Factors affecting the rate of reaction

Experiment 1.1: To investigate the effect of the

surface area of a reactant on the rate of reaction .

Factors affecting the rate of reaction
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Problem statement How does the surface area of a solid reactant affect rate of reaction?

Factors affecting the rate of reaction
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Hypothesis The smaller the size of the reactant particles, that is, the larger the total surface area of the reactant particles, the faster the rate of reaction.

mass of marble chips. .Factors affecting the rate of reaction     Variables: (a) Manipulated-variable: (b) Responding variable : chips used (c) Fixed (controlled) variables: Temperature of the experiment. concentration and volume of hydrochloric acid.

measuring cylinder and stopwatch. retort stand and clamp. burette. delivery tube fitted with a rubber stopper. .Factors affecting the rate of reaction   Apparatus Conical flask.

powdered marble and 0.Factors affecting the rate of reaction   Materials Marble chips.2 mol dm hydrochloric acid. -3 .

The water level in the burette is adjusted and the initial burette reading is recorded.Factors affecting the rate of reaction     Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Procedure 1 A burette is filled with water and inverted over a basin containing water. . The burette is clamped to the retort stand.

5. .0 g of marble chips are placed in a small conical flask.Factors affecting the rate of reaction     Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Procedure 2.

. 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is added to the marble chips.Factors affecting the rate of reaction     Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Procedure 3.

.13).Factors affecting the rate of reaction     Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Procedure 4 The delivery tube with a rubber stopper is inserted into the mouth of the conical flask (Figure 1. The stopwatch is started simultaneously.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction     Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Procedure 5 The burette readings are recorded at 30-second intervals. .

Factors affecting the rate of reaction    Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Results .

Factors affecting the rate of reaction    Experiment II .The rate of reaction using powdered marble Procedure 1 Steps 1 to 4 in Experiment I are repeated using 5. volume and concentration of hydrochloric acid are kept constant. .0 g of . All other conditions such as temperature.

.Factors affecting the rate of reaction    Experiment II .The rate of reaction using powdered marble Procedure 2 The results of the experiment are recorded in the following table.

. a graph of the total volume of carbon dioxide produced against time for each experiment is plotted on the same axes (Figure 1.11).Factors affecting the rate of reaction   Results Based on the results obtained.

12 shows the graphs that will be obtained if the reactions in Experiments I and II are completed. .Factors affecting the rate of reaction  1 Figure 1.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction  2 Figure 1. 120 cm3). This indicates that the maximum volume of carbon dioxide collected at the end of reaction for both Experiments I and II are the same (that is.15 shows that both graphs level off at the same value. .

120 cm3).15 shows that both graphs level off at the same value. . This happens because the masses of the marble and the volumes of the hydrochloric acid used in both the experiments are the same.Factors affecting the rate of reaction  2 Figure 1. This indicates that the maximum volume of carbon dioxide collected at the end of reaction for both Experiments I and II are the same (that is.

less steep .Factors affecting the rate of reaction  3 The gradient of the graphs for Experiments I and II become as the reactions proceed.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction  3 The gradient of the graphs for Experiments I and II become less steep as the reactions proceed. . This shows that the rates of reaction (a) are  very high at the beginning of the reaction.

This shows that the rates of reaction (a) are very high at the beginning of the reaction. . (b) decrease as the reactions proceed.Factors affecting the rate of reaction    3 The gradient of the graphs for Experiments I and II become less steep as the reactions proceed.

(c) become zero when the reactions have completed.Factors affecting the rate of reaction     3 The gradient of the graphs for Experiments I and II become less steep as the reactions proceed. (b) decrease as the reactions proceed. This shows that the rates of reaction (a) are very high at the beginning of the reaction. the graphs become horizontal. . At this time.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

4 The rate of reaction between the marble and hydrochloric acid decreases because

(a) the mass of the remaining unreacted marble decreases.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


4 The rate of reaction between the marble and hydrochloric acid decreases because (a) the mass of the remaining unreacted marble decreases. (b) the

concentration of hydrochloric acid decreases.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

5 The reaction in Experiment I stops after t2 minutes while the reaction in Experiment II stops after t1, minutes, where t1 < t2. This shows that the rate of reaction for Experiment II (powdered marble) is faster than the rate of reaction for Experiment I (marble chips).

