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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM

Introduction

Interest in the concepts of job satisfaction has grown in recent

years because of their efficacy on work commitment, and their basic

importance to the understanding of a worker’s behavior and the

continuous effective operations of organizations.

In the Philippines, nurses have been constantly exposed to

considerable internal and external organizational issues which could

have negative effects on their level of job satisfaction and work

commitment. Several literature on nursing have raised the issues on

heavy workload, poor working conditions, meager compensation

packages, poor interpersonal relationships, weak leadership, non-

recognition of exemplary work, and lack of opportunities for career

growth as possible major factors of work stress and dissatisfaction.

These issues may serve as possible causes for nurses to reconsider their

long-range work options, and lower their work commitment.

In spite of an average of 600,000 college students enrolling in

nursing courses every year, making up 25% of the total college enrollees,

the nursing sector of the Philippines is incurring a shortage of nurses

(Solmerin, 2007). This could be the result of massive exodus of nurses to

many countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) show
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that the Philippines is leading other nations in the exportation of nurses

(www.abbaphilippines.com; Gatbonton, 2006; Villas, 2004), comprising

25% of all overseas nurses worldwide (Estella, 2005). As of 2006, there

are already 164,000 Filipino nurses, 85% of the country’s total, working

outside the Philippines in about 46 countries. Out of this total, around

100,000 of them have left only within the past 10 years (Cueto, 2006;

www.sunstar.com.ph; Estella, 2005; Omi, 2006). There are also those

who are still in the country who, while waiting for opportunities to be

hired abroad, are not practicing their profession, instead they end up

working as call center agents and tellers in some private banks.

Dr. Irineo Bernardo, executive officer of the Philippine Hospital

Association, as quoted by Estella (2005), avers that the turnover of

nurses has been particularly high from year 2000 to 2007. And as more

nurses leave, the Philippines is only left with more unskilled and

untrained nurses.

In 2001, the Philippine Overseas and Employment Agency (POEA)

reported that 13,536 Filipino nurses went overseas. In contrast, that

same year, only 4,430 students passed the Nursing Board Examination,

clearly showing that the country has been exporting more nurses than it

is producing (Estella, 2005).

Jossel Ebesate, secretary general of the Alliance of Health Workers

(AHW) as cited by www.sunstar.com.ph, said that if the trend of

exporting nurses outside the country continues, the Philippine health-


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care system will soon collapse. This observation is supported by records

from the Department of Education (DepEd) which show that as of 2007,

the nurse-to-student ratio in schools is already standing at 1:4,830

(Hicap, 2006; www.gov.ph). This broad ratio gap manifests the difficulty

of the government to help students who are facing malnutrition and

health problems to perform well in school. DepEd officials explain that if

only schools have enough medical personnel, then the health concerns of

students could have easily been responded (Hicap, 2006; www.gov.ph).

The public school nurses are among those responsible for the

implementation of DepEd’s key programs on school health and nutrition.

These programs are (www.deped.gov.ph): a) health and nutrition

education; b) national drug education; c) health services; d) medical,

dental and nursing; e) TB (pulmonary tuberculosis) prevention and

control; f) school milk project; and g) breakfast feeding program.

Given such important duties and responsibilities, the DepEd

nurses are only receiving an entry basic monthly salary of P11,167.00

(www.sunstar.com.ph), a far cry from the salaries they could get abroad

which range from P100, 000 to P150,000, exclusive of fringe benefits

(Adversario, 2003; Rosario, 2006).

Under the Republic Act 9173, otherwise known as the Nursing Act

of 1992, government nurses are supposedly provided with salary

adjustment. But until now, this adjustment has remained

unimplemented (Villas, 2004). It could have increased the monthly


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entry-level pay of nurses from P9,900 to P14,000. According to the

Health Alliance for Democracy (HAD), the present health care services in

the Philippines are already operating at 3.5% of the Gross National

Product (GNP) budget, below the 5% recommended by the WHO (Lacerna,

2005).

Moreover, not only that they receive low compensation, DepEd

nurses are also faced with many work-related problems, such as lack of

opportunity for career advancement, heavy workload, limited budget for

transportation, and the scarcity of laboratory equipment, medicines and

office supplies (CYR, 2005). These problems according to Health

Undersecretary Dr. Susan P. Mercado (2007) are brought about by poor

situations of the health care system of the country which include the

following: a) inappropriate service delivery as shown by poorly targeted

facilities, fragmented primary health system, ineffective delivery

mechanisms for public health programs, and maldistribution of health

human resources; and b) poor financing as shown by inadequate

funding, inefficient sourcing and ineffective allocation of funds.

Because of this abovementioned scenario, the researcher developed

the interest to examine the prospects of a nursing career at the DepEd,

particularly the relationship between the level of job satisfaction and

work commitment among DepEd nurses. He believed that through this

study, the DepEd, or the government in general, would become more

aware and conscious of the present psychological make up of its people


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as affected by negative internal and external environment and therefore

could devise measures to improve its human resource programs, more

particularly in the aspect of hiring people and in retaining employees.

Statement of the Problem

Generally, this study examines the prospects of a nursing career at

the DepEd in the context of job satisfaction and work commitment.

Specifically this seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of Southern Leyte DepEd

nurses in terms of the following:

1.1. Job position;

1.2. Year of service;

1.3. Educational qualifications;

1.4. Employment status;

1.5. Age;

1.6. Sex;

1.7. Civil status; and,

1.8. Distance of residence from place of assignment?

2. What is the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in terms

of:

2.1. Remuneration and other monetary benefits;

2.2. Non-monetary benefits;

2.3. Budget allocation; and


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2.4. Career advancement?

3. What is the level of job satisfaction among the DepEd nurses?

4. What is the level of work commitment among the DepEd

nurses?

5. Is there a significant relationship between job satisfaction and

work commitment among the DepEd nurses? And finally,

6. Based on findings, what implementing guidelines for monetary

and non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses can be proposed?

Statement of Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and

work commitment.

Significance of the Study

This study will benefit the following people as it will give them

clearer view of job satisfaction and work commitment among the DepEd

nurses.

The health legislators. To legislate laws that may answer

problems affecting job satisfaction and work commitment among DepEd

nurses as maybe manifested by the proliferation of malnutrition and

other health problems of students resulting to poor academic

performance.
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The management of the Department of Education. To

formulate plans, programs and strategies geared towards the

improvement of its human resource programs.

The academe. To acquire additional reference materials for

students pursuing studies on job satisfaction and work commitment.

The DepEd nurses and other public nurses. To look at this

study as a reflection of themselves so that they become aware or

conscious of the profession they are in and therefore more equipped and

empowered.

The researcher. To broaden his knowledge on human behavior in

organization, thus helping him become more effective supervisor and

manager in the future.

The Filipino people in general. To determine how job

satisfaction and work commitment among DepEd nurses could affect the

physical well-being of their children.

Scope and Delimitation

This study examines the prospects of a nursing career at DepEd,

particularly the relationship between the level of job satisfaction and

work commitment among the nurses assigned at the DepEd Southern

Leyte Division, located at Mantahan, Maasin City.


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Only the DepEd registered nurses served as the respondents of the

study. Exempted from the study were registered nurses who performed

administrative functions.

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following terms are defined as

follows:

Career Commitment. The intent of DepEd nurses to build a

vocation or profession that is a meaningful and lifelong pursuit.

DepEd Nurse. A registered nurse working at the Department of

Education, Southern Leyte Division, Mantahan, Maasin City.

Job Involvement. The degree to which the DepEd nurses immerse

themselves in their jobs, invest time and energy in them, and view work

as a central part of their overall lives.

Job Satisfaction. The outcome of the DepEd nurses’ good feelings

and beliefs regarding the nature of their jobs and experiences related to

their jobs.

Job Turnover. The rate of DepEd nurses leaving their jobs.

Level of Sufficiency. It is the perception on the degree of modest

comfort of DepEd nurses towards their benefits, budget allocation and

career advancement.

Motivation. The strength of the DepEd nurses’ drive towards work

performance.
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Nursing Career. It is the progression of the nurses’ work life at

DepEd.

Organizational Commitment. The relative strength of nurses’

identification with, and involvement in DepEd as their organization.

Prospects. The over-all view and perspective of pursuing a

nursing profession at DepEd.

Registered Nurse (RN). An individual who passed the Licensure

Examination for Nurses and is currently working as a public school

nurse at the DepEd Southern Leyte Division.

Remuneration. A payment or reward for services that the DepEd

nurses rendered.

Work commitment. The relative importance of DepEd nurses’

sense of self, encompassing job involvement, career commitment, and

organizational commitment.
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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

The literature and studies cited in this chapter tackle the

prospects of a nursing career, as well as the concepts on job satisfaction

and work commitment.

Related Literature

According to www.bls.gov, www.education-online-search.com and

www.nursingworld.org, there is a present acute worldwide shortage of

nurses. Hence, there is a positive prospect of a nursing career in the

coming years as the employment of nurses is expected to grow faster

than the other occupations. The Canada Nurses Association (CNA)

predicts that their country will have a shortfall of registered nurses

between 60,000 and 115,000 by 2010. In the US, the Bureau of Labor

statistics reveals that from 2001 to 2008, a total of 450,000 additional

registered nurses are needed to fill the demand (Gonzales, 2004).

To attract and retain qualified nurses, hospitals in developed

countries such as the US, United Kingdom (UK), and Canada are now

offering salaries which range from $37,300 to $74,760 a year

(www.bls.gov). Those are aside from additional benefits such as

bonuses, family-friendly work schedules, and subsidized trainings.


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Gonzales (2004) mentions that because of this great demand for

nurses, accompanied by attractive good compensation packages, which

the Philippine government could not offer, some of our best-educated

and most-experienced Filipino nurses are now migrating to the developed

countries such as the US, UK, and Canada. He further explains that this

demand, based on statistical projections will never shrink, instead it will

even grow.

www.bls.gov states that nurses, regardless of specialty or work

setting, perform basic duties that include treating patients, educating

patients and the public about various medical conditions, and providing

advice and emotional support to patients’ family members. Nurses

record patients’ medical histories and symptoms, help to perform

diagnostic tests and analyze results, operate medical machinery,

administer treatment and medications and help with patient follow-up

and rehabilitation.

Nursing is defined by www.nursingworld.org as “the protection,

promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness

and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment

of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families,

communities, and populations.”

Keenan (2003) identifies three types of nursing professions:

registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nurse aides. Registered

nurses provide direct patient care and also manage nursing care.
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Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) on the other hand provide patient care

under direction of an RN or physician. Nurse Aides (NAs) assist in

routine care activities, such as bathing, dressing, and feeding patients.

In terms of career path, www.bls.gov discloses that today’s nurses

are offered with many work alternatives and choices. There is a wide

variety of nursing specialty areas which include surgery, emergency,

pediatric, psychiatric, school, public health, nurse-midwives, and others.

