ability The capacity to perform an act, either innate or as the result of learning and practice. ability grouping Arrangement whereby students are assigned to groups on the basis of aptitude testing. accelerated learning Combining adult learning theory and whole brain learning theory in the learning environment to achieve a faster learning rate. accuracy The degree of freedom from error or the degree of conformity to a standard. achievement A measurement of what a person knows or can do after training. action learning This is a continuous process of learning and reflection with the intention of getting something done. Learning is centered around the need to find a solution to a real problem. Most action learning programs take from four to nine months to complete. Learning is voluntary and learner driven, while individual development is as important as finding the solution to the problem. Reg Ravens, the originator of "action learning" basis this learning method on a theory called "System Beta." The whole idea is that the learning process should closely approximate the "scientific method." The real model is cyclical (you proceed through the steps and when you reach the last step (6) you relate the analysis to the original hypothesis and if need be, start the process again. The six steps are: Formulate Hypothesis (an idea or concept) Design Experiment (consider ways of testing truth or validity of idea or concept) Apply in Practice (put into effect, test of validity or truth)

Observe Results (collect and process data on outcomes of test) Analyze Results (make sense of data) Compare Analysis (relate analysis to original hypothesis) action verb A word that conveys action/behaviors and reflects the type of performance that is to occur (i.e., place, cut, drive, open, hold). Action verbs reflect behaviors that are measurable, observable, verifiable, and reliable. active learning A process of learning new ideas, skills and attitudes through what we do at work or in other behavioral situations. It is about learning from doing, performing, and taking action. The action can be either mental (e.g. reflection) or physical (e.g. case study). It uses such devices as games, simulations, introspection, role playing, etc. action maze A case study which has been programmed. Learners receive enough information to take them to their first decision point. The decision then takes them to the next frame, which explains the consequence of their decision. This process is continued until the maze has been completed. activity step The step of learner activity based on the enabling objective. In achieving the activity the learner is carried through the teaching points and the teaching steps. actuals Information about the current skills, knowledge, perspectives and environment of individuals in an organization. Specifics about what people now do. adaptive branching (adjustive device) Any of several techniques used in scheduling to accommodate individual differences. It may permit the student to bypass material they already know or may provide them with additional instruction as needed. adjunct program A type of instructional device that applies programming principles to existing course materials, texts, manuals, etc. Learners are directed to specific areas within these materials that support course objectives; then directed to respond and given confirmation until they have progressed through the material and have accomplished predetermined objectives.

ADDIE model Consider my most to be the "classic" model of ISD (Instructional System Design). The acronym stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. affective domain A classification of objectives that focus on the development of attitudes, beliefs, and values. Affective learning is about gaining new perceptions (e.g., selfconfidence, responsibility, respect, dependability, and personal relations). • • • • • analogy A cognitive process in which an example or schema is used to map a new solution for a similar problem. analysis phase First of the Instructional System Design phases (ADDIE). The purpose of this phase is to determine what the job holder must know or do on the job and to determine training needs. Also see front-end analysis. andragogy From the Greek words "anere", for adult and "agogus", the art and science of helping students learn. Widely used by adult educators to describe the theory of adult learning. The term offers an alternative to pedagogy. The andragogic model asks that five issues be considered and addressed in formal learning: • • • Letting learners know why something is important to learn - The need to know. Showing learners how to direct themselves through information - The need to be self directing. Relating the topic to the learner's experiences - Greater volume and quality of experience. Receiving: Aware of, passively attending to certain stimuli. Responding: Complies to given expectations by reacting to stimuli. Valuing: Displays behavior consistent with single belief or attitude in situations where not forced to obey. Organizing: Committed to a set of values as displayed by behavior. Characterizing: Total behavior consistent with internalized values.

• •

People will not learn until ready and motivated to learn - Readiness to learn. A need to have a life centered, task centered, or problem centered orientation - Often this requires helping them overcome inhibitions, behaviors, and beliefs about learning.

aptitude The ability of an individual to acquire a new skill or show the potential for acquiring a skill when given the opportunity and proper training. ARCS Model John Keller developed a four-step instructional design process to help instill learner motivation - Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction. asynchronous learning Any learning event that is delivered after the original live event. Also used to indicate a learning event where the interaction is delayed over time, such as a correspondence course. assessment Essentially a measurement process of the learning that has either taken place or can take place. Usually measured against stated learning outcomes: • • Predictive assessment attempts to measure what the learner might achieve given suitable training.< Attainment assessment attempts to measure what the learner knows or can do, and is usually related to the syllabus of a course the learner has followed.

attitude A persisting feeling or emotion of a person that influences choice of action and response to stimulus. Defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, situation). They encompass, or are closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon our experiences. Training that produces tangible results starts by changing behavior...which ultimately changes attitudes. Training often uses the term attitude to identify the psychological term "affective domain." authoring A structured approach to developing all elements of a unit of instruction. authoring tool

Software application used to produce media-based learning content. Some of the more popular ones are PowerPoint, Captivate, Robodemo, DreamWeaver, Flash, Articulate, and Toolbook.

bandwidth Information carrying capacity of a communication channel. baseline 1) Valid and reliable information about the intended learner population used to ascertain differences between learners' performances before and after instruction. 2) A set of measurements (metrics) that seek to establish the current starting level of a performance. These measurements are usually established before implementing improvement activities. behavior Any activity (either covert or overt) the learner will be expected to exhibit after training. The activity should be observable and measurable. It is the primary component of an objective. behaviorism Belief that learning results in a change in the learner's behavior. The focus of behaviorists is on the outputs of the learning process. The study of learning only through the examination and analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events, in contrast with subjective mental states. blended learning When this term first arrived, most definitions followed the concept that it is a "blended" solution between elearning and classroom learning (face-to-face). However, some are now taking a broader view in that it goes beyond elearning and classrooms that include a group of related instructional units or modules of different media covering a major subject area. It was first known as brick and click. Bloom's Taxonomy Benjamin Bloom and colleagues developed a hierarchical domain model of educational activities: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor. brain dominance An individual's preference for using one's cognitive abilities. There are two styles of thinking - right brain (intuitive, spontaneous, qualitative) and left brain (factual, analytical and quantitative).

branching An instructional technique, usually in the form of programmed text, in which the learner's next step of instruction is determined by her response to a previous step. Two or more directions in a program path can go from a decision point. bricks and click A traditional classroom approach combined with elearning or online learning (as in clicking a mouse). This is more comonly known as blending learning. broadcast Method of transferring learning content to many learners simultaneously. bypassing In programmed instruction, a technique that permits a student to skip certain portions of the material because of prior knowledge.