Factors affecting the rate of reaction  volume of carbon dioxide collected in the burette is usually slightly less than 6 The total the theoretical value. .

slightly soluble .Factors affecting the rate of reaction  6 The total volume of carbon dioxide collected in the burette is usually slightly less than the theoretical value. This is because carbon dioxide is in water.13). a gas syringe is used to collect carbon dioxide released during the experiment (Figure 1. To overcome this problem.

we can conclude that the smaller the particle size.Factors affecting the rate of reaction   Conclusion: Graph (II) is steeper than graph (I). Hence. the larger the total surface area exposed for reaction and of reaction. the faster the rate . This shows that the rate of reaction in Experiment II is faster than the rate of reaction in Experiment I. Thus. the rate is faster with powdered marble than with marble chips. Powdered marble is used in Experiment II.

Concentration  Experiment 1.2: To study the effect of on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid .

Concentration  Problem statement  How does the concentration of a reactant affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and dilute sulphuric acid? .

the higher the rate of reaction.Concentration   Hypothesis The more concentrated the sodium thiosulphate solution. .

Concentration   Variables (a) Manipulated variable: thiosulphate solution of sodium .

.Concentration   Variables (a) Manipulated variable: thiosulphate solution (b) Responding variable: of sodium  Time taken for the cross 'X' to disappear  (c) Fixed (controlled) variables: Concentration and volume of dilute sulphuric acid as well as the temperatures of the solutions.

.Concentration   Apparatus 10 cm3 and 100 cm3 measuring cylinders. and stopwatch. 100 cm3 conical flask. white paper marked with a cross 'X'.

2 mol dm -3 sodium thiosulphate solution.Concentration   Materials 0. 1. .0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid and distilled water.

.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution is measured out using a 100 cm3 measuring cylinder. dry conical flask. The solution is then poured into a clean.Concentration   Procedure 1 50 cm3 of 0.

14). .Concentration   Procedure 2 The conical flask is placed on a piece of paper with across `X' marked on it (Figure 1.

The stopwatch is started immediately.Concentration   Procedure 3 5 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid is measured out by using a 10 cm3 measuring cylinder. The acid is then quickly poured into sodium thiosulphate solution. .

Concentration   Procedure 4 The reaction mixture is swirled once and the cross `X' is viewed from above. . A yellow precipitate will appear slowly in the conical flask.

.Concentration   Procedure 5 The stopwatch is stopped as soon as the cross disappears from view and the time taken is recorded.

.Concentration   Procedure 6 Steps 1 to 5 are repeated with different mixtures of sodium thiosulphate solution and distilled water as shown in the following table.

16 30 0.033 3 30 20 5 0.04 111 0.042 2 40 10 5 0.2 .Concentration  Results Experiment Volume of Na2S2O3(cm3) Volume of water Volume of H2SO4(cm3) Concentration of Na2S2O3(moldm-3) Time taken(s) 1 ( s 1 ) Time 1 50 0 5 0.12 42 0.016 5 10 40 5 0.20 24 0.009 M 1V1 M2  V2 50 x M= 40 x 0.024 4 20 30 5 0.08 62 0.

reacts with dilute sulphuric acid according to the equation: Na2S2O3(aq) + H2 SO4(aq)  Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) + SO2(g) + S(s) . Sodium thiosulphate. Na2 S2 O3 .Concentration    Discussion 1.

reacts with dilute sulphuric acid according to the equation: Na2S2O3(aq) + H2 SO4(aq)  Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) + SO2(g) + S(s)    The ionic equation is as follows: S2O32. .Concentration    Discussion 1. Sodium thiosulphate. Na2 S2 O3 .(aq) + 2H+ (aq)  S(s) + SO2(g) + H2O(l) The sulphur is precipitated as fine particles and causes the solution to turn cloudy.

Hence.Concentration   Discussion 2 As the amount of sulphur increases. the cross `X' becomes more and more difficult to see. Finally. the cross `X' disappears from view when a certain mass of sulphur is precipitated. the time recorded for the disappearance of the cross `X' is the time taken for the formation of a fixed mass of sulphur. .

rate of reaction  time taken for the cross ' X' to disappear .Concentration   Discussion 3 Rate of reaction = mass of sulphur produced time taken 1 Hence.

Concentration   Discussion   4 The concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution after mixing with water can be obtained by using the following formula: Concentration of Na2S2O3 = M 1V1 0.2  volume of Na 2 S 2 O3 used  moldm 3 V2 50 .

(a) The graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate against time (Graph I. Figure 1.  . two graphs can be plotted.Concentration    Discussion 5 Based on the experimental results obtained.15).

Figure 1.Concentration (b) The graph of concentration of sodium 1 thiosulphate against time taken (Graph II.16) .

