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Citation

Citation

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Published by Eclipse Press
Racing fans and horse lovers alike will enjoy this biography of the 1948 Triple Crown winner and record-setter Citation. This book looks at the colt's earliest training, his rise to prominence as a three-year-old, his triumphant return to racing after a leg injury, and his success as Thoroughbred racing's first millionaire with an unprecedented 16 straight victories. The story of Citation is also a history of Calumet Farm, the famed breeding and racing operation that dominated American racing during the 1940s. Citation's owner, Warren Wright, the father-and-son training team of Ben and H. A. (Jimmy) Jones, and legendary jockey Eddie Arcaro figure prominently in the story.
Racing fans and horse lovers alike will enjoy this biography of the 1948 Triple Crown winner and record-setter Citation. This book looks at the colt's earliest training, his rise to prominence as a three-year-old, his triumphant return to racing after a leg injury, and his success as Thoroughbred racing's first millionaire with an unprecedented 16 straight victories. The story of Citation is also a history of Calumet Farm, the famed breeding and racing operation that dominated American racing during the 1940s. Citation's owner, Warren Wright, the father-and-son training team of Ben and H. A. (Jimmy) Jones, and legendary jockey Eddie Arcaro figure prominently in the story.

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Published by: Eclipse Press on Jun 23, 2009
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Sections

  • PEDIGREE
  • References
  • Index
  • Photo Credits

C itation

by

P

o h l a

S

m i t h

No. 3

Lexington, Kentucky

Inc. audio recording. or any information storage or retrieval system. Library of Congress Card Number: 99-68804 ISBN 1-58150-045-9 Printed in The United States First Edition: June 2000 a division of The Blood-Horse. KY 40544-4038. PUBLISHERS SINCE 1916 To learn more about Citation and other classic Thoroughbreds. Lexington. Inc. Inc. without the permission in writing from the copyright holder. Inquiries should be addressed to Publisher. The Blood-Horse.Copyright © 2000 The Blood-Horse. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any means. All rights reserved. see: www.thoroughbredlegends. including photocopying. Box 4038.com .

........... 120 Past Performances .. 140 Photo Credits.............. 28 The Makings Of A Nice Horse Chapter 3 ....................................................................... 54 The King Takes His Throne Chapter 5 .. Chapter 1 ...................................... 121 References ............................ 6 The King is dead................................... 142 About the Author ...................... 102 A New Life Epilogue .......... 78 The Long Road Back Chapter 7 ... Long live the king............................................................92 The Toughest Ninety Grand Chapter 8 ........... 66 A Season Of Honors Chapter 6 ........................... 143 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 What Kind Of Horse Do We Have Here? Chapter 4 ............................................ 139 Index .......... 112 Enduring Legend Pedigree .............Introduction ....................12 The Dream Takes Life Chapter 2 ........

a perfectly conformed two-year-old by upand-coming American sire Bull Lea. Citation. run hard for the first time. defeat into a campaign that had his respected trainer certain he was looking at another “pretty good horse. He had watched Citation. already was seven easy victories and one narrow. 1947 edition of The New York Times: “The King is dead and he leaves no successor. a successor. Long live the king.” But the dismal news was only half-true.” A couple days after Man o’ War’s funeral service was broadcast nationally over radio. Jimmy Jones upgraded that assessment a notch or two. S portswriter Arthur Daly wrote starkly of the sad event in the November 5. probably avoidable. There was. in 6 . Man o’ War. had indeed died at the ripe age of thirty. It’s just that nobody knew it yet. the best Thoroughbred the United States had ever seen. a Calumet Farm homebred. however.The King is dead.