case study A printed description of a problem situation that contains enough detail to enable the learners to recommend a solution. The learners encounter a real-life situation under the guidance of an instructor or computer in order to achieve an instructional objective. Control of the discussion comes through by the amount of the detail provided. causes What gets in the way of individual and organizational performance. There are normally four kinds of causes: absence of skills and knowledge or information, weak motivation, improper environment, and flawed incentives. certification Program and process where a learner completes prescribed training and passes an assessment with a minimum acceptable score. To increase validity and assure authentication, the certification process should be proctored by an independent agent. chaining An instructional technique that transforms a learned response into a stimulus for the next desired response. chunking The process of dividing instructional materials into sections in order to promote

understanding. What is known as "sequencing and organizing epitomes" in Reigeluth's Elaboration theory, is commonly referred to as "chunking." c-learning Classroom learning or conventional learning as compared to e-learning (electronic). clustering A process of organizing many tasks into groups for the purpose of deciding upon the optimal instructional setting mix for that group of tasks. Also pertains to sequencing groups of objectives within a course of instruction. coach A person who instructs, demonstrates, directs, and prompts learners. Generally concerned with methods rather than concepts. There are four coaching roles/styles: • • • • • cognitive From the Latin cogito; "I think". The mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning. Cognitive also refers to attempts to identify a perspective or theory in contrast to emphasizing observable behavior. cognitive domain Involves mental processes. The Taxonomy of categories arranged in ascending order of difficulty are: • • • • • Knowledge: Recognition and recall of information. Comprehension: Interprets, translates or summarizes given information. Application: Uses information in a situation different from original learning context. Analysis: Separates wholes into parts until relationships are clear. Synthesis: Combines elements to form new entity from the original one. hands-on - acting as an instructor for inexperienced learners hands-off - developing high performance in experienced learners supporter - helping learners use a flexible learning package qualifier - helping a learner develop a specific requirement for a competence-based or professional qualification

Evaluation: Involves acts of decision making based on criteria or rationale.

cognitive engagement The intentional and purposeful processing of lesson content. Engagement, in effect, requires strategies that promote manipulation rather than memorization, as the means through which learners acquire both lesson knowledge and deeper conceptual insight. Engagement can be elevated through a variety of activities such as inducing cognitive dissonance, posing argumentative questions requiring the development of a supportable position, and causing learners to generate a prediction and rationale during a lesson. cognitive load Theory This theory describes learning structures (schemas). Intrinsic cognitive load is associated with task difficulty, while extraneous cognitive load is associated to task presentation. The theory states that if both intrinsic cognitive load and extraneous cognitive load are high, then problem solving will either fail or be extreamly difficult. The idea is to lower or modifying the task presentation to a lower level in order to facilitate problem solving. cognitivists Believe that learning occurs when learners are able to add new concepts and ideas to their cognitive structure by recognizing a relationship between something they already know and what they are learning. The focus of cognitivists is on the inputs of the learning process. Cognitive theorists emphasize internal processes and knowledge representations which are impossible to observe directly, but which are inferred. collaborative learning A more radical departure from "cooperative learning". It involves learners working together in small groups to develop their own answer through interaction and reaching consensus, but not necessarily a known answer. Monitoring the groups or correcting "wrong" impressions is not the role of the trainer since there is no authority on what the answer should be. collective task A task that requires more than one individual to complete with each individual performing a discreet part of the collective task. common learning objective A learning objective written for a task element (supporting skill or knowledge) that is common to two or more tasks. competency

(1) Areas of personal capability that enable people to perform successfully in their jobs by completing task effectively. A competency can be knowledge, attitudes, skills, values, or personal values. Competency can be acquired through talent, experience, or training. (2) Competency comprises the specification of knowledge and skill and the application of that knowledge and skill to the standard of performance required in employment. competency-based instruction Instruction that is organized around a set of learning objectives based upon the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a set of skills called competencies. Evaluation of student success is based on competent performance of the skills. Normative measurement is specifically excluded from competencybased instruction. compilation A learning process in which learners embed declarative knowledge in highly domain specific rules or productions. computer-assisted instruction (CAI) The use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction in which the system allows for remediation based on answers but not for a change in the underlying program structure. computer-based training (CBT) Interactive instructional experience between a computer and a learner in which the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the learner responds, resulting in progress toward increased skills or knowledge. Has a more complicated branching program of mediation and answering than CAI. Now an all-encompassing term used to describe any computer-delivered training including CD-ROM and the World Wide Web. Some people still use the term CBT to refer only to old-time text-only training. concept A mental picture of a group of things that have common characteristics. A generalization is a person's idea of the relationships between two or more concepts. Concepts represent a group of solid objects, such as an airplane or book; or abstract ideas, such as leadership and honesty. A concept is an idea about a group of things. A concept involves thinking about what it is that makes those things belong to that one group. concept map (learning map) The arrangement of major concepts from a text or lecture into a visual arrangement. Lines are drawn between associated concepts, and relationships between the connected concepts are named. These concept maps reveal the

structural pattern in the material and provide the big picture. condition The component of a learning objective that describes the situation, environment, or limitations in which the learner must exhibit the specified behavior. conditional branching Branching which occurs when a specified condition or set of conditions is satisfied. conditioned response A response that has been learned through employing a specific stimulus. confirmation Giving each learner knowledge of the results of each exercise throughout the instructional process. This reinforces or rewards the learner during the entire learning situation. constraint Any element or factor that prevents a person from reaching a higher lever of performance with respect to her goal. constructed response An answer requiring recall or completion as opposed to recognition (e.g., drawing a diagram, filling in a form, and labeling the parts of a piece of equipment). constructivism School of human learning that believes knowledge is a mental construct that is built on and added to. Learners create an image of what the world is like and how it works and they adapt and transform their understanding of new experiences. This theory of learning has consequences for teaching and learning strategies. By starting where the learners are at, that is, engaging prior knowledge with present learning, the trainer then assists the learners to build on their understanding of the world and its workings. contextual interference Various factors inhibit a quick and smooth mastery of a skill. controlled pacing A programming principle that implies self-pacing within an instructional system. The information and learner activity are developed so that the learners can progress toward the criterion objectives according to their own learning ability.