Some RNs follow the career path by starting as licensed practical nurses

or nursing aides, and then go back to school to receive their RN degree.

Most RNs begin as staff nurses, and with experience and good

performance often are promoted to more responsible positions. In

management, nurses can advance to assistant head nurse or head

nurse, and from there, to assistant director, director, and vice president.

Some nurses move into the business side of health care. Business

establishments need nurses for health planning and development,

marketing, consulting, policy development, and quality assurance. Other

nurses work in colleges and universities as members of the faculty or as

researchers.

www.education-online-search.com stipulates that nurses need to

be well educated, adaptable, and be able to act as patient advocates.

They also need to be able to deal with the stress of critical and

demanding situations and the emotional strain of dealing with sick,

injured, and even dying patients. Nurses require good observation skills,
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communication skills, and the ability to make decisions based on

assimilation and evaluation of information. Nurses also need

management skills, at a minimum, to be able to manage nurses aides

and other resources for their patients health care whatever the location

or setting. Head nurses and nurse supervisors require additional

leadership and administrative skills as well as negotiating skills and

budgeting and financial skills.

Freeland and www.bls.gov attest that on global setting, most

nurses are treated well than the workers from other sectors as they are

provided with high compensation packages, high level of job security,

and well-lighted, comfortable health care facilities.

Moreover, just like the workers of any occupation, nurses can only

be efficient in the performance of their duties and responsibilities

towards their respective organizations if they possess high level of job

satisfaction.

Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as the outcome of an

employee’s good feelings (affect) and beliefs (cognition) regarding the

nature of his job and experiences related to the job. It is generally

recognized as a multifaceted construct that includes employee feelings

about a variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic job elements (Stordeur, et

al., 2001).

Stordeur et al. (2001) contend that job satisfaction is an immediate

antecedent of work commitment, and work commitment an immediate


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antecedent of intention to leave the workplace and turnover. They

expound the idea by saying that the higher an employee’s job satisfaction

and work commitment, the lower his intention to leave. Based on this

contention the researcher has raised this question: what are the causes

of job satisfaction, so that an employee will stay committed to his work,

and will continue to hold on to it? Numerous motivation theories

address this question. Among them are: Herzberg’s Satisfaction-

Motivation Theory; McClelland’s Three Motives Theory; Vroom’s

Expectancy Theory; and Alderfer’s Three-tiered Model of Needs.

Motivation is defined by Newstrom and Davis (1993) as “strength of

the drive toward an action.” This definition according to Steers and

Porter (1991) have three common denominators: 1) what energizes

human behavior; 2) what directs or channels such behavior; and, 3) how

this behavior is maintained or sustained.

Newstrom and Davis (1993) explains that when people join an

organization, they bring with them certain drives and needs that affect

their work performance. Sometimes these drives and needs are not only

difficult to determine and satisfy but also vary greatly from one person to

another.

Herzberg (Hollyforde and Whiddett, 2005), in his Satisfaction-

Motivation theory explains that the things people find satisfying in their

jobs are not always the opposite of the things they find dissatisfying.
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This is because the things that lead to job satisfaction are distinct from

those that lead to job dissatisfaction.

According to Herzberg (Stoner and Wankel, 1987), every individual

worker has two different categories of needs: the hygiene factors, and

the satisfying factors. The hygiene factors are known as the dissatisfiers,

but they do not affect the motivation and output of workers. The

satisfying factors on the other hand are the real motivators, but their

absence does not necessarily lead to dissatisfaction.

The hygiene factors include the environment around the job, such

as policies and administration, supervision, working conditions,

interpersonal relations, money, and security. While the satisfying factors

include the job content of a worker, such as achievement, recognition for

accomplishment, challenging work, increased responsibility, and growth

and development.

The Three Motives Theory of McClelland (Cherrington, 1991)

explains that every worker has the need for achievement, a behavior

directed toward competition with a standard of excellence. The three

characteristics of high need achievers are identified as follows:

1. Strong desire to assume personal responsibility for

performing a task or finding a solution to a problem;

2. Tendency to set moderately difficult goals and take

calculated risks; and,

3. Strong desire for performance feedback.


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The Expectancy Theory of Vroom ( Adler,1986) is based on the

assumption that people are driven by the expectation that their acts will

produce results. Workers assess both their ability to perform a task and

the probable type of reward for successful performance. The theory

depends on the extent to which employees believe they have control over

the outcomes of their efforts as well as the manager’s ability to identify

desired rewards.

Alderfer’s Three-tiered Model of Needs, also popularly known as

ERG (Adler, 1986), posits that man’s needs are progressing from

Existence to Relatedness, and last to Growth :

1. Existence needs. Refer to all forms of material and

physiological factors necessary to sustain human

existence;

2. Relatedness needs. Refer to all the socially oriented

needs; and,

3. Growth needs. Refer to the development of human

potential.

On the other hand, work commitment as an outcome of job

satisfaction as contended by Stordeur et al. (2001) is defined by Loscocco

(Cooper, 2002) as the relative importance of work to one’s sense of self,

encompassing job involvement, career commitment, and organizational

commitment. It is negatively correlated with variables like tardiness,

absenteeism, turnover, reduced effort, and job dissatisfaction. It is also


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positively correlated with outcome variables like job satisfaction and job

performance (Wegge, et al., 2004).

Job involvement as a facet of work commitment is defined by

Newstrom and Davis (1993), as the “degree to which employees immerse

themselves in their jobs, invest time and energy in them, and view work

as a central part of their overall lives”.

Career commitment, as another facet of work commitment, is

defined by Blau (1985) as “the intent of an individual to build a vocation

or profession that is a meaningful and lifelong pursuit.” It is often used

interchangeably with professional commitment because both terms, as

confirmed by Blau (1985), are synonymous to each other. The only

definitional difference is that professional commitment is considered to

be restrictive as it is commonly used only for studies involving

occupations generally classified as professionals (e.g. registered nurses),

while career commitment is more generic as it can be applied to any type

and form of occupation, including non-professionals (e.g barangay

health workers)(Kadyschuk, 1997).

Organizational commitment on the other hand is defined by

Mowday, Porter, and Steers (1982) as the relative strength of an

individual’s identification with, and involvement in, a particular

organization.

All the facets of work commitment could be examined according to

Belovich (1997) in two ways: as independent subsets of a whole, and as


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interrelated subsets of a whole. They may be able to share the same

outcomes, but at the same time they also have effects or influences,

causes and consequences, that are different from the other.

Related Studies

To acquire broader outlook about the prospects of a nursing career

in the context of job satisfaction and work commitment, the researcher

cites in this portion studies that include not only the nursing population

but also samples from other occupations. Among those reviewed are

foreign studies conducted by Jones (1999), Laine (2005), and Academy

Health Organization (2007); as well as Philippine studies conducted by

Lopez (1982), Martires and Zamora (1983), Bancud et al (1991), Dajoc et

al (1991), and Padua et al (1991).

In 1999, Jones conducted a study on workplace outcomes such as

absenteeism and job satisfaction by combining aspects of two-disciplines

of psychology: environmental psychology and industrial/organizational

psychology. Borrowing from Person-Environment Fit theory, the fit

between employees’ perceived and desired levels of physical environment

control and job autonomy were hypothesized to explain significant

amounts of variance in job satisfaction, environmental satisfaction, job

competence, environmental competence, self-rated job performance,

absenteeism, intent to turnover, and stress. In this cross sectional

study, 90 employees from educational institutions were obtained as


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respondents, and findings indicated that the application of Person-

Environment Fit theory to workplace still needs further examination and

that the relationship between environmental psychology and

industrial/organizational psychology have to be continuously explored.

In 2005, Laine examined the relationship of organizational and

career commitment of 3,626 Finnish nurses, and how this relationship

corresponded to their intention to leave, as well as whether the intention

to leave was a signal of actually leaving. Results showed that nurses were

strongly committed both to the organization and to their career. The

work-related factors which correlated most strongly with reduced

commitment were: feeling that one’s work is not meaningful or

important, less opportunities for career advancement, low level of work

influence, organization’s under utilization of one’s own abilities, poor

work atmosphere, and low quality of leadership. On the other hand, the

work-related factors which correlated most strongly with high

commitment were: improved organization of work, optimum utilization of

one’s abilities, more opportunities for career advancement, continuous

professional trainings, and higher level of work influence.

In 2007, the Academy Health Organization posted in the Internet

(www.academyhealth.org) a manuscript, “Better Jobs Better Care”. The

manuscript is a study on job satisfaction and work commitment among

nursing assistants. Results revealed that the primary factors which

affect the respondents’ intention to stay were wages, benefits, and


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opportunities for career advancement. They were followed by good basic

supervision.

On the other hand, in the Philippines, an empirical study on

factors affecting job satisfaction among employees in five-star hotels in

Metro Manila was conducted by Lopez in 1982. The results of the study

was noteworthy because they challenged the Motivation-Satisfaction

theory (also known as Two-Factor Theory of Motivation) of Herzberg. As

opposed to Herzberg’s theory, the study showed that the respondents

derived more satisfaction from the job environment (hygiene factors)

rather than the job content (motivators).

In 1983, Martires and Zamora examined motivation strengths and

job satisfaction among 176 department heads of 38 Philippine

government-owned corporations. The study revealed that it was the

physiological needs of the respondents which topped the motivational

ranking, followed by the self-realization needs. The results indicated that

the respondents’ incomes were not enough to satisfy their needs. They

also had strong desire for challenge and responsibility, since most of

them were holding higher positions and were professionals.

In 1991, Bancud et al. examined the correlation of job satisfaction

and money among social workers in six charitable institutions in Metro

Manila. The findings, however, did not correlate the two variables

thereby invalidating their hypotheses. Results showed that the

respondents were highly satisfied with their jobs even if their salaries
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were just enough for their basic needs. What appeared as the most

satisfying for the respondents was the need for self-fulfillment through

service thereby rising above the need for material things.

Another in 1991, Dajoc et al. delved into the ways of motivating

employees of six commercial banks in Metro Manila to increase

productivity. The study revealed that the primary factors which made

the employees stay in their jobs were self-fulfillment, growth

opportunities, and recognition. Secondary only were salaries, benefits

and other compensation, nature of work, and career advancement.

Also in 1991, Padua et al. conducted study on motivation and how

it affected work commitment among secondary school educators in both

public and private institutions in the Philippines. The study revealed a

complete opposite of Bancud et al’s (1991) findings, as it indicated money

as the number one motivator of the respondents. The respondents

perceived money as their means of survival and security. The study also

indicated high correlation of job satisfaction and the intentions for job

turnover. Respondents from the private schools showed general

dissatisfaction with their salary and benefits and were willing to transfer

to other organizations that could offer them higher pay and benefits.