a seven-furlong sprint for horses three and up. Among those he beat with Albert Snider in the 7 . He was injured training for the race.” Jones. and he won easy. still sharp as a pitchfork at ninety-three. a friend. Just smilin. fishing companion. and he beat him in awful mud. Moore of Circle M Farm. Relic. but you couldn’t tell by the way he raced to his one-length victory.the one and a sixteenth-mile Pimlico Futurity. a grandson of Man o’ War. Citation had won the Everglades Stakes. recalled fifty-two years after the one and a half-length victory. and racing rival who teased Wright that his horses would be no match. Jones was much happier about a victory earlier in the meet — the Seminole Handicap. “It was against a superior mudhorse named Better Self. Relic wasn’t even in the field.’ ” Everybody else connected with Warren Wright’s Calumet empire was smiling by then. Then I run him four times at Hialeah. was a threeyear-old owned by Edward S. By the time of the Everglades. though. a much-coveted victory because it overshadowed Relic’s opening-day win in the Hibiscus Handicap and subsequent victory in the Bahamas Handicap. “It took a lot out of him and I didn’t race him anymore until Hialeah. Citation was still two months shy of his actual third birthday. too.

‘After a quarter-mile I was just playing with him. including master trainer Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons. and earnings of $155. Before the end of Citation’s three-year-old season. were saying they thought Citation was even better than Man o’ War. a Triple Crown winner. As alluded to earlier. “but Albert told me.’ and I said.” Jones said. one second. L o n g l i v e t h e k i n g . many great horsemen. and the racing world’s first millionaire. “I really thought they might beat him. was a horse worthy of comparison to Man o’ War.680 in nine starts. as the whole world soon would know. The argument rages on a half-century later. It came in the Washington Park Futurity in 8 . He was named best two-year-old and best two-yearold colt in 1947 after rolling up eight victories. what kind of horse do we have there?’ ” The answer. the one loss most likely was avoidable. His time over Hialeah’s “fast” track was 1:23 flat. for Citation had many monumental achievements. saddle were top sprinter Delegate and Citation’s own famed stablemate and soon-to-be Horse of the Year Armed — even though Citation was giving most of the horses either real weight or weight on the scale for age.T h e K i n g i s d e a d . ‘My God.

Jones later called Citation’s only defeat a fluke. In 1948. Whoever won. Citation’s rider.470 — still a great sum fifty years later. a combination of one jockey trying to be a cowboy and Citation’s new rider. 1947. won. Citation. In the process. and almost imponderable in 1948. and Free America’s Jack Westrope claimed they could have easily won. Later. But Jones had instructed all three jockeys not to beat up their young horses. against his own age group.Chicago on August 16. including the three classics composing the American Triple Crown. and Free America — finished one-two-three. trying too hard to find out just how good this colt was. The victories came in sprints and the two-mile Jockey Club Gold Cup — and at every distance in between. As a result of his efforts. with one length and a head separating the trio. The jockeys would split their share of the purses equally. Steve Brooks. during which three Calumet colorbearers — the filly Bewitch. Citation started a remarkable twenty times and won nineteen of them. Eddie Arcaro. He won on fast tracks and off-tracks. he was named Horse 9 . Citation earned $709. and against the nation’s top older horses.

and best handicap horse. and two thirds in seven starts. His seventh race was his best. L o n g l i v e t h e k i n g . He won the $137. best three-year-old colt.100 Hollywood Gold Cup by four lengths over his old sta- 10 . Such was the horse’s health that.480 to his earnings even though he never was completely sound. a second. After a year off to help heal his bad left ankle. eventually.T h e K i n g i s d e a d . He won only two. and Warren Wright wanted to see the best of his homebreds become the world’s first million-dollar winner. of the Year. but he was second in the others and added $73. though on paper it looks anything but. At that point. and Citation made an especially good candidate. Citation came back to the races and made nine starts as a five-year-old. or bony growth. most three-year-old colts would be retired to stud. Thus began perhaps the most remarkable part of Citation’s career. Jones was forced to lay off Big Cy another ten months. best three-year-old. But Citation came back yet again at six to wrack up three victories. He had come out of his final race of the season with an osselet. But Calumet had a barn full of good stallions.

