# ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING – GIBILISCO CHAPTER 1

An EMF of 1 V Ans: can sometimes produce a large current A potentially lethal electric current is on the order of Ans: 0.1 A A current of 25 A is most likely drawn by Ans: a typical household You are told that an air conditioner has cooled a room by 500 BTU over a certain period of time. What is this amount of energy in kWh? Ans: 0.147 kWh Of the following energy units, the most often used to define electrical energy is Ans: the kilowatt-hour The frequency of common household ac in the United States is Ans: 60 Hz Half-wave rectification means that Ans: half of the ac wave is cut-off. In the output of a half-wave rectifier, Ans: the effective voltage is less than that of the ac input wave. In the output of a full wave rectifier, Ans: the effective voltage is the same as that of the ac input wave. A low voltage, such as 12 V, Ans: can be dangerous under certain conditions. Which of the following units can represent magnetomotive force? Ans: The ampere-turn Which of the foloowing units can represent magnetic flux density? Ans: the gauss. A ferromagnetic material Ans: concentrates magnetic flux lines within itself.

• • The atomic number of an element is determined by Ans: the number of protons • • The atomic weight of an element is approximately determined by Ans: the number protons plus the number of neutrons • • Suppose there is an atom oxygen. Containing eight protons and eight neutrons in the nucleus, and the two neutrons are added to the nucleus. What is the resulting atomic weight? Ans: 18 • • An ion Ans: can have either positive or negative charge An isotope Ans: can have either positive or negative charge A molecule Ans: can consist of a single atom of an element In a compound, Ans: There must always be two or more elements An electrical insulator can made a conductor Ans: by ionizing it. Of the following substances, the worst conductor is Ans: air. • • Of the following substances, the best conductor is Ans: copper • • Movement of holes in a semiconductor Ans: results in a certain amount of electric current. • • If a material has low resistance, then Ans: it is a good conductor. • • A coulomb Ans: is an extremely large of charge carriers. A stroke of lightning Ans: is a discharge of static electricity. The volt is the standard unit of Ans: electromotive force If an EMF of 1 volt is placed across a resistance of 2 ohms, then the current is Ans: half an ampere In a battery, chemical energy can sometimes be replenished by Ans: charging it. A fluctuating magnetic field Ans: produces a fluctuating electric field. • • Visible light is converted into electricity Ans: in a photovoltaic cell. • CHAPTER 2 • A positive electric pole Ans: has fewer electrons than the negative pole/ • • •

CHAPTER 3 • The attraction or repulsion between two electrically charged object is called Ans: Electrostatic force The change in the direction of a compass needle, when current carrying wire is brought near, is called Ans: Electromagnetic deflection Suppose a certain current in a galvanometer causes the needle to deflect by 20 degrees, and then this current is doubled while the polarity stays the same. The angle of the deflection will Ans: increase. One important advantage of an electrostatic meter is the fact that Ans: it can detect and indicate ac voltages as well as dc voltages. A thermocouple Ans: gets warm when dc flows though it. An important advantage of an electromagnet type meter over a permanent magnet meter is the fact that Ans: the electromagnet meter gets more rugged.

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Ammeter shunts are useful because Ans: they allow for measurements of large currents. Voltmeters should have Ans: high internal resistance. In order to measure the power-supply voltage that is applied to an electrical circuit, a voltmeter should be placed Ans: in parallel with the circuit that works from the supply. Which of the following will not normally cause a large error in an ohmmeter reading? Ans: A small change in the resistance to be measured. The main advantage of FETVM over a conventional voltmeter is the fact that the FETVM Ans: draws less current from the circuit under test. Which of the following is not a function of a fuse? Ans: To ensure there is enough current available for an appliance to work right. The utility’s motor speed depends directly on Ans: the number of watt-hours being used at the time. A utility meter’s readout indicates Ans: energy. A typical frequency counter Ans: is accurate to six digits or more. A VU meter is never used to get a general indication of Ans: visible light intensity. The meter movement in an illumination meter directly measures Ans: current. An oscilloscope cannot be used to indicate Ans: Energy

CHAPTER 5 • In a series-connected string of ornament bulbs, if one bulb gets shorted out, which of the following will occur? Ans: The current in the string will go up. Fill in the blank in the following sentence to make it true: “In a series or parallel dc circuit sum of the ___s in each component is equal to the ___ provided by the power supply.” Ans: wattage In a voltage divider network, the total resistance Ans: should be as small as the power supply will allow. The maximum voltage output from a voltage divider Ans: is equal to the supply voltage.

