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CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM
Introduction Interest in the concepts of job satisfaction has grown in recent years because of their efficacy on work commitment, and their basic importance to the understanding of a worker’s behavior and the continuous effective operations of organizations. In the Philippines, nurses have been constantly exposed to considerable internal and external organizational issues which could have negative effects on their level of job satisfaction and work commitment. heavy Several literature on nursing have raised the issues on poor working conditions, meager compensation
packages, poor interpersonal relationships, weak leadership, nonrecognition of exemplary work, and lack of opportunities for career growth as possible major factors of work stress and dissatisfaction. These issues may serve as possible causes for nurses to reconsider their long-range work options, and lower their work commitment. In spite of an average of 600,000 college students enrolling in nursing courses every year, making up 25% of the total college enrollees, the nursing sector of the Philippines is incurring a shortage of nurses (Solmerin, 2007). This could be the result of massive exodus of nurses to many countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) show
that the Philippines is leading other nations in the exportation of nurses (www.abbaphilippines.com; Gatbonton, 2006; Villas, 2004), comprising 25% of all overseas nurses worldwide (Estella, 2005). As of 2006, there are already 164,000 Filipino nurses, 85% of the country’s total, working outside the Philippines in about 46 countries. Out of this total, around 100,000 of them have left only within the past 10 years (Cueto, 2006; www.sunstar.com.ph; Estella, 2005; Omi, 2006). There are also those
who are still in the country who, while waiting for opportunities to be hired abroad, are not practicing their profession, instead they end up working as call center agents and tellers in some private banks. Dr. Irineo Bernardo, executive officer of the Philippine Hospital Association, as quoted by Estella (2005), avers that the turnover of nurses has been particularly high from year 2000 to 2007. And as more nurses leave, the Philippines is only left with more unskilled and untrained nurses. In 2001, the Philippine Overseas and Employment Agency (POEA) reported that 13,536 Filipino nurses went overseas. In contrast, that
same year, only 4,430 students passed the Nursing Board Examination, clearly showing that the country has been exporting more nurses than it is producing (Estella, 2005). Jossel Ebesate, secretary general of the Alliance of Health Workers (AHW) as cited by www.sunstar.com.ph, said that if the trend of exporting nurses outside the country continues, the Philippine health-
care system will soon collapse. This observation is supported by records from the Department of Education (DepEd) which show that as of 2007, the nurse-to-student ratio in schools is already standing at 1:4,830 (Hicap, 2006; www.gov.ph). This broad ratio gap manifests the difficulty of the government to help students who are facing malnutrition and health problems to perform well in school. DepEd officials explain that if only schools have enough medical personnel, then the health concerns of students could have easily been responded (Hicap, 2006; www.gov.ph). The public school nurses are among those responsible for the implementation of DepEd’s key programs on school health and nutrition. These programs are (www.deped.gov.ph): a) health and nutrition education; b) national drug education; c) health services; d) medical, dental and nursing; e) TB (pulmonary tuberculosis) prevention and control; f) school milk project; and g) breakfast feeding program. Given such important duties and responsibilities, the DepEd nurses are only receiving an entry basic monthly salary of P11,167.00 (www.sunstar.com.ph), a far cry from the salaries they could get abroad which range from P100, 000 to P150,000, exclusive of fringe benefits (Adversario, 2003; Rosario, 2006). Under the Republic Act 9173, otherwise known as the Nursing Act of 1992, government nurses are supposedly provided with salary adjustment. But until now, this adjustment has remained
unimplemented (Villas, 2004).
It could have increased the monthly
entry-level pay of nurses from P9,900 to P14,000.
According to the
Health Alliance for Democracy (HAD), the present health care services in the Philippines are already operating at 3.5% of the Gross National Product (GNP) budget, below the 5% recommended by the WHO (Lacerna, 2005). Moreover, not only that they receive low compensation, DepEd nurses are also faced with many work-related problems, such as lack of opportunity for career advancement, heavy workload, limited budget for transportation, and the scarcity of laboratory equipment, medicines and office supplies (CYR, 2005). These problems according to Health Undersecretary Dr. Susan P. Mercado (2007) are brought about by poor situations of the health care system of the country which include the following: a) inappropriate service delivery as shown by poorly targeted facilities, fragmented primary health system, ineffective delivery
mechanisms for public health programs, and maldistribution of health human resources; and b) poor financing as shown by inadequate funding, inefficient sourcing and ineffective allocation of funds. Because of this abovementioned scenario, the researcher developed the interest to examine the prospects of a nursing career at the DepEd, particularly the relationship between the level of job satisfaction and work commitment among DepEd nurses. He believed that through this study, the DepEd, or the government in general, would become more aware and conscious of the present psychological make up of its people
as affected by negative internal and external environment and therefore could devise measures to improve its human resource programs, more particularly in the aspect of hiring people and in retaining employees.
Statement of the Problem Generally, this study examines the prospects of a nursing career at the DepEd in the context of job satisfaction and work commitment. Specifically this seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of Southern Leyte DepEd nurses in terms of the following: 1.1. Job position; 1.2. Year of service; 1.3. Educational qualifications; 1.4. Employment status; 1.5. Age; 1.6. Sex; 1.7. Civil status; and, 1.8. Distance of residence from place of assignment? 2. What is the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in terms of: 2.1. Remuneration and other monetary benefits; 2.2. Non-monetary benefits; 2.3. Budget allocation; and
2.4. Career advancement? 3. What is the level of job satisfaction among the DepEd nurses? 4. What is the level of work commitment among the DepEd nurses? 5. Is there a significant relationship between job satisfaction and work commitment among the DepEd nurses? And finally, 6. Based on findings, what implementing guidelines for monetary and non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses can be proposed?
Statement of Hypothesis Ho: There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and work commitment.
Significance of the Study This study will benefit the following people as it will give them clearer view of job satisfaction and work commitment among the DepEd nurses. The health legislators. To legislate laws that may answer problems affecting job satisfaction and work commitment among DepEd nurses as maybe manifested by the proliferation of malnutrition and other health problems of students resulting to poor academic
The management of the Department of Education. formulate plans, programs and strategies geared towards
improvement of its human resource programs. The academe. To acquire additional reference materials for
students pursuing studies on job satisfaction and work commitment. The DepEd nurses and other public nurses. To look at this
study as a reflection of themselves so that they become aware or conscious of the profession they are in and therefore more equipped and empowered. The researcher. To broaden his knowledge on human behavior in organization, thus helping him become more effective supervisor and manager in the future. The Filipino people in general. To determine how job
satisfaction and work commitment among DepEd nurses could affect the physical well-being of their children.
Scope and Delimitation This study examines the prospects of a nursing career at DepEd, particularly the relationship between the level of job satisfaction and work commitment among the nurses assigned at the DepEd Southern Leyte Division, located at Mantahan, Maasin City.
Only the DepEd registered nurses served as the respondents of the study. Exempted from the study were registered nurses who performed administrative functions.
Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study, the following terms are defined as follows: Career Commitment. The intent of DepEd nurses to build a vocation or profession that is a meaningful and lifelong pursuit. DepEd Nurse. A registered nurse working at the Department of Education, Southern Leyte Division, Mantahan, Maasin City. Job Involvement. The degree to which the DepEd nurses immerse themselves in their jobs, invest time and energy in them, and view work as a central part of their overall lives. Job Satisfaction. The outcome of the DepEd nurses’ good feelings and beliefs regarding the nature of their jobs and experiences related to their jobs. Job Turnover. The rate of DepEd nurses leaving their jobs. Level of Sufficiency. It is the perception on the degree of modest comfort of DepEd nurses towards their benefits, budget allocation and career advancement. Motivation. The strength of the DepEd nurses’ drive towards work performance.
Nursing Career. It is the progression of the nurses’ work life at DepEd. Organizational Commitment. The relative strength of nurses’ identification with, and involvement in DepEd as their organization. Prospects. The over-all view and perspective of pursuing a
nursing profession at DepEd. Registered Nurse (RN). An individual who passed the Licensure Examination for Nurses and is currently working as a public school nurse at the DepEd Southern Leyte Division. Remuneration. A payment or reward for services that the DepEd nurses rendered. Work commitment. The relative importance of DepEd nurses’
sense of self, encompassing job involvement, career commitment, and organizational commitment.
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
The literature and studies cited in this chapter tackle the prospects of a nursing career, as well as the concepts on job satisfaction and work commitment.
Related Literature According to www.bls.gov, www.education-online-search.com and www.nursingworld.org, there is a present acute worldwide shortage of nurses. Hence, there is a positive prospect of a nursing career in the coming years as the employment of nurses is expected to grow faster than the other occupations. The Canada Nurses Association (CNA) predicts that their country will have a shortfall of registered nurses between 60,000 and 115,000 by 2010. In the US, the Bureau of Labor statistics reveals that from 2001 to 2008, a total of 450,000 additional registered nurses are needed to fill the demand (Gonzales, 2004). To attract and retain qualified nurses, hospitals in developed countries such as the US, United Kingdom (UK), and Canada are now offering salaries which range from $37,300 to $74,760 a year
Those are aside from additional benefits such as
bonuses, family-friendly work schedules, and subsidized trainings.
Gonzales (2004) mentions that because of this great demand for nurses, accompanied by attractive good compensation packages, which the Philippine government could not offer, some of our best-educated and most-experienced Filipino nurses are now migrating to the developed countries such as the US, UK, and Canada. He further explains that this demand, based on statistical projections will never shrink, instead it will even grow. www.bls.gov states that nurses, regardless of specialty or work setting, perform basic duties that include treating patients, educating patients and the public about various medical conditions, and providing advice and emotional support to patients’ family members. Nurses
record patients’ medical histories and symptoms, help to perform diagnostic tests and analyze results, operate medical machinery, administer treatment and medications and help with patient follow-up and rehabilitation. Nursing is defined by www.nursingworld.org as “the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations.” Keenan (2003) identifies three types of nursing professions: registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nurse aides. Registered nurses provide direct patient care and also manage nursing care.
Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) on the other hand provide patient care under direction of an RN or physician. Nurse Aides (NAs) assist in routine care activities, such as bathing, dressing, and feeding patients. In terms of career path, www.bls.gov discloses that today’s nurses are offered with many work alternatives and choices. There is a wide
variety of nursing specialty areas which include surgery, emergency, pediatric, psychiatric, school, public health, nurse-midwives, and others. Some RNs follow the career path by starting as licensed practical nurses or nursing aides, and then go back to school to receive their RN degree. Most RNs begin as staff nurses, and with experience and good performance often are promoted to more responsible positions. In
management, nurses can advance to assistant head nurse or head nurse, and from there, to assistant director, director, and vice president. Some nurses move into the business side of health care. Business establishments need nurses for health planning and development, marketing, consulting, policy development, and quality assurance. Other nurses work in colleges and universities as members of the faculty or as researchers. www.education-online-search.com stipulates that nurses need to be well educated, adaptable, and be able to act as patient advocates. They also need to be able to deal with the stress of critical and demanding situations and the emotional strain of dealing with sick, injured, and even dying patients. Nurses require good observation skills,
communication skills, and the ability to make decisions based on assimilation and evaluation of information. Nurses also need
management skills, at a minimum, to be able to manage nurses aides and other resources for their patients health care whatever the location or setting. Head nurses and nurse supervisors require additional
leadership and administrative skills as well as negotiating skills and budgeting and financial skills. Freeland and www.bls.gov attest that on global setting, most nurses are treated well than the workers from other sectors as they are provided with high compensation packages, high level of job security, and well-lighted, comfortable health care facilities. Moreover, just like the workers of any occupation, nurses can only be efficient in the performance of their duties and responsibilities towards their respective organizations if they possess high level of job satisfaction. Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as the outcome of an employee’s good feelings (affect) and beliefs (cognition) regarding the nature of his job and experiences related to the job. It is generally
recognized as a multifaceted construct that includes employee feelings about a variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic job elements (Stordeur, et al., 2001). Stordeur et al. (2001) contend that job satisfaction is an immediate antecedent of work commitment, and work commitment an immediate
antecedent of intention to leave the workplace and turnover. They expound the idea by saying that the higher an employee’s job satisfaction and work commitment, the lower his intention to leave. Based on this contention the researcher has raised this question: what are the causes of job satisfaction, so that an employee will stay committed to his work, and will continue to hold on to it? Numerous motivation theories
address this question. Among them are: Herzberg’s SatisfactionMotivation Theory; McClelland’s Three Motives Theory; Vroom’s
Expectancy Theory; and Alderfer’s Three-tiered Model of Needs. Motivation is defined by Newstrom and Davis (1993) as “strength of the drive toward an action.” This definition according to Steers and
Porter (1991) have three common denominators: 1) what energizes human behavior; 2) what directs or channels such behavior; and, 3) how this behavior is maintained or sustained. Newstrom and Davis (1993) explains that when people join an organization, they bring with them certain drives and needs that affect their work performance. Sometimes these drives and needs are not only difficult to determine and satisfy but also vary greatly from one person to another. Herzberg (Hollyforde and Whiddett, 2005), in his SatisfactionMotivation theory explains that the things people find satisfying in their jobs are not always the opposite of the things they find dissatisfying.
This is because the things that lead to job satisfaction are distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg (Stoner and Wankel, 1987), every individual worker has two different categories of needs: the hygiene factors, and the satisfying factors. The hygiene factors are known as the dissatisfiers, but they do not affect the motivation and output of workers. The
satisfying factors on the other hand are the real motivators, but their absence does not necessarily lead to dissatisfaction. The hygiene factors include the environment around the job, such as policies and administration, supervision, working conditions,
interpersonal relations, money, and security. While the satisfying factors include the job content of a worker, such as achievement, recognition for accomplishment, challenging work, increased responsibility, and growth and development. The Three Motives Theory of McClelland (Cherrington, 1991) explains that every worker has the need for achievement, a behavior directed toward competition with a standard of excellence. characteristics of high need achievers are identified as follows: 1. Strong desire to assume personal responsibility for performing a task or finding a solution to a problem; 2. Tendency to set moderately difficult goals and take calculated risks; and, 3. Strong desire for performance feedback. The three
The Expectancy Theory of Vroom ( Adler,1986) is based on the assumption that people are driven by the expectation that their acts will produce results. Workers assess both their ability to perform a task and the probable type of reward for successful performance. The theory
depends on the extent to which employees believe they have control over the outcomes of their efforts as well as the manager’s ability to identify desired rewards. Alderfer’s Three-tiered Model of Needs, also popularly known as ERG (Adler, 1986), posits that man’s needs are progressing from Existence to Relatedness, and last to Growth : 1. Existence needs. Refer to all forms of material and
physiological factors necessary to sustain human existence; 2. Relatedness needs. needs; and, 3. Growth needs. potential. On the other hand, work commitment as an outcome of job Refer to the development of human Refer to all the socially oriented
satisfaction as contended by Stordeur et al. (2001) is defined by Loscocco (Cooper, 2002) as the relative importance of work to one’s sense of self, encompassing job involvement, career commitment, and organizational commitment. It is negatively correlated with variables like tardiness,
absenteeism, turnover, reduced effort, and job dissatisfaction. It is also
positively correlated with outcome variables like job satisfaction and job performance (Wegge, et al., 2004). Job involvement as a facet of work commitment is defined by Newstrom and Davis (1993), as the “degree to which employees immerse themselves in their jobs, invest time and energy in them, and view work as a central part of their overall lives”. Career commitment, as another facet of work commitment, is
defined by Blau (1985) as “the intent of an individual to build a vocation or profession that is a meaningful and lifelong pursuit.” It is often used interchangeably with professional commitment because both terms, as confirmed by Blau (1985), are synonymous to each other. The only
definitional difference is that professional commitment is considered to be restrictive as it is commonly used only for studies involving occupations generally classified as professionals (e.g. registered nurses), while career commitment is more generic as it can be applied to any type and form of occupation, including health workers)(Kadyschuk, 1997). Organizational commitment on the other hand is defined by Mowday, Porter, and Steers (1982) as the relative strength of an individual’s organization. All the facets of work commitment could be examined according to Belovich (1997) in two ways: as independent subsets of a whole, and as identification with, and involvement in, a particular non-professionals (e.g barangay
interrelated subsets of a whole.
They may be able to share the same
outcomes, but at the same time they also have effects or influences, causes and consequences, that are different from the other.
Related Studies To acquire broader outlook about the prospects of a nursing career in the context of job satisfaction and work commitment, the researcher cites in this portion studies that include not only the nursing population but also samples from other occupations. Among those reviewed are foreign studies conducted by Jones (1999), Laine (2005), and Academy Health Organization (2007); as well as Philippine studies conducted by Lopez (1982), Martires and Zamora (1983), Bancud et al (1991), Dajoc et al (1991), and Padua et al (1991). In 1999, Jones conducted a study on workplace outcomes such as absenteeism and job satisfaction by combining aspects of two-disciplines of psychology: environmental psychology and industrial/organizational psychology. Borrowing from Person-Environment Fit theory, the fit
between employees’ perceived and desired levels of physical environment control and job autonomy were hypothesized to explain significant amounts of variance in job satisfaction, environmental satisfaction, job competence, environmental competence, self-rated job performance, absenteeism, intent to turnover, and stress. In this cross sectional
study, 90 employees from educational institutions were obtained as
respondents, and findings indicated that the application of PersonEnvironment Fit theory to workplace still needs further examination and that the relationship between environmental psychology and
industrial/organizational psychology have to be continuously explored. In 2005, Laine examined the relationship of organizational and career commitment of 3,626 Finnish nurses, and how this relationship corresponded to their intention to leave, as well as whether the intention to leave was a signal of actually leaving. Results showed that nurses were strongly committed both to the organization and to their career. The
work-related factors which correlated most strongly with reduced commitment were: feeling that one’s work is not meaningful or important, less opportunities for career advancement, low level of work influence, organization’s under utilization of one’s own abilities, poor work atmosphere, and low quality of leadership. On the other hand, the work-related factors which correlated most strongly with high
commitment were: improved organization of work, optimum utilization of one’s abilities, more opportunities for career advancement, continuous professional trainings, and higher level of work influence. In 2007, the Academy Health Organization posted in the Internet (www.academyhealth.org) a manuscript, “Better Jobs Better Care”. The manuscript is a study on job satisfaction and work commitment among nursing assistants. Results revealed that the primary factors which
affect the respondents’ intention to stay were wages, benefits, and
opportunities for career advancement. They were followed by good basic supervision. On the other hand, in the Philippines, an empirical study on factors affecting job satisfaction among employees in five-star hotels in Metro Manila was conducted by Lopez in 1982. The results of the study was noteworthy because they challenged the Motivation-Satisfaction theory (also known as Two-Factor Theory of Motivation) of Herzberg. As opposed to Herzberg’s theory, the study showed that the respondents derived more satisfaction from the job environment (hygiene factors) rather than the job content (motivators). In 1983, Martires and Zamora examined motivation strengths and job satisfaction among 176 department heads of 38 Philippine
The study revealed that it was the
physiological needs of the respondents which topped the motivational ranking, followed by the self-realization needs. The results indicated that the respondents’ incomes were not enough to satisfy their needs. They also had strong desire for challenge and responsibility, since most of them were holding higher positions and were professionals. In 1991, Bancud et al. examined the correlation of job satisfaction and money among social workers in six charitable institutions in Metro Manila. The findings, however, did not correlate the two variables Results showed that the
thereby invalidating their hypotheses.
respondents were highly satisfied with their jobs even if their salaries
were just enough for their basic needs.
What appeared as the most
satisfying for the respondents was the need for self-fulfillment through service thereby rising above the need for material things. Another in 1991, Dajoc et al. delved into the ways of motivating employees of six commercial banks in Metro Manila to increase productivity. The study revealed that the primary factors which made the employees stay in their jobs were self-fulfillment, growth
opportunities, and recognition.
Secondary only were salaries, benefits
and other compensation, nature of work, and career advancement. Also in 1991, Padua et al. conducted study on motivation and how it affected work commitment among secondary school educators in both public and private institutions in the Philippines. The study revealed a complete opposite of Bancud et al’s (1991) findings, as it indicated money as the number one motivator of the respondents. The respondents perceived money as their means of survival and security. The study also indicated high correlation of job satisfaction and the intentions for job turnover. Respondents from the private schools showed general
dissatisfaction with their salary and benefits and were willing to transfer to other organizations that could offer them higher pay and benefits. Respondents from the public schools on the other hand showed general satisfaction with their salary and benefits and were willing to stay with the organization.
All the literature and studies reviewed in this chapter have showed that there is a present acute shortage of nurses worldwide. Thus
globally, the need for nurses is very good with employment as it is expected to grow faster than the other occupations. As a matter of fact, to attract and retain qualified nurses, hospitals in developed countries are now offering good compensation packages. In terms of career path, today’s nurses are offered with many work alternatives and choices. Most RNs begin as staff nurses, and with experience and good performance often are promoted to more responsible positions. In management, nurses can advance to assistant head nurse or head nurse, and from there, to assistant director, director, and vice president. On global setting, most nurses are treated well than the workers from other sectors as they are provided with high compensation packages, high level of job security, and well-lighted, comfortable health care facilities. Moreover, just like the workers of any occupation, nurses can only be efficient in the performance of their duties and responsibilities towards their respective organizations if they possess high level of job satisfaction and work commitment. Job satisfaction is an immediate antecedent of work commitment, and work commitment an immediate antecedent of intention to leave the workplace and turnover. It means that the higher an employee’s job
satisfaction and work commitment, the lower his intention to leave (Stordeur, et al., 2001). Job satisfaction is defined as the outcome of an employee’s good feelings and beliefs regarding the nature of his job and experiences related to the job (Locke, 1976). Work commitment on the other hand is defined as the relative importance of work to one’s sense of self, encompassing job involvement, career commitment, work ethic, and organizational commitment (Cooper, 2002).