However. He never replicated himself at stud. Pennsylvania January 2000 11 . the breadth of Citation’s accomplishments remains undiminished.085. Pohla Smith Pittsburgh. Finally. Citation was allowed to go home and take his place in Calumet’s stud barn. but it was probably unrealistic to expect him to do so.blemate Bewitch to crash the $1-million barrier with total earnings of $1.760.

’ ” Jimmy Jones said. Wright’s father. William Monroe Wright. it was probably easy to dream. “Jimmy” Jones. Ben and Horace A. (breeder) John Madden maybe. Warren Wright had always hoped to produce a Man o’ War when he sat down each winter to pair Calumet’s regal brood- mares and top studs. So did his farm and broodmare managers and the inseparable father and son training duo. it worked out well. built the 12 . even before the Jones Boys arrived in 1939 and started turning the stable into the Thoroughbred equivalent of the New York Yankees. “We subscribed to the old saying from someone down there in Kentucky.” Amidst the splendor and beauty of Calumet Farm. “In our case.The Dream Takes Life L ike all breeders. His philosophy was ‘Breed the best to the best and hope for the best.

But he attacked it with the zeal he and his son had used to build Calumet Baking Soda from a one-room operation into a multimillion-dollar industry. His father.500 and plunged it into developing his own baking soda. Wright tried adding egg 13 . There he became a salesman for the Royal Baking Powder Co. he took his life savings of $3. peddling a product then as ubiquitous in American households as televisions today — baking soda. Ohio. to Indianapolis and then to Chicago. perhaps even to start his own business. Wright longed to be his own boss. in 1888 at age thirty-seven.. After much experimentation to differentiate his product from others. Wright yearned for an easier life. the nation’s top producer at the time. migrated from Springfield. Clara.original 407-acre farm as a harness horse nursery in 1924. He and his wife. Born in 1851. a southern Ohio miller. Illinois. So. Still. William Wright came from a hardscrabble family. Eventually he found his calling as a salesman. never knew what it was like to take a holiday or a vacation. The elder Wright had acquired this new hobby late in life. The new property was an extension of another Calumet Farm he had in Libertyville.

The company incorporated in Illinois in 1892. Much more astute at big business 14 . the reason for William Wright’s decision is obvious. Calumets were all over Chicago: Calumet River. author Ann Hagedorn Auerbach provides several possibilities.T h e D r e a m Ta k e s L i f e white to the formula. It worked. Calumet Harbor. But in Wild Ride. Business continued booming after William’s son Warren took over managing the central office in 1899 at the age of twenty-four. Hagedorn Auerbach also found genealogical records indicating that a late brother of Wright had been named Calumet. Wright’s first name was Calumet. a book about the rise and fall of Calumet Farm. By the next year. If C. the production along with the sale of Calumet Baking Powder was a six-man operation. F. Wright never recorded why he chose that particular name for his company. The red can with the trademark profile of a Native American wearing a full headdress became popular quickly. Calumet Lake. The word is French for the peace pipe Père Marquette smoked with Native Americans in 1675 when he first explored territory around what is now Chicago. One might have been a simple matter of name recognition.

than his father, Warren soon became president; by 1914 he was board chairman. The two Wrights battled constantly. Warren thought his father didn’t work hard enough at keeping and increasing annual revenue. His dad thought they had plenty. By that time, William Wright had a new wife and his new hobby of breeding and racing trotters. Five years after Warren’s mother, Clara, died in 1892, William wed Georgia Daniel, who was raised in Tennessee and loved horses. William Wright, no doubt, had an inbred affection for them, too. The area of southern Ohio in which he grew up has long been a hotbed for harness racing and the Standardbred. When William Wright built his first farm in 1910, he proclaimed his goal was to breed and race the best harness horses in history. Eventually that farm produced Peter Manning, the fastest trotter of his era. While Warren Wright continued to expand the baking soda empire (occasionally using marketing methods to which the Federal Trade Commission later took exception), William Wright bought his second farm five miles outside of Lexington. He thought the blue-