CHAPTER 6 • Proper biasing in an amplifier circuit Ans: can be obtained using a voltage divider network. A transistor can be protected from needless overheating by Ans: a current limiting resistor. A bleeder resistor Ans: is connected across the capacitor in a power supply. Carbon composition resitors Ans: have essentially no capacitance or inductance. A logical place for a wirewound resistor Ans: in a high power dc circuit. A metal film resistor Ans: does not have much inductance. What type of resistor, or combination of resistors, would you use as the meter-sensitivity control in a test instrument, when continuous adjustment is desired? Ans: A linear taper potentiometer. What type of resistor, or combination of resistors, would you use as the volume control in a stereo compact-disc (CD) player? Ans: An audio taper potentiometer. An advantage of rheostat over a potentiometer is the fact that Ans: a rheostat can handle more current. A resistor has a value of 680 Ω, and you expect that it will have to draw 1 mA maximum continuous current in a circuit you’re building. What power rating is good for this application, but not needlessly high? Ans: ¼ W Suppose a 1 k Ω resistor will dissipate 1.05 W, and you have a good supply of 1 W resistors of various ohmic values. If there’s room for 20 percent resistance error, the cheapest solution is to use Ans: a pair of 2.2 kΩ, 1-W resistors in parallel.

CHAPTER 4 • Suppose you double the voltage in a somple dc circuit, and cut the resistance in half. The current will Ans: becomes four times as great. You can expect to find a wiring diagram Ans: in the service/repair manual for a two-way radio. Suppose you have an unlimited supply of 1-W, 100-Ω resistors. You need to get a 100- Ω, 10-W resistor. This can be done most cheaply by means of a series-parallel matrix of Ans: 4x4 resistors. Suppose you have an unlimited supply of 1-W, 1000-Ω resistors and you need a 500-Ω resistance rated at 7 W or more. This can be done by assembling Ans: four sets of resitors in series, and connecting these four sets in parallel. Suppose you have an unlimited supply of 1-W, 1000-Ω resistors and you need to get a 3000-Ω, 5-W resistance. The best way is to Ans: do something other than any of the above Good engineering practice usually requires that a series-parallel resistive network be assembled Ans: form resistors that are all identical. •

CHAPTER 7 • The chemical energy in a battery or cell Ans: changes to electrical energy when the cell is used. A cell cannot be recharged is known as

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Where would you most likely find a lead-acid battery? Ans: In an uninterruptible power supply. A substance with high retentivity Ans: is well suited to making a permanent magnet. A disadvantage of mercury cells and batteries is the fact that Ans: mercury is destructive to the environment. An advantage of methanol over hydrogen for use in fuel cells is the fact that Ans: methanol is easier to transport and store. but a schematic diagram might not. • CHAPTER 8 • The geomagnetic field Ans: makes a compass work. A magnetic hard disk is usually part of Ans: A computer. A wiring diagram differs from a schematic diagram in that Ans: A wiring diagram shows the component values. The useful current that is delivered by a solar power system Ans: connecting two or more groups of solar cells in parallel. Lines of magnetic flux are said to origniate Ans: at a north magnetic pole. In which of the following devices would a transistor battery be the best power choice? Ans: an electronic calculator For which of the following applications would you choose a lithium battery? Ans: A microcomputer memory backup. A cell or battery that maintains a constant current-delivering capability almost until it dies is said to have Ans: A flat discharge curve. The energy in a cell or battery depends mainly on Ans: its physical size. The ohm is a unit of Ans: opposition to electrical current. A material that can be permanently magnetized is generally said to be • • • • • 3 . Geomagnetic lines of flux Ans: are horizontal at the geomagnetic equator. The force between a magnet and a piece of ferromagnetic metal that has not been magnetized Ans: is never be repulsive. for data storage and retrieval is that Ans: data can be stored and retrieved more quickly with disks than tapes. • • • • • • Alkaline cells Ans: generally work better in radios than zinc-carbon cells. What kind of battery should never be used until it dies? Ans: Nickel based. unmagnetized iron. An advantage of an electromaganet over a permanent magnet is a fact that Ans: an electromagnet can be switched on and off. Where might you find a nickel-based battery? Ans: More than one of the above. The presence of a magnetic field can always be attributed to Ans: motion of electric charge carriers. Which of the following statement is false? Ans: The current in a dc circuit is divided up among the resistances.Ans: a primary cell. An advantage of a magnetic disk. The voltage produced by a battery of multiple cells connected in series is Ans: more than the voltage produced by a cell of the same composition. • A Weston cell is generally used Ans: as a voltage reference source. The gauss is a unit of Ans: magnetic flux density A unit of overall magnetic field quantity is the Ans: Maxwell. In which of the following devices would a lantern battery most likely be found? Ans: a two-way portable radio. An ac electromagnet Ans: attracts pure. Which of the following can occur during a geomagnetic storm? Ans: More than one above can occur. Suppose a relay is connected into a circuit so that a device gets a signal only when the relay coil carries current. • Ans: ferromagnetic. An interactive solar power system Ans: allows a homeowner to sell power to the electric company. The relay is Ans: normally open. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • TEST: PART 1 • An application in which an analog meter would almost always be preferred over a digital meter is Ans: the signal strength indicator in a radio receiver. A direct short-circuit of a large battery can cause Ans: a physical rupture or explosion. current-carrying wire Ans: is strongest near the wire. A high tape-recorder motor speed is generally used for Ans: video recording and playback. A device that repeatedly reverses the polarity of a magnetic field in order to keep a dc motor rotating is known as Ans: A commutator. compared with magnetic tape. The magnetic flux around a straight.