Conceptual Framework Based on the contention by Stordeur et al. (2001) which states that job satisfaction is immediate antecedent of work commitment, and that work commitment is the immediate antecedent of intention to leave the workplace and turnover, the researcher examined the relationship between the level of job satisfaction and work commitment among DepEd nurses. The pursuit for understanding was done through the following process: data collection through the use of questionnaires and interviews; data analysis, clarifying statistical statements; and data interpretation, findings, conclusions, and recommendations. The output of this pursuit was proposed implementing guidelines for monetary and non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses.
DATA COLLECTION/ QUESTIONNAIRES/ INTERVIEWS
PROPOSED IMPLEMENTING GUIDELINES FOR MONETARY AND NON-MONETARY BENEFITS OF DepEd NURSES
CLARIFYING STATISTICAL STATEMENTS
DATA INTERPRETATION/ FINDINGS/
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design In this study, the researcher used the Descriptive-Correlation Method of Research. The descriptive method describes the data and
characteristics about what is being studied (http://wiki.answers.com); while the correlation method measures the relation between two or more variables (www.statsoft.com).
Research Environment The research was conducted at DepEd, Southern Leyte Division where the respondents are working. Located at Mantahan, Maasin City, the DepEd Southern Leyte Division comprises of 16 educational districts. It oversees 321 public elementary schools and 48 national high schools. Among the said 321 elementary schools, 198 are complete elementary schools, while 123 are incomplete elementary schools. Through its Non-Formal Education (NFE) Section, the Division has the following extension programs: literacy classes, literacy cum livelihood program, Literacy Service Contracting (LSC), Barangay Operation for Livelihood Development (BOLD) projects and the Philippine Educational Placement Test (PEPT) for the average in school and/or out-of-school youths.
Research Instrument The following three (3) questionnaires were used by the researcher in gathering the data: 1. Respondent’s Profile Questionnaire. This questionnaire, a 9item instrument, was developed to gather information regarding work life variables which might affect the DepEd nurses’ job satisfaction and work commitment. All responses to the
questions on sex and marital status were coded and entered as categorical data. However, the questions on position, years of service, educational qualifications, employment status, age, and distance of residence were coded and treated as ordinal data due to their inherent order. 2. Level of Sufficiency on Benefits, Budget Allocation and Career Advancement Questionnaire. This questionnaire is divided into 4 portions: a) Remuneration and Other Monetary Benefits; b) Non-monetary Benefits; c) Budget Allocation; and d) Career Advancement. For each question of each portion, the
respondents answered on a 4-point Likert scale: 1 means ‘Very insufficient’ , 2 means ‘Insufficient’, 3 means ‘Sufficient’, and 4 means ‘Very sufficient’. Item scores were summed for a total score.
3. Job Satisfaction Questionnaire. The Short-Form Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) as modified by Anderson, et al. (1984) was used in this study. The response options were assigned ordinal weights with ‘Very dissatisfied as number 1, ‘Dissatisfied’ as number 2, ‘Satisfied’ as number 3, and ‘Very satisfied’ as number 4. Item scores were summed for a total score. The MSQ scales which represent the twenty dimensions of the job are described as follows: 1. Activity – Being able to keep busy all the time. 2. Independence – The chance to work alone on the job. 3. Variety – The chance to do different things from time to time. 4. Social status – The chance to be somebody in the community. 5. Supervision-human relations – The way my immediate supervisor handles his/her subordinates. 6. Supervision-technical – The competence of my supervisor in making decisions. 7. Moral values – Being able to do things that don’t go against my conscience. 8. Security – The way my job provides for steady employment. 9. Social service – The chance to do things for other people. 10.Authority- The chance to tell people what to do.
11.Ability utilization – The chance to do something that makes use of my abilities. 12.Company policies and practices – The way the policies of DepEd are put into practice. 13.Compensation – My salary and the amount of work I do. 14.Advancement – The chances of advancement on this job. 15.Responsibility – The freedom to use my own judgment. 16.Creativity – The chance to try my own method to do the job. 17.Working conditions – The physical aspect of my work. 18.Coworkers – The way my coworkers get along with each other. 19.Recognition – The praise I get for doing a good job. 20.Achievement – The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job. 4. Work Commitment Questionnaire. This questionnaire is divided into 3 sub-questionnaires: a. Job Involvement Questionnaire. The questionnaire used in this study was developed by Kanungo (1982). It is a 10-item instrument measured on a 6-point Likert scale: 1 means ‘Strongly disagree’, 2 means ‘Disagree’, 3 means ‘Mildly disagree’, 4 means ‘Mildly agree’, 5 means ‘Agree’, and 6 means ‘Strongly agree’. for a total score. Item scores were summed
b. Career Commitment Questionnaire.
used in this study was developed by Blau (1985). It is an 8-item instrument measured on a 5-point Likert scale: 1 means ‘Strongly disagree’, 2 means ‘Disagree’, 3 means ‘Unsure’, 4 means ‘Agree’, and 5 means ‘Strongly agree’. Item scores were summed for a total score. And, c. Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. The
questionnaire used in this study was developed by Mowday et al (1970). It is a 9-item instrument measured on a 7-point Likert scale: 1 means ‘Strongly disagree’, 2 means ‘Moderately disagree’, 3 means ‘Slightly disagree’, 4 means ‘neither disagree nor agree’, 5 means ‘Slightly agree’, 6 means ‘Moderately agree’, and 7 means ‘Strongly agree’. Item scores were summed for a total score.
Respondents of the Study The respondents of the study were composed of 30 out of 39 active elementary and high school public school nurses under DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte. However, to clarify and validate data, the researcher also included through informal interviews the people from the Human Resource, Budget, and Administrative Department of DepEd.
As can be shown in the following table, all the respondents of this study are holding Public Health Nurse I position because based on data provided by the Administrative Section of DepEd there is no single nurse in the division appointed higher than the said position, even their Acting Head Nurse.
Table 1. Respondents of the Study Position Public Health Nurse I Public Health Nurse II Public health Nurse III Head Nurse TOTAL Frequency 30 0 0 0 30 Percent (%) 100 0 0 0 100
Data Collection Procedure The researcher contacted the DepEd Division Superintendent to ask for permission to conduct a study, and to obtain the names and other pertinent data of the respondents from the Administrative Section of the division. The questionnaires were the main instruments for data gathering which were personally distributed by the researcher himself. They contained a covering letter describing the study and indicating the confidentiality of the information that may be given out by the respondents.
The data were subjected to analysis using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). The following statistical tools were used: 1. Frequencies and Percentages. This was used to determine
the demographic profile of Southern Leyte DepEd nurses. Formula: P = freq X 100 N where
N = total number of respondents 2. Mean. This was used to determine the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in terms of remuneration and other monetary benefits, non-monetary benefits, budget allocation, and career advancement; the level of job satisfaction; and the level of work commitment. Formula: X = Σx N where
Σx = the sum of the responses N = total number of respondents 3. Kendall tau Correlation. This was employed to determine the significant relationship between job satisfaction and work commitment among DepEd nurses. Formula:
S = 1/2N(N-1) S = actual responses N = total number of respondents where
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the following data gathered from the responses to the questionnaires relative to the research subjects of this study: A. The Profile of the Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte in Terms of Position, Length of Service, Educational
Qualifications, Employment Status, Age, Sex, Civil Status, and Distance of Residence from Place of Assignment; B. The Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses, Division of Southern Leyte in Terms of Remuneration and Other Monetary Benefits, Non-monetary Benefits, Budget Allocation and Career Advancement; C. The Level of Job Satisfaction Among Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte; D. The Level of Work Commitment Among Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte; And, E. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Work
Commitment Among the DepEd Nurses, Division of Southern Leyte. The data are presented using tables in accordance to the sequencing of the sub-problems enumerated under the Statement of the Problem portion in Chapter I.
A. The Profile of the Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte in Terms of Length of Service, Educational Qualifications,
Employment Status, Age, Sex, Civil Status, and Distance of Residence from Place of Assignment. Table 2 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of length of service.
Table 2. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Length of Service Number of Years in Service Less than 2 years More than 2 to 10 years More than 10 to 20 years More than 20 years TOTAL Frequency 2 26 1 1 30 Percent (%) 6.7 86.7 3.3 3.3 100
The table shows that 86.7% of the DepEd nurses have only been working with the agency from 2 to 10 years. Super et al (1996) call this time span of career development as Establishment Stage, wherein an individual has just passed through the work process of exploration and adaptation, and started working on the stabilization, consolidation and advancement of his career. It is in this stage when an individual moves from a beginner to an expert, no longer relying largely upon a superior, but more upon peers interaction to further increase his knowledge and skills (Flippo, 1984).
Only 3.3% of the total population of nurses have been able to pass the Establishment Stage of their career and reached the Maintenance Stage which is described by Super et al (1996) as the holding action of one’s career, the phase wherein the employee attempts to retain what he has established. The table further shows that another 3.3% also have been able to pass the Maintenance Stage and reached the Disengagement Stage, the stability and decline of one’s career. It is the time when the individual has firmly established experience and responsibilities and is no longer open to new experiences (Flippo, 1984). His energy decreases, and focus is now more directed towards retirement. Table 3 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of educational qualifications.
Table 3. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Educational Qualifications Educational Qualifications Nursing Graduate Masteral Level Masteral Graduate Doctoral Level Doctoral Graduate TOTAL Frequency 23 7 0 0 0 30 Percent (%) 76.7 23.3 0 0 0 100
The table shows that no one of the respondents is a masteral graduate, on a doctoral level, nor a doctoral graduate. There are those on masteral level but they only comprise 23.3% of the total population.
Hill, Hoffman and Rex (2005) state that acquiring higher education is a form of human capital investment, and it generally leads to higher worker productivity, greater output, and enhanced economic prosperity. They aver that investments in higher education may yield the following monetary social returns: technological spillovers, human and physical
capital complementaries, and increasing returns. Technological spillovers means that social interaction is a catalyst for learning and overall knowledge creation. The more contact that takes place among educated people, the more the stock of knowledge expands. Human and physical capital complementaries, on the other hand, means that increased education, knowledge, and skills create an increase in the quality of the existing physical capital stock. For example, more educated workers use more sophisticated equipment that results in improved productivity. And lastly, increasing returns means that the acquisition of knowledge capital creates “endogenous” growth ( or growth that feeds on itself) and economic returns that accelarate (Hill, Hoffman and Rex, 2005). Table 4 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of employment status.