15

T h e

D r e a m

Ta k e s

L i f e

grass that was making Kentucky the cradle of the Thoroughbred breeding industry would do the same for his beloved trotters. William Wright never skimped on his new passion. He bought the best of everything for the spread, renowned for its miles of white fencing and white buildings with red trim. He quickly added the acreage of Balgowan Farm, which he purchased from the grandchildren of legendary Kentucky orator Henry Clay. There was no reason to skimp. The Wrights had all they and generations to come ever should need after they sold Calumet Baking Powder in 1928 to Postum, a company soon renamed General Foods, for more than $30 million. The farm also was a success when measured by the elder Wright’s goals. It eventually bred and campaigned Calumet Butler, the winner of the 1931 Hambletonian, the nation’s most prestigious trotting race. But unlike the baking soda, the harness nursery and stable did not make money. They never came close to returning William’s $10-million investment, and Warren had absolutely no use for his father’s hobby. In

16

his opinion, the harness races were boringly slow and the purses were small. Warren found more appeal in the faster, flashier world of Thoroughbred racing and in its bigger purses. In 1931, the same year as Calumet Butler’s victory and William’s death, Warren Wright began converting the sprawling Lexington property into a Thoroughbred operation. He purchased three yearlings at the Saratoga sales and later named them Flirting, Lucille Wright, after Warren’s wife, and Warren Jr., after his son. Looking back, only one of the names seems logical: Flirting. According to Wild Ride, Warren went out once a week with fellow horseman Leslie Combs for a night of gambling at a club that also provided show girls. Ogling, or flirting, apparently was all he did. But the regularity of those outings indicates it was an important outlet for this formal, opinionated, and stubborn man who was short in stature but nonetheless commanding-looking with his wire spectacles and thick head of white hair. At some point, Lucille Wright took over naming the horses. Mrs. Wright even rode some of them around the farm until she apparently had an accident, accord-

17

1932. She did not accompany her husband to the winner’s circle after race victories. He also was the first to win one. The colors they wore — later the most recognized in the nation — were devil’s red and blue. and two thirds.150 for one victory. The three two-year-olds finished the year with combined earnings of $1. his father’s will guaranteed the farm would go to Warren Jr. until the end of her life. He was the first member of the three-horse Calumet Stable to start in a race. earning $850 with his victory by a nose at Arlington Park on June 27. but Wright longed to 18 . she made regular trips to the barns. Warren Jr. made his owners proud. she was the only human who could get near the legendary Bull Lea without fear of being nipped. her role apparently was to be seen and not heard. Nor did Warren and Lucille have an especially close relationship with Warren Jr. During the rest of the ’30s.T h e D r e a m Ta k e s L i f e ing to longtime farm secretary Margaret Glass. and his children. According to Wild Ride. Other than that. annual earnings of the racing stable generally went up. at Belmont Park on May 30. the horse. And. one second. meanwhile. Although his parentage has been a source of speculation.

he had difficulty delegating authority to those who did know horses. for which Jones had saddled 1938 Kentucky Derby winner Lawrin. a more fragile breed than trotters. The outspoken old hand said it was because they expected too much out of Thoroughbreds. He soon learned he needed to know something about both to succeed in breeding. Wright asked a farmhand why success was so slow. his son Jimmy Jones came along as assistant. Jimmy Jones remembered one 19 . McMahon retired.win a Derby. Within a few hours and a big argument. Dick McMahon. When Wright persuaded Ben Jones to come on as trainer. to run the Thoroughbred operation exactly as he had the Standardbred one. Even under the Joneses’ tenure. He went through four trainers before hiring Ben Jones away from Woolford Stable. However. In 1940. For the longest time Wright had allowed his father’s farm manager. Many of the old hand’s ideas were incorporated. but he didn’t know a thing about horses. Warren Wright knew business. They needed less training and fewer hours outdoors. Wright still was inclined to try out any training idea suggested by a friend or casual adviser.

