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in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength."The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual. sick or well. will or knowledge" Virginia Avenel Henderson .
The Nightingale of Modern Nursing. University of Rochester. Virginia was named for her mother's (Lucy Minor (Abbot) Henderson) native state and later educated there at a boys school run by her grandfather. 1897 She was the fifth of eight children and had a family history of scholars and educators. Missouri on November 30.Who is she? First Lady of Nursing. Yale University . Henderson. Pace University. D. Early education in Virginia in the community Army School of Nursing. Graduated in 1921 at Teachers College. Washington. Daniel B. Columbia University (Bachelor of Science degree completed in 1931 while Masters of Science degree in 1934) Honorary doctoral degrees from the Catholic University of America. University of Western Ontario.C. Her father is a lawyer by profession named Atty. The 20th Century Florence Nightingale She was born in Kansas City. Modern-Day Mother of Nursing.
D. Washington. Henry Street Visiting Nurse Association. New York. where her revision of Bertha Harmer's Textbook of the Principles and Practice of Nursing became widely used. Virginia (1924-1929) She worked as an early advocate for the inclusion of psychiatric nursing in the curriculum and served on a committee to develop such a course at Eastern State Hospital in Williamsburg. New York (1921). Nature of Nursing. (1934-1948) She published her book. New York (1930) She also worked as an Instructor and Associate Professor at Teachers College. her research and contacts with nurses have profoundly affected nursing and impacted the recipients of care by nurses throughout the world. expressed her belief about the essence of nursing and influenced the hearts and minds of those who read it.C. Columbia University. (1923-1924) She worked as an Instructor and Educational Director at Norfolk Protestant Hospital. New York. Visiting Nurse Association. her presentations.NURSING CAREER Her writing. Virginia (1929) Also worked as a Supervisor and Clinical Instructor at the Outpatient Department at Strong Memorial Hospital. . Norfolk. Rochester.
14 Basic Human Needs (Need Theory) .
she described that if the patient is assisted by different health services to basically meet the 14 basic human needs. the patient’s recovery will continue to progress even after being released from the hospital. .14 Basic Human Needs (Need Theory) The importance of Henderson’s theory is the patient’s selfindependence.
complete. independent being with biological.Metaparadigm of the theory Person Individual person or client is a whole. Henderson believed that a single person should be able to perform the 14 fundamental or basic human needs If the needs are not met the patient should require assistance to achieve health and independence or peaceful death . and spiritual components. sociological.
13. Play or participate in various forms of recreation. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment. Sleep and rest. 14. 8. 11. Select suitable clothes—dress and undress. fears. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying environment. 7. Breathe normally 14 Basic Human Needs 2. or opinions. discover. 9. Communicate with others in expressing emotions. 5. needs. Eliminate body wastes 4. Eat and drink adequately 3. 12.1. Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument. Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others. Worship according to one's faith. or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities . 6. Learn. 10. Move and maintain desirable postures.
Basic to human functioning which is needed in achieving the theory's needs. Promotion of health is more important than care of the sick .Metaparadigm of the theory Health It is equated with independence or ability to perform activities without any aid in the 14 fundamental or basic human needs. will or knowledge (concept of independence). Individuals will achieve or maintain health if they have the necessary strength.
and cleanliness of any surfaces coming in contact with individual. minimal quantities of injurious chemicals. Nurse’s function is to alter the environment in such a way as to support the patient. temperature. appropriate disposal of waste. because environment can have a positive and negative effect to the patient . The environment may also include individuals in relation to families and the settings in which an individual learns unique pattern for living There are seven essentials that must be present in the environment which include light.Metaparadigm of the theory Environment It encompasses all external conditions and influences that affect life and development. air movement. atmospheric pressure.
which is working with the patient to do something. she then classified the role of the nurse as one of the following: Substitutive. which is helping the patient do something. prescribe medical treatment. Complementary. All of these roles are to help the patient become as independent as possible. She expressed the view that a nurse’s role is to follow and assist with the medical plan of care outlined by a physician and also to assume the leadership role of planning and providing basic nursing care. or formulate a prognosis . Nurses are independent practitioners for providing appropriate basic nursing care.Metaparadigm of the theory Nursing She described nursing roles in relation to patient needs instead of creating a general theory of nursing. which is doing something for the patient Supplementary. they should not independently diagnose an ailment. however.
.Metaparadigm of the theory Nursing The nurse attends to the holistic needs of the patient through the educated and emphatic attention to the 14 needs outlined by Henderson. The nurse is an independent authority on excellent basic nursing care and also a vital aide to other practitioners in the field of healthcare in ensuring the provision of germane medical treatment for patients with conditions requiring it.
Client Physiologic Function Psychologic aspects of communicating and learning Spiritual and Moral Aspects Sociologically oriented to Occupation and Recreation Needs met/performed? Yes Degree of difficulty of client to perform the basic needs No Unable to perform Substitutive Able to perform task but with difficulty Supplementary Healthy Individuals Able to do task but with supervision Complimentary Attainment of Health or Peaceful Death .
Diagram of the need theory Nurse-Patient Interaction NURSE CLIENT Environment .
Individuals will perform activities leading to health if they have the knowledge. Patients desire to return to health or a peaceful death and will act in such a way to achieve this. capacity or will The 14 basic needs represent nursing’s basic function Nursing’s goal may be subsumed into the medical treatment plan.Assumptions Nurses care for patients until patients can care for themselves once again. .
and the principles embodied by the 14 activities are still important in evaluating nursing care in the 21st centaury. Her emphasis on basic human needs as the central focus of nursing practice has led to further theory development regarding the needs of the person and how nursing can assist in meeting those needs. .Strengths The principles of Henderson’s theory were published in the major nursing textbooks used from the 1930s through the 1960s.
Limitations If the assumption is made that the 14 components prioritized. the relationship among the components is unclear. Assisting the individual in the dying process she contends that the nurse helps. . No concept of the holistic nature of human being. but there is little explanation of what the nurse does. Lacks inter-relate of factors and the influence of nursing care.
THANK YOU! .
2.). (2002). Nursing Theories: the base for professional nursing practice (4th ed).) (1995). J.UP Open University 4.).References 1. NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. (2007). (eds. Blais et al. Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives (4th ed.html 5. New York: Springer Publishing. http://www.Northwalk CT Appleton & Lange .B (ed. 3.com/ut/virginiahenderson/concepts. George. Nurse’s work: Issues across time and place.angelfire. Cora Anonuevo et al. D’Antonio et al. Upper Saddle River. Theoretical Foundations of Nursing.
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