RING HEADER .
1 . 2. balance welding of all four corner joints are to be welded simultaneously and completed. Note: To reduce cycle time. WELDING & INTERSTAGE RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) One of the sequence 2. 4. Then balance two joints are to be welded simultaneously and completed upto 60 mm thickness and inter stage RT shall be taken. 3.0 1.1. NDE and Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) sequences for the four field welds in the lower ring header assembly. After inter stage RT clearance. 2.1 or 2.1 PURPOSE To describe the welding.1. balance welding of last two joints are to be welded simultaneously and completed. PWHT PWHT of each weld joint shall be done individually or in any other order.1 ULTRASONIC TESTING All weld joints shall be dressed smoothly for UT and ultrasonic testing shall be carried out for all four joints. After inter stage RT clearance.2 given below is to be followed while welding the four joints in the lower ring header assembly. balance welding of first two joints are to be welded simultaneously and completed. After inter stage RT clearance.1 2.WELDING MANUAL 173 WELDING AND PWHT SEQUENCE FOR LOWER RING HEADER 1.1 All four corner joints are to be welded simultaneously upto 60 mm thickness and inter stage RT shall be taken.1.2 Diagonally opposite two joints are to be welded simultaneously upto 60 mm thickness and inter stage RT shall be taken.1 3.0 2. last two joints welding upto 60 mm shall be taken up immediately after completing first two joints welding upto 60 mm.0 4.1.
11 .WELDING MANUAL 174 CHAPTER B 15 DEMAGNETISATION PROCEDURE Refer NDE Manual Chapter 1.
WELDING MANUAL 175 CHAPTER B 16 ERECTION WELDING PRACTICE FOR SA 213 T 91 MATERIAL .
0 The fit-up and root gap shall be as per drawing.2.1. 3. Fit-up by a clamping arrangement is recommended.1 Cutting of T-91 material shall be done by band saw/hacksaw/machining/ grinding only. grinding can be done with prior approval of Welding Engineer/ Quality Assurance Engineer. 1036 Rev 04 dt 02 04 04. FIXING OF THERMOCOUPLE (T/C). Edge preparation (EP) shall be done only by machining. Ensure that coil load should not come on stubs/header.1 2. During machining/ grinding.1. WPS No. Recorders: 6 Points/12 Points. the same shall be confirmed by Liquid Penetrant Inspection.3 The weld fit-up shall be carried out properly to ensure proper alignment and root gap. 2. DURING PREHEATING AND PWHT 3. Use site fabricated clamps for fit up.2. 3. In extreme cases.WELDING MANUAL 176 ERECTION WELDING PRACTICE FOR SA 213 T 91 MATERIAL 1. The necessary preheat and purging shall be done as per clause 4. lamination.1.0 3. . If confirmed. care should be taken to avoid excessive pressure to prevent heating up of to the tube edges. 3.1 Scope : This document details salient practices to be adopted during welding of SA213 T91 material. deposit noticed during visual examination.0 2.1 and 3. Neither tack welds nor bridge piece shall be used to secure alignment. Weld build-up on Edge Preparation is prohibited.2. it shall be referred to unit.1 ERECTION EDGE PREPARATION AND FIT UP 3.2 ref. Following are the equipment/ facilities required for heating cycles. (1) Heating methods: Resistance heating (2) Thermo couples: Ni-Cr/ Ni-Al of 0.2 All Edge Preparations done at site shall be subjected to Liquid Penetrate Inspection (LPI).1 No. and thickness will be as per Erection Welding Schedule for the site When any defect like crack.2 MATERIAL SA213 T91 Dia.5mm.1.4 3. Coil load to be transferred to crown plate/ end bar assembly. Preheating is required for fixing T/C with resistance spot welding.0 1. 3. (3) Temp.