Respondents from the public schools on the other hand showed general

satisfaction with their salary and benefits and were willing to stay with

the organization.
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All the literature and studies reviewed in this chapter have showed

that there is a present acute shortage of nurses worldwide. Thus

globally, the need for nurses is very good with employment as it is

expected to grow faster than the other occupations. As a matter of fact,

to attract and retain qualified nurses, hospitals in developed countries

are now offering good compensation packages.

In terms of career path, today’s nurses are offered with many work

alternatives and choices. Most RNs begin as staff nurses, and with

experience and good performance often are promoted to more responsible

positions. In management, nurses can advance to assistant head nurse

or head nurse, and from there, to assistant director, director, and vice

president.

On global setting, most nurses are treated well than the workers

from other sectors as they are provided with high compensation

packages, high level of job security, and well-lighted, comfortable health

care facilities.

Moreover, just like the workers of any occupation, nurses can only

be efficient in the performance of their duties and responsibilities

towards their respective organizations if they possess high level of job

satisfaction and work commitment.

Job satisfaction is an immediate antecedent of work commitment,

and work commitment an immediate antecedent of intention to leave the

workplace and turnover. It means that the higher an employee’s job


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satisfaction and work commitment, the lower his intention to leave

(Stordeur, et al., 2001).

Job satisfaction is defined as the outcome of an employee’s good

feelings and beliefs regarding the nature of his job and experiences

related to the job (Locke, 1976).

Work commitment on the other hand is defined as the relative

importance of work to one’s sense of self, encompassing job involvement,

career commitment, work ethic, and organizational commitment (Cooper,

2002).

Conceptual Framework

Based on the contention by Stordeur et al. (2001) which states that

job satisfaction is immediate antecedent of work commitment, and that

work commitment is the immediate antecedent of intention to leave the

workplace and turnover, the researcher examined the relationship

between the level of job satisfaction and work commitment among DepEd

nurses.

The pursuit for understanding was done through the following

process: data collection through the use of questionnaires and

interviews; data analysis, clarifying statistical statements; and data

interpretation, findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

The output of this pursuit was proposed implementing guidelines

for monetary and non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses.


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INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

JOB
DATA COLLECTION/
SATISFACTION
QUESTIONNAIRES/

INTERVIEWS

PROPOSED
DATA ANALYSIS/
IMPLEMENTING
CLARIFYING
WORK GUIDELINES FOR
COMMITMENT STATISTICAL MONETARY AND
STATEMENTS NON-MONETARY
BENEFITS OF
DepEd NURSES
DATA INTERPRETATION/

FINDINGS/

JOB CONCLUSIONS/
TURNOVER
RECOMMENDATIONS

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study


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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design

In this study, the researcher used the Descriptive-Correlation

Method of Research. The descriptive method describes the data and

characteristics about what is being studied (http://wiki.answers.com);

while the correlation method measures the relation between two or more

variables (www.statsoft.com).

Research Environment

The research was conducted at DepEd, Southern Leyte Division

where the respondents are working.

Located at Mantahan, Maasin City, the DepEd Southern Leyte

Division comprises of 16 educational districts. It oversees 321 public

elementary schools and 48 national high schools. Among the said 321

elementary schools, 198 are complete elementary schools, while 123 are

incomplete elementary schools. Through its Non-Formal Education (NFE)

Section, the Division has the following extension programs: literacy

classes, literacy cum livelihood program, Literacy Service Contracting

(LSC), Barangay Operation for Livelihood Development (BOLD) projects

and the Philippine Educational Placement Test (PEPT) for the average in

school and/or out-of-school youths.


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Research Instrument

The following three (3) questionnaires were used by the researcher

in gathering the data:

1. Respondent’s Profile Questionnaire. This questionnaire, a 9-

item instrument, was developed to gather information regarding

work life variables which might affect the DepEd nurses’ job

satisfaction and work commitment. All responses to the

questions on sex and marital status were coded and entered as

categorical data. However, the questions on position, years of

service, educational qualifications, employment status, age, and

distance of residence were coded and treated as ordinal data

due to their inherent order.

2. Level of Sufficiency on Benefits, Budget Allocation and

Career Advancement Questionnaire. This questionnaire is

divided into 4 portions: a) Remuneration and Other Monetary

Benefits; b) Non-monetary Benefits; c) Budget Allocation; and d)

Career Advancement. For each question of each portion, the

respondents answered on a 4-point Likert scale: 1 means ‘Very

insufficient’ , 2 means ‘Insufficient’, 3 means ‘Sufficient’, and 4

means ‘Very sufficient’. Item scores were summed for a total

score.
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3. Job Satisfaction Questionnaire. The Short-Form Minnesota

Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) as modified by Anderson, et

al. (1984) was used in this study. The response options were

assigned ordinal weights with ‘Very dissatisfied as number 1,

‘Dissatisfied’ as number 2, ‘Satisfied’ as number 3, and ‘Very

satisfied’ as number 4. Item scores were summed for a total

score. The MSQ scales which represent the twenty dimensions

of the job are described as follows:

1. Activity – Being able to keep busy all the time.

2. Independence – The chance to work alone on the job.

3. Variety – The chance to do different things from time to time.

4. Social status – The chance to be somebody in the

community.

5. Supervision-human relations – The way my immediate

supervisor handles his/her subordinates.

6. Supervision-technical – The competence of my supervisor in

making decisions.

7. Moral values – Being able to do things that don’t go against

my conscience.

8. Security – The way my job provides for steady employment.

9. Social service – The chance to do things for other people.

10.Authority- The chance to tell people what to do.


28

11.Ability utilization – The chance to do something that makes

use of my abilities.

12.Company policies and practices – The way the policies of

DepEd are put into practice.

13.Compensation – My salary and the amount of work I do.

14.Advancement – The chances of advancement on this job.

15.Responsibility – The freedom to use my own judgment.

16.Creativity – The chance to try my own method to do the job.

17.Working conditions – The physical aspect of my work.

18.Coworkers – The way my coworkers get along with each

other.

19.Recognition – The praise I get for doing a good job.

20.Achievement – The feeling of accomplishment I get from the

job.

4. Work Commitment Questionnaire. This questionnaire is

divided into 3 sub-questionnaires:

a. Job Involvement Questionnaire. The questionnaire used

in this study was developed by Kanungo (1982). It is a

10-item instrument measured on a 6-point Likert scale: 1

means ‘Strongly disagree’, 2 means ‘Disagree’, 3 means

‘Mildly disagree’, 4 means ‘Mildly agree’, 5 means ‘Agree’,

and 6 means ‘Strongly agree’. Item scores were summed

for a total score.


29

b. Career Commitment Questionnaire. The questionnaire

used in this study was developed by Blau (1985). It is an

8-item instrument measured on a 5-point Likert scale: 1

means ‘Strongly disagree’, 2 means ‘Disagree’, 3 means

‘Unsure’, 4 means ‘Agree’, and 5 means ‘Strongly agree’.

Item scores were summed for a total score. And,

c. Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. The

questionnaire used in this study was developed by

Mowday et al (1970). It is a 9-item instrument measured

on a 7-point Likert scale: 1 means ‘Strongly disagree’, 2

means ‘Moderately disagree’, 3 means ‘Slightly disagree’,

4 means ‘neither disagree nor agree’, 5 means ‘Slightly

agree’, 6 means ‘Moderately agree’, and 7 means ‘Strongly

agree’. Item scores were summed for a total score.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study were composed of 30 out of 39 active

elementary and high school public school nurses under DepEd, Division

of Southern Leyte.

However, to clarify and validate data, the researcher also included

through informal interviews the people from the Human Resource,

Budget, and Administrative Department of DepEd.


30

As can be shown in the following table, all the respondents of this

study are holding Public Health Nurse I position because based on data

provided by the Administrative Section of DepEd there is no single nurse

in the division appointed higher than the said position, even their Acting

Head Nurse.

Table 1. Respondents of the Study

Position Frequency Percent (%)

Public Health Nurse I 30 100


Public Health Nurse II 0 0
Public health Nurse III 0 0
Head Nurse 0 0

TOTAL 30 100

Data Collection Procedure

The researcher contacted the DepEd Division Superintendent to

ask for permission to conduct a study, and to obtain the names and

other pertinent data of the respondents from the Administrative Section

of the division.

The questionnaires were the main instruments for data gathering

which were personally distributed by the researcher himself. They

contained a covering letter describing the study and indicating the

confidentiality of the information that may be given out by the

respondents.

Statistical Treatment
31

The data were subjected to analysis using the Statistical Packages

for Social Sciences (SPSS). The following statistical tools were used:

1. Frequencies and Percentages. This was used to determine

the demographic profile of Southern Leyte DepEd nurses.

Formula: P = freq X 100 where


N

N = total number of respondents

2. Mean. This was used to determine the level of sufficiency given

to DepEd nurses in terms of remuneration and other monetary benefits,

non-monetary benefits, budget allocation, and career advancement; the

level of job satisfaction; and the level of work commitment.

Formula: X = Σx where
N

Σx = the sum of the responses

N = total number of respondents

3. Kendall tau Correlation. This was employed to determine the

significant relationship between job satisfaction and work commitment

among DepEd nurses.


S
Formula:  = where
1/2N(N-1)

S = actual responses

N = total number of respondents

CHAPTER 4
32

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the following data

gathered from the responses to the questionnaires relative to the

research subjects of this study:

A. The Profile of the Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte

in Terms of Position, Length of Service, Educational

Qualifications, Employment Status, Age, Sex, Civil Status, and

Distance of Residence from Place of Assignment;

B. The Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses, Division of

Southern Leyte in Terms of Remuneration and Other Monetary

Benefits, Non-monetary Benefits, Budget Allocation and Career

Advancement;

C. The Level of Job Satisfaction Among Nurses at DepEd, Division

of Southern Leyte;

D. The Level of Work Commitment Among Nurses at DepEd,

Division of Southern Leyte; And,

E. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Work

Commitment Among the DepEd Nurses, Division of Southern

Leyte.

The data are presented using tables in accordance to the sequencing

of the sub-problems enumerated under the Statement of the Problem

portion in Chapter I.
33

A. The Profile of the Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte in

Terms of Length of Service, Educational Qualifications,

Employment Status, Age, Sex, Civil Status, and Distance of

Residence from Place of Assignment.

Table 2 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of length

of service.

Table 2. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Length of Service

Number of Years in Service Frequency Percent (%)

Less than 2 years 2 6.7


More than 2 to 10 years 26 86.7
More than 10 to 20 years 1 3.3
More than 20 years 1 3.3

TOTAL 30 100

The table shows that 86.7% of the DepEd nurses have only been

working with the agency from 2 to 10 years. Super et al (1996) call this

time span of career development as Establishment Stage, wherein an

individual has just passed through the work process of exploration and

adaptation, and started working on the stabilization, consolidation and

advancement of his career. It is in this stage when an individual moves

from a beginner to an expert, no longer relying largely upon a superior,

but more upon peers interaction to further increase his knowledge and

skills (Flippo, 1984).