The Joneses. easily recognizable by their natty attire and facial similarities. when Calumet won its first Triple Crown with Whirlaway. less stocky-looking. Under their training. but they just couldn’t get up and gallop.091. Calumet’s earnings — and standing in the sport — skyrocketed exponentially. Ben was better than his Calumet predecessors in getting Wright to let them do things their way. the farm led the owners’ list with earnings of $475. with a round face and a receding dark hairline. “They were big. Calumet finished 1939. were among the best trainers in the nation. broader. with $93. Jimmy was short.T h e D r e a m Ta k e s L i f e experiment going on at the time of his arrival: six threeyear-olds had been kept on the farm their entire lives without training to see whether a later start would make them better racehorses. Confident in his ability.” Jones said. during which Frank Kearns and Ben Jones split the training. Father Ben was taller. With his trademark light hats. It would win eleven more money titles through 1961. beautiful horses. usually referred to as the Jones Boys. It didn’t. By the end of ’41. a tiny bit chubby. six of them over the final 20 .320 in purses. he looked like an athlete turned lawman.

nine years of the ’40s. white-plaster-walled stud barn was Bull Lea. was by top English-bred Hyperion. as well as the great Armed. did not race at age 21 . and Wright owned him outright. although it also sold some of its homebreds. and the Friedburg family’s Harriet Sue. included Twilight Tear. By that time. Bull Lea’s first crop. The last-named. the English-bred who had sired Whirlaway. a blood line of which Wright was very fond. when the Allied Forces still were trying to find the key to stopping Hitler’s armies and Betty Grable was the top box-office draw of the warweary at home. foaled in 1941. Calumet was producing most of its own runners. In the winter of 1943-44. the crown prince of Calumet’s brickfloored. however. Pensive. But the young stallion Bull Lea looked most promising. a wonderful race mare who earned the unusual distinction of being named Horse of the Year (as well as champion three-year-old filly and champion handicap mare) in 1944. Wright’s second Derby winner. Also part of that first crop were the stakes-winning mares Durazna. Wright also owned a quarter interest in Blenheim II. owned by Brownell Combs.

apparently with a bowed tendon. Before his stud career ended. His progeny included four Horses of the Year (Twilight Tear. He was retired to stud. and we needed success. the only one to sustain bad luck was the buyer outbid by Wright.000 in purses during the dark days of the Depression.” Jones said. who already had proved to be his owner’s biggest racing success. in January of 1940. who paid $14. Armed. In this case. He was a success. Bull Lea went on to win the Widener Handicap at Hialeah and nearly $100. “We bred practically all our mares to Bull Lea. Only one person had bid against Wright on the colt by Bull Dog out of Rose Leaves at the Saratoga yearling sale of 1936. most likely because horses with four white legs were considered unlucky.000 for the colt. Wright began pinning a lot of his breeding hopes on Bull Lea. he sired twenty-seven six-figure earners. and 22 . Citation.T h e D r e a m Ta k e s L i f e two and didn’t begin making his name until later as a handicap horse.” Bull Lea was the foundation of what became the most successful breeding and racing operation in American Turf history. “We had a breeding program others frowned on.

and Real Delight). “they couldn’t run. His stakes winners included Alerted. He was leading sire five times. and Coaltown). but Jones said. Duke. in 1947. and three sophomore filly champions (Twilight Tear. Two Lea. He also was leading broodmare sire from 1958-61. Two Lea and Real Delight). Beau Prince. Altogether his offspring won $13. Citation. Fleet Bird. Bewitch.181 through 1969. Yorky. ’48. ’52 and ’53. The statistics might have been even more spectacular. four handicap mare champions (Twilight Tear.” 23 .489.” In subsequent crops. and Preakness winner Faultless. the Derby favorite who was scratched because of an injury hours before Calumet secondstringer Iron Liege won the 83rd running in 1957. Kentucky Derby winners Citation. Next Move. the last year his progeny raced. ’49.Coaltown). Bull Lea sired three handicap champions (Armed. and Gen. In addition. Miz Clementine. Mary-Ye-Well. Hill Gail and Iron Liege. Bull Lea sired attractive individuals. according to Jimmy Jones. “but then Bull Lea just faded out of the picture (after his five years at the top). He also was the grandsire and great-grandsire respectively of Derby winners Tim Tam and Forward Pass.