The current flowing into a power in a dc circuit is equal to the current Ans: Flowing out of that point.• In which of the following places would you be most likely to find a wirewound resistor? Ans: A dc circuit location where a large amount of power must be dissipated. • • Which of the following is not a common use for a resistor or set of resistors Ans: Helping a capacitor to hold its charge for a long time. has Ans: an equal value. The advantage of an alkaline cell over a carbon zinc cell is the fact that Ans: the alkaline cell can deliver useful current at low temperatures. When an electrical charge exists but there is no flow of current. A material with high permeability Ans: concentrates the magnetic lines of flux. The main difference between a lantern battery and a transistor battery is the fact that Ans: A lantern battery has more energy stored in it than a fresh transistor battery. A chemical compound Ans: consists of two or more atoms. • • • • • • Which of the following units indicates at which energy is expended? Ans: Watt Which of the following states Ohm’s Law? Ans: Ohms equal volts divided by amperes. A voltmeter should have Ans: High internal resistance. An electrically charged atom (either positive or negative) is known as Ans: an ion. A disadvantage of mercury cells is the fact that they Ans: can adversely affect the environment when discarded. The sum of the voltages. A hot wire ammeter Ans: can measure ac as well as dc. The main problem with bar-graph meters is the fact that Ans: they cannot give very precise readings. The peak voltage in an ac wave is always Ans: is greater than or equal to the average voltage. • A rheostat Ans: can be used in high voltage and/or high power dc circuits. but never with dc? Ans: Frequency The length of time between a point in one cycle and the same point in the next cycle of an ac wave is the Ans: Period • • • 4 . A unit of conductance is the Ans: Siemens. In a loudness meter in a hi-fi system is generally calibrated in Ans: Decibels. but not including the power supply. A unit of electrical charge quantity is the Ans: Coulomb. The number of protons in the nucleus of an element is known as the Ans: atomic number. Every chemical element has its own unique type of particle. A sample of material with resistance so high that it can be considered infinite for most practical purposes is known as Ans: an insulator. but the opposite polarity from. A watt-hour meter measures Ans: Energy. the supply. going around a dc circuit. Nickel based batteries would most likely be found Ans: in handheld radio transceivers. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • CHAPTER 9 • Which of the following can vary with ac. Memory in nickel-based cell or battery Ans: can usually be remedied by repeated discharging and recharging. the charge is said to be Ans: static. The purpose of a bleeder resistor is to Ans: protect people against the danger of electric shock.5 V. The rate at which charged carriers flow is measured in Ans: Amperes A device commonly used for remote switching of high-current circuits is Ans: A relay. A primitive device for indicating the presence of an electric current is Ans: a galvanometer. A dc electromagnet Ans: has constant polarity. Primary cells Ans: cannot be recharged. which is known as its Ans: Proton. A geomagnetic storm Ans: can disturb the earth’s magnetic field. An advantage of magnetic disk over magnetic tape for data storage is the fact that Ans: data storage and retrieval is faster on disk. How much a typical dry cell provide? Ans: 1.

combine Ans: like resistors in series. an ac signal having only one frequency component looks like Ans: A single pip. The period of an ac wave.000 ms) has a frequency of Ans: 6. which is in the AF range. • • Inductors in series. moving the coil further into a solenoidal coil • • • • • • CHAPTER 11 • Capacitance acts to store electrical energy as Ans: electric field. The composite wave Ans: is a sine wave with an amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the two original waves. Which of the following is not a characteristic of mica capacitors? Ans: Small size. A material with a high dielectric constant Ans: acts to increase capacitance per unit volume. A triangular wave exhibits Ans: a defined rise and a defined decay. Ans: the capacitance increases.000 millisecond (1. The main advantage of air as a dielectric material for capacitors is the fact that it Ans: has low loss. A ferromagnetic core is placed in an inductor mainly to Ans: increase the inductance. Ans: the capacitance increases. As an inductor core material. even for large values of capacitance. A major feature of a pot core inductor is Ans: large inductance in small volume. it does noe exist). which is in the frequency-modulation (FM) broadcast band and is considered part of the very high frequency (VHF) radio spectrum.01 uF Which of the following capacitance values is most typical of an airvariable capacitor? Ans: 1 to 100 pF Which of the following capacitors is polarized? Ans: Electrolytic If a capacitor has a negative temperature coefficient. At a frequency of 400 Hz. because the two input waves cancel each other out. the most likely form for an inductor would be Ans: toroidal. the peak-to-peak amplitude is equal to Ans: twice the peak amplitude Which one of the following does not affect the power output available from a particular ac generator? Ans: The type of natural energy source used. assuming there is no mutual inductance. As capacitor plate area increases.7 MHz. In a perfect sine wave. • CHAPTER 10 • An inductor works by Ans: storing energy as a magnetic field. The main problem with bar-graph meters is the fact that Ans: they cannot give very precise readings. If two perfect sine waves have the same frequency and the same amplitude. Which of the following capacitance values is most typical of a diskceramic capacitor? Ans: 100 pF Which of the following capacitance values is most typical of a paper capacitor? Ans: 0.000 kHz A degree of phase represents Ans: 1/360 of a cycle Ans: increases the inductance. and the two are equal. • • An advantage of ac over dc in utility applications is the fact that Ans: ac is easier to transform one voltage to another. the result would be Ans: Fluctuating dc. • • • • • • • Suppose that two ac waves have the same frequency but differ in phase by exactly 1/20 of a cycle. a good form for an inductor would be Ans: air-core. Which of the following does not affect inductance of an air-core coil. Three phase ac Ans: consists of three sine waves in different phases. If two perfect sine waves have the same frequency and the same phase. all other things being equal. air Ans: has high permeability. the composite wave Ans: has zero amplitude (that is. What is the phase difference between these two waves? Ans: 180 degrees. is Ans: equal to 1 divided by the frequency in Hertz The 6th harmonic of an ac wave whose period is 1. The main problem with bar-graph meters is the fact that Ans: they cannot give very precise readings. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 5 . in seconds. then Ans: its capacitance decreases as the temperature rises. • A significant advantage in some situations of a toroidal core over a solenoid is the fact that Ans: the magnetic flux in a toroid is practically all within the core. As the spacing between plates in a capacitor is smaller. all other things being equal. At a frequency of 95. With permeability tuning. if all other factors are held constant? Ans: frequency In a small inductance Ans: energy is stored and released quickly.• On a spectrum analyzer. If a 175 V dc source were connected in series with the utility mains from a standard wall outlet. but are in opposite phase.