34

Only 3.3% of the total population of nurses have been able to pass

the Establishment Stage of their career and reached the Maintenance

Stage which is described by Super et al (1996) as the holding action of

one’s career, the phase wherein the employee attempts to retain what he

has established.

The table further shows that another 3.3% also have been able to

pass the Maintenance Stage and reached the Disengagement Stage, the

stability and decline of one’s career. It is the time when the individual

has firmly established experience and responsibilities and is no longer

open to new experiences (Flippo, 1984). His energy decreases, and focus

is now more directed towards retirement.

Table 3 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of

educational qualifications.

Table 3. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Educational Qualifications

Educational Qualifications Frequency Percent (%)

Nursing Graduate 23 76.7


Masteral Level 7 23.3
Masteral Graduate 0 0
Doctoral Level 0 0
Doctoral Graduate 0 0

TOTAL 30 100

The table shows that no one of the respondents is a masteral

graduate, on a doctoral level, nor a doctoral graduate. There are those on

masteral level but they only comprise 23.3% of the total population.
35

Hill, Hoffman and Rex (2005) state that acquiring higher education

is a form of human capital investment, and it generally leads to higher

worker productivity, greater output, and enhanced economic prosperity.

They aver that investments in higher education may yield the following

monetary social returns: technological spillovers, human and physical

capital complementaries, and increasing returns.

Technological spillovers means that social interaction is a catalyst

for learning and overall knowledge creation. The more contact that takes

place among educated people, the more the stock of knowledge expands.

Human and physical capital complementaries, on the other hand, means

that increased education, knowledge, and skills create an increase in the

quality of the existing physical capital stock. For example, more educated

workers use more sophisticated equipment that results in improved

productivity. And lastly, increasing returns means that the acquisition of

knowledge capital creates “endogenous” growth ( or growth that feeds on

itself) and economic returns that accelarate (Hill, Hoffman and Rex,

2005).

Table 4 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of


employment status.

Table 4. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Employment Status

Employment Status Frequency Percent (%)


36

Permanent 30 100
Probationary 0 0
Casual 0 0
Contractual 0 0

TOTAL 30 100

The table shows that 100% the respondents already hold

permanent employment status at DepEd. Permanent employment status

is issued only to a person whose position is considered by management as

essential for the effective long term operation of the organization. Thus, it

is a proof of the school nurses’ importance to the continuous effective

operation of DepEd as an institution.

The permanency of a worker’s employment is part of job safety that

protects him under the law from job termination without due process. It

also guards him from coercion or feeling of arbitrary treatment by

management (Stoner and Wankel, 1987), and entitles him the privileges

and benefits associated with permanent status employment.

Job safety is identified by Maslow, as cited by Newstrom and Davis

(1993) as one of human’s lower order needs, comprising bodily safety

such as freedom from a dangerous work environment, and economic

security such as a no-layoff guarantee, or a comfortable retirement.

Miranda (1999) claims that an employee who is reasonably secured

enjoys a type of freedom or independence that stimulates him to

participate more wholeheartedly on the job and to work toward the

achievement of the organization objectives.


37

Table 5 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of age.

Table 5. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Age

Age Frequency Percent (%)


30 years old and below 2 6.7
31 to 40 years old 22 73.3
41 to 50 years old 5 16.7
51 to 60 years old 1 3.3
61 years old and above 0 0
TOTAL 30 100

The table shows that the DepEd nurse population are dominantly

young, with age group ranging from 31 to 40 years old.

Kanfer and Ackerman (2004) bring together several domains of

research and theory to provide a framework through which they believe

age related changes can effect motivational variables and in turn

influence work outcomes. They suggest that the psychological affects of

ageing can be thought of in four terms of development: loss, growth,

reorganization and exchange. Ageing, for example, may bring the loss of

fluid of mental ability and the growth of crystallized mental ability, but it

may also change other individual features such as shifts in the values of

certain goals (reorganization) and general changes in personality traits

(exchange).

In the evolution of career provided by Levinson and his colleagues,

as cited by Stoner and Wankel (1987), the 31 to 40 age bracket, where

73.3% of the sample population belong, can be generalized in two (2)

series of personal and career-related crises or transitions that occur in


38

predictable sequence every five to seven years: Age-30 Transition, and

Settling Down.

Age-30 Transition is the state when an individual reviews his

progress towards previously established personal and career goals. If the

progress is satisfactory and in accordance to plans, he may keep on

following the track. If not, he may forge radical changes by moving into

another geographical location, another organization, or another career.

On the other hand, Settling Down is the state when an individual

strives toward job and career advancement, and become his own person.

Everything else is subordinated as he concentrate on getting ahead on the

job. However, if he feels that all his efforts are going nowhere, he may

also forge changes by moving into another organization, no longer much

with geographical or career since during this time he may already have a

family of his own, and become an expert to the career he nurtures.

Table 6 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of sex.

Table 6. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Sex

Sex Frequency Percent (%)

Male 6 20
Female 24 80

TOTAL 30 100

Even though the number of male of nurses has been observed to be

on the rise, the table shows that the nursing career at DepEd is still

dominated by female population.


39

The dominance of women in the field of nursing in the Philippines is

rooted in our culture. Some Filipinos stereotype nursing as a female job

as it is attached to the traditional caregivers of every Filipino home: the

wife, mother, and sister (Estella, 2005).

Although it is already waning in the larger portion of society, the

stigma dictating that nursing is only for women and for effeminate men is

still one of the reasons why presently nursing courses are still ruled by

female enrollees.

The identification of the field of nursing with women could be traced

back during the pre-colonial era when Filipino women had status as

medicine women or mananambal (Karnow, 1990). Even at present time,

the Filipino women are still considered as home nurturers. It is their

responsibility to keep children clean and healthy. Even if they already

hold corporate jobs, they still are expected to fulfill their traditional

functions such as cooking, cleaning, teaching the children, washing

clothes, budgeting, and managing the home (Clamonte, 2007).

Table 7 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of civil


status.

Table 7. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of Civil Status

Civil Status Frequency Percent (%)


Single 5 16.7
Married 25 83.3
Separated 0 0
Widowed 0 0
40

TOTAL 30 100

The table shows that majority of the nurse population are already

married. Marital status is identified by Katz and Kahn (1978) as one of

the elements in Inter-role Conflict, a type of role conflict that individuals

can experience in the course of performing their jobs. Inter-role conflict

occurs when the different roles played by the same person give rise to

conflicting demands. To accomplish their roles as spouse and parents,

individuals maybe pressed to share child-care and other activities at

home that the performance of their roles as loyal workers maybe

neglected and may suffer.

Table 8 presents the profile of the DepEd nurses in terms of

distance of residence from place of assignment.

Table 8. Profile of DepEd Nurses in Terms of


Distance of Residence from Place of Assignment

Distance of Residence from Frequency Percent (%)


Place of Assignment (in Kilometers)
41

3 kilometers and below 2 6.7


4 to 30 kilometers 16 53.3
31 to 50 kilometers 3 10.0
51 to 150 kilometers 8 26.7
151 kilometers and above 1 3.3

TOTAL 30 100

The table shows that 53.3% of the respondents are living 4 to 30

kilometers away from the place of assignment. Within these distances, a

worker has to commute daily in going to work and could no longer go

home at noon break. He either packs his lunch in the morning before

going to the office, or has to buy it at the affordable nearest canteen or

cafeteria. Stoner and Wankel (1987) reveal that distance of residence

from the place of assignment is one of the essential factors affecting

physical stress among workers: the hassles of waking up early and

catching the early public vehicle, and the anxiety of being late for work.

Stress is defined by Newstrom and Davis (1993) as the general term

applied to the pressures people feel in life. Flippo (1984) claims it creates

a physiological or psychological imbalance within the individual. Stress

can have serious consequences for both the workers’ health and their

work performance because it can cause depression, irritation, anxiety,

fatigue, lowered self-eteem, and reduced job satisfaction (Stoner and

Wankel, 1987).

B. The Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses, Division of


42

Southern Leyte in Terms of Remuneration and Other Monetary

Benefits, Non-monetary Benefits, Budget Allocation and Career

Advancement

Table 9 presents the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in

terms of remuneration and other monetary benefits.

Table 9. Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses in Terms of


Remuneration and Other Monetray Benefits

Indicators Mean Description Weighted Mean Description


Response Response
Monthly Salary 2.23 Insufficient
PERA and ADCOM 2.20 Insufficient
Transportation and Fieldwork
Allowances 1.47 Very Insufficient
Hazard Pay 2.70 Sufficient
Year-end Bonus and Cash Gift 2.53 Sufficient
Productivity Incentive 2.53 Sufficient
Step Increment 2.47 Insufficient
Clothing Allowance 2.60 Sufficient
Medical and Hospitalization 1.63 Very Insufficient
2.26 Insufficient
Legend:
Mean Response Adjectival Rating
3.25 – 4.00 - Very Sufficient
2.50 – 3.24 - Sufficient
1.75 – 2.49 - Insufficient
1.00 – 1.74 - Very Insufficient

The table shows that in terms of remuneration and other monetary

benefits, majority of the DepEd nurses find their transportation and field

work allowances, and medical and hospitalization to be Very Insufficient;

and their monthly salary, PERA and ADCOM, and step increment to be

insufficient. They however find their hazard pay, year-end bonus and

cash gift, productivity incentive, and clothing allowance to be Sufficient.


43

Over all the DepEd nurses reported their remuneration and other

monetary benefits to be Insufficient, with the weighted mean response of

2.26.

Newstrom and Davis (1993) stress that money is very important to

employees because of its both economic and social value. It serves as a

medium of exchange for allocation of economic resources, as well as a

social status symbol for those who have it and can save or spend it. It is

the most tangible form of a worker’s survival because it immediately

answers his physiological needs for food, shelter, and clothing. Thus, the

most grieve disservice that an organization can extend to its employees is

to grant them with insufficient monetary benefits.

Miranda and Miranda (2002) aver that money is the “greatest

motivator of them all,” and that man of the present century is a highly

materialistic creature craving more and more for material goods that will

contribute to higher standards of living. They add that a usual job hunter

is not interested in the job itself which will enable him to use his talent

and skills, but rather on the remuneration that such a job offers, that is

money rewards, whether expressed as salaries or wages.

Table 10 presents the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in

terms of non-monetary benefits.

Table 10. Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses


in Terms of Non-monetray Benefits

Indicators Mean Description Weighted Mean Description


Response Response
44

Recognition for Completion


Masteral/Doctoral Degree 1.70 Very Insufficient
Study Leave 1.83 Insufficient
Scholarships 1.50 Very Insufficient

1.68 Very Insufficient


Legend:
Mean Response Adjectival Rating
3.25 – 4.00 - Very Sufficient
2.50 – 3.24 - Sufficient
1.75 – 2.49 - Insufficient
1.00 – 1.74 - Very Insufficient

The table shows that over-all, the DepEd nurses find their non-

monetary benefits to be Very Insufficient with 1.68 as the weighted mean

response.