Table 4. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Employment Status Employment Status Frequency Percent (%)
Permanent Probationary Casual Contractual TOTAL
30 0 0 0 30
100 0 0 0 100
permanent employment status at DepEd. Permanent employment status is issued only to a person whose position is considered by management as essential for the effective long term operation of the organization. Thus, it is a proof of the school nurses’ importance to the continuous effective operation of DepEd as an institution. The permanency of a worker’s employment is part of job safety that protects him under the law from job termination without due process. It also guards him from coercion or feeling of arbitrary treatment by management (Stoner and Wankel, 1987), and entitles him the privileges and benefits associated with permanent status employment. Job safety is identified by Maslow, as cited by Newstrom and Davis (1993) as one of human’s lower order needs, comprising bodily safety such as freedom from a dangerous work environment, and economic security such as a no-layoff guarantee, or a comfortable retirement. Miranda (1999) claims that an employee who is reasonably secured enjoys a type of freedom or independence that stimulates him to participate more wholeheartedly on the job and to work toward the achievement of the organization objectives.
Table 5 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of age.
Table 5. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Age Age 30 years old and below 31 to 40 years old 41 to 50 years old 51 to 60 years old 61 years old and above TOTAL Frequency 2 22 5 1 0 30 Percent (%) 6.7 73.3 16.7 3.3 0 100
The table shows that the DepEd nurse population are dominantly young, with age group ranging from 31 to 40 years old. Kanfer and Ackerman (2004) bring together several domains of research and theory to provide a framework through which they believe age related changes can effect motivational variables and in turn influence work outcomes. They suggest that the psychological affects of ageing can be thought of in four terms of development: loss, growth,
reorganization and exchange. Ageing, for example, may bring the loss of fluid of mental ability and the growth of crystallized mental ability, but it may also change other individual features such as shifts in the values of certain goals (reorganization) and general changes in personality traits (exchange). In the evolution of career provided by Levinson and his colleagues, as cited by Stoner and Wankel (1987), the 31 to 40 age bracket, where 73.3% of the sample population belong, can be generalized in two (2) series of personal and career-related crises or transitions that occur in
predictable sequence every five to seven years: Age-30 Transition, and Settling Down. Age-30 Transition is the state when an individual reviews his progress towards previously established personal and career goals. If the progress is satisfactory and in accordance to plans, he may keep on following the track. If not, he may forge radical changes by moving into another geographical location, another organization, or another career. On the other hand, Settling Down is the state when an individual strives toward job and career advancement, and become his own person. Everything else is subordinated as he concentrate on getting ahead on the job. However, if he feels that all his efforts are going nowhere, he may also forge changes by moving into another organization, no longer much with geographical or career since during this time he may already have a family of his own, and become an expert to the career he nurtures. Table 6 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of sex.
Table 6. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Sex Sex Male Female TOTAL Frequency 6 24 30 Percent (%) 20 80 100
Even though the number of male of nurses has been observed to be on the rise, the table shows that the nursing career at DepEd is still dominated by female population.
The dominance of women in the field of nursing in the Philippines is rooted in our culture. Some Filipinos stereotype nursing as a female job as it is attached to the traditional caregivers of every Filipino home: the wife, mother, and sister (Estella, 2005). Although it is already waning in the larger portion of society, the stigma dictating that nursing is only for women and for effeminate men is still one of the reasons why presently nursing courses are still ruled by female enrollees. The identification of the field of nursing with women could be traced back during the pre-colonial era when Filipino women had status as medicine women or mananambal (Karnow, 1990). Even at present time, the Filipino women are still considered as home nurturers. It is their responsibility to keep children clean and healthy. Even if they already hold corporate jobs, they still are expected to fulfill their traditional functions such as cooking, cleaning, teaching the children, washing clothes, budgeting, and managing the home (Clamonte, 2007). Table 7 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of civil status.
Table 7. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Civil Status Civil Status Single Married Separated Widowed Frequency 5 25 0 0 Percent (%) 16.7 83.3 0 0
The table shows that majority of the nurse population are already married. Marital status is identified by Katz and Kahn (1978) as one of the elements in Inter-role Conflict, a type of role conflict that individuals can experience in the course of performing their jobs. Inter-role conflict occurs when the different roles played by the same person give rise to conflicting demands. To accomplish their roles as spouse and parents, individuals maybe pressed to share child-care and other activities at home that the performance of their roles as loyal workers neglected and may suffer. Table 8 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of distance of residence from place of assignment. maybe
Table 8. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Distance of Residence from Place of Assignment Distance of Residence from Place of Assignment (in Kilometers) Frequency Percent (%)
3 kilometers and below 4 to 30 kilometers 31 to 50 kilometers 51 to 150 kilometers 151 kilometers and above TOTAL
2 16 3 8 1 30
6.7 53.3 10.0 26.7 3.3 100
The table shows that 53.3% of the respondents are living 4 to 30 kilometers away from the place of assignment. Within these distances, a worker has to commute daily in going to work and could no longer go home at noon break. He either packs his lunch in the morning before going to the office, or has to buy it at the affordable nearest canteen or cafeteria. Stoner and Wankel (1987) reveal that distance of residence
from the place of assignment is one of the essential factors affecting physical stress among workers: the hassles of waking up early and
catching the early public vehicle, and the anxiety of being late for work. Stress is defined by Newstrom and Davis (1993) as the general term applied to the pressures people feel in life. Flippo (1984) claims it creates a physiological or psychological imbalance within the individual. Stress can have serious consequences for both the workers’ health and their work performance because it can cause depression, irritation, anxiety, fatigue, lowered self-eteem, and reduced job satisfaction (Stoner and Wankel, 1987).
B. The Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses, Division of
Southern Leyte in Terms of Remuneration and Other Monetary Benefits, Non-monetary Benefits, Budget Allocation and Career Advancement Table 9 presents the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in terms of remuneration and other monetary benefits.
Table 9. Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses in Terms of Remuneration and Other Monetray Benefits Indicators Monthly Salary PERA and ADCOM Transportation and Fieldwork Allowances Hazard Pay Year-end Bonus and Cash Gift Productivity Incentive Step Increment Clothing Allowance Medical and Hospitalization Legend: Mean Response 3.25 – 4.00 2.50 – 3.24 1.75 – 2.49 1.00 – 1.74 Mean Response 2.23 2.20 1.47 2.70 2.53 2.53 2.47 2.60 1.63 Description Insufficient Insufficient Very Insufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Insufficient Sufficient Very Insufficient 2.26 Adjectival Rating Very Sufficient Sufficient Insufficient Very Insufficient Insufficient Weighted Mean Response Description
The table shows that in terms of remuneration and other monetary benefits, majority of the DepEd nurses find their transportation and field work allowances, and medical and hospitalization to be Very Insufficient; and their monthly salary, PERA and ADCOM, and step increment to be insufficient. They however find their hazard pay, year-end bonus and
cash gift, productivity incentive, and clothing allowance to be Sufficient.
Over all the DepEd nurses reported their remuneration and other monetary benefits to be Insufficient, with the weighted mean response of 2.26. Newstrom and Davis (1993) stress that money is very important to employees because of its both economic and social value. It serves as a medium of exchange for allocation of economic resources, as well as a social status symbol for those who have it and can save or spend it. It is the most tangible form of a worker’s survival because it immediately answers his physiological needs for food, shelter, and clothing. Thus, the most grieve disservice that an organization can extend to its employees is to grant them with insufficient monetary benefits. Miranda and Miranda (2002) aver that money is the “greatest motivator of them all,” and that man of the present century is a highly materialistic creature craving more and more for material goods that will contribute to higher standards of living. They add that a usual job hunter is not interested in the job itself which will enable him to use his talent and skills, but rather on the remuneration that such a job offers, that is money rewards, whether expressed as salaries or wages. Table 10 presents the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in terms of non-monetary benefits.
Table 10. Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses in Terms of Non-monetray Benefits Indicators Mean Response Description Weighted Mean Response Description
Recognition for Completion Masteral/Doctoral Degree Study Leave Scholarships
1.70 1.83 1.50
Very Insufficient Insufficient Very Insufficient 1.68 Very Insufficient
Legend: Mean Response 3.25 – 4.00 2.50 – 3.24 1.75 – 2.49 1.00 – 1.74
Adjectival Rating Very Sufficient Sufficient Insufficient Very Insufficient
The table shows that over-all, the DepEd nurses find their nonmonetary benefits to be Very Insufficient with 1.68 as the weighted mean response. Stoner and Wankel (1987) reveal that remuneration and other monetary benefits are not enough to make a person satisfied and committed. His esteem and self-actualization needs must also be
responded to by the organization through non-monetary benefits. Maslow, as cited by Stoner and Wankel (1987) describes two (2) types of esteem needs: 1) the desire for achievement and competence;
and 2) the desire for status and recognition. In organizational terms, it has always been basically the drive of every person to be good at his job, and at the same time to feel that he is achieving something important when he performs his job. Self-actualization need is the highest rung in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs wherein a person looks for meaning and personal growth for his work, and actively seeks out new responsibilities. This need would vary from individual to individual. For some individuals, producing work of
high quality maybe a means for self-actualization, while for others, developing creative, useful ideas serves the same need (Stoner and Wankel, 1987). Flippo (1984) explains that sufficient monetary and non-monetary benefits could bring out three (3) things for the organization: 1) attract capable employees; 2) motivate them toward superior performance; and 3) retain their services over an extended period of time. However, if a worker does not receive the remuneration and other monetary and non-monetary benefits he feels entitled, and what he thinks sufficient for his needs, he often show dissatisfaction and eventually less commitment to his job as can be shown by becoming angry and working less hard. He may even increase absenteeism, or even leave his job
(Cropanzano and Folger, 1991). An individual could only feel that the compensation (monetary or non monetary) he is getting is sufficient if it is attached to the concept of fairness and equity. Cropanzano and Folger (1991) contend that when
employees react to the way they are treated at work, their motivation to respond in one fashion or another cannot be understood adequately without taking into account two separate notions of fairness: the distributive justice, and the procedural justice. Traditionally the organizational science literature has considered only one way of describing what it means to be fairly treated. It is
through distributive justice as illustrated by the equity theory of Adams.