When the diameter of the bottom of conical flask increases. the time taken for the cross to disappear will be shorter. taken for the cross `X' to disappear will increase. 100 cm3 volume).Concentration  6 the (for example. If the conical flask of a larger size (for example. a greater amount of sulphur must be formed for the cross `X' to disappear. same size The conical flask used for each experiment must have . t. Conversely. 50 cm3 volume) is used. if a smaller conical flask (for example. the time. 250 cm3 volume) is used.

but the concentration of sodium thiosulphate is kept constant. . the rate of reaction will also be directly proportional to the concentration of the acid used.Concentration  7 If the experiment is repeated with dilute sulphuric acid of different concentrations.

Concentration    Conclusion 1 (a) the higher the concentration of sodium thiosulphate. we can conclude that: . that is. the shorter the time taken for a certain mass of sulphur to he precipitated. for the cross `X' to disappear from view. From graph I.

the faster the rate of reaction. we can conclude that: .Concentration    Conclusion 1 (b) This means that the higher the concentration of sodium thiosulphate. From graph I.

Concentration    Conclusion 2 From graph II.(1) time Higher concentration. it can be concluded that the concentration of sodium thiosulphate is directly proportional to 1 time 1 Concentration of Na2S2O3  ………. shorter time .

concentration of Na2S2O3   1  reaction rate. combining equations (1) and (2). The hypothesis is accepted. rate of reaction  concentration of Na2S2O3 solution. .Concentration Concentration of Na2S2O3    1 time 3 1 But the rate of reaction is  time …………(2) Hence. we have. time  That is.

Temperature  Experiment 1.3: to study the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid .

Temperature   Problem statement How does temperature affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and sulphuric acid? .

the faster the rate of reaction. .Temperature   Hypothesis The higher the temperature of the reactant.

Temperature   Variables (a) Manipulated variable: The temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution .

Temperature    Variables (b) Responding variable: The time taken for the cross `X' to disappear (c) Fixed (controlled) variables: The concentrations and volumes of both sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid .

white paper marked with a cross `X'. and Bunsen burner. tripod stand. stopwatch. .Temperature   Apparatus Conical flask. thermometer. 10 cm3 measuring cylinder. wire gauze.

. tripod stand. and Bunsen burner. thermometer. white paper marked with a cross `X'. stopwatch. wire gauze.Temperature   Apparatus Conical flask. 10 cm3 measuring cylinder.

1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution and 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid.Temperature  Materials  0. .

1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution is measured out using a 100 cm3 measuring cylinder. . The temperature of the sodium thiosulphate solution is measured with a thermometer. and poured into a clean. dry conical flask.Temperature     Procedure Experiment I Rate of reaction at room temperature 1 50 cm3 of 0.

17). .Temperature     Experiment I Rate of reaction at room temperature 2 The conical flask is placed on a white paper marked with a cross 'X' (Figure 1. 3 5 cm3 of l mol dm-3 sulphuric acid is measured out using a 10 cm3 measuring cylinder. The acid is then quickly poured into the sodium thiosulphate solution.

Temperature     Experiment I Rate of reaction at room temperature 4 The stopwatch is started immediately and the conical flask is swirled gently. . The stopwatch is stopped as soon as the cross disappears from view and the time taken is recorded. 5 The cross 'X' is viewed from above.

.Temperature   Experiment II to V 6 The solution in the conical flask is poured out.18). The conical flask is washed thoroughly and dried.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution is poured into the conical flask. The solution is heated over a wire gauze until the temperature reaches about 45 °C (Figure 1. 50 cm3 of 0.

Temperature   Experiment II to V Rate of reaction at temperatures above room temperature   7 The hot conical flask is placed over a white paper marked with a cross X. . 8 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid is measured out using a 10 cm3 measuring cylinder.

When the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution falls to 40 °C. . the sulphuric acid is quickly poured into the thiosulphate solution.Temperature   Experiment II to V Rate of reaction at temperatures above room temperature  9 . The stopwatch is started immediately and the conical flask is swirled gently.

Temperature   Experiment II to V Rate of reaction at temperatures above room temperature   10 The cross 'X' is viewed from the top and the time taken for the cross to disappear from view is recorded. 11 Steps 6 to 9 are repeated at higher temperatures as shown in the following table. .

Temperature  Results .

Temperature    Results Based on the results of the experiment. a graph temperature of sodium 1 thiosulphate solution against time is plotted (Figure 1. .19).

Temperature   Conclusion: 1 The graph shows that the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution is proportional (but not linearly) to 1 time .

(1) time 1 But rate of reaction  . we have. Rate of reaction  temperature   . (2) time Combining equations (1) and (2)..Temperature   Conclusion: 2 Temperature   1 ....

 .Temperature Conclusion:  3 The higher the temperature of the experiment. the faster the rate of reaction.

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