Stoner and Wankel (1987) reveal that remuneration and other

monetary benefits are not enough to make a person satisfied and

committed. His esteem and self-actualization needs must also be

responded to by the organization through non-monetary benefits.

Maslow, as cited by Stoner and Wankel (1987) describes two (2)

types of esteem needs: 1) the desire for achievement and competence;

and 2) the desire for status and recognition. In organizational terms, it

has always been basically the drive of every person to be good at his job,

and at the same time to feel that he is achieving something important

when he performs his job.

Self-actualization need is the highest rung in Maslow’s hierarchy of

needs wherein a person looks for meaning and personal growth for his

work, and actively seeks out new responsibilities. This need would vary

from individual to individual. For some individuals, producing work of


45

high quality maybe a means for self-actualization, while for others,

developing creative, useful ideas serves the same need (Stoner and

Wankel, 1987).

Flippo (1984) explains that sufficient monetary and non-monetary

benefits could bring out three (3) things for the organization: 1) attract

capable employees; 2) motivate them toward superior performance; and 3)

retain their services over an extended period of time.

However, if a worker does not receive the remuneration and other

monetary and non-monetary benefits he feels entitled, and what he thinks

sufficient for his needs, he often show dissatisfaction and eventually less

commitment to his job as can be shown by becoming angry and working

less hard. He may even increase absenteeism, or even leave his job

(Cropanzano and Folger, 1991).

An individual could only feel that the compensation (monetary or

non monetary) he is getting is sufficient if it is attached to the concept of

fairness and equity. Cropanzano and Folger (1991) contend that when

employees react to the way they are treated at work, their motivation to

respond in one fashion or another cannot be understood adequately

without taking into account two separate notions of fairness: the

distributive justice, and the procedural justice.

Traditionally the organizational science literature has considered

only one way of describing what it means to be fairly treated. It is

through distributive justice as illustrated by the equity theory of Adams.


46

According to equity theory, a person determines whether or not he is

treated fairly at work by examining his own payoff ratio of outcomes to

inputs and comparing that ratio with the corresponding outcome-input

ratio obtained by others such as their coworkers (Cropanzano and Folger,

1991).

A second way of thinking about what it means to be treated fairly is

through procedural justice wherein the focus lies on the manner in which

the decision-making process is conducted (Cropanzano and Folger, 1991).

The focus shifts from what was decided (distributive justice) to how the

decision was made.

In 2001, Valadez and Anthony examined the level of job satisfaction

and commitment among two-year college part-time faculty members

towards their professional roles, responsibilities and rewards. They found

out that part-time faculty members with higher level of perception on fair

and just compensation for their works had higher level of work

commitment than those who were frustrated by modest pay and meager

benefits.

Table 11 presents the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in

terms of budget allocation.

Table 11. Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses


in Terms of Budget Allocation

Indicators Mean Description Weighted Mean Description


Response Response
47

Salaries and Wages 2.37 Insufficient


Other Compensation and Benefits 2.40 Insufficient
Transportation and Fieldwork
Allowances 1.50 Very Insufficient
Office Supplies, Fixtures
and Furnitures 1.50 Very Insufficient
Laboratory Equipment
and Facilities 1.33 Very Insufficient
1.82 Insufficient
Legend:
Mean Response Adjectival Rating
3.25 – 4.00 - Very Sufficient
2.50 – 3.24 - Sufficient
1.75 – 2.49 - Insufficient
1.00 – 1.74 - Very Insufficient

The table shows that the DepEd nurses perceive their salaries and

wages, and other compensation benefits as Insufficient; while their

transportation and fieldwork allowances, office supplies, fixtures and

furnitures, and laboratory equipment and facilities as Very Insufficient.

Over-all, they find the budget allocated for their department to be Very

Insufficient with 1.88 as the weighted mean response.

Budget allocation is very important to every employee as it is the

process wherein organization allots money for its future programs and

activities. They may include raising salaries and wages, hiring and

training personnel, and purchasing new equipment.

Irvine (1970) states that budgets can have a positive impact on

motivation and morale of workers if they are included in the process.

Most individuals need to achieve things they are committed to and desire

to be accepted by groups to which they belong. Budgets can activate


48

these motivational factors by creating common goals and the feeling that

everyone is working toward them.

However, budgets could also be a foreteller of an undesirable future

for employees, and therefore a bringer of demoralization. In series of oral

interviews conducted by the researcher, the DepEd nurses admitted that

they are not included in the organization’s budget preparation process,

and that the amount allocated for them in the end are below of what they

feel as sufficient to answer their financial and work resource needs.

More particularly, in the aspect of allocating budgets for office supplies

and fixtures and furnitures, and laboratory equipment and facilities, the

respondents reported that they should have been consulted by

management on what items to prioritize for allocation as they are the ones

who are on the frontline and are the main users of the equipment and

dispensers of the medicine supplies.

A study conducted by Magner et al (1996) revealed that

performance among workers can be negatively affected by the following

resource allocation conditions: a) unfavorable distribution of a helpful

work resource; and b) unfair procedure of work resource allocation. The

negative effects would range from low morale, tardiness, absenteeism, and

low productivity, to eventual turnover.

Table 12 presents the level of sufficiency given to DepEd nurses in

terms of career advancement.


49

Table 12. Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses


in Terms of Career Advancement

Indicators Mean Description Weighted Mean Description


Response Response
Trainings, Seminars and Other
Activities to Improve
Present Job 2.07 Insufficient
Trainings and Seminars and Other
Activities to Prepare Higher
Position and Responsibilities 1.77 Insufficient
Vacant Positions for Promotion 1.80 Insufficient
1.88 Insufficient
Legend:
Mean Response Adjectival Rating
3.25 – 4.00 - Very Sufficient
2.50 – 3.24 - Sufficient
1.75 – 2.49 - Insufficient
1.00 – 1.74 - Very Insufficient

The table shows that over-all, the DepEd nurses find their career

advancement opportunities to be Very Insufficient with 1.88 as the

weighted mean response.

Insuffiency of opportunities for career advancement provides

negative impact both to employees and the organization. To the

employees, it could send the message that they are on a career plateau

and are not going anywhere in the corporate ladder. To the organization,

on the other hand, it reflects grieve indifference to its people’s career

progressions that eventually would contribute to its downfall, considering

that the quality of every organization will depend primarily on the quality

of skills, competence and motivation of the people operating it.

Career plateau is defined by Stoner and Wankel (1987) as “the point

in a career where the likehood of additional hierarchical promotion is very

low.” Its cause is not always due to personal shortcomings, but more
50

often due to a normal organizational occurrence such as lack of personnel

development programs, and the workers’ lack of skill in organizational

politics.

C. The Level of Job Satisfaction Among Nurses at DepEd, Division of

Southern Leyte

Table 13 presents the level of job satisfaction among DepEd nurses.

Table 13. Level of Job Satisfaction Among DepEd Nurses

Indicators Mean Description Weighted Mean Description


Response Response
Being able to keep busy all the time 2.90 Satisfied
The chance to work alone on the job 2.80 Satisfied
The chance to do different things from
time to time 2.80 Satisfied
The chance to be somebody in the
community 2.83 Satisfied
The way immediate supervisor
handles his/her subordinates 2.23 Dissatisfied
The competence of supervisor
in making decisions 2.40 Dissatisfied
Being able to do things that don’t go
against conscience 2.70 Satisfied
The way job provides for steady
employment 2.87 Satisfied
The chance to do things for other
people 2.83 Satisfied
The chance to tell people what to do 2.83 Satisfied
The chance to do something that
makes use of abilities 2.77 Satisfied
The way the policies of DepEd are
put into practice 2.33 Dissatisfied
Salary and amount of work 2.47 Dissatisfied
The chances of advancement on job 2.23 Dissatisfied
The freedom to use own judgement 2.83 Satisfied
The chance to try own method to do
the job 2.80 Satisfied
The physical aspect of work 2.77 Satisfied
The way coworkers get along with
each other 2.70 Satisfied
The praise for doing a good job 2.63 Satisfied
The feeling of accomplishment from
the job 2.63 Satisfied
51

2.67 Satisfied
Legend:
Mean Response Adjectival Rating
3.25 – 4.00 - Very Satisfied
2.50 – 3.24 - Satisfied
1.75 – 2.49 - Dissatisfied
1.00 – 1.74 - Very Dissatisfied

The table shows that over-all, the DepEd nurses are Satisfied with

their jobs, indicating a 2.67 weighted mean response. They however

admit to be Dissatisfied in the following aspects: human relations

supervision (“The way my immediate supervisor handles his/her

subordinates”); technical supervision (“The competence of my supervisor

in making decisions”); company policies and practices ( “The way the

policies of depEd are put into practice”); compensation (“My salary and

the amount of work I do”); and, advancement (“The chances of

advancement on this job”).

Supervision forms a significant role relating to job satisfaction in

terms of the ability of the supervisor to provide his subordinates with

emotional and technical support and guidance with work-related tasks

(Robbins et al, 2003).

According to Ramsey (1997), supervisors contribute to their

subordinates’ high or low morale depending on how their technical and

human relations abilities are applied in the workplace. He adds that

supervisors with high relationship behavior strongly impact on job

satisfaction.
52

Daley (1997), in his regression analysis of the cross-sectional

survey among US Federal employees, stated that an employee’s overall

sense of job satisfaction is related to their evaluation of their supervisor.

One of his conclusions is that the organization and supevisors need to

pay particular attention to those factors that employees expect them to

provide. He sees job satisfaction as the responsibility of supervisor. The

frontline supervisor is the frontline employee’s link to the organization

and determines to a great degree how the organization is perceived. The

supervisor is also the individual who must establish expectancy links to

the services offered by the organization.

As to organizational policies as a factor on job satisfaction, research

by Andrews (2003) reveals that employees who perceive the practice of

organizational policies as fair and equitable are more cooperative and

supportive than those who perceive them as inconsistent and

discriminatory. Policies are rules of action for the rank and file to show

them how they are expected to obtain the desired results (Miranda and

Miranda, 2002), thus if these policies are inconsistent, a worker may feel

lost and may not be able to find his way in a maze of organizational

activities.

Coleman and Kleiner (1999) state that employees who can relate to

the policies and products or services of their organization can easily relate

more to organizational culture, and can make the necessary adjustment

to become an active member of that culture.


53

As to compensation, Flippo (1984) explains that it can only affect

job satisfaction if employees perceive it to be inequitable in relation to

their inputs and contributions. He adds that the introduction of pay

system is an event of major importance to employees, and that its effects

upon them cannot be ignored as it affects satisfaction. Under-reward,

over-reward, and inconsistency of reward not only tend to lead to lower

satisfaction but encourage behavior that often proves dysfunctional to

organizational objectives. According to him, a sound, systematic,

consistent system of compensation determination will do much to

promote equity and satisfaction, provided that such a system is

understood and reasonably accepted by most employees.