According to equity theory, a person determines whether or not he is treated fairly at work by examining his own payoff ratio of outcomes to inputs and comparing that ratio with the corresponding outcome-input ratio obtained by others such as their coworkers (Cropanzano and Folger, 1991). A second way of thinking about what it means to be treated fairly is through procedural justice wherein the focus lies on the manner in which the decision-making process is conducted (Cropanzano and Folger, 1991). The focus shifts from what was decided (distributive justice) to how the decision was made. In 2001, Valadez and Anthony examined the level of job satisfaction and commitment among two-year college part-time faculty members towards their professional roles, responsibilities and rewards. They found out that part-time faculty members with higher level of perception on fair and just compensation for their works had higher level of work commitment than those who were frustrated by modest pay and meager benefits. Table 11 presents the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in terms of budget allocation.
Table 11. Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses in Terms of Budget Allocation Indicators Mean Response Description Weighted Mean Response Description
Salaries and Wages Other Compensation and Benefits Transportation and Fieldwork Allowances Office Supplies, Fixtures and Furnitures Laboratory Equipment and Facilities Legend: Mean Response 3.25 – 4.00 2.50 – 3.24 1.75 – 2.49 1.00 – 1.74
2.37 2.40 1.50 1.50 1.33
Insufficient Insufficient Very Insufficient Very Insufficient Very Insufficient 1.82 Adjectival Rating Very Sufficient Sufficient Insufficient Very Insufficient Insufficient
The table shows that the DepEd nurses perceive their salaries and wages, and other compensation benefits as Insufficient; while their
transportation and fieldwork allowances, office supplies, fixtures and furnitures, and laboratory equipment and facilities as Very Insufficient. Over-all, they find the budget allocated for their department to be Very Insufficient with 1.88 as the weighted mean response. Budget allocation is very important to every employee as it is the process wherein organization allots money for its future programs and activities. They may include raising salaries and wages, hiring and
training personnel, and purchasing new equipment. Irvine (1970) states that budgets can have a positive impact on motivation and morale of workers if they are included in the process. Most individuals need to achieve things they are committed to and desire to be accepted by groups to which they belong. Budgets can activate
these motivational factors by creating common goals and the feeling that everyone is working toward them. However, budgets could also be a foreteller of an undesirable future for employees, and therefore a bringer of demoralization. In series of oral interviews conducted by the researcher, the DepEd nurses admitted that they are not included in the organization’s budget preparation process, and that the amount allocated for them in the end are below of what they feel as sufficient to answer their financial and work resource needs.
More particularly, in the aspect of allocating budgets for office supplies and fixtures and furnitures, and laboratory equipment and facilities, the respondents reported that they should have been consulted by
management on what items to prioritize for allocation as they are the ones who are on the frontline and are the main users of the equipment and dispensers of the medicine supplies. A study conducted by Magner et al (1996) revealed that
performance among workers can be negatively affected by the following resource allocation conditions: a) unfavorable distribution of a helpful work resource; and b) unfair procedure of work resource allocation. The negative effects would range from low morale, tardiness, absenteeism, and low productivity, to eventual turnover. Table 12 presents the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in terms of career advancement.
49 Table 12. Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses in Terms of Career Advancement Indicators Trainings, Seminars and Other Activities to Improve Present Job Trainings and Seminars and Other Activities to Prepare Higher Position and Responsibilities Vacant Positions for Promotion Legend: Mean Response 3.25 – 4.00 2.50 – 3.24 1.75 – 2.49 1.00 – 1.74 Mean Response 2.07 1.77 1.80 Description Weighted Mean Response Description
Insufficient Insufficient Insufficient 1.88 Adjectival Rating Very Sufficient Sufficient Insufficient Very Insufficient Insufficient
The table shows that over-all, the DepEd nurses find their career advancement opportunities to be Very Insufficient with 1.88 as the weighted mean response. Insuffiency of opportunities for career advancement provides negative impact both to employees and the organization. To the
employees, it could send the message that they are on a career plateau and are not going anywhere in the corporate ladder. To the organization, on the other hand, it reflects grieve indifference to its people’s career progressions that eventually would contribute to its downfall, considering that the quality of every organization will depend primarily on the quality of skills, competence and motivation of the people operating it. Career plateau is defined by Stoner and Wankel (1987) as “the point in a career where the likehood of additional hierarchical promotion is very low.” Its cause is not always due to personal shortcomings, but more
often due to a normal organizational occurrence such as lack of personnel development programs, and the workers’ lack of skill in organizational politics.
C. The Level of Job Satisfaction Among Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte Table 13 presents the level of job satisfaction among DepEd nurses.
Table 13. Level of Job Satisfaction Among DepEd Nurses Indicators Mean Response Being able to keep busy all the time 2.90 The chance to work alone on the job 2.80 The chance to do different things from time to time 2.80 The chance to be somebody in the community 2.83 The way immediate supervisor handles his/her subordinates 2.23 The competence of supervisor in making decisions 2.40 Being able to do things that don’t go against conscience 2.70 The way job provides for steady employment 2.87 The chance to do things for other people 2.83 The chance to tell people what to do 2.83 The chance to do something that makes use of abilities 2.77 The way the policies of DepEd are put into practice 2.33 Salary and amount of work 2.47 The chances of advancement on job 2.23 The freedom to use own judgement 2.83 The chance to try own method to do the job 2.80 The physical aspect of work 2.77 The way coworkers get along with each other 2.70 The praise for doing a good job 2.63 The feeling of accomplishment from the job 2.63 Description Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Weighted Mean Response Description
2.67 Legend: Mean Response 3.25 – 4.00 2.50 – 3.24 1.75 – 2.49 1.00 – 1.74 Adjectival Rating Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied
The table shows that over-all, the DepEd nurses are Satisfied with their jobs, indicating a 2.67 weighted mean response. They however
admit to be Dissatisfied in the following aspects: human relations supervision (“The way my immediate supervisor handles his/her
subordinates”); technical supervision (“The competence of my supervisor in making decisions”); company policies and practices ( “The way the policies of depEd are put into practice”); compensation (“My salary and the amount of work I do”); and, advancement (“The chances of advancement on this job”). Supervision forms a significant role relating to job satisfaction in terms of the ability of the supervisor to provide his subordinates with emotional and technical support and guidance with work-related tasks (Robbins et al, 2003). According to Ramsey (1997), supervisors contribute to their subordinates’ high or low morale depending on how their technical and human relations abilities are applied in the workplace. He adds that
supervisors with high relationship behavior strongly impact on job satisfaction.
Daley (1997), in his regression analysis of the cross-sectional survey among US Federal employees, stated that an employee’s overall sense of job satisfaction is related to their evaluation of their supervisor. One of his conclusions is that the organization and supevisors need to pay particular attention to those factors that employees expect them to provide. He sees job satisfaction as the responsibility of supervisor. The frontline supervisor is the frontline employee’s link to the organization and determines to a great degree how the organization is perceived. The supervisor is also the individual who must establish expectancy links to the services offered by the organization. As to organizational policies as a factor on job satisfaction, research by Andrews (2003) reveals that employees who perceive the practice of organizational policies as fair and equitable are more cooperative and supportive than those who perceive them as inconsistent and
discriminatory. Policies are rules of action for the rank and file to show them how they are expected to obtain the desired results (Miranda and Miranda, 2002), thus if these policies are inconsistent, a worker may feel lost and may not be able to find his way in a maze of organizational activities. Coleman and Kleiner (1999) state that employees who can relate to the policies and products or services of their organization can easily relate more to organizational culture, and can make the necessary adjustment to become an active member of that culture.
As to compensation, Flippo (1984) explains that it can only affect job satisfaction if employees perceive it to be inequitable in relation to their inputs and contributions. He adds that the introduction of pay
system is an event of major importance to employees, and that its effects upon them cannot be ignored as it affects satisfaction. Under-reward,
over-reward, and inconsistency of reward not only tend to lead to lower satisfaction but encourage behavior that often proves dysfunctional to organizational objectives. According to him, a sound, systematic,
consistent system of compensation determination will do much to promote equity and satisfaction, provided that such a system is understood and reasonably accepted by most employees. And lastly, as to career advancement, researchers conducted by Ellickson and Logsdon (2002), Kreitner and Kinicki (2001), and the InfoTech Research Group (2001) yield that job satisfaction are strongly related to career advancement, either in the form of promotion or career enhancement. Ellickson and Logsdon (2002) conducted a study among municipal government workers and found out that promotional opportunities were positively and significantly related to job satisfaction. Kreitner and
Kinicki (2001) states that the positive relationship between promotion and job satisfaction is dependent on perceived equity by employees. On the other hand, the Info-Tech Research Group (2001) revealed that in their survey among information technology staffers, two thirds of
the respondents were attracted by the opportunities for training to learn and enhance skill or for continuing the individual’s education, twice as many as those who reported salary and benefits as main attractors.
D. The Level of Work Commitment Among Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte Table 14 presents the level of work commitment among DepEd nurses.