the value of xL for a particular coil of wire Ans: decreases. Ans: corresponds to a unique combination of resistance and inductive reactance. all other things being equal. This number is Ans: 360. the phase angle is Ans: 0° • • • • • CHAPTER 13 • As the number of turns in a coil that carries ac increases without limit. Each complex impedance value R . • • All sine waves Ans: have similar general appearance.CHAPTER 12 • • Which of the following is not a general characteristic of an ac wave? Ans: The electrons flow in the same direction. the length of the vector represents Ans: the peak amplitude of a sine wave In vector diagram. If the dielectric material between the plates of a capacitor is changed. The resultant has voltages of Ans: ± 4 V pk. If R increases in an RC circuit. Two pure sine wave differ in phase by 180° can be considered to Ans: be in phase opposition • • Suppose two sine waves are in phase opposition. • • If wave X lags wave Y by 1/3 cycle. In a purely resistive circuit. This number is Ans: 180. You can add or subtract a certain number of degrees of phase or to from a sine wave. then Ans: WAye Y is 120° ahead of wave X. the progression. A vector is defined as mathematical quantity that has Ans: magnitude and direction In a circuit containing inductive reactance but no resistance. The derivative of a sine wave Ans: is the rate of change in the instantaneous value. Suppose two waves are in phase coincidence. shifting the phase of an ac sine wave by 90° is the same thing as Ans: moving it right or left by ¼ cycle. As the frequency of a wave gets lower. If wave X leads wave Y by 45°. the value of xC for a capacitor Ans: increases negatively. The resultant has voltages of Ans: ± 8 V pk.jXC Ans: represents a unique combination of resistance and reactance. A phase difference of 180° in the circular motion model of a sine wave represents Ans: ½ revolution You can add or subtract a certain number of degrees of phase to or from a wave. the phase angle is Ans: equal to 90°. the angle between two vectors represents Ans: the phase difference between two sine waves. but the capacitance and the frequency are nonzero and constant. the distance from the center of the graph represents Ans: peak amplitude • • In diagrams. Each point in the RL plane. all other things being equal. Each point in the RC plane Ans: corresponds to a unique combination of resistance and reactance. Each specific complex impedance value defined in the form R + jXL Ans: All of the above are true. the phase angle Ans: approaches 0°. the reactance at a constant frequency Ans: increases • If xC/R = -1 then what is the phase angle? Ans: -45° CHAPTER 15 • The square of an imaginary number Ans: can never be positive • 6 . the points in the RL plane for all the resulting impedances will lie along Ans: a ray of indefinite length. but are always in the ratio 3:1. then the vector in the RC plane will Ans: get longer and rotate counterclockwise. approaching zero As the number of turns in a coil increases. in phase with wave Y. As shown on a graph. Wave X has a peak amplitude of ± 4 V and wave Y has a peak amplitude of ± 8 V. or any whole-number multiple of it. of the is sometimes depicted as Ans: counterclockwise rotation of a vector • • • As the frequency of an ac wave gets lower. Ans: we cannot say what happens to xC without more data. and end up with exactly the same wave again. If the inductive reactance and resistance in an RL circuit are equal (as expressed in ohms) then what is the phase angle? Ans: 45° • • • • • • • • • • CHAPTER 14 • As the size of the plates in a capacitor increases. and end up with an inverted (upside down) representation of the original. One has peak values of ± 3 V and the other has peak values of ± 5 V. as the ratio xC/R approaches zero. If the resistance R and the inductive reactance XL both are allowed to vary from zero to unlimited values. In vector diagram. all other things are being equal Ans: the value of xC decreases negatively. In an RC circuit. or any odd-whole number multiple of it. then Ans: Wave Y is 1/8 cycle behind wave X. pointing outward the origin. the current in the coil will Ans: decrease. • • In vector diagrams. in phase with the composites.