And lastly, as to career advancement, researchers conducted by

Ellickson and Logsdon (2002), Kreitner and Kinicki (2001), and the Info-

Tech Research Group (2001) yield that job satisfaction are strongly

related to career advancement, either in the form of promotion or career

enhancement.

Ellickson and Logsdon (2002) conducted a study among municipal

government workers and found out that promotional opportunities were

positively and significantly related to job satisfaction. Kreitner and

Kinicki (2001) states that the positive relationship between promotion and

job satisfaction is dependent on perceived equity by employees.

On the other hand, the Info-Tech Research Group (2001) revealed

that in their survey among information technology staffers, two thirds of


54

the respondents were attracted by the opportunities for training to learn

and enhance skill or for continuing the individual’s education, twice as

many as those who reported salary and benefits as main attractors.

D. The Level of Work Commitment Among Nurses at DepEd, Division

of Southern Leyte

Table 14 presents the level of work commitment among DepEd

nurses.

Table 14. Level of Work Commitment Among DepEd Nurses

Areas and Indicators Mean Description Weighted Mean Description


Response Response
Job Involvement
The most important things that
happen involve present job 4.23 Mildly Committed
Job is only a small part of who
he is 3.33 Mildly not Committed
Very much involved personally
in job 4.37 Committed
Lives, eats, and breathes job 4.30 Mildly Committed
Interests are centered around
job 3.83 Mildly Committed
Very strong ties with present
job which would be very
difficult to break 3.77 Mildly Committed
Usually feels detached from job 2.67 Mildly not Committed
Most of personal life goals are
job oriented 3.80 Mildly Committed
Considers job to be very central
to existence 3.93 Mildly Committed
Likes to be absorbed in job most
of the time 3.70 Mildly Committed
3.79 Mildly Committed
55

Career Commitment
If could get another job
different from being a nurse,
and paying the same amount,
would probably take it 2.33 Not Committed
Definitely wants a career in
nursing 3.83 Mildly Committed
If could do it all over again,
would not choose to work in
the nursing profession 2.23 Not Committed
If had all the money needed
without working, would
probably still continue to work
in the nursing profession 3.57 Mildly Committed
Likes the vocation too well to
give it up 3.27 Mildly not Committed
Nursing is the ideal vocation
in a life work 3.33 Mildly not Committed
Disappointed that ever entered
the nursing profession 2.20 Not Committed
Spends a significant amount of
personal time reading nursing-
related journals or books 3.47 Mildly not Committed
3.03 Mildly not Committed
Organizational Commitment
Willing to put in a great deal
of effort beyond that
normally expected in order
to help DepEd be successful 5.30 Strongly Committed
Talks up DepEd to friends as a
great organization 4.90 Committed
Accepts almost any type of job
assignment in order to keep
working at DepEd 4.23 Mildly Committed
Finds that his values and
DepEd’s values are very
similar 4.50 Committed
Proud to tell others that
he is part of DepEd 5.17 Strongly Committed
DepEd really inspires the very
best in him in the way of
job performance 4.57 Committed
Extremely glads that chooses
DepEd to work for, over
others he was considering at
the time he joined 4.63 Committed
Really cares about the fate of
DepEd 5.13 Committed
For him, DepEd is the best of all
possible organizations for
which to work 4.60 Committed
4.78 Committed
SUMMARY 3.87 Mildly Committed
Legend:
Mean Response Adjectival Rating
56

5.15 – 6.00 - Strongly Committed


4.32 – 5.14 - Committed
3.49 – 4.31 - Mildly Committed
2.66 – 3.48 - Mildly not Committed
1.83 – 2.65 - Not Committed
1.00 – 1.82 - Strongly not Committed

The table reveals that the respondents are Committed to DepEd as

their organization, and Mildly Committed to their job as Public Health

Nurses. On the other hand, the table also reveals the respondents to be

Mildly not Committed to their nursing career. Over all, however, the

respondents reported to be Mildly Committed to their work with a

weighted mean response of 3.87.

In terms of organizational commitment, the respondents show

strong willingness towards putting a great deal of effort to help DepEd be

successful, and are highly proud to tell others that they are part of the

organization. These responses validate the first two of the three related

determinants characterizing organizational commitment identified by

Neale and Northcraft (1991) which are stated as follows: 1) a strong belief

in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values; and 2) a

willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization; and

3) a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization. The third

determinant still needs further validation through future studies that

would give focus on factors affecting employee retention and turnover.

Moreover, in terms of job involvement, the respondents admit that

they are Committed to being “I am very much involved personally in job”;

and Mildly Committed to “I live, eat, and breathe my job”, and “The most
57

important things that happen to me involve my present job”. These

responses validate Newstrom and Davis’ (1993) definition of job

involvement as “degree to which employees immerse themselves in their

jobs, invest time and energy in them, and view work as a central part of

their overall lives”.

According to Newstrom and Davis (1993), a job-involved employee is

a compliant of work ethics and likes participating in organizational

activities. He always strives to exceed the normal job expectations,

welcomes the call of working long hours, and is seldom late or absent.

Lastly, in terms of career commitment, it is interesting to note that

the DepEd nurses give it an adjectival rating of “Mildly not Committed”,

with a weighted mean response of 3.03. Their negative responses prove

that even if they are committed to the organization and involved to their

job, these are still not enough for them to be able to build a meaningful

and worth of a lifelong pursuit vocation or profession. The most apparent

questions which received from them Mildly not Committed answers are

the following: a) “I like this vocation too well to give it up”; b) “This is the

ideal vocation for a life work”; and c) “I spend a significant amount of

personal time reading nursing-related journals or books”.

Hall (1997) states that career commitment is reinforced by

individual’s independent choice and attainment of goals, thereby

promoting feelings of success and growth. Career commitment then has

interdependency with career development. A person who is not


58

committed to his career will likely not be able to develop it. On the other

hand, a person who does not have opportunity to develop his career will

likely show lower career commitment.

Career commitment has been examined in relation to work

behaviours such as job withdrawal intentions and skill development, and

evidences support the strong relationships.

Bedeian et al (1991) examined career commitment and its

relationship to the expected utility of the present job as a predictor of

turnover intention and actual turnover behavior in a sample of 244

nurses. Using Blau’s career commitment questionnaire, results showed

that nurses with higher career commitment were also less likely to want

to leave their job.

Aryee and Tan (1992), in their study on the antecedents and

outcomes of career commitment in a sample of 510 nurses and teachers

revealed that the significant predictors of career commitment were career

satisfaction, organizational opportunity and organizational commitment.

The study further showed career commitment as significantly and

negatively correlated to career and job withdrawal intentions.

E. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Work

Commitment Among the DepEd Nurses, Division of Southern

Leyte
59

Table 15 presents the relationship between job satisfaction and

work commitment among DepEd nurses.

Table 15. Relationship Between Job Satisfaction


and Work Commitment Among DepEd Nurses

Variables Correlation Interpretation p-value Decision


Coefficient
Job
Satisfaction
0.48 Moderate 0.00 Reject Ho*
Work Association
Commitment

* If p-value <level of significance (0.05), then reject Ho.

The Kendall-tau correlation coefficient of 0.48 indicates a moderate

positive association between job satisfaction and work commitment.

The p-value of 0.00 is less than the 5% level of significance, thus

the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that job satisfaction is

significantly related to work commitment.

The significant relationship of job satisfaction and work

commitment is evident in a study conducted by Stordeur et al (2001) on

leadership, organizational stress, and emotional exhaustion among

nursing hospital staff wherein job satisfaction emerged to be an

immediate antecedent of work commitment.

Belovich (1997) in her review of the related work commitment

literature suggested that lack of commitment can be an outcome of

dissatisfaction, and could result to employee absenteeism, turnover, and

reduced effort.
60

Kadyschuk (1997) in his explanation of the relationship between job

satisfaction and work commitment applied Becker’s theory of side bets.

He stated that an individual acts in committed manner because of

previously extraneous situational factors which have become agents of

influence or ‘investments’ in the individual’s present action. He further

supported it with Farrell and Rusbult’s investment model which describes

commitment as a function of several factors such as the rewards and

costs (satisfaction) derived from the job”.

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter summarizes the findings of the study. It also drafts

conclusions and recommendations based on the findings.


61

Findings

The findings are summed up as follows:

A. The Profile of the Nurses at DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte

in Terms of Position, Length of Service, Educational

Qualifications, Employment Status, Age, Sex, Civil Status, and

Distance of Residence from Place of Assignment

Majority of the DepEd nurses have only been working with the

agency from 2 to 10 years. 23.3% of them are on masteral level, but no

one is a masteral graduate, on doctoral level, nor a doctoral graduate.

Already holding permanent positions, the respondents are dominantly

married and young, with age bracket ranging from 31 to 40 years of age.

Most of them are assigned to workstations 4 to 30 kilometers away from

their residences.

B. The Level of Sufficiency Given to DepEd Nurses, Division of

Southern Leyte in Terms of Remuneration and other Benefits,

Non-monetary Benefits, Budget Allocation and Career

Advancement

In terms of remuneration and other monetary benefits, majority of

the DepEd nurses find their transportation and field work allowances,

and medical and hospitalization to be very insufficient; and their monthly

salary, PERA and ADCOM, and step increment to be insufficient. They

however find their hazard pay, year-end bonus and cash gift,

productivity incentive, and clothing allowance to be sufficient.


62

In terms of non-monetary benefits, the DepEd nurses reported

them to be very insufficient, so are the budget allocated for their

department, and the opportunities provided by management for career

advancement.

C. The Level of Job Satisfaction Among Nurses at DepEd, Division

of Southern Leyte;

Over-all the DepEd nurses are satisfied with their job. They

however are dissatisfied in the aspect of human relations supervision,

technical supervision, company policies and practices, compensation,

and advancement.

D. The Level of Work Commitment Among Nurses at DepEd,

Division of Southern Leyte

The research shows that the DepEd nurses are committed to

DepEd as their organization, and mildly committed to their job. They

however mildly not committed to their career as nurse. Nevertheless, in

general, the respondents are mildly committed to their work.

E. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Work

Commitment Among the DepEd Nurses, Division of Southern

Leyte.

The Kendall-tau indicates a moderate positive association between

job satisfaction and work commitment. The p-value is less than the 5%

level of significance, which means that job satisfaction is significantly

related to work commitment.


63

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher has attained the

following conclusions and generalizations:

1. Only a small percentage of the total population of nurses have

stayed with DepEd beyond ten years. Within the 10 year

period, 91.7% of the DepEd nurses have resigned from the

organization. They either transferred to other organization, or

changed other career paths. The dominance of young nurses

indicates that majority of them do not stay with DepEd until

retirement, but only until they gain enough experience or find

better opportunities.