won one race at age two. Lord Derby apparently was glad to sell her to Warren Wright. Hired as farm manager in 1945. Instead. so she could not be shipped the regular route across the Atlantic. Her first two foals were nothing special. World War II was raging by then. a Blenheim II filly.T h e D r e a m Ta k e s L i f e Back in 1944. Citation’s dam. Hydroplane did not distinguish herself on the racecourse. a long- 24 . deserving of a mating to Bull Lea. Paul Ebelhardt kept copious notes on all the Calumet foalings. She was a daughter of Hyperion. she did not place in three starts at age two and then got two seconds in four starts at age three. Fly Off. had the pedigree. if not the race or breeding records. He later shared those concerning the birth of the colt who would be Citation with The Morning Telegraph. without class. was described as a “moderate winner. a filly by Sun Teddy. she was sent on a long. arduous journey to North America via the Suez Canal and the Pacific. Hydroplane II. But her third foal was Citation.” and Mermaid. bred by Lord Derby and out of the English Oaks winner Toboggan. Too many submarines.

” Citation also was a good student. or a quarter in around 25. “and he did his work in a very willing manner. 1946. seven days before the colt’s actual first birthday: “One of the top Bull Lea colts (Citation). “He took his lessons as though he wanted to talk to you. very striking. and the kind of colt you would expect a lot from. He had a perfect growing period and grew into a well-balanced colt that made us all make rash predictions every time we saw him playing about in the fields. Perfect growing period.” Ebelhardt wrote the following about Citation on April 4. His trials were among the best.m.” Ebelhardt told the Telegraph. after a normal delivery.. “He always had that domineering look about him. Usually an eighth (of a mile) in 12 (seconds) and some change. 1945. Good conformation. “He struck my eye from the beginning.extinct former rival to the Daily Racing Form. Citation popped into the world about 9:30 p. Colt may be a trifle long in the back.” Ebelhardt told the Telegraph. We never ask our colts to go too fast in their trials at the farm. April 11. along with Easy Lass (Coaltown) and Some Pomp (Beau Dandy). No ailments. 25 .

very dominant. “I can’t remember who liked whom the best. Free America. Everyone saying I like this one or I like that one…(Citation) had a good. Ebelhardt and the Joneses unofficially ranked the group by potential. I think my father liked Coaltown the best. along with Coaltown. Citation never was completely set down at the farm but had a way of going that caused us all to think he could beat anything we had. “He was a big. But he wasn’t sure of that when he leafed through his memories decades later. There 26 . well-bred horse.” Jimmy Jones and his father saw the babies at Calumet about once a month. Fifty years ago. and Beau Dandy. nothing decisive about it at all. and Citation and Coaltown always came out on top. “It was a matter of pride. bright expression. He was dominant all of his life.” Jimmy Jones remembered. and they also liked what they saw. newspaper clips quoted Jones as putting Coaltown first.T h e D r e a m Ta k e s L i f e We usually work what we believe to be the best in sets of two and three. Citation was always in the top set. good-looking. He walked right into things that would scare other horses. He’d walk in to investigate.

he was on his way to an adult height of sixteen hands. but they had taken that first group there anyway. Then. bloodcolored bay. take-charge horse. Warren Wright. more masculine. had grown accustomed to paying for the babies’ Florida winters.was nothing unusual in picking him. He was bigger. as they pushed Calumet’s race earnings higher and higher each year.” A dark. Citation was more the masculine. the reason his conformation was considered ideal. There was no outstanding physical feature. we never asked him for it. 27 . meanwhile. There was not much pressure to see who was best. it became harder to argue with success. Coaltown was a little effeminate. He’d thought it a needless expense when the Joneses came to work for him in 1939.” By the time the yearlings were ready to go to Florida with the Jones Boys in late November 1946. We wanted them to continue to grow. Ebelhardt said Citation had grown into his long back: “He was the perfect specimen of a Thoroughbred. We were always easy on young horses. And while he never showed any great unusual ability in his early training.