234-V rms electricity usually has Ans: three phases. The complex impedance value 5 + j0 represents Ans: a pure resistance The complex impedance value 0 – j22 represents Ans: a pure capacitance If the center conductor of a coaxial cable is made to have a smaller diameter. • • • • • • • • • CHAPTER 16 • When R = 0 in a series RLC circuit. as the resistance becomes small compared with the reactance. all other things being equal. the angle of lag approaches which of the following? Ans: 90° In a parallel configuration. A transformer has a secondary to primary turns ratio of 0. depending on the extent and phase of mutual coupling. but the net reactance is not zero. Power factor is equal to Ans: true power divided by apparent power. the impedance vector Ans: none of the above is correct What will happen to the susceptance of a capacitor if the frequency is doubled and all other factors remain constant? Ans: It will double A vector pointing southeast in the GB plane would indicate Ans: conductance and inductive susceptance • • • • • • • CHAPTER 17 • The power in a pure reactance is Ans: imaginary. This transformer is Ans: a step down unit. a center tap often exists in Ans: the secondary winding An autotransformer Ans: consists of a single tap winding If there is reactance in the load to which a transformer is connected.167. The capacitance between the primary and the secondary windings of a transformer can be minimized by Ans: placing the windings on opposite sides of a toroidal core. as the absolute value of the impedance in a circuit increases Ans: the flow of ac decreases • • Which of the following is a significant problem that standing waves can cause in an RF transmission line? Ans: All of the above • • CHAPTER 18 • In a step-up transformer. • TEST: PART 2 • Mutual inductance causes the net value of a set of coils Ans: vary. susceptances Ans: simply add up. concerning air cores compared with ferromagnetic cores? Ans: Air concentrates the magnetic lines of flux Eddy currents cause Ans: an increase in core loss.5 H? Ans: Ferromagnetic pot core An advantage of toroid core over a solenoid core is the fact that Ans: the toroid confines the magnetic flux High voltage is used in long-distance power transmission because Ans: the I2R losses are minimized In a household circuit. In a transformer. Which of the following is not an example of true power? Ans: The product of the rms ac through capacitor and the rms voltage across it. The shell method of transformer winding Ans: provides maximum coupling Which of these core types is best if you need a winding inductance of 1. If two sine waves are 180° out of phase. In general. then Ans: a perfect impedance match cannot be obtained. Ans: the primary voltage is less than the secondary voltage. what will happen to the Zo of the transmission line? Ans: It will increase. it represents a difference of • • • The phase angle in an ac circuit is equal to Ans: arctan (R/Z) Which of the following should be minimized in an RF transmission line? Ans: The line loss Which of the following does not increase the loss in the transmission line? • • • • 7 . • A complex number Ans: has a real number part and an imaginary part. In a series RL circuit. Susceptance and conductance add to form Ans: Complex admittance • • Absolute value impedance is equal to the square root of which of the following? Ans: R2 + X2 • • Inductive susceptance is defined in Ans: imaginary siemens Capacitive susceptance values can be defined by Ans: positive imaginary numbers Which of the following is false? Ans: Characteristic impedance is complex. Which of the following statements is false.Ans: Reducing the power output of the source.

which of the following techniques can be useful? Ans: Connecting multiple diodes in parallel. the alpha cutoff frequency is Ans: 335 kHz • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • CHAPTER 22 • In a PNP circuit. If you need exceptionally good ripple filtering for a power supply. A current surge takes place when a power supply is first turned on because Ans: the filter capacitor(s) must be initially charged. Suppose that the gain of a transistor in a common emitter circuit is 100 at a frequency of 1 kHz. • • Transient suppression is of importance mainly because it minimizes the risk of Ans: diode failure If a fuse blows. The configuration noted for its stability in RF power amplifiers is the Ans: common base circuit. pinchoff occurs when the gate bias is Ans: large and negative The current consists mainly of holes when a JFET Ans: has a P-type channel A JFET might work better than a bipolar transistor in Ans: a weak signal RF amplifier In a P-channel JFET. there is a good chance that Ans: the fuse will blow out right away. • • With no signal input. reverse biased. which of the following alternatives will yield the best results? Ans: Use two capacitor/choke filtering sections in cascade. the gain bandwidth product is Ans: the frequency at which the gain is 1. provided that Ans: the power supply or battery polarity is reversed. the collector Ans: is negative with respect to the emitter. it is said to be Ans: in state of saturation. To repair a damaged power supply with which you are not completely familiar. Suppose you set a fuse with nothing but a straight wire inside. and the gain is 70. Ans: the drain is negative relative to the source A JFET is sometimes biased at or beyond pinchoff in Ans: a power amplifier The gate of a JFET exhibits Ans: high impedance Which of the following conditions is not normally desirable in a JFET? Ans: A forward biased PN junction.7 at 335 kHz. When a transistor is conducting as much as it can. In many cases.Ans: point B • Which of the following would make the best filter for a power supply? Ans: A capacitor in parallel and a choke in series. The greatest possible amplification is obtained in Ans: a common emitter circuit. In a common base circuit. The current through a transistors depends on Ans: more than one of the above. the emitter corresponds to Ans: either of the diode cathodes. The bipolar transistor configuration most often used for matching a high input impedance to a low output impedance puts signal ground at Ans: the collector The output is in phase with the input in Ans: more than one of the above. Suppose that the input signal to a transistor amplifier results in saturation during part of the cycle. The gain drops to 1 at 210 MHz. A bipolar transistor has Ans: three semiconductor layers. Voltage regulation can be accomplished by a Zener diode connected in Ans: parallel with the filter output. • • • • • • • • • • • • 10 . with low-value resistors in series with each diode. In order to minimize the risk of diode destruction as a result of surge current that can occur when a power supply is first switched on. you should Ans: leave it alone and have a professional work on it. In the dual-diode model of an NPN transistor. The input is applied to the collector in Ans: none of the above. a bipolar transistor would have the least Ic when Ans: The E-B junction is reverse biased. Which of the operating point is best if a large amplification factor is desired with a weak signal input? Ans: Point C The forward breakover pojnt for the E-B junction is nearest to CHAPTER 23 • • The current through the channel of a JFET is directly affected by all of the following except Ans: gate bias In an N channel JFET. a PNP transistor can be replaced with an NPN device and the circuit will do the same thing. You can assume that this fuse Ans: is a quick break type. and it is replaced with one having a lower current rating. the output is taken from the Ans: collector. This produces Ans: the greatest possible amplification. • Saturation is nearest to Ans: point D The greatest gain occurs at Ans: point C In a common emitter circuit.