Table 14. Level of Work Commitment Among DepEd Nurses Areas and Indicators Mean Response 4.23 3.33 4.37 4.30 3.83 3.77 2.67 3.80 3.93 3.70 Description Weighted Mean Description Response
Job Involvement The most important things that happen involve present job Job is only a small part of who he is Very much involved personally in job Lives, eats, and breathes job Interests are centered around job Very strong ties with present job which would be very difficult to break Usually feels detached from job Most of personal life goals are job oriented Considers job to be very central to existence Likes to be absorbed in job most of the time
Mildly Committed Mildly not Committed Committed Mildly Committed Mildly Committed Mildly Committed Mildly not Committed Mildly Committed Mildly Committed Mildly Committed 3.79 Mildly Committed
Career Commitment If could get another job different from being a nurse, and paying the same amount, would probably take it 2.33 Definitely wants a career in nursing 3.83 If could do it all over again, would not choose to work in the nursing profession 2.23 If had all the money needed without working, would probably still continue to work in the nursing profession 3.57 Likes the vocation too well to give it up 3.27 Nursing is the ideal vocation in a life work 3.33 Disappointed that ever entered the nursing profession 2.20 Spends a significant amount of personal time reading nursingrelated journals or books 3.47 Organizational Commitment Willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected in order to help DepEd be successful 5.30 Talks up DepEd to friends as a great organization 4.90 Accepts almost any type of job assignment in order to keep working at DepEd 4.23 Finds that his values and DepEd’s values are very similar 4.50 Proud to tell others that he is part of DepEd 5.17 DepEd really inspires the very best in him in the way of job performance 4.57 Extremely glads that chooses DepEd to work for, over others he was considering at the time he joined 4.63 Really cares about the fate of DepEd 5.13 For him, DepEd is the best of all possible organizations for which to work 4.60 SUMMARY Legend: Mean Response
Not Committed Mildly Committed Not Committed
Mildly Committed Mildly not Committed Mildly not Committed Not Committed Mildly not Committed 3.03 Mildly not Committed
Strongly Committed Committed Mildly Committed Committed Strongly Committed Committed
Committed Committed Committed 4.78 3.87 Adjectival Rating Committed Mildly Committed
5.15 – 6.00 4.32 – 5.14 3.49 – 4.31 2.66 – 3.48 1.83 – 2.65 1.00 – 1.82
Strongly Committed Committed Mildly Committed Mildly not Committed Not Committed Strongly not Committed
The table reveals that the respondents are Committed to DepEd as their organization, and Mildly Committed to their job as Public Health Nurses. On the other hand, the table also reveals the respondents to be Mildly not Committed to their nursing career. Over all, however, the
respondents reported to be Mildly Committed to their work with a weighted mean response of 3.87. In terms of organizational commitment, the respondents show strong willingness towards putting a great deal of effort to help DepEd be successful, and are highly proud to tell others that they are part of the organization. These responses validate the first two of the three related determinants characterizing organizational commitment identified by Neale and Northcraft (1991) which are stated as follows: 1) a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values; and 2) a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization; and 3) a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization. The third determinant still needs further validation through future studies that would give focus on factors affecting employee retention and turnover. Moreover, in terms of job involvement, the respondents admit that they are Committed to being “I am very much involved personally in job”; and Mildly Committed to “I live, eat, and breathe my job”, and “The most
important things that happen to me involve my present job”. responses validate Newstrom and Davis’ (1993)
definition of job
involvement as “degree to which employees immerse themselves in their jobs, invest time and energy in them, and view work as a central part of their overall lives”. According to Newstrom and Davis (1993), a job-involved employee is a compliant of work ethics and likes participating in organizational activities. He always strives to exceed the normal job expectations,
welcomes the call of working long hours, and is seldom late or absent. Lastly, in terms of career commitment, it is interesting to note that the DepEd nurses give it an adjectival rating of “Mildly not Committed”, with a weighted mean response of 3.03. Their negative responses prove that even if they are committed to the organization and involved to their job, these are still not enough for them to be able to build a meaningful and worth of a lifelong pursuit vocation or profession. The most apparent questions which received from them Mildly not Committed answers are the following: a) “I like this vocation too well to give it up”; b) “This is the ideal vocation for a life work”; and c) “I spend a significant amount of personal time reading nursing-related journals or books”. Hall (1997) states that career commitment is reinforced by individual’s independent choice and attainment of goals, thereby
promoting feelings of success and growth. Career commitment then has interdependency with career development. A person who is not
committed to his career will likely not be able to develop it. On the other hand, a person who does not have opportunity to develop his career will likely show lower career commitment. Career commitment has been examined in relation to work behaviours such as job withdrawal intentions and skill development, and evidences support the strong relationships. Bedeian et al (1991) examined career commitment and its relationship to the expected utility of the present job as a predictor of turnover intention and actual turnover behavior in a sample of 244 nurses. Using Blau’s career commitment questionnaire, results showed that nurses with higher career commitment were also less likely to want to leave their job. Aryee and Tan (1992), in their study on the antecedents and outcomes of career commitment in a sample of 510 nurses and teachers revealed that the significant predictors of career commitment were career satisfaction, organizational opportunity and organizational commitment. The study further showed career commitment as significantly and negatively correlated to career and job withdrawal intentions.
Commitment Among the DepEd Nurses, Division of Southern Leyte
Table 15 presents the relationship between job satisfaction and work commitment among DepEd nurses.
Table 15. Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Work Commitment Among DepEd Nurses Variables Job Satisfaction 0.48 Work Commitment Moderate Association 0.00 Reject Ho* Correlation Coefficient Interpretation p-value Decision
* If p-value <level of significance (0.05), then reject Ho.
The Kendall-tau correlation coefficient of 0.48 indicates a moderate positive association between job satisfaction and work commitment. The p-value of 0.00 is less than the 5% level of significance, thus the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that job satisfaction is
significantly related to work commitment. The significant relationship of job satisfaction and work
commitment is evident in a study conducted by Stordeur et al (2001) on leadership, organizational stress, and emotional exhaustion among nursing hospital staff wherein job satisfaction emerged to be an immediate antecedent of work commitment. Belovich (1997) in her review of the related work commitment literature suggested that lack of commitment can be an outcome of dissatisfaction, and could result to employee absenteeism, turnover, and reduced effort.
Kadyschuk (1997) in his explanation of the relationship between job satisfaction and work commitment applied Becker’s theory of side bets. He stated that an individual acts in committed manner because of previously extraneous situational factors which have become agents of influence or ‘investments’ in the individual’s present action. He further supported it with Farrell and Rusbult’s investment model which describes commitment as a function of several factors such as the rewards and costs (satisfaction) derived from the job”.
CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter summarizes the findings of the study. It also drafts conclusions and recommendations based on the findings.
Findings The findings are summed up as follows: A. The Profile of the Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte in Terms of Position, Length of Service, Educational
Qualifications, Employment Status, Age, Sex, Civil Status, and Distance of Residence from Place of Assignment Majority of the DepEd nurses have only been working with the agency from 2 to 10 years. 23.3% of them are on masteral level, but no one is a masteral graduate, on doctoral level, nor a doctoral graduate. Already holding permanent positions, the respondents are dominantly married and young, with age bracket ranging from 31 to 40 years of age. Most of them are assigned to workstations 4 to 30 kilometers away from their residences. B. The Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses, Division of Southern Leyte in Terms of Remuneration and other Benefits, Non-monetary Advancement In terms of remuneration and other monetary benefits, majority of the DepEd nurses find their transportation and field work allowances, and medical and hospitalization to be very insufficient; and their monthly salary, PERA and ADCOM, and step increment to be insufficient. They however find their hazard pay, year-end bonus and cash gift, Benefits, Budget Allocation and Career
productivity incentive, and clothing allowance to be sufficient.
In terms of non-monetary benefits, the DepEd nurses reported them to be very insufficient, so are the budget allocated for their department, and the opportunities provided by management for career advancement. C. The Level of Job Satisfaction Among Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte; Over-all the DepEd nurses are satisfied with their job. They
however are dissatisfied in the aspect of human relations supervision, technical supervision, company policies and practices, compensation, and advancement. D. The Level of Work Commitment Among Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte The research shows that the DepEd nurses are committed to DepEd as their organization, and mildly committed to their job. They
however mildly not committed to their career as nurse. Nevertheless, in general, the respondents are mildly committed to their work. E. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Work
Commitment Among the DepEd Nurses, Division of Southern Leyte. The Kendall-tau indicates a moderate positive association between job satisfaction and work commitment. The p-value is less than the 5% level of significance, which means that job satisfaction is significantly related to work commitment.
Conclusions Based on the findings of the study, the researcher has attained the following conclusions and generalizations: 1. Only a small percentage of the total population of nurses have stayed with DepEd beyond ten years. Within the 10 year
period, 91.7% of the DepEd nurses have resigned from the organization. They either transferred to other organization, or changed other career paths. The dominance of young nurses indicates that majority of them do not stay with DepEd until retirement, but only until they gain enough experience or find better opportunities. 2. As perceived by the DepEd nurses, there is a level of insuffiency given to them by the organization in terms of remuneration and other benefits, non-monetary benefits, budget allocation, and career advancement. 3. The DepEd nurses are satisfied with their job, except in the aspect of supervision, company policies and practices,
compensation, and advancement. 4. The DepEd nurses show commitment to DepEd as their organization, and mild commitment to their job as public health nurse. They however show mild non-commitment to their
career as nurse.
5. There is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and work commitment.
Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions presented, the researcher has arrived at the following recommendations: 1. The DepEd management to revisit and effect changes in their human resource policies and programs, particularly on the following: 1.1. The compensation packages that according to Flippo (1984) can: a) b) attract capable them employees toward to the
performance; and c) retain their services over an extended period of time. 1.2. Budget allocations for nurses that are directed towards the increase of salary and other monetary benefit increases, purchase of office supplies, fixtures and furnitures, and improvement of laboratory equipment and facilities. 1.3. Career advancement programs such as career relevant trainings, scholarships and job promotions, as well as constant reorientation of the company’s policies and best
practices employees. 1.4.
Regular supervisory trainings for supervisors to prevent complaints and dissatisfaction from subordinates that may be brought about by their lack of human relations and technical skills.
2. The DepEd management and health legislators to consider the herein proposed implementing guidelines for monetary and non-monetary benefits of nurses in their studies and research and formulation of human resource development plans.
CHAPTER 6 OUTPUT OF THE STUDY
Proposed Implementing Guidelines for Monetary and Non-monetary Benefits of Nurses at the Department of Education (DepEd)
Overview The primary intention of these proposed implementing guidelines for monetary and non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses is to respond to the agency’s problems on job satisfaction, work commitment, and job turnover. The proposed implementing guidelines are divided into two (2) portions: the augmentation of the monetary benefits of DepEd nurses; and the augmentation of the non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses. The proposed implementing guidelines for monetary benefits of DepEd nurses tackle the following agenda: 1) across-the-board increase by 3,000; 2) increase of step increments by 7.5%; 3) full implementation of Republic Act No. 9173, otherwise known as the “Philippine Nursing Act of 2002”; 4) by-phase increase of salaries; and, 5) creation of provident fund for DepEd nurses. On the other hand, the proposed implementing guidelines for nonmonetary benefits of DepEd nurses tackle the following agenda: 1)
inclusion of Philippine Nursing Association (PNA) representative in regional planning; 2) institutionalizing of a regional council of DepEd nurses; 3) regular conduct of seminars and trainings; 4) granting of
scholarships; 5) adoption of an employees’ performance evaluation devise; 6) implementation of a job promotion process; 7) increase of medicine supplies and laboratory equipment; and 8) provision of transportation vehicles to nurses assigned to far and secluded areas.
Background Information The DepEd came into being on September 06, 1901 by virtue of Public Act No. 222. Named first as the Department of Public Instruction (DPI), it later underwent name revisions: Department of Education and Culture (DEC); Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC); Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS); and now, Department of Education. DepEd is organized into two major structural components: the Central Office and the field offices, which consist of regional offices and school divisions. The Central Office consists of the Department proper, service offices, staff bureaus and 6 centers. One of the centers is the School
Health and Nutrition Center (SHNC) where the school nurses belong. The school nurses, together with the doctors and dentists are responsible for the implementation of the school health and nutrition programs of DepEd. These programs consist the following
(www.deped.gov.ph): health and nutrition education; national drug education; health services; medical, dental and nursing; TB (pulmonary tuberculosis) prevention and control; school milk project; and breakfast feeding program.