I heard them say that when these guys came off the farm they were young and strong and healthy. Invariably. “As a kid. When the yearlings first arrived in the Sunshine State. And when you had as many older stakes runners under Calumet colors as they did.” Jones said. most of them got sick. Jimmy Jones said. “It was like the soldiers in World War I.The Makings Of A Nice Horse F or yearlings approaching their official January 1 birthdays. it was easy to keep the cantankerous Warren Wright at bay. but they lost five percent of them with the influenza because they’d never been exposed to 28 . The Joneses believed in keeping pressure off the youngsters as long as possible. winters in Florida served both as vacations and kindergartens. the Joneses simply gave them a chance to acclimatize and develop immunities to any “bugs” they might be facing for the first time.

I was crazy about horses and 29 . the first year Citation went to Florida. He described his childhood as one of “gallop horses and go to school.” Jimmy Jones had just turned forty in November 1946. Mexico. but his training experience was more vast than his age indicated. Missouri. he explained his career choice as a matter of finding the work with horses easier than with cattle and dairy cows. And then train a few horses in the summer.it before. naming his little Thoroughbred operation Jones Stock Farm. Go out through the bushes myself. Years later.” As a youngster. “The same things apply to horses. “When I was a boy. Ben Jones. when Pancho Villa was on the rampage. attended Colorado Agricultural College on the equivalent of a football scholarship. There was a steady pattern of getting sick three weeks after they got there. the son of a cattleman and banker who had founded their hometown of Parnell. Jimmy even accompanied his father to race winters in Juarez. He started working with racehorses between farm chores soon after college.

T h e M a k i n g s O f A N i c e H o r s e Holstein cows. he made the forty-mile round trip to help with the mares and the breeding while his father was off racing.” Jimmy continued to help his father after he graduated from high school and went to nearby Northwest Missouri State Teachers College. you learn pretty fast. groom. he’d join his father at whatever track the elder Jones was stabled. In the summer. trainer. During the school year.” Jimmy Jones said. exercise boy. “Couldn’t decide which I liked better. and. When you have to shift for yourself. Jimmy got his first trainer’s license at the Fair Grounds there. I made up my mind. When he turned twenty in the winter of 1926-27. the young man saddled his first winner.” Jimmy eventually left college and joined his dad full time after a brief stint working in a Michigan thrashing machine factory. even jockey on those trips.” he said. “It was a wonderful and very enlightening experience for me. When Ben became briefly ill in New Orleans. sometimes. a horse named 30 . When I got big enough to help with the milking. “I’d be blacksmith.

By that time Jones Stock Farm was standing a solid ex-racehorse of its own named Seth. we would never probably have gone to work for anybody else. and died at age nineteen in 1927. “If we had never lost him. Thanks to him. who helped the Joneses gain a bigger reputation as both trainers and breeders. Their post-Seth homebreds were. Jimmy told his dad to take the job. “a bunch of bums…the dumbest bunch of failures I ever saw. That 31 . Jones Stock Farm also led all breeders in the number of two-year-old winners for three years. broke his neck. that he would catch up after selling off the holdings of Jones Stock Farm. Seth ranked in the top twenty on the sires list every year between 1925 and 1928. the Jones stable never ranked lower than ninth in races won among breeders. Seth proved irreplaceable.Gentilly Boulevard. Their success literally came to a crashing halt when Seth fell on a slick spot in his paddock.” In 1932. in Jimmy’s words. Ben Jones was offered a chance to train privately for Herbert Woolf at Woolford Farm.” Jimmy Jones once told The Thoroughbred Record.