An oscillator might fail to start for any of the following reasons. The channel in a zero-biased JFET is normally Ans: in a conducting state. The highest modulating frequency can be used effectively is Ans: 155 kHz The reflected wave Ans: arrives in a variable phase compared with the direct wave. Transconductance is a ratio of Ans: a change in drain current to a change in gate voltage. A frequency synthesizer has Ans: exceptional stability A graphic equalizer is a form of Ans: tone control that can be used in an audio amplifier. The optimum capacitance values in an amplifier circuit depend on Ans: the input signal frequency. What bipolar amplifier type has some distortion in the signal wave. it is a good thing.• When a JFET is pinched off. the feedback should be Ans: just enough to sustain oscillation. • • • • • • • • • • 11 . which of the electrodes receives the input signal? Ans: The gate Which of the following circuits produces an output signal wave that is 180° out of phase with the input signal wave? Ans: The common source circuit. If the impedance of the load connected to the output of an oscillator is extremely high. Ans: the drain current fluctuates with no signal. a class C amplifier is always nonlinear. except Ans: in-phase feedback. The input impedance of a MOSFET is Ans: extremely high. of the cycle? Ans: class AB2 An RF oscillator usually Ans: has most or all of its energy at a single frequency. with collector during most. Which of the following modes is used to send image data over telephone lines? Ans: Fax The S/N is a measure of Ans: the sensitivity of a receiver. In a source follower. in a push-pull configuration. • A radio wave has a frequency of 1. The output power is 33 W. In an oscillator circuit.55 MHz. but not all. Ans: it is no cause for concern. A significant between MOSFETs and JFETs is the fact that Ans: MOSFETs can handle a wider range of gate bias voltage. A class C amplifier can be made linear by Ans: no means. When an enhancement mode MOSFET is at zero bias. • • • • • A disadvantage of MOS components is the fact that Ans: they can be easily damaged by static electricity. An advantage of FSK over on/off keying is the fact that Ans: reduces the number of receiving errors. the dc collector power input is Ans: 50 W The arrangement in the block diagram represents Ans: a waveform analyzer A tuned RF PA must always be Ans: adjusted for maximum power output. • In which of the following FET amplifier types does drain current flow for exactly 50 percent of the signal cycle? Ans: Class B The frequency at which a quartz crystal oscillator produces energy is largely dependent on Ans: the physical thickness of the quartz wafer. Suppose a certain bipolar-transistor PA is 66 percent efficient. • • A power gain of 44 dB is equivalent to which of the following output/input power ratios? Ans: 25. biased exactly at cutoff or pinchoff. Class B amplification can be used to obtain low distortion for audio applications Ans: by connecting two identical bipolar transistors or FETs. Which of the following circuits can produce the greatest gain (amplification factor)? Ans: The common source circuit • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • CHAPTER 24 • The decibel is a unit of Ans: relative signal strength CHAPTER 25 • An oscillator at RF amplifier requires the use of Ans: a stage with gain Suppose a circuit is found to have a gain figure of – 15 dB. Which of the following statements is true? Ans: The input signal is stronger than the output signal. An enhancement mode MOSFET can be recognized in schematic diagrams by the presence of Ans: a broken vertical line inside the circle. Ans: the value of dID/dEG is zero with no signal input. Characteristic curves for JFETs generally show Ans: drain current as a function of drain voltage. in fact.000:1 An RF choke Ans: passes dc but blocks RF signals. The highest layer of the ionosphere is Ans: F layer An LSB suppressed carrier signal can be demodulated by Ans: a product detector.