cooperative learning Involves the more conventional notion of cooperation (see collaborative), in that learners work in small groups on an assigned project or problem under the guidance of the trainer. Also see collaborative learning. correlation The relationship between two sets of data, that when one changes, the other is likely to make a corresponding change. If the changes are in the same direction, then there is a positive correlation. If it is in the opposite direction, then it is a negative correlation. counseling A means of assisting and developing students and subordinates. A leader/instructor counsels subordinates: to praise and reward good performance, to develop teamwork, to inform students on how well or how poorly they are performing, to assist students to reach required standards, to cause students to set personal and professional goals, and to help students resolve personal problems. course A complete integrated series of lessons which are identified by a common title and/or number. course management plan A document that includes the course description and the administrative directions for managing a course. Sometimes called a training management plan. course map A chart that depicts the designed sequence for events of a course. course trials A full length course conducted in a target environment (facilities, instructors and students) using the curriculum and supporting training material prepared for that course. It has as its purpose the "shaking down" or "validating" of the curriculum and materials in a classroom situation to determine their effectiveness in attaining the approved learning objectives or training goals. Also called "pilot course". courseware The media, such as text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the instructional content of the course. covert behavior Mental activity usually referred to as thinking. Behavior that is not directly

observable but may be inferred from overt behavior that is observable. criterion The standard by which something is measured. In training, the task or learning objective standard is the measure of student performance. In test validation, it is the standard against which test instruments are correlated to indicate the accuracy with which they predict human performance in some specific area. In evaluation it is the measure used to determine the adequacy of a product, process, or behavior. criterion referenced instruction Testing of the objectives as a learner progresses through the course of instruction. Learners pass or fail depending upon their attainment of the objectives and NOT in accordance with their rank or standing among peers. critical incident technique A methodology of task analysis which determines the tasks to be included in instruction. Experts identify the critical job incidents and their products. Incidents are edited for redundancy, grouped into similar tasks, and then classified as positive or negative incidents. The incidents are summarized and then validated by the experts for completeness. This is a useful means for obtaining a list of relevant, real-world tasks to be included in instruction. cross-training Providing training in several different areas or functions. This provides backup workers when the primary worker is unavailable. cue A prompt that signals performance is needed. An initiating cue is a signal to begin performing a task or task performance step. An internal cue is a signal to go from one element of a task to another. A terminating cue indicates task completion. curriculum The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment. The courses are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier. In schools, a curriculum spans several grades, for example, the math curriculum. In business, it can run for days, weeks, months, or years. Learners enter it at various points depending on their job experience and the needs of the business. decay rate The amount of time it takes learners to forget what they have learned in training. The decay rate can be stopped or slowed by having them use their new skills upon their return to the job. declarative knowledge

Knowledge referring to outside representations of the outside world. deductive design An instructional design where rules are presented followed by examples. The emphasis is on forming conclusions. deficiency Failure to meet a set performance standard. delivery Any method of transferring offerings to learners. Variants are instructor-led training, web-based distance learning, online laboratory, CD-ROM, and books. demonstration-performance method A learning experience in which students observe and then participate in a sequence of events designed to teach a procedure, a technique, or an operation, frequently combining oral explanation with the operation or handling of systems, equipment, or materials. dependent learning objective Skills and knowledge in one learning objective that are related to those in another learning objective. In order to master one of the learning objectives, it is first necessary to learn the other. design phase The second of the Instructional System Design phases (ADDIE). The learning objectives, tests, and the required skills and knowledge for a task are constructed and sequenced. design review A technique for evaluating a proposed design to ensure that: • • • • adequate resources are available to meet time deadlines it will work successfully it can be built within a reasonable cost it meets the organization's needs

development Training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive

rather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services, and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job. development phase The third of the Instructional System Design phases (ADDIE). The purpose of this phase is to develop and validate the instructional material (courseware). didactic design Instructional design in which the student is presented information and asked to respond to questions. differential feedback Test response feedback specific to the multiple choice answer selected by the student. difficulty-importance-frequency model One of several models available for use in selecting tasks for training. Using this model, tasks are identifies as critical based on the difficulty, importance, and frequency of job task performance. discovery learning Learning without a teacher; usually in a controlled (i.e. pre-designed) set-up, and under supervision. discrimination The ability to choose between two closely related responses to a specific stimulus. distance learning (1) The use of any media for self-study. (2) A telecommunications-based instructional system evolved from the open learning movement used to overcome geographical "place-based" learning. (3) In its most common historical form, this refers to a broadcast of a lecture to distant locations, usually through video presentations. distributed learning Students take courses from a variety of sources (and delivery modes) to customize a program of study. Often is used synonymously with online learning. distracter In testing, incorrect answers provided as choices in multiple choice or matching type test items.

drill A standardized technique or procedure that prepares students to execute critical collective tasks in an instinctive and spontaneous manner. The drill includes the methods by which it is trained. drill and practice Ungraded verifications of comprehension of enabling objectives (e.g., questions, exercises, and problems). A interactive exercise characterized by systematic repetition of concepts, examples, and practice problems. An ungraded practice quiz. duty A combination of related tasks equal a duty, and duties combine to form a job.

education Training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upwards, or to increase their potential. educational technology A complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization, for analyzing problems, and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems, involved in all aspects of human learning. efficiency A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output expected. Efficiency measures how well someone is performing relative to expectations. eLearning The use of innovative technologies and learning models to transform the way individuals and organizations acquire new skills and access knowledge. eLearning 2.0 Learning through digital connections and peer collaboration. It is driven by the technologies of Web 2.0 due to it being an extension of the term "Web 2.0." Learners become empowered to search, create, and collaborate information. It differs from traditional eLearning (sometimes called "eLearning 1.0") by encouraging everyone to contribute in creating and sharing information and their experiences. electronic performance support system (EPSS)