It is the mandate of DepEd to develop, promote, provide and ensure basic education responsive to the internal, external and emerging learning needs of every Filipino child. However, this mandate has been constantly challenged by lack of job satisfaction and work commitment, and fast turnover among the school nurses who are among the key
DepEd personnel expected to realize it. Hence, utilizing the findings of this study, and with the eagerness to help DepEd in the realization of its mandate, the researcher has developed this proposed implementing guidelines for monetary and nonmonetary benefits of DepEd nurses as a response to the problems on job satisfaction, work commitment, and job turnover.
Goal These proposed implementing guidelines are aimed at the
monetary and non-monetary benefits of nurses at DepEd.
Objectives These proposed implementing guidelines are formulated to realize the following objectives: 1. To augment the monetary benefits of DepEd nurses; and 2. To augment the non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses.
The proposed implementing guidelines are divided into two (2) portions: a) implementing guidelines on the augmentation of the monetary benefits of DepEd nurses; and b) implementing guidelines on the augmentation of the non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses. A. Augmentation of the Monetary Benefits of DepEd Nurses. These proposed benefits are ontop of those contained in the Magna Carta of Public Health Workers (Republic Act No. 7305) that the DepEd nurses at the Southern Leyte Division are already receiving. The following proposed benefits are: 1. Across-the-board increase by 3,000. The recently approved increase was only 10% of the DepEd nurses’ base pay, and therefore not enough to alleviate the effects of inflation. Besides, the 10% percent increase was even biased against the government employees with lower salary and was only serving those executives receiving monthly salaries of 30,000 and up, as it adversely contributed to the yawning compensation gap between the two employment levels. 2. Increase the step increments of DepEd nurses by 7.5%. Presently, step increments received by government
employees for staying in the job for three years are fixed at 2.5% of their base pay which are unrealistic since inflation rates do not only go up 2.5% within a three year period. According to the arbitrary estimates provided by Civil
Service Commission (www.csc.gov.ph), it will go higher as 7.5% of a regular government employee holding salary grade 8 or 9 positions. 3. Full implementation of Republic Act No. 9173, otherwise known as the “Philippine Nursing Act of 2002”, particularly the provision in Section 32 which raises the minimum salary grade of nurses to 15. Presently the entry salary grade of DepEd nurses is only 12, with a monthly base pay of P11,167.00. With the full implementation of this law, the
entry base pay of nurses will be at P15,000.00 per month. 4. A by-phase increase of salaries of DepEd nurses until they become at par with those of nurses working in GOCCs and GFIs. 5. Creation of a provident fund for DepEd nurses to help them in times of financial constraints. Services to be offered by this Fund could be: retirement pay, free hospitalization (for the members and immediate families), and some types of low-interest loan later deemed considered necessary by the fund managers. B. Augmentation of the Non-monetary Benefits of DepEd Nurses. 1. Inclusion of Philippine Nursing Association (PNA)
representative in DepEd’s regional planning, specifically in
the aspect of budget allocation, career development and management, recruitment and selection, and performance management. Through proper representation, the concerns of the DepEd nurses will reach to management and could be considered in its formulation of upcoming projects and programs. 2. Institutionalizing a regional council of DepEd nurses to update members on information how to improve their jobs and to facilitate their concerns, issues, and demands to management. 3. Regular conduct of seminars and trainings that will enrich the performance of the DepEd nurses’ present jobs, and that will prepare them for movements, promotions, and higher job responsibilities, such as series of supervisory trainings, seminars on team building, patient relations, performance evaluation, and other activities focused on job efficiency and career pathing. 4. Granting of scholarships or “study now, pay later” scheme for those deserving DepEd nurses who have interest in pursuing doctoral degree in medicine. 5. Adoption of an objective employees’ performance evaluation devise that will enable to recognize and monitor the performance and competence of DepEd nurses. At present,
DepEd is not equipped with performance and competency management system that can eradicate subjectivity, link performance standards, and enhance career management and growth. 6. Implementation of a systematic and objective process for supervisors of moving and promoting employees that delimit special treatments, and that which consider the factors of performance, skills, and abilities instead. 7. Increase of medicine supplies and laboratory equipment. One of the major demoralizing problems faced by DepEd nurses today are the lack of medicines and equipment which make them feel helpless. needed are for treatment of Some of the medicines ailments found among
elementary school children, such as dental caries, acute upper respiratory infections, pediculosis, undernutrition, iron deficiency anemia, skin diseases (prevalent is Tinia Flava or locally known as ‘ap ap’), and impacted cerumen. 8. Provision of transportation vehicles to nurses assigned to far and secluded areas. Due to lack of DepEd service vehicles, nurses are still risking their lives on public utility
motorcycles (locally known as “habal-habal”) in visiting schools located in far-flung barangays.
Implementation Machinery For effective and efficient implementation of the proposal, the following should be placed: The Division Superintendents. To facilitate the submission of
the subject proposed guidelines to top management so that they maybe considered in its regular formulation of organizational development plans. The DepEd top management. To include the proposed guidelines in the formulation of its development plans particularly in the aspect of budget allocation, career advancement, and benefits. The health legislators. To pass into laws the proposed guidelines on salary increase, step increment, and granting of scholarships or “study now, pay later” schemes for DepEd nurses. The DepEd nurses. To forward and lobby the proposed guidelines that they may reach to the attention of the school superintendents, the DepEd top management, and health legislators.
A. BOOKS Adler, N.J. (1986). International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Boston: PWS-KENT Publishing Company. Cherrington, D.J. (1991). Need theories of motivation. In R.M. Steers
and L.W. Porter, Motivation and Work Behavior (5th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill. Cropanzano R. and R. Folger (1991). Procedural justice and worker motivation. In R.M. Steers and L.W. Porter, Motivation and Work Behavior (5th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill. Flippo, E. B. (1984). Personnel Management (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Hollyforde, S. and S. Whiddett (2005). The Motivation Handbook. Mumbai: Jaico Publishing House. Karnow, S. (1990). In Our Image: America’s Empire in the Philippines. New York: Random House, Inc. Katz, D. and R.L. Kahn (1978). The Social Psychology of Organizations. New York: Wiley Publishing, Inc. Kreitner, R. and A. Kinicki (2001). Organizational Behavior (5th ed.). New York: Mc Graw-Hill, Inc. Locke, E.A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M.D. Dunnete, Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally. Miranda, G.S. (1999). Supervisory Management: The Management of Effective Supervision. Mandaluyong: National Book Store. Miranda, G.S. and C.M. Miranda (2002). Management Principles and Practices. Binan: L&G Business House. Mowday, R. T., L. W. Porter, and R. M. Steers (1982). EmployeeOrganization Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover. Orlando: Academic Press. Neale, M.A. and G.B. Northcraft (1991). Factors influencing organizational commitment. In R.M. Steers and L.W. Porter, Motivation and Work Behavior (5th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill. Newstrom J.W. and K. Davis (1993). Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work (9th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill. Robbins, S.P. et al (2003). Organisational Behavior (9th ed). Cape Town: Prentice-Hall International.
Steers, R.M and L.W. Porter (1991). Motivation and Work Behavior (5th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill. Stoner, J. A.F. and C. Wankel (1987). Management (3rd ed). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Super, D.E., et al (1996). The lifespan, lifespace approach to careers. In D. S. Brown and L. Brooks (Eds.), Career Choice and Development (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Josse-Bass
B. PERIODICALS AND JOURNALS Anderson, W.T. et al (1984). Job satisfaction among practicing school psychologists. School Psychology Review, vol. 13, no. 2. Aryee, S. and K. Tan (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of career commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, no. 40. Bedeian, A.G. et al (1991). Career commitment and expected utility of present job as predictors of turnover intentions and turnover behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, no. 39. Blau, G. J. (1985). The measurement and prediction of career commitment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, vol. 58. Coleman, J. and B.H. Keiner (1999). How to orient employees into new positions successfully. Management Research News, vol. 22, no.10. Cueto, F. (2006). Nurses going abroad: they train, we gain. Manila Times. Daley, D.M. (1997). Putting the super in supervisor: Determinants of federal employee evaluation of supervisors. Public Personnel Management, vol. 26, no.3. Ellickson, M.C. and K. Logsdon (2002). Determinants of job satisfaction of municipal government employees. Public Personnel Management, vol. 31, no. 3. Hall, D.T. (1971). A theoritical model of career subidentity development
in organizational settings. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, no. 6. Hill, K., D. Hoffman and T.R. Rex (2005). The value of higher education: individual and societal benefits. Productivity and Prosperity Project Report, no. 1. Irvine, V.B. (1970). Budgeting: functional analysis and behavioral implications. Cost and Management, vol. 44, no.2. Kanfer, R. and P.L. Ackerman (2004). Ageing, adult development, and work motivation. Academy of Management Review, vol 29, no. 3. Kanungo, R.N. (1982). Measurement of job and work involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 67, no. 3. Keenan, P. (2003). The nursing workforce: causes, consequences, proposed solutions. Issue Brief, no. 619. Magner, N.R. et al (1996). The interactive effect of outcome favorability and procedural justice in work resource allocation on work performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 26, no. 9. Martires, C.R. and E.A. Zamora (1983). Motivational strengths and work satisfaction among some department heads of government corporations in the Philippines. Business Research and Publications Program Discussion Paper, no. 83-7. Mowday, et al (1970). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol. 14. Ramsey, R.D. (1997). Employee morale: Does it matter anymore? Supervision, vol. 58, no. 9. Rosario, A.G. (2006). From the sidelines: poor pay- root cause of government corruption. Manila Times. Solmerin, F.S. (2007). Nursing enrollees up by 30%. Manila Standard Today. Stordeur, S. et al (2001). Leadership, organizational stress, and emotional exhaustion among nursing hospital staff. Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 35, no. 4.
Valadez, J.R. and J.S. Anthony (2001). Job satisfaction and commitment of two-year college part-time faculty. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, no. 25. Wegge, J. et al (2004). ‘Taking a sickie’: job satisfaction and job involvement as interactive predictors of absenteeism. Aston Business School Research, no. 0427. C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Andrews, C.G. (2003). Comparative analysis of management and employee job satisfaction and policy perceptions. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Texas. Bancud, M. et al (1991). Motivation: money and/or service? Unpublished Research Paper, University of the Philippines. Belovich, D.S. (1997). An examination of career commitment and job involvement of nurses at four career stages. Unpublished Masteral Thesis, Queen’s University. Cooper, A.R. (2002). The construct of work commitment: testing and integrative framework. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Florida International University. Dajoc, M. et al (1991). Ways of motivating employees towards increased productivity. Unpublished Research Paper, University of the Philippines. De Klerk, J.J. (2001). Motivation to work, work commitment and man’s will to meaning. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pretoria. Jones, S.J. (1999). The effects of work and workplace control on employe satisfaction and performance. Unpublished Masteral Thesis, Carleton University. Kadyschuk, R. (1997). Teacher commitment: a study of the organizational commitment, professional commitment, and union commitment of teachers in public schools in Saskatchewan. Unpublished Masteral Thesis, University of Saskatchewan. Laine, M. (2005). Organisational and professional commitment of
nurses. Unpublished Research Paper, University of Turku. Lopez, A.M. (1982). Some factors in job satisfaction among employees in a five-star hotel in Metro Manila. Unpublished Masteral Thesis, University of Santo Tomas. Padua, A. et al (1991). Does money motivate secondary school educators? Unpublished Term Paper, University of the Philippines.