X. the control electrode is usually the Ans: gate A diode can be used as a frequency multiplier because of its Ans: nonlinearity.335 to 13. SSTV signals.” Ans: Serial The inputs of an R-S flip-flop are known as Ans: reset and set. • Suppose an SSB suppressed carrier is at 14.335 MHz. and audio data is contained in a band from 14. The beta of a bipolar transistor is another name for its Ans: current amplification factor. Which of the layer of the ionosphere exists at the lowest altitude? Ans: D layer. Which of the following is not a common form of data transmission? Ans: Polarization modulation. The dynamic range in a superhet is largely influenced by the performance of the Ans: front end. Y. • In a JFET. Which of the following modes can be demodulated by an enevelope detector? Ans: AM The bandwidth of a fax signal is kept narrow by Ans: sending the data at a slow rate of speed. How many possible input combinations are there? Ans: 16 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • CHAPTER 26 TEST 3 • Suppose inverters are placed in series with both inputs of an AND gate. for all logical statements X and Y. addition represents Ans: the logical OR operation. you can be certain that the number is Ans: radix 16 Which of the following codes is digital? Ans: Morse. Under what conditions is the output of the resulting black box high? Ans: If and only if both inverter inputs are low. Frequency sweeping can be used to get a transmitter to produce Ans: spread-spectrum signals. Fill in the blank to make the sentence true: “The reception of ____ can be improved by the use of DSP.0 V Fill in the blank to make the following sentence true: “ ___ data transmission refers to digital bits sent along a single line. The fifth digit from the right in a binary number carries which decimal value? Ans: 16 What is the octal equivalent of binary 1010? Ans: 12 What is the largest possible radix 10 number represented as a sixdigit binary number? Ans: 63 If one of the inputs to a two-input NOR gate is high. has good Ans: selectivity. and Z. Fill in the blank in the following sentence to make it true: “The deviation of a narrowband voice FM signal normally extends up to ____ either side of the unmodulated-carrier frequency.338 MHz. Under what conditions is the output of the resulting black box is low? Ans: if and only if both inputs are high In Boolean algebra. and then separated again at the receiver? Ans: None of the above. When both inputs of an R-S flip-flop are zero. What is this mode? Ans: USB A receiver that responds to a desired signal. Suppose an AND gat is followed by an inverter. • • • • • 12 . one bit after another. Which of the following voltages coulde normally represent a 1 in positive logic? Ans: +5 V Which of the following voltages might normally represent a 1 in negative logic? Ans: 0. A very brief. synchronized communications signals) • If you see a number represented by FF in the documentation of an electronic circuit or system. • • In which mode are signals interwined in the time domain at the transmitter. Baudot and ASCII (all of the above). high voltage spike on an ac power line is called Ans: a transient. but not to another signal very close by in frequency. • • • • • • If the output to a logical inverter is low. what is the output state? Ans: Low Suppose a logic circuit has four inputs W. it means that Ans: the single input is high The output of an AND gate is high if and only if Ans: all inputs are high De Mrogans Theorem states that. Which of the following is not a characteristic of an oscillator? Ans: Negative feedback. Ans: the outputs stay as they are.” Ans: any of the above (SSB signals. Ans: 5 kHz An FM detector with built-in limiting is Ans: a ratio detector • • A continuously variable signal (Such as music audio) can be recovered from a signal having only a few discrete levels or states by means of Ans: a D/A converter.Ans: (-X) + (-Y) is equivalent to –(X*Y).

In all other instances Z = 1. the output is high Ans: only when the inputs have opposite logic states.and N-type material. the minority carriers are Ans: holes A disadvantage of a full wave rectifier is the fact that Ans: the output waveform is harder to filter than is the case with a full-wave rectifier. When the bias in an FET stops the flow of current. • • • • • • 13 . and an output called Z. thereby making the component effective as a high-speed RF switch? Ans: A layer of intrinsic semiconductor can be placed between the P. which of the following is normal concerning the emitter and collector voltages? Ans: The collector is negative relative to the emitter. In a reverse biased semiconductor diode. Fill in the blank in the following sentence to make it true: “ An oscillator. called X and Y. • Which of the following bipolar transistor circuits can. the junction capacitance depends on the Ans: the width of the depletion region. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The most stable type of oscillator is Ans: a quartz crystal. Which of the following logical expressions respresents the content of the black box? Ans: X + (-Y) A method of modulation in which the strength of pulses varies Ans: pulse amplitude modulation Boolean algebra is Ans: a useful toll in binary digital circuit design A voltage doubler power supply is best use for Ans: circuits that need high voltage but do not draw much current. What can be done to minimize the capacitance of the P-N junction in a semiconductor diode. Which type of modulation consists of one voice sideband. In an exclusive OR circuit. The best electrical ground for a power supply is obtained by Ans: ensuring that the ground wire from the power supply is connected to the third wire hole in one of the utility outlets of a properly installed three-wire electrical circuit. the condition is called Ans: pinchoff The VA rating of a transformer is an expression of Ans: none of the above In an N-type semiconductor. This phenomenon is known as Ans: avalanche effect. A simple power supply filter can be built with Ans: a capacitor in parallel with the dc output. the symbol for a PNP bipolar transistor can be recognized by Ans: an arrow inside the symbol circle. A power gain of 30 dB is equivalent to which amplification factor Ans: 1000 If a listener is not expecting any change in the intensity of a signal or sound. it will conduct.” Ans: stability. An optoisolator consists of an Ans: LED and a photodiode. A voltage controlled oscillator makes use of Ans: a varactor diode. with a suppressed carrier? Ans: LSB In an AND gate. A ratio detector is a circuit for demodulating which of the following? Ans: FM Suppose there is a binary digital black box with two inputs. An example of a device that is commonly used as an oscillator at microwave frequencies is Ans: A Gunn diode. then Z = 0. ____ is an expression of the extent to which the circuit maintains constant signal frequency output under variable operating conditions. • • If the source-gate junction in an FET conducts. • • What is the radix of the octal number system? Ans: 23 Signal to noise ratio (S?N) is often specified when stating Ans: the sensitivity of a receiver. When a semiconductor is reverse-biased with a large enough voltage. Synchronizing pulses in a conventional analog TV signal Ans: keep the image from tearing or rolling. and which is often used in making photocells is Ans: selenium. Which type of PA circuit provides the highest efficiency when used with the appropriate amount of driving power? Ans: Class C Baudot is a form of Ans: digital code. A Zener diode would most likely be found in Ans: the voltage regulator in a power supply. and is also an expression of its overall reliability. Ans: it is a sign of improper bias.• In a schematic diagram. if X = 0 and Y = 1. The ratio of the difference in IC to the difference in IB that occurs when a small signal is applied to the base of a bipolar transistor is called the Ans: dynamic current amplification. the smallest change that can be noticed is approximately which of the following? Ans: ± 3 dB A common base circuit is commonly employed as Ans: an RF power amplifier A semiconductor material especially noted for its photoconductivity. pointing from the emitter toward the base. in theory. provide the most amplification? Ans: Common Emitter. In the operation of a PNP bipolar transistor. the output is high Ans: only when all inputs are high.