Unfortunately.T h e M a k i n g s O f A N i c e H o r s e proved to be difficult during the days of the Depression. Fortunately. The trainers treated it with iodine and turpentine. products then commonly used as hardening agents. Not too long afterward. Peggy. It took exceptional training for Lawrin to win the roses. Lawrin developed a foot infection. wearing protective 32 . when the stable shipped north to Kentucky that spring. A slow starter. eventually joined the elder Jones. the Kentucky Derby winner who helped the Jones Boys make their name nationally. but during that process. the hoof softened. The Joneses soaked the hoof in hot water to draw out the infection. Lawrin was fit from winter racing and the lost time didn’t hurt. Woolf bought a Sir Gallahad III stallion named Insco. From one of his first crops came Lawrin. but he and his wife. Lawrin didn’t show anything until he went to Florida at the end of his two-year-old season. He looked like a Derby prospect. He kept racing up the ladder over the winter and went on to win the 1938 Flamingo Stakes. He prepped for the Derby four days before in the 1938 Derby Trial.

and Team Calumet’s slugfest had just begun. This time. the Jones Boys guided Whirlaway to a sweep of the Triple Crown. New York. From 1940 through 1953. Three years after Lawrin’s victory and just two years after they joined Calumet. Afterward. Calumet never finished lower than third on the own- 33 . he’d been fourth with Nellie Flag. Warren Wright came courting Ben Jones while they were in Chicago. during the last week of August 1939. The following summer. They figured he’d be more savvy and less nervous in his second Run for the Roses. Woolf was a good boss and his stable talented. Arcaro and Lawrin won the Derby by a length. Woolf accepted their resignation with grace and hired Ross Higden as a replacement. The Joneses took over the Calumet horses in Saratoga. but the Joneses knew they’d be getting the best bloodstock available if they went to Calumet. Warren Wright finally had his home run. In his first Derby ride in 1935.bar shoes as he finished second by a head. young Eddie Arcaro as Derby jockey. the Joneses replaced those shoes with racing plates to give the colt better footing and put up hot.

the second of an eventual eight Calumet-bred Derby winners. It would be a couple more months before Jimmy Jones upgraded that assessment of Citation.T h e M a k i n g s O f A N i c e H o r s e er’s money list and eight times ranked first. But the Joneses. In 1944. a period longer than most trainers employed. they had their routine with the Calumet youngsters down pat. and by that time they were so comfortable they were quite ready for the next step. and the Joneses began to think the two might be pretty useful colts. The newly turning two-year-olds did this for 100 days straight. the trainers taught them to stand in the gate. the Joneses saddled Pensive. had the luxury of waiting as long as possible to let the two-year-olds mature. Only after that winter of gate standing were they asked to break. He still was in no hurry to test the twoyear-old when he and his father split the stable into two 34 . In those early sessions. Citation and Coaltown were two of the best pupils. After giving the young horses the few weeks they needed to acclimatize. By the time they took the yearling class of 1946 to Florida. The Joneses knew early in the succession that they were doing things right. sitting on a stable full of runners.

along with the older gelding Armed. 1947.” but by the head of the stretch he was in gear on the inside.” Jones said. both for Calumet and a nation again learning to kick up its heels after too many years at war. five-furlong event for non-winners of two at Pimlico. “but I figured he won handily against a bunch of green colts. Nothing outstanding. Citation. He covered the distance in a fast :54 2/5.500. Always a good gate horse. Citation and Snider went to post in a $3. Citation shot right to the lead and won by three and a half lengths over 35 .strings to travel north for the spring and summer. “He won his first race handily.500. But nicely done. The Ben Jones string headed to Keeneland and included Coaltown and Bewitch.” Eleven days later. Jimmy Jones was not overly impressed. accompanied Jimmy to Maryland for what would turn out to be a wonderful season. under jockey Albert Snider in a $