2. As perceived by the DepEd nurses, there is a level of insuffiency

given to them by the organization in terms of remuneration and

other benefits, non-monetary benefits, budget allocation, and

career advancement.

3. The DepEd nurses are satisfied with their job, except in the

aspect of supervision, company policies and practices,

compensation, and advancement.

4. The DepEd nurses show commitment to DepEd as their

organization, and mild commitment to their job as public health

nurse. They however show mild non-commitment to their

career as nurse.
64

5. There is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and

work commitment.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions presented, the researcher

has arrived at the following recommendations:

1. The DepEd management to revisit and effect changes in their

human resource policies and programs, particularly on the

following:

1.1. The compensation packages that according to Flippo

(1984) can: a) attract capable employees to the

organization; b) motivate them toward superior

performance; and c) retain their services over an extended

period of time.

1.2. Budget allocations for nurses that are directed towards

the increase of salary and other monetary benefit

increases, purchase of office supplies, fixtures and

furnitures, and improvement of laboratory equipment and

facilities.

1.3. Career advancement programs such as career relevant

trainings, scholarships and job promotions, as well as

constant reorientation of the company’s policies and best


65

practices to inculcate positive culture among the

employees.

1.4. Regular supervisory trainings for supervisors to prevent

complaints and dissatisfaction from subordinates that

may be brought about by their lack of human relations

and technical skills.

2. The DepEd management and health legislators to consider the

herein proposed implementing guidelines for monetary and

non-monetary benefits of nurses in their studies and research

and formulation of human resource development plans.

CHAPTER 6

OUTPUT OF THE STUDY

Proposed Implementing Guidelines for Monetary and Non-monetary

Benefits of Nurses at the Department of Education (DepEd)


66

Overview

The primary intention of these proposed implementing guidelines

for monetary and non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses is to respond

to the agency’s problems on job satisfaction, work commitment, and job

turnover.

The proposed implementing guidelines are divided into two (2)

portions: the augmentation of the monetary benefits of DepEd nurses;

and the augmentation of the non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses.

The proposed implementing guidelines for monetary benefits of

DepEd nurses tackle the following agenda: 1) across-the-board increase

by 3,000; 2) increase of step increments by 7.5%; 3) full implementation

of Republic Act No. 9173, otherwise known as the “Philippine Nursing

Act of 2002”; 4) by-phase increase of salaries; and, 5) creation of

provident fund for DepEd nurses.

On the other hand, the proposed implementing guidelines for non-

monetary benefits of DepEd nurses tackle the following agenda: 1)

inclusion of Philippine Nursing Association (PNA) representative in

regional planning; 2) institutionalizing of a regional council of DepEd

nurses; 3) regular conduct of seminars and trainings; 4) granting of

scholarships; 5) adoption of an employees’ performance evaluation

devise; 6) implementation of a job promotion process; 7) increase of

medicine supplies and laboratory equipment; and 8) provision of

transportation vehicles to nurses assigned to far and secluded areas.


67

Background Information

The DepEd came into being on September 06, 1901 by virtue of

Public Act No. 222. Named first as the Department of Public Instruction

(DPI), it later underwent name revisions: Department of Education and

Culture (DEC); Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC); Department of

Education, Culture and Sports (DECS); and now, Department of

Education.

DepEd is organized into two major structural components: the

Central Office and the field offices, which consist of regional offices and

school divisions.

The Central Office consists of the Department proper, service

offices, staff bureaus and 6 centers. One of the centers is the School

Health and Nutrition Center (SHNC) where the school nurses belong.

The school nurses, together with the doctors and dentists are

responsible for the implementation of the school health and nutrition

programs of DepEd. These programs consist the following

(www.deped.gov.ph): health and nutrition education; national drug

education; health services; medical, dental and nursing; TB (pulmonary

tuberculosis) prevention and control; school milk project; and breakfast

feeding program.

Rationale
68

It is the mandate of DepEd to develop, promote, provide and

ensure basic education responsive to the internal, external and emerging

learning needs of every Filipino child. However, this mandate has been

constantly challenged by lack of job satisfaction and work commitment,

and fast turnover among the school nurses who are among the key

DepEd personnel expected to realize it.

Hence, utilizing the findings of this study, and with the eagerness

to help DepEd in the realization of its mandate, the researcher has

developed this proposed implementing guidelines for monetary and non-

monetary benefits of DepEd nurses as a response to the problems on job

satisfaction, work commitment, and job turnover.

Goal

These proposed implementing guidelines are aimed at the

monetary and non-monetary benefits of nurses at DepEd.

Objectives

These proposed implementing guidelines are formulated to realize

the following objectives:

1. To augment the monetary benefits of DepEd nurses; and

2. To augment the non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses.

Implementation Strategies
69

The proposed implementing guidelines are divided into two (2)

portions: a) implementing guidelines on the augmentation of the

monetary benefits of DepEd nurses; and b) implementing guidelines on

the augmentation of the non-monetary benefits of DepEd nurses.

A. Augmentation of the Monetary Benefits of DepEd Nurses.

These proposed benefits are ontop of those contained in the

Magna Carta of Public Health Workers (Republic Act No. 7305)

that the DepEd nurses at the Southern Leyte Division are

already receiving. The following proposed benefits are:

1. Across-the-board increase by 3,000. The recently approved

increase was only 10% of the DepEd nurses’ base pay, and

therefore not enough to alleviate the effects of inflation.

Besides, the 10% percent increase was even biased against

the government employees with lower salary and was only

serving those executives receiving monthly salaries of 30,000

and up, as it adversely contributed to the yawning

compensation gap between the two employment levels.

2. Increase the step increments of DepEd nurses by 7.5%.

Presently, step increments received by government

employees for staying in the job for three years are fixed at

2.5% of their base pay which are unrealistic since inflation

rates do not only go up 2.5% within a three year period.

According to the arbitrary estimates provided by Civil


70

Service Commission (www.csc.gov.ph), it will go higher as

7.5% of a regular government employee holding salary grade

8 or 9 positions.

3. Full implementation of Republic Act No. 9173, otherwise

known as the “Philippine Nursing Act of 2002”, particularly

the provision in Section 32 which raises the minimum salary

grade of nurses to 15. Presently the entry salary grade of

DepEd nurses is only 12, with a monthly base pay of

P11,167.00. With the full implementation of this law, the

entry base pay of nurses will be at P15,000.00 per month.

4. A by-phase increase of salaries of DepEd nurses until they

become at par with those of nurses working in GOCCs and

GFIs.

5. Creation of a provident fund for DepEd nurses to help them

in times of financial constraints. Services to be offered by

this Fund could be: retirement pay, free hospitalization (for

the members and immediate families), and some types of

low-interest loan later deemed considered necessary by the

fund managers.

B. Augmentation of the Non-monetary Benefits of DepEd

Nurses.

1. Inclusion of Philippine Nursing Association (PNA)

representative in DepEd’s regional planning, specifically in


71

the aspect of budget allocation, career development and

management, recruitment and selection, and performance

management. Through proper representation, the concerns

of the DepEd nurses will reach to management and could be

considered in its formulation of upcoming projects and

programs.

2. Institutionalizing a regional council of DepEd nurses to

update members on information how to improve their jobs

and to facilitate their concerns, issues, and demands to

management.

3. Regular conduct of seminars and trainings that will enrich

the performance of the DepEd nurses’ present jobs, and that

will prepare them for movements, promotions, and higher

job responsibilities, such as series of supervisory trainings,

seminars on team building, patient relations, performance

evaluation, and other activities focused on job efficiency and

career pathing.

4. Granting of scholarships or “study now, pay later” scheme

for those deserving DepEd nurses who have interest in

pursuing doctoral degree in medicine.

5. Adoption of an objective employees’ performance evaluation

devise that will enable to recognize and monitor the

performance and competence of DepEd nurses. At present,


72

DepEd is not equipped with performance and competency

management system that can eradicate subjectivity, link

performance standards, and enhance career management

and growth.

6. Implementation of a systematic and objective process for

supervisors of moving and promoting employees that delimit

special treatments, and that which consider the factors of

performance, skills, and abilities instead.

7. Increase of medicine supplies and laboratory equipment.

One of the major demoralizing problems faced by DepEd

nurses today are the lack of medicines and equipment

which make them feel helpless. Some of the medicines

needed are for treatment of ailments found among

elementary school children, such as dental caries, acute

upper respiratory infections, pediculosis, undernutrition,

iron deficiency anemia, skin diseases (prevalent is Tinia

Flava or locally known as ‘ap ap’), and impacted cerumen.

8. Provision of transportation vehicles to nurses assigned to far

and secluded areas. Due to lack of DepEd service vehicles,

nurses are still risking their lives on public utility

motorcycles (locally known as “habal-habal”) in visiting

schools located in far-flung barangays.


73

Implementation Machinery

For effective and efficient implementation of the proposal, the

following should be placed:

The Division Superintendents. To facilitate the submission of

the subject proposed guidelines to top management so that they maybe

considered in its regular formulation of organizational development

plans.

The DepEd top management. To include the proposed guidelines

in the formulation of its development plans particularly in the aspect of

budget allocation, career advancement, and benefits.

The health legislators. To pass into laws the proposed guidelines

on salary increase, step increment, and granting of scholarships or

“study now, pay later” schemes for DepEd nurses.

The DepEd nurses. To forward and lobby the proposed guidelines

that they may reach to the attention of the school superintendents, the

DepEd top management, and health legislators.

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man’s will to meaning. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation,
University of Pretoria.

Jones, S.J. (1999). The effects of work and workplace control on


employe satisfaction and performance. Unpublished Masteral
Thesis, Carleton University.

Kadyschuk, R. (1997). Teacher commitment: a study of the


organizational commitment, professional commitment, and
union commitment of teachers in public schools in
Saskatchewan. Unpublished Masteral Thesis, University of
Saskatchewan.

Laine, M. (2005). Organisational and professional commitment of


78

nurses. Unpublished Research Paper, University of Turku.

Lopez, A.M. (1982). Some factors in job satisfaction among


employees in a five-star hotel in Metro Manila. Unpublished
Masteral Thesis, University of Santo Tomas.

Padua, A. et al (1991). Does money motivate secondary school


educators? Unpublished Term Paper, University of the
Philippines.