Which factor is most significant in limiting the maximum frequency at which a tube can operate? Ans: The capacitance among the electrodes. how many orders of magnitude larger is VLSI than MLSI? Ans: Four • Which of the following shows the input and output of a differentiator of a circuit? Ans: A Which of the following shows the input and output of an integrator of a circuit? Ans: C Flip-flops are used to store data in Ans: none of the above Capacitors are used to store data in Ans: none of the above The phase of a sine wave signal can be shifted 180° by Ans: applying the signal to the inverting input of the op amp. is known as • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 15 . the aperture size is directly related to the Ans: image resolution • • • • • • • • • • CHAPTER 29 CHAPTER 30 • A major difference between a triode tube and an N-channel FET is the fact that Ans: triodes need higher power-supply voltages. A vidicon camera tube is noted for its Ans: slow response to image movement in dim light. Ans: the filament serves as the cathode. In a tube with a cold cathodes. The plate in a tetrode tube is normally connected to Ans: a positive dc power-supply voltage. A foam like material. Collimator of IR rays can be done by means of Ans: an ordinary lens A computer map Ans: can help a robot find its way around. The distance of a target from a radar station is called Ans: the range. An advantage of grounded-grid RF power amplifier over a grounded-cathode RF power amplifier is the fact that the grounded grid circuit Ans: is more stable A heptode tube has Ans: one plate The electron gun in a CRT is another name for its Ans: cathode • • The electron beam in an electrostatic CRT is bent by Ans: electric fields produced by charged electrodes. Which of the following is not an example of a transducer? Ans: All of the above (microphone. Ans: requires more driving power. which pass among the electrodes. the charge carriers are Ans: free electrons. The screen grid in a tetrode tube is normally connected to Ans: a positive dc power supply voltage. west of the observing station. than a grounded-cathode RF power amplifier.• In terms of the maximum number of transistors on a single chip. Ultrasonic waves travel through a vacuum Ans: Forget it! No form of acoustic wave can travel through a vacuum. What do LORAN and the GPS have in common? Ans: They both involve measurement of distances to determine the location of a receiver A bright spot close to. The control grid of a vacuum tube is the electrical counterpart of the Ans: gate of an FET In a tetrode tube. Which of the following system enables a vessel to navigate entirely from its own frame of reference. In a tube with a directly heated cathode. Which of the following is most suitable for measuring the intensity of dim light? Ans: A photomultiplier tube In a dissector tube. Ans: there is no filament. • • A tube with four grids is called a Ans: hexode. In a Klystron. radio antenna and headet) are examples of transducers. A grounded grid RF power amplifier • • Which of the following devices would most likely be used for adjusting the frequency setting of a digital radio transmitter or receiver? Ans: An optical shaft encoder. A tube with three grids is called a Ans: pentode. without the need for any electronic devices external to itself? Ans: An epipolar navigation system. having a resistance that varies depending on how much it is compressed. Which of the following devices is best for use as an ultrasonic pickup? Ans: A piezoelectric transducer. the electron beam density varies as a result of Ans: velocity modulation. A screen grid enhances tube operation by Ans: minimizing the risk that a tube amplifier will break into oscillation. Which of the following devices or techniques makes use of artificially generated magnetic fields to facilitate location within a work environment? Ans: None of the above. the center of a conventional radar display indicates the presence of a target Ans: at close range. for a given RF power output. and directly to the left.