Applications designed to run simultaneously with other applications or embedded within other applications that provide support for the user in accomplishing specific tasks. An EPSS may provide needed information, present job aids, and deliver just-in-time, context-sensitive training on demand. A Web-based performance support system (WBPSS) is an EPSS which uses Web technology to deliver support in an enterprise environment. elements Components of a task or the smallest meaningful activity that describes what employees in an industry are expected to be able to do. Elements combine to form a task, tasks combine to form a duty, and duties combine to from a job. Elements depend on other elements and are always components of a procedure. Also, the sub-division of a unit of competence. The element encapsulates: • • • • Skills - the performance of relevant tasks. Management - the skills required to manage a group of tasks to achieve the overall job function. Contingency management skills - i.e. responding to breakdowns in routines and procedures. Job/role environment - i.e. responding to general aspects of the work role and environment, such as natural constraints and working relationships

enabling learning objective (ELO) A statement in behavioral terms of what is expected of the student in demonstrating mastery at the knowledge and skill level necessary for achievement of a Terminal Learning Objective (TLO) or another ELO. epistemology A branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. The study of how we know what we know. EPSS - see electronic performance support system ergonomics An approach to job design that focuses on the interactions between the person and the environmental elements such as the work station, light, sound, tools, etc. evaluation The process of gathering information in order to make good decisions. It is broader than testing, and includes both subjective (opinion) input and objective (fact) input. Evaluation can take many forms including memorization tests, portfolio assessment, and self-reflection. There are at least six major reasons for

evaluating training, each requiring a different type of evaluation: • • • • • • Improve the instruction (formative evaluation) Promote individual growth and self-evaluation (evaluation by both trainer and learner) Assess the degree of demonstrated achievement (summative evaluation) Diagnose future learning needs (of both trainer and learner) Enhance one's sense of merit or worth (learner) Identify or clarify desired behaviors (trainer)

evaluation hierarchy (four levels of evaluation model) Donald Kirkpatrick identified the evaluation model most widely recognized today in corporate training organizations. The Kirkpatrick Model addresses the four fundamental behavior changes that occur as a result of training. • • • Level one is how participants feel about training (reaction). This level is often measured with attitude questionnaires. Level two determines if people memorized the material (learning). This is often accomplished with pre-testing and post-testing. Level three answers the question, "Do people use the information on the job?" This level addresses transference of new skills to the jobs (behavior change). This is often accomplished by observation.

evaluation instrument A test or other measuring device used to determine achievement (go and no-go) or the relative standing of an individual or group or a test objective (i.e., attitude, behavior, performance objective, and other attributes). Evaluation instruments include tests, rating forms, inventories, and standard interviews. evaluation phase The fifth of Instructional System Design phases (ADDIE). The purpose of this phase is determine the value or worth of the instructional program. This phase is actually conducted during and between all the other phases. evolutionary approach A method for developing training programs. It includes both deterministic and incremental systems, in contrast to the systems approach, which is entirely deterministic. This means that in an evolutionary approach, tentative or short term goals may be specified. This approach is particularly appropriate for situations

where there is limited past experience from which to draw guidance. experiential learning A learning activity having a behavioral based hierarchy that allows the student to experience and practice job related tasks and functions during a training session. extrapolation A sub-level of the comprehension level of learning in which students develop sufficient understanding to estimate trends or predict outcomes based upon the subject matter under study.

face-to-face (F2F) Students and teachers are in the same location at the same time. facilitator A person who makes it easier for learners to learn by attempting to discover what a learner is interested in knowing, and then determines the best way to make that information available to the learner by providing the knowledge, systems, or materials which enable the learner to perform a task more effectively. This is done by listening, asking questions, providing ideas, suggesting alternatives, and identifying possible resources. fading The technique of gradually removing the teaching information in programmed sequence to the point that the learner is required to perform the desired behavior without assistance. feedback Providing learners with information about the nature of an action and its result in relation to some criterion of acceptability. It provides the flow of information back to the learner so that actual performance can be compared with planned performance. Feedback can be positive, negative, or neutral. Feedback is almost always considered external while reinforcement can be external or intrinsic (i.e., generated by the individual). formative evaluation or assessment The focus of discussion between trainer and learner, as a result of which both parties review their objectives or approach. frame Learning objects given to learners in order to achieve an answer. Their answer

will determine the next frame to proceed to. Learners proceed through these "bits of data" until they have completed the required instruction. front-end analysis The "front end" phase of the ISD or SAT process in which the job is analyzed, tasks are selected for training, task performance measures are constructed, existing courses are reviewed, and the instructional setting tentatively determined. functional grouping Organizing instruction such that tasks that relate to the same procedures or equipment are presented together. gaming A technique in which the student is presented situations involving choice and risks. The choices and the consequences resemble real-life situations, and the players are reinforced for various decisions. Gaming is typically an enjoyable learning method for the student. generalizations Responding in the same manner to several different stimuli. Gestalt Study of human learning where understanding is based upon insight. Grok To reach total understanding of a subject. From Robert Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land. group-paced instruction (lockstep) Students progress as a group at a rate equal to that of the slowest student. There is no fixed minimum time for a unit. group trial Tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the target population to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates, criterion test performance, and time to complete the course. guidance package A complete self-instructional package that guides the learner through various methods and media to achieve specific learning objectives and directs the learner activities in the performance of a task. guided discussion method

A learning experience in which students participate in an instructor-controlled, interactive process of sharing information and experiences related to achieving an instructional objective.

handbook A document prepared specifically to provide guidance information. Handbooks are used for the presentation of general information, procedural and technical use data, or design information related to commodities, processes, practices, and services. handout Supporting information to be used by the learner as reference material in a training program. hands-on Student practice on actual equipment, simulators, or training aids. hard skills As opposed to soft skills. Skills to perform where job requirements are well defined in terms of actions to be taken and expected outcomes. heuristic routine A problem solving approach, not a direct step-by-step procedure, but a trial-anderror approach frequently involving the act of learning. human capital The sum of the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and competencies of people in an organization. Unlike structural capital, human capital is owned by the individuals who have it. It is the renewable part of intellectual capital and is the source of creativity and innovation. Human Performance Improvement (HPI) A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance improvement gaps, planning for future improvements, designing cost-effective interventions to close performance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial and nonfinancial results. human resource development (HRD) An organized learning experience, conducted in a definite time period, to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth.

hybrid task analysis method Involves both a quantitative analysis and consensus building. Using job task documents, a list of tasks is compiled by an analyst. Through an iterative process involving consensus building, the validity of the task list is assessed by subject matter experts, supervisors and job incumbents. Through discussions, each task's complexity, importance and frequency are numerically rated by members of the consensus group. Once the tasks are identified, the group identifies and validates the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform each task.