Only water-soluble paper is to be used.WELDING MANUAL 177 3. Provide continuous and adequate argon gas to ensure complete purging in the root area. (Sketch 3). Purging is to be done from cross over tube down stream end. start purging through cross over tube down stream end for 5 minutes. Plastic foils that are water-soluble are NOT acceptable. The flow rate is to be maintained for purging is 6 to 8 litres/ minute and for GTAW is 812 litres/ minute.2.3 When root temperature reaches 220oC. The following is the method to be used: Simply stuff water-soluble paper into the Header Nipples at specified distance from the weld as per attached sketch 1 SKETCH . 3. The advantage in such dam arrangement is that the dissolving paper dam gets flushed during hydraulic test.2. 3.1 . Then the root gap to be covered by asbestos rope.2 ARRANGEMENT FOR PURGING: Argon gas with requisite quality shall be used for purging the root side of weld. The purging dam (water soluble paper) shall be fixed on HDR Nipple side of the weld bevel prior to fit-up and pre-heating.2.4 USING OF WATER SOLUBLE PAPER The dams can be made of water-soluble paper for creating the purging chamber. Ensure that atmosphere air is completely purged out through the root gap before starting welding and welding can be continued with Argon backing.
2. Preheating temp shall be maintained at 220oC (min) by using resistance heating. The applicable WPS for T91+T91 shall be WPS No. 6. Filler wire shall be clean and free from rust or oil. rate of heating/ cooling etc.0 NDE: Carry out Non-Destructive Examination (RT) as per Field Welding Schedule.1 PREHEATING (Bunching of tubes can be followed): Prior to start of pre heating ensure that surface are clean and free from grease.1 WELDING: Welding shall be done using GTAW process (as per WPS). Sketch 2 4. Hardness survey of weld and parent metal (both tubes) shall be carried out. Ref . 02/04/04. Welders qualified as per ASME Sec IX and IBR and on T91 material shall be engaged. Based on satisfactory results. 1036/04 dt.0 POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT (PWHT) – RESISTANCE HEATING METHOD (Bunching of tubes can be followed): Arrangements: Sufficient number of thermocouples shall be placed covering weld and the base material.1 Obtain the clearance for PWHT cycle from QAE/ Welding Engineer. Portable equipment used in the hardness measurement shall be calibrated . welding. the hardness survey can be reduced to 10% covering all the heat treatment cycles. The equipment recommended to measure the hardness is EQUOTIP or equivalent. Argon Purging shall be continued till completion of welding. The pre heating arrangements shall be inspected and cleared by welding engineer/ Quality Assurance Engineer before start of preheating. The width of the heated circumferential band on either side of the weld must be at least 100mm. All the hardness values shall be recorded.0 7. The PWHT temp for T91 with T91 material shall be 760 ± 10oC and the soaking time shall be 90 minutes. Sufficient number of thermo couples shall be fixed on both coils and header nipples away from the EP.WELDING MANUAL 178 4. The maximum allowable hardness at . HARDNESS SURVEY: 100% hardness survey shall be conducted on welds and parent material in first five coils.2 Welding and Heat treatment chart given in ( Sketch 4) shall be followed for pre-hating. ( Sketch 2) 5. 5. oil and dirt. The thermocouple shall be welded with the condenser discharge portable spot welding machine.0 WELDING/WELDERS QUALIFICATION: Only qualified welding procedure is to be used. 5. The surface shall be cleaned and prepared as per hardness test instrument manufacture‟s recommendation prior to hardness survey. 4. PWHT. Welders log book shall be maintained and welders performance to be monitored by site welding engineer/ Quality assurance engineer.
.WELDING MANUAL 179 weld and parent material shall be 300HV10.
WELDING MANUAL 180 .
) 120˚C /hr (Max.100˚C 120˚C /hr (Max.) Welding by GTAW 350˚C (Interpass-Max. WELDING AND HEAT TREATMENT CHART Temp ˚C 760˚± 10˚C 350˚ 220˚ 100˚ 80˚ HT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sl.) SKETCH.) Holding at 80-100 C to minimum 30 minutes.WELDING MANUAL 181 ERECTION WELDING PRACTICE FOR SA 213 T 91 MATERIAL .) Cooling 80˚. Holding shall continue till the start of PWHT Heating to PWHT Soaking at PWHT Cooling Cooling Reach 760˚ ± 10˚C 760˚ ± 10˚C for 90 minutes (Min.) 120˚C /hr (Max.4 .) Cooling to 350˚C Cooling to Room temperature under insulation. 120˚C /hr (Max. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Operation Temp ˚C Rate of cooling/Heating Preheat 220˚C (Min.
WELDING MANUAL 182 B-17 SELECTION CHART FOR DUMMY END COVERS .
WELDING MANUAL 183 .
WELDING MANUAL 184 .
WELDING MANUAL 185 B-18 SCHEDULE OF PIPES .
WELDING MANUAL 186 .
WELDING MANUAL 187 .