D. WEBSITES Adversario, P.L. (2003). Philippines suffers from hemorrhage of nurses. www.manilatimes.net/others/special/2003/apr/21/20030421sp e1.html Clamonte, N. (2007). Gender awareness seminars: women in the Philippines. www.ozamis.com CYR (2005). Poor health hits Cebu’s schools. www.sunstar.com.ph/static/net/2005/05/23/poor.health.hits.ce bu.s.schools.html Estella, C. (2005). As nurses flee, RP falls ill. www.sunstar.com.ph/static/ceb/2005/03/21/news/as.nurses.fl ee.rp.falls.ill.html Freeland, S. Starting a career in nursing. www.ezinearticles.com/ ?Starting-a-Career-in-Nursing&id=641087 Gatbonton, P.B. (2006). Revisiting the doctor-as-nurse phenomenon. www.manilatimes.net/national/2006/aug/06/yehey/top_stories /20060806top3.htm Gonzales, E. (2004). Medical notes: why do many Filipinos want to become nurses? www.mb.com.ph/issues/2004/07/29/ HLTH2004072914832.html Hicap, J.M. (2006). DepEd focuses on health needs. www.manilatimes.net/national/2006/july/15/yehey/metro/200 60715met13.html
http://wiki.answers.com/q/what_is_descriptive_research.html Info-Tech Research Group (2001). The business case for employee retention. www.technologynews.net/retention/index.cfm Lacerna, C. (2005). Doctors taking up nursing to earn more in America. www.sunstar.com.ph/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1898&sid=6de71c 8438b8b335fee749e5893b69b1 Mercado, S.P. (2007). Managing the shift in nursing directions. www.doh.gov.ph Omi, S. (2006). The exodus of health workers from the Western Pacific Region is endangering public-health systems. www.wpro.who.int/media_centre/press_releases/pr_20060407+( Op-ed).htm Villas, A.T. (2004). The future of Filipino nurses. www.mb.com.ph/issues/2004/09/19/MTNN2004091918696.htm l www.abbaphilippines.com/nurses_filipino_recruitment.html www.academyhealth.org/membership/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=28 www.bls.gov/oco/ocos083.htm#nature www.csc.gov.ph www.education-online-search.com/articles/careers/nursing_careers/ become_a_nurse?src=ii www.gov.ph www.deped.gov.ph/about_deped/organizationlinks.asp?id=15 www.nursingworld.org/nursecareer/ www.statsoft.com/textbook.stbasic.html www.sunstar.com.ph/forums/viewtopic.php?t=2488 APPENDIX A Letter Request for Research to Conduct
September 6, 2007 DR. VIOLETA M. ALOCILJA, CESO V Schools Division Superintendent DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte Mantahan, Maasin City Dr. Alocilja: I will be working on a thesis entitled, “The Prospects of a Nursing Career at the Department of Education in the Context of Job Satisfaction and Work Commitment”, as a requirement for the completion of my Masteral Degree in Public Administration at the College of Maasin, Maasin City. In view of this, I am respectfully asking your good office for approval to conduct a research among the public school nurses in your division. Rest assured that the data that will be gathered will be treated with utmost respect and confidentiality, and that the results will be used for research and educational purposes only. Very truly yours,
PORFERIO A. SALIDAGA, JR. Researcher
APPENDIX B Letter to Respondents
September 10, 2007 Dear Respondent: I am presently working on a thesis entitled, “The Prospects of a Nursing Career at the Department of Education in the Context of Job Satisfaction and Work Commitment”, as a requirement for the completion of my Masteral Degree in Public Administration at the College of Maasin, Maasin City. As you are currently working as a DepEd nurse under the division of Southern Leyte, your participation and information will be helpful in providing a better understanding of the important issues facing nursing today. Thus, with the permission from Division Superintendent Dr. Violeta M. Alocilja, I am respectfully asking about 15 minutes of your time to complete the attached questionnaire. Rest assured that your participation is completely anonymous as no identifying information will be collected. The data that you will provide will be treated with utmost respect and confidentiality, and that the results will be used for research and educational purposes only. Very truly yours,
PORFERIO A. SALIDAGA, JR. Researcher
Respondent’s Profile Questionnaire 1. Job position: ____________________________
2. Number of years working as a nurse at DepEd: ________ 3. Educational qualifications items): Nursing graduate ____ Masteral graduate ____ Doctoral graduate ____ ( please affix check (√ ) marks on applicable Masteral level ____ Doctoral level _____ Other (pls specify) _______________________
4. Employment status ( please affix check (√ ) mark on applicable item): Permanent _____ Probationary _____ Casual _____ Contractual ____ Other (pls. specify) _______________________ 5. Age: _________ 6. Sex ( please affix check (√ ) mark on applicable item): Male _____ Female _____ 7. Civil status ( please affix check (√ ) mark on applicable item): Single ______ Married ______ Separated ______Widowed _____ 8. Distance of residence from place of assignment (please specify in kilometers):____________
Level of Sufficiency on Benefits, Budget Allocation and Career Advancement Questionnaire
83 Scale: 1=Very insufficient; 2=Insufficient; 3=Sufficient; 4=Very sufficient
A. Remuneration and Other Monetary Benefits 1. Monthly salary 2. PERA and ADCOM 3. Transportation and fieldwork allowances 4. Hazard pay 5. Year-End bonus and cash gift 6. Productivity incentive 7. Step increment 8. Clothing allowance 9. Medical and hospitalization
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
B. Non-monetary Benefits 1. Recognition for completion of masteral/doctoral degree, and other outstanding achievements 1 2 3 4 2. Study leave 1 2 3 4 3. Scholarships 1 2 3 4 C. Budget Allocation 1. Salaries and wages 1 2 3 4 2. Other compensation and benefits 1 2 3 4 3. Transportation and fieldwork allowances 1 2 3 4 4. Office supplies, fixtures and furnitures 1 2 3 4 5. Laboratory equipment and facilities 1 2 3 4 D. Career Advancement 1. Trainings, seminars and other activities to improve your present job 2. Trainings, seminars and other activities to prepare you for higher position and responsibilities 3. Vacant positions for promotion
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
4 4 4
Job Satisfaction Questionnaire
(Modified Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), 1977)
Scale: 1=Very dissatisfied; 2=Dissatisfied; 3=Satisfied; 4=Very satisfied
On my present job, this is how I feel about… 1. Being able to keep busy all the time. 2. The chance to work alone on the job. 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
3. The chance to do different things from time to time. 1 4. The chance to be somebody in the community. 5. The way my immediate supervisor handles his/ her subordinates. 7. The competence of my supervisor in making decisions. 1 1 1
8. Being able to do things that don’t go against my conscience. 1 8. The way my job provides for steady employment. 9. The chance to do things for other people. 10. The chance to tell people what to do. 11. The chance to do something that makes use of my abilities. 12. The way the policies of DepEd are put into practice. 13. My salary and the amount of work I do. 14. The chances of advancement on this job. 15. The freedom to use my own judgment. 16. The chance to try my own method to do the job. 17. The physical aspect of my work.
18. The way my coworkers get along with each other. 1
19. The praise I get for doing a good job.
20. The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job. 1
Work Commitment Questionnaires
A. Job Involvement Questionnaire
(Kanungo, 1982) Scale: 1=Strongly disagree; 2=Disagree; 3=Mildly disagree; 4=Mildly agree; 5=Agree; 6=Strongly agree
1. The most important things that happen to me involve my present job. 2. To me, my job is only a small part of who I am. 3. I am very much involved personally in my job 6 4. I live, eat, and breathe my job. 5. Most of my interests are centered around my job. 6. I have very strong ties with my present job which would be very difficult to break. 7. Usually I feel detached from my job. 8. Most of my personal life goals are job-oriented. 9. I consider my job to be very central to my existence. 10. I like to be absorbed in my job most of the time.
B. Career Commitment Questionnaire
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Scale: 1=Strongly disagree; 2=Disagree; 3=Unsure; 4= Agree; 5=Strongly agree
1. If I could get another job different from being a nurse, and paying the same amount, would probably take it. 1 2. I definitely want a career for myself in nursing. 1
3. If I could do it all over again, I would not choose to work in the nursing profession. 1 2 4. If I had all the money I needed without working, I would probably still continue to work in the nursing profession. 1 2 5. I like this vocation too well to give it up.1 6. This is the ideal vocation for a life work.1 7. I am disappointed that I ever entered the nursing profession. 1 2 2 2
3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5
8. I spend a significant amount of personal time reading nursing-related journals or books 1
C. Organizational Commitment Questionnaire
(Organizational Commitment Questionnaire developed by Mowday et al., 1970) Scale: 1=Strongly disagree; 2=Moderately disagree; 3=Slightly disagree; 4= Neither disagree nor agree; 5=Slightly agree; 6=Moderately agree; 7=Strongly agree
1. I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected in order to help DepEd be successful. 2. I talk up DepEd to my friends as a great organization to work for.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3. I would accept almost any type of job assignment in order to keep working for DepEd. 4. I find that my values and DepEd’s values are very similar. 5. I am proud to tell others that I am part of DepEd.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
6. DepEd really inspires the very best in me in the way of job performance. 7. I am extremely glad that I chose DepEd to work for, over others I was considering at the time I joined. 8. I really care about the fate of DepEd. 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
9. For me DepEd is the best of all possible organizations for which to work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
CURRICULUM VITAE Personal Information Name Birthdate Birthplace Civil Status Spouse Children : : : : : : Porferio Arcuino Salidaga, Jr. March 27, 1972 Brgy. Bunacan, Calubian, Leyte Married Melfa Kangleon Delos Santos Phoebie Gabrielle Priam Gabriel
Educational Qualifications College : Bachelor of Arts in Communication University of the Philippines Tacloban City 1994 National Heroes Institute Kananga, Leyte 1989 Kananga Central School Kananga, Leyte 1985
Work Experience Team Head : Social Security System SSS Maasin Branch, Maasin City November 2004 – present Social Security System SSS Maasin Branch, Maasin City January 1998 – October 2004
DBP Service Corporation SSS Ormoc Branch, Ormoc City February 1996 – December 1997 Office of the City Mayor Ormoc City April 1995 – January 1996
Civil Service Eligibility C S Professional : October 17, 1993
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