implementation phase The fourth of the Instructional System Design phases (ADDIE). The instruction is delivered to the learners during this phase. inductive design An instructional design where examples are presented and then followed by the rule. informal learningn unorganized and not formally defined learning at home, work, and throughout society. Formal learning happens when knowledge is captured and shared by people other than the original expert or owner of that knowledge. Learning that is largely directed by professional educators and trainers within dedicated learning organisations. Learning that has occurred through taking a structured credit course Non-formal Learning: Also known as prior learning, informal learning, and experiential learning. Generally refers to skills and knowledge acquired in situations other than formal study. intentional learning the acquisition of knowledge independently of conscious attempts to learn and the absence of explicit knowledge about what was learned¹ instruction The delivery of information to enable learning. The process by which knowledge and skills are transferred to students. Instruction applies to both training and education. instructional analysis The procedures applied to an instructional goal in order to identify the relevant skills and their subordinate skills and information required for a learner to achieve the goal. instructional concept An initial estimate of what the instruction should do, and what it should look like. instructional design The philosophy, methodology, and approach used to deliver information. Some

courseware aspects include question strategy, level of interaction, reinforcement, and branching complexity. instructional goals Clear statements of behavior that learners are to demonstrate as a result of instruction. instructional method A component of the instructional strategy defining a particular means for accomplishing the objective. For example a traditional instructor led instructional strategy may be accomplished using the lecture method, a Socratic lecture technique, and a defined step-by-step questioning procedure. Also called "method of instruction". instructional module A self-contained instructional unit that includes one or more learning objectives, appropriate learning materials and methods, and associated criterion-reference measures. instructional setting The location and physical characteristics of the area in which instruction takes place. The setting can be in a classroom, a laboratory, a field, or workplace location. An example is: a clean, well lighted, temperature controlled classroom equipped with individual desks, chairs, and individual video monitors. instructional step A portion of material to which the student makes a response. It is a stage in the instructional process that represents progress in the student's mastery. A subject to be taught is broken down into frames, items, or segments (steps). It is assumed that students cannot take later steps in a given sequence before taking the earlier step and that each segment or item represents a step forward. instructional strategy The approach used to present information in a manner that achieves learning. Approaches include tutorial, gaming, simulation, etc. Aspects of instructional strategies include the order of presentation, level of interaction, feedback, remediation, testing strategies, and the medium used to present the information. instructional systems design (ISD) A formal process for designing training, be it computer-based or traditional instructor-led training. The ISD process includes analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Also known as System Approach to Training (SAT).

instructional technology The use of technology (computers, compact disc, interactive media, modem, satellite, teleconferencing, etc.) to support learning. instructor An individual who gives knowledge or information to learners in a systematic manner by presenting information, directing structured leaning experiences, and managing group discussions and activities. Instructor led training (ILT) A learning program facilitated by an instructor, normally in classroom or through a web-based conference system. Interactivity Instruction that requires interaction through the learner and a product or service. The product or service should be able to sense and respond in order to maintain the learner's interest, provide practice, and/or reinforce prior learnings. interactive training An umbrella term that includes both computer-based and multimedia training. interim summary A segment of instruction that reviews recent learning to reinforce prior information. internet-based training Delivery of educational content via a Web browser over the internet or intranet. It provides links to learning resources outside of the course, such as references, email, bulletin boards, and discussion groups. It is now normally referred to as elearning. introduction A major section of a lesson designed to establish a common ground between the presenter and students, to capture and hold attention, to outline the lesson and relate it to the overall course, to point out benefits to the student, and to lead the student into the body of the lesson; usually contains attention step, motivation step, and overview. A segment that provides a general statement of the course content, target population, why the student is studying the material, and appropriate motivation to gain the student's attention. job What a person does at work to satisfy an employer's needs and expectations in

exchange for pay. A job consists of responsibilities, duties, and tasks that are defined and can be accomplished, measured, and rated. It is used as an employment tool for classifying work and for selecting employees. job aid (performance aid) A device designed for use on the job and providing guidance on the performance of a specific task or skill. May be printed or on-line. Used in situations where it is not feasible or worthwhile to commit the procedure to memory before on-the-job activity. Often these are paper-based and posted on the wall in plain sight or in a small reference notebook. They can also be, decals, manuals, cards, etc. job analysis Breaking down the complexity of a person's job into logical parts such as duties and tasks. It identifies and organizes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to perform the job correctly. This is accomplished by gathering task activities and requirements by observation, interviews, or other recording systems. job description A formal statement of duties, qualifications, and responsibilities associated with a job. job enlargement An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs. It is associated with the design of jobs to reduce employee dissatisfaction. job enrichment An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs and an increase in the control over those tasks. It is associated with the design of jobs and is an extension of job enlargement. just-in-time training (JITT) or just-in-time learning: A method of providing training when it is needed. Its advantages are: • Eliminates the need for refresher training due to subject knowledge loss experienced if training precedes, over an extended period of time (prevents decay if the learner cannot use the material upon returning to the job). Prevents training being wasted on people who leave the job before the trai Allows the learners to receive training when they need it...not weeks or months later.

• •

Kirkpatrick Four-Level Evaluation Model A four step training evaluation methodology developed by Donald Kirkpatrick in 1975. knowledge 1. The sum of what is known; a body of truths, principles, and information. 2. Specific information required for the student to develop the skills and attitudes for effective accomplishment of the jobs, duties, and tasks. knowledge level summary A reiteration of key points of content in a knowledge-level lesson designed to enhance a learner's ability to remember facts. knowledge management Capturing, organizing, and storing knowledge and experiences of individual workers and groups within an organization and making it available to others in the organization. knowledge mapping (mind maps) A learning method similar to outlining that consists of drawing out circles and connecting them with lines while writing words in the circles and on the lines. knowledge structures There are three knowledge structures: declarative, procedural and strategic. • Declarative knowledge tells us why things work the way they do, or that the object or thing has a particular name or location. It includes information about the concepts and elements in the domain and the relationships between them. Procedural knowledge tells us how to perform a given task. It contains the discrete steps or actions to be taken and the available alternatives to perform a given task. With practice, procedural knowledge can become an automatic process, thus allowing the human to perform a task without conscious awareness. Strategic knowledge is comprised of information that is the basis of problem solving, such as action plans to meet specific goals; knowledge of the context in which procedures should be implemented; actions to be taken if a proposed solution fails; and how to respond if necessary information is absent.