D. WEBSITES

Adversario, P.L. (2003). Philippines suffers from hemorrhage of nurses.


www.manilatimes.net/others/special/2003/apr/21/20030421sp
e1.html

Clamonte, N. (2007). Gender awareness seminars: women in the


Philippines. www.ozamis.com

CYR (2005). Poor health hits Cebu’s schools.


www.sunstar.com.ph/static/net/2005/05/23/poor.health.hits.ce
bu.s.schools.html

Estella, C. (2005). As nurses flee, RP falls ill.


www.sunstar.com.ph/static/ceb/2005/03/21/news/as.nurses.fl
ee.rp.falls.ill.html

Freeland, S. Starting a career in nursing. www.ezinearticles.com/


?Starting-a-Career-in-Nursing&id=641087

Gatbonton, P.B. (2006). Revisiting the doctor-as-nurse phenomenon.


www.manilatimes.net/national/2006/aug/06/yehey/top_stories
/20060806top3.htm

Gonzales, E. (2004). Medical notes: why do many Filipinos want to


become nurses? www.mb.com.ph/issues/2004/07/29/
HLTH2004072914832.html

Hicap, J.M. (2006). DepEd focuses on health needs.


www.manilatimes.net/national/2006/july/15/yehey/metro/200
60715met13.html
79

http://wiki.answers.com/q/what_is_descriptive_research.html

Info-Tech Research Group (2001). The business case for employee


retention. www.technologynews.net/retention/index.cfm

Lacerna, C. (2005). Doctors taking up nursing to earn more in America.


www.sunstar.com.ph/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1898&sid=6de71c
8438b8b335fee749e5893b69b1

Mercado, S.P. (2007). Managing the shift in nursing directions.


www.doh.gov.ph

Omi, S. (2006). The exodus of health workers from the Western Pacific
Region is endangering public-health systems.
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Op-ed).htm

Villas, A.T. (2004). The future of Filipino nurses.


www.mb.com.ph/issues/2004/09/19/MTNN2004091918696.htm
l
www.abbaphilippines.com/nurses_filipino_recruitment.html

www.academyhealth.org/membership/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=28

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www.sunstar.com.ph/forums/viewtopic.php?t=2488

APPENDIX A

Letter Request for Research to Conduct


80

September 6, 2007

DR. VIOLETA M. ALOCILJA, CESO V


Schools Division Superintendent
DepEd, Division of Southern Leyte
Mantahan, Maasin City

Dr. Alocilja:

I will be working on a thesis entitled, “The Prospects of a Nursing Career at the


Department of Education in the Context of Job Satisfaction and Work
Commitment”, as a requirement for the completion of my Masteral Degree in
Public Administration at the College of Maasin, Maasin City.

In view of this, I am respectfully asking your good office for approval to conduct
a research among the public school nurses in your division.

Rest assured that the data that will be gathered will be treated with utmost
respect and confidentiality, and that the results will be used for research and
educational purposes only.

Very truly yours,

PORFERIO A. SALIDAGA, JR.


Researcher

APPENDIX B

Letter to Respondents
81

September 10, 2007

Dear Respondent:

I am presently working on a thesis entitled, “The Prospects of a Nursing


Career at the Department of Education in the Context of Job Satisfaction
and Work Commitment”, as a requirement for the completion of my
Masteral Degree in Public Administration at the College of Maasin,
Maasin City.

As you are currently working as a DepEd nurse under the division of


Southern Leyte, your participation and information will be helpful in
providing a better understanding of the important issues facing nursing
today. Thus, with the permission from Division Superintendent Dr.
Violeta M. Alocilja, I am respectfully asking about 15 minutes of your
time to complete the attached questionnaire.

Rest assured that your participation is completely anonymous as no


identifying information will be collected. The data that you will provide
will be treated with utmost respect and confidentiality, and that the
results will be used for research and educational purposes only.

Very truly yours,

PORFERIO A. SALIDAGA, JR.


Researcher

APPENDIX C
82

Research Instruments

Respondent’s Profile Questionnaire

1. Job position: ____________________________

2. Number of years working as a nurse at DepEd: ________

3. Educational qualifications ( please affix check (√ ) marks on applicable


items):
Nursing graduate ____ Masteral level ____
Masteral graduate ____ Doctoral level _____
Doctoral graduate ____ Other (pls specify) _______________________

4. Employment status ( please affix check (√ ) mark on applicable item):


Permanent _____ Probationary _____
Casual _____ Contractual ____
Other (pls. specify) _______________________

5. Age: _________

6. Sex ( please affix check (√ ) mark on applicable item):


Male _____ Female _____

7. Civil status ( please affix check (√ ) mark on applicable item):


Single ______ Married ______ Separated ______Widowed _____

8. Distance of residence from place of assignment (please specify in


kilometers):____________

Level of Sufficiency on Benefits, Budget Allocation and Career


Advancement Questionnaire
83

Scale: 1=Very insufficient; 2=Insufficient; 3=Sufficient; 4=Very sufficient

A. Remuneration and Other Monetary Benefits


1. Monthly salary 1 2 3 4
2. PERA and ADCOM 1 2 3 4
3. Transportation and fieldwork allowances 1 2 3 4
4. Hazard pay 1 2 3 4
5. Year-End bonus and cash gift 1 2 3 4
6. Productivity incentive 1 2 3 4
7. Step increment 1 2 3 4
8. Clothing allowance 1 2 3 4
9. Medical and hospitalization 1 2 3 4

B. Non-monetary Benefits
1. Recognition for completion of masteral/doctoral
degree, and other outstanding achievements 1 2 3 4
2. Study leave 1 2 3 4
3. Scholarships 1 2 3 4
C. Budget Allocation
1. Salaries and wages 1 2 3 4
2. Other compensation and benefits 1 2 3 4
3. Transportation and fieldwork allowances 1 2 3 4
4. Office supplies, fixtures and furnitures 1 2 3 4
5. Laboratory equipment and facilities 1 2 3 4

D. Career Advancement
1. Trainings, seminars and other activities
to improve your present job 1 2 3 4
2. Trainings, seminars and other activities
to prepare you for higher position
and responsibilities 1 2 3 4
3. Vacant positions for promotion 1 2 3 4

Job Satisfaction Questionnaire


(Modified Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), 1977)
84

Scale: 1=Very dissatisfied; 2=Dissatisfied; 3=Satisfied; 4=Very satisfied

On my present job, this is how I feel about…

1. Being able to keep busy all the time. 1 2 3 4

2. The chance to work alone on the job. 1 2 3 4

3. The chance to do different things from time to time. 1 2 3 4

4. The chance to be somebody in the community. 1 2 3 4

5. The way my immediate supervisor handles his/


her subordinates. 1 2 3 4

7. The competence of my supervisor in making


decisions. 1 2 3 4

8. Being able to do things that don’t go against my


conscience. 1 2 3 4

8. The way my job provides for steady employment. 1 2 3 4

9. The chance to do things for other people. 1 2 3 4

10. The chance to tell people what to do. 1 2 3 4

11. The chance to do something that makes use


of my abilities. 1 2 3 4

12. The way the policies of DepEd are put into


practice. 1 2 3 4

13. My salary and the amount of work I do. 1 2 3 4

14. The chances of advancement on this job. 1 2 3 4

15. The freedom to use my own judgment. 1 2 3 4

16. The chance to try my own method to do the job. 1 2 3 4

17. The physical aspect of my work. 1 2 3 4

18. The way my coworkers get along with each other. 1 2 3 4


85

19. The praise I get for doing a good job. 1 2 3 4

20. The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job. 1 2 3 4

Work Commitment Questionnaires


86

A. Job Involvement Questionnaire


(Kanungo, 1982)

Scale: 1=Strongly disagree; 2=Disagree; 3=Mildly disagree; 4=Mildly agree;


5=Agree; 6=Strongly agree

1. The most important things that 1 2 3 4 5 6


happen to me involve my present job.

2. To me, my job is only a small part of


who I am. 1 2 3 4 5 6

3. I am very much involved personally in


my job 1 2 3 4 5
6

4. I live, eat, and breathe my job. 1 2 3 4 5 6

5. Most of my interests are centered


around my job. 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. I have very strong ties with my
present job which would be very
difficult to break. 1 2 3 4 5 6

7. Usually I feel detached from my job. 1 2 3 4 5 6

8. Most of my personal life goals are


job-oriented. 1 2 3 4 5 6

9. I consider my job to be very central


to my existence. 1 2 3 4 5 6

10. I like to be absorbed in my job most


of the time. 1 2 3 4 5 6

B. Career Commitment Questionnaire


(Blau, 1985)

Scale: 1=Strongly disagree; 2=Disagree; 3=Unsure; 4= Agree; 5=Strongly agree

1. If I could get another job different from


being a nurse, and paying the same
amount, would probably take it. 1 2 3 4 5

2. I definitely want a career for myself


in nursing. 1 2 3 4 5
87

3. If I could do it all over again, I would not


choose to work in the nursing
profession. 1 2 3 4 5

4. If I had all the money I needed without


working, I would probably still continue
to work in the nursing profession. 1 2 3 4 5

5. I like this vocation too well to give it up.1 2 3 4 5

6. This is the ideal vocation for a life work.1 2 3 4 5

7. I am disappointed that I ever entered


the nursing profession. 1 2 3 4 5

8. I spend a significant amount of personal


time reading nursing-related journals or
books 1 2 3 4 5

C. Organizational Commitment Questionnaire


(Organizational Commitment Questionnaire developed by Mowday et al.,
1970)

Scale: 1=Strongly disagree; 2=Moderately disagree; 3=Slightly disagree; 4=


Neither disagree nor agree; 5=Slightly agree; 6=Moderately agree; 7=Strongly
agree

1. I am willing to put in a great deal of


effort beyond that normally expected
in order to help DepEd be successful. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2. I talk up DepEd to my friends as a


great organization to work for. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3. I would accept almost any type of job


assignment in order to keep working
for DepEd. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4. I find that my values and DepEd’s


values are very similar. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5. I am proud to tell others that I am


part of DepEd. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
88

6. DepEd really inspires the very best


in me in the way of job performance. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7. I am extremely glad that I chose


DepEd to work for, over others I was
considering at the time I joined. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8. I really care about the fate of DepEd. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


8
9. For me DepEd is the best of all possible
organizations for which to work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
89

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Information

Name : Porferio Arcuino Salidaga, Jr.

Birthdate : March 27, 1972

Birthplace : Brgy. Bunacan, Calubian, Leyte

Civil Status : Married

Spouse : Melfa Kangleon Delos Santos

Children : Phoebie Gabrielle


Priam Gabriel

Educational Qualifications

College : Bachelor of Arts in Communication


University of the Philippines
Tacloban City
1994

Secondary : National Heroes Institute


Kananga, Leyte
1989

Elementary : Kananga Central School


Kananga, Leyte
1985

Work Experience

Team Head : Social Security System


SSS Maasin Branch, Maasin City
November 2004 – present

Senior Analyst : Social Security System


SSS Maasin Branch, Maasin City
January 1998 – October 2004
90

Clerk : DBP Service Corporation


SSS Ormoc Branch, Ormoc City
February 1996 – December 1997

Staff Writer : Office of the City Mayor


Ormoc City
April 1995 – January 1996

Civil Service Eligibility

C S Professional : October 17, 1993