lead-off question

A question initiated by the presenter that is usually directed to a group of students at the beginning of a lesson or main point and designed to generate discussion. learner centered instruction An instructional process in which the content is determined by the studentís needs, the instructional materials are geared to the studentís abilities, and the instructional design makes the students active participants. learning a relatively permanent change in behavioral potentiality, that can be measured, that occurs as a result of reinforced practice; gaining knowledge, skills, or developing a behavior through study, instruction, or experience. learning activities Events intended to promote trainee learning. learning analysis The analysis of each task or subject area to determine what the learner must do upon completion of training, how well the learner must be able to do it, and what skills and knowledge must be taught in order to meet the end-of-training requirement. learning curve A curve reflecting the rate of improvement in performing a new task as a learner practices and uses her newly acquired skills. Learning Content Management System (LCMS) An infrastructure platform that focuses on learning content. The purpose behind it is to give instructional designers and subject matter experts (SME) the means to create learning content more efficiently or JIT in order to meet learner's and business units' needs. It does this by creating reusable content chunks and then making them available to designers and SMEs throughout the organization. This eliminates duplicate developmentNote that it differs some what from an LMS. learning decay A decrease of learned skills over a period of time. Decay can be retarded by the conduct of sustainment training. learning hierarchy A graphic display of the relationships among learning objectives in which some learning objectives must be mastered before others can be learned. Learning Management System (LMS)

An infrastructure platform through which learning content is planned, delivered, and managed. A combination of software tools perform a variety of functions related to online and offline training administration and performance management. Ity is meant to replace fragmented learning programs with a systematic means in order to assess and increase performance levels throughout the organization. Note that it differs some what from an LCMS. learning package (courseware) The media, either text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the instructional content of the course. learning object A reusable chunk of information that is media independent. Includes Reusable Information Objects (RIOs), educational objects, content objects, training components, nuggets, and chunks. learning objective A statement of what the learners will be expected to do when they have completed a specified course of instruction. It prescribes the conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performance for the training setting. An Enabling Learning Objective measures an element of the Terminal Learning Objective. Sometimes referred to as performance, instructional, or behavioral objectives. learning organization An organization that continuously learns new KSA's (knowledge, skills, abilities or attitudes) and applying them to improve product or service quality. learning portal Any Website that offers learners or organizations consolidated access to learning and training resources from multiple sources. learning step A sub-unit of a learning objective derived when the learning objective is analyzed into its component parts. learning strategies The methods that students use to learn. This ranges from techniques for improved memory to better studying or test taking strategies. learning style A composite of the cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and responds to the learning environment. Included in this definition are perceptual

modalities, information processing styles, and personality patterns. learning style inventory Kolb & Fry's Learning Style Inventory which theorizes that people develop preferences for different learning styles in the same way that they develop any other sort of style, i.e. - management, leadership, negotiating etc. The four predominant styles are: • Active experimentation (simulations, case study, homework). If this if the preferred style of the learner then she is an Activist - what's new? I'm game for anything. Reflective observation (logs, journals, brainstorming). If this if the preferred style of the learner then he is a Reflector - I'd like time to think about this. Abstract conceptualization (lecture, papers, analogies). If this if the preferred style of the learner then she is a Theorist - How does this relate to that? Concrete experience (laboratories, field work, observations). If this if the preferred style of the learner then he is a Pragmatist - How can I apply this in practice?

learning taxonomy (Bloom's Hierarchy): A taxonomic classification of cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviors for the purposes of test design invented by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues. lesson A segment of instruction that contains a learning objective and information to be imparted to the student. lesson plan A written guide for trainers plans in order to achieve the intended learning outcomes. It provides specific definition and direction on learning objectives, equipment, instructional media material requirements, and conduct of the training. Lickert Scale A way of generating a quantitative value (numerical) to a qualitative questionnaire (e.g. poor, fair, good, very good, excellent). Sometimes used on end of course evaluation. (smile sheets) For an ascending five point scale incremental values are assigned to each category and a mean figure for all the responses is calculated. (via the sum of the products of the categories' assigned value times the number of respondents for that category, divided by the total number of respondents) Example: Total number of respondents=25, assigned values are; poor=1, fair=2,

good=3, very good=4, excellent=5; respondents selecting following categories are; good=9, very good=10, excellent=6. The quantitative mean = ((9*3)+(10*4)+(6*5))/25=3.9 lifelong learning The concept of 'continuous personal development' through student centered (selfactualized) learning. linear A programming method characterized by short steps of instruction, constructed response, and a maximum amount of overt activity. The least desirable programming technique. (see branching)

mastery Meeting all of the specified minimum requirements for a specific performance. measurement A tool used to provide feedback to the learner and the trainer to determine where the learner is in relation to the ultimate goal or objective. media The means by which material is presented to learners; e.g. film, slides, computers, etc. meta skills Cognitive strategies that an individual applies to the processing of new information in a novel situation (a scenario not previously experienced). These skills include chunking or organizing new information, recalling relevant schemas, adding the new information to the old schemas, and creating new schemas. mind mapping Technique invented by Tony Buzan following research on note taking procedures which proved that if a learner writes down own key words then retention was maximized. model (1) A person that serves as a target subject for a learner to emulate. (2) A representation of a process or system that show the most important variables in

the system in such a way that analysis of the model leads to insights into the system. modeling The process of observing and mapping the successful behaviors of other people. module A stand-alone instructional unit that is designed to satisfy one or more learning objectives. A separate component complete within itself that can be taught, measured, and evaluated for a change or bypassed as a whole; one that is interchangeable with others, used for assembly into units of differing size, complexity, or function. A module consists of one or more lessons. Also called ìannexî or ìsubcourseî. motivational device A design element that causes and sustains interest or regulates activity for the purpose of causing the student to perform in a desired way. multimedia training An instructional system that incorporates all or various instructional methods and media. It describes any application that uses multiple media (graphics, text, animation, audio, video), but multimedia is primarily thought of as any application that uses high-bandwidth media (audio and video) and is most often delivered on CD-ROM.

needs analysis A method used to determine training needs by reviewing work tasks, identifying performance factors and objectives, and defining training objectives and recommendations. norm-referenced measurement The process of determining a student's achievement in relation to other students.

objectivity In testing, the elimination of subjective bias by limiting choices to fixed alternatives. on-the-job-training (OJT) Formal training for learning the skills and knowledge to perform a job that takes

place in the actual work environment. open-ended test item (open-ended response) A question that can be answered in a variety of ways (e.g., an essay). over learning Practice beyond what is required for retention. Also called over training. paper validation The process of stepping through the courseware using storyboards/scripts on the actual delivery system. participative design A process that refers to all the participation of all the functional areas of the organization in the training design activity. The intent is to enhance the design with the input of all the key stakeholders. Such a process should ensure that the final outcome of the design meets the needs of the stakeholders. passive learning Learning where no feedback is provided to a user's response. pedagogy (pËd-e-go¥jÍ) Literally means the art and science of educating children, pedagogy is often used as a synonym for teaching. Pedagogy embodies teacher-focused education. perceptual modality Learning style that refers to the primary way our bodies take in and perceive information; visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile (VAK). performance The accomplishment of a task in accordance with a set standard of completeness and accuracy. performance aid See job aid. performance analysis It is the process by which professionals partner with clients to identify and respond to opportunities and problems, and through study of individuals and the organization, to determine an appropriate cross-functional solution system. Performance analysis is a systematic and systemic approach to engaging with the client. It is the process by which we determine when and how to use education

and information resources. performance-based instruction Instruction which develops learner performance proficiency via task-based learning objectives written with an action verb. Learners prove competency by actual performance of the objectives to the established standards. performance criteria/standard Part of a learning objective that describes the observable learner behavior (or the product of that behavior) that is acceptable as proof that learning has occurred. performance deficiency The inability of a unit or individual to perform the required tasks to the established standard. performance gap The delta between desired and actual performance. performance improvement A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance improvement gaps, planning for future improvements in human performance, designing and developing cost-effective and ethically-justifiable interventions to close performance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial and nonfinancial results. performance measures The actions that can be objectively observed and measured to determine if a task performer has performed the task to the prescribed standard. performance objective A statement of the conditions, learner's behavior (action), and standard. A criterion for prescribing the desired learner performance. This is a generic term and may be either a criterion objective or an enabling objective. performance technology Technologies designed to enhance human performance and capabilities in the workplace. Also referred to as human performance technology, it is a systematic process of integrating practices from a vast breadth of fields such as instructional technology, organizational development, motivation, feedback, human factors, and employee selection. personalized system of instruction (PSI) (Keller plan)

A teaching technique that involves dividing course material into segments, evaluating learner performance on each segment for subject mastery, and allowing learners to move from segment to segment at their own pace. pipeline The total time involved in training personnel once they are designated as students. This includes time traveling to the training activity, time awaiting instruction, time of actual training, time from termination of training until reporting back to the workplace; may include more than one training activity. practical exercise A technique used during a training session that permits students to acquire and practice the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to successfully perform one or more training objectives. practice Repeated and systematic performance to gain proficiency using the psychomotor, cognitive, and affective skills, acquired in the training phase. Initial practice occurs while the student is acquiring skills; proficiency practice occurs at intervals after training so that the skills may be refreshed. Practice enables the student to perform the job proficiently. practice effect The influence of previous experience in taking a test for the second time or more. Familiarity with directions, types of items, and questions when taking a test again usually helps the examinee to score higher. Practice effect is greatest when the time interval between the test and retest is short and when the same form is administered. proficiency Ability to perform a specific behavior (e.g., task, learning objective) to the established performance standard in order to demonstrate mastery of the behavior. proficiency training Training conducted to improve or maintain the capability of individuals and teams to perform in a specified manner. Training to develop and maintain a given level of skill in the individual or team performance of a particular task. programmed learning A procedure that provides information to the learner in small steps, guarantees immediate feedback concerning whether or not the material was learned properly and allows the learner the pace with which she can go through the material. prompt

A word or signal that initiates or guides behavior; a cue. psychomotor domain Involves physical movement and coordination. The Taxonomies major categories in order of ascending difficulty are: • • • • • Imitation: Observes skill and tries to repeat it. Manipulation: Performs skill according to instruction rather than observation. Precision: Reproduces a skill with accuracy, proportion and exactness. Usually performed independent of original source. Articulation: Combines one or more skills in sequence with harmony and consistency. Naturalization: Completes one or more skills with ease and becomes automatic.

quiz A short test administered by the instructor to measure achievement on material recently taught or on any small, newly completed unit of work.

reductionism A meaningful way to study complex subjects by dividing it up into smaller components. remediation Supplemental course materials to correct a learner's understanding or to reinforce the learning objective. response Any behavior that results from a stimulus or stimuli. In instruction, it designates a wide variety of behavior which may involve a single word, selection among alternatives (multiple choice), the solution of a complex problem, the manipulation of buttons or keys, etc. remedial loop An adjustive device that allows remedial instruction for learners.

scaffold A metaphor which describes the support offered by educators in assisting learners to achieve learning outcomes. It is characterized by the explicit training of skills and knowledge targeting specific individuals, small groups or, where appropriate, whole classes. Prior knowledge of the subject matter or the learning environment can help the learners regulate by providing a ready scaffold (stepping stone, learning aid) for new knowledge, or by making the learning environment easier to use so it doesn't displace the subject matter as the object of study. schema In learning psychology, the way in which a human processes, store and "recreates" information coming into the brain. segmented training Modification of existing formal courses into discrete portions. self-paced learning Learning initiated and directed by the learner. The term is used by some organizations now to include computer-based, web-based and multimedia training. self teaching packages Self instructional study units sent to the learner's location. sequencing Arranging the teaching points, teaching steps, and criterion steps into the most appropriate order for effective learning. sequential training The ordering of training so that the learning of new or more complex skills/knowledge is built on and reinforces previously learned material. shaping The process of gradually changing a student's behavior until it conforms to the desired behavior. simulation Any representation or imitation of reality. An instructional strategy used to teach problem solving, procedures, or operations by immersing learners in situations resembling reality. The learners actions can be analyzed, feedback about specific errors provided, and performance can be scored. They provide safe environments for users to practice real-world skills. They can be especially important in

situations where real errors would be too dangerous or too expensive. sitting with Nellie Discredited form of training where the learner observes an expert performing the tasks. skill The ability to perform a psychomotor activity that contributes to the effective performance of a task. small group instruction (SGI) A means of delivering training which places the responsibility for learning on the student through participation in small groups led by small group leaders who serve as role models throughout the course. SGI uses small group processes, methods, and techniques to stimulate learning. small group leader (SGL) An instructor who facilitates role modeling, counseling, coaching, learning, and team building in Small Group Instruction (SGI). small group trial Tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the student target population to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates, criterion test performance, and time to complete the course. Also called ìtrialsî or ìtryout, small groupî. soft skills As opposed to hard skills. Business skills are more related to competencies rather than skills, such as leadershipc or listening. standards Describes the criterion or standards of performance which must be attained. An established norm against which measurements are compared. The time allowed to perform a task including the quality and quantity of work to be produced. stem The part of a test item that asks a question. stimulus Anything that provokes behavior. The event, situation, condition, signal, or cue to which a response must be made. stimulus discrimination

The correct response to a multiple choice situation stimulus instruction The part of a discrimination-type situation that tells the learner how to work the exercise, or the stem to a discrimination type exercise. storyboard A series of pictures which support the action and content that will be contained in an audiovisual sequence. student controlled instruction An instructional environment in which the student can choose from a variety of instructional options for achievement of the terminal objectives. Students can vary their rate of learning, the media used, and other such learning factors. Also called "learner controlled instruction". student population baseline data Information about the current level of performance of the student population that can be used to confirm the need to develop new instruction or to assess differences between student performance before (at baseline) and after instruction. Also called ìbaseline dataî. subject matter expert (SME) A person who can perform a job or a selected group of tasks to standards. Her experience and knowledge of the job designates her as a technical expert. She must know what is critical to the performance of the task and what is nice-toknow. She must have recent job experience, otherwise, her knowledge of the task may be outdated by new procedures or equipment. suggestopedia Methodology developed by Georgi Lozanov. Sometimes called Super Learning or Accelerated Learning. In broad terms, it is a research based technology and an philosophy that uses learners' holistic natural talents to provide them the highest probability of maximizing their learning, retention, and performance. It is supposed to create a stress-free, positive, joyful, psychologically and physically healthy environment that enhances self-esteem and focuses on the needs of the learner. system approach to training (SAT) See Instructional Systems Design (ISD).

tabletop analysis

Using a facilitator, a small group of (3-10) subject matter experts convene to identify the various tasks to be performed. Through brainstorming and consensus building, the team develops a sequential list of tasks. Following this process, the team determines which tasks should be trained. Task selection is based on the frequency, difficulty, criticality and the consequences of error or poor performance. target population The total collection of a population that is scheduled to enter a given instructional program. task The smallest essential part of a job. A unit of work activity that is a logical and necessary action in the performance of a job. It can be described in simple terms. Has an identifiable start and end point and results in a measurable accomplishment or product. task analysis Involves the systematic process of identifying specific tasks to be trained; and a detailed analysis of each of those tasks. Task analysis information can be used as the foundation for: developing instructional objectives, identifying and selecting appropriate instructional strategies, sequencing instructional content, identifying and selecting appropriate instructional media, and designing performance evaluation tools. It is always done in the context of a specific job. It facilitates training program design by providing a description of the fundamental elements of a job. task selection model A model used to apply statistically valid task selection models to identify critical individual tasks. There are a variety of models available for use. Some examples of task selection models are as follows: • • Difficulty-importance-frequency model. An individual critical task selection model that uses difficulty, importance, and frequency factors. Eight-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that uses percent performing, percent time spent performing, consequence of inadequate performance, task delay tolerance, frequency of performance, task learning difficulty, probability of deficient performance, and immediacy of performance. Four-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that uses percent performance, and task learning difficulty. Training Emphasis (TE) model. An individual critical task selection model

• •

that uses the training emphasis factor to determine if a task is critical or not. The TE factor is collected from supervisors of job holders. It reflects how much emphasis the task should be given in training for a specific task. teaching point The smallest increment of information to which a learner may be expected to respond; a statement of fact or a procedural step in the performance of a task; the precise information you want a learner to know or respond to. terminal behavior The behavior which the learner is to demonstrate after the learning experience. terminal learning objective Prescription of the conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performance for the training setting. A learning objective at the highest level of learning (SKA) appropriate to the human performance requirements a student will accomplish when successfully completing instruction. test A device or technique used to measure the performance, skill level, or knowledge of a learner on a specific subject matter. It usually involves quantification of results -- a number that represents an ability or characteristic of the person being tested. test fidelity The degree to which the test resembles the actual task performed. The closer the resemblance, the higher the fidelity of the test. test item analysis The process of evaluating single test items by any of several methods. This usually involves the determination of how well an individual item separates examinees, its relative difficulty value, and its correlation with some criterion of measurement. topic The basic organizational unit of instruction covering one or more closely related learning objectives. topical outline An outline of the topics to be included in the instructor guide. It provides course learning objectives, a listing of part, section, and topic titles and statements of rationale to explain or justify the training. It is used by the curriculum designer to

develop the instructor guides. trainer A person who directs the growth of learners by making them qualified or proficient in a skill or task. Uses coaching, instructing, and facilitating techniques to accomplish the learning objectives. training Learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job. training aid An item to enhance training. May include charts, slides, and schematics training concept A summary describing how the required training is to be accomplished in terms of type of training, presentation environment, presentation techniques, presentation media, pipeline, location, and other considerations. transfer of training The ability of persons to effectively apply to the job the knowledge and skills they gain in dissimilar learning situation. Also, the learning in one situation that facilitates learning (and therefore performance) in subsequent similar situations. tutorial An instructional program that presents new information to the student efficiently and provides practice exercises based on that information. A lesson design used to teach an entire concept. Interactive instruction that asks questions based on the information presented, requests student responses, and evaluates student responses. It is self-paced, accommodates a variety of users, and generally involves some questioning, branching, and options for review.

validation A process of testing the effectiveness of instruction by administering the criterion test immediately after the instruction. Also, a process through which a course is administered and revised until learners effectively attain the base line objectives. validity The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Although there are several types of validity and different classification schemes for describing validity there are two major types of validity that test developers must be concerned with, they are content-related and criterion-related validity.

varied repetition Design elements that repeat a segment of a lesson differently to enhance learning. vestibule training A variant of job rotation in which a separate work area is set up for a learner so that the actual work situation does not pressure the learner, (e.g. cockpit simulator).

web based instruction (WBI) Web-based Instruction is delivered over public or private computer networks and displayed by a Web browser. WBI is available in many formats and several terms are linked to it; on-line courseware, distance education on-line, etc. WBI is not downloaded CBT, but rather on-demand training stored in a server and accessed across a network. WBI can be updated very rapidly, and access to the training controlled by the training provider. workbook A handout that contains procedures and exercises designed to assist the learner in achieving the learning objectives. worker efficiency A measure (usually computed as a percentage) of worker performance that compares the standard time allowed to complete a task to the actual worker time to complete it. work sample The use of number of random samples to determine the frequency with which certain activities are performed. Performance on a work sample is frequently used as a criterion against which prediction devices in evaluation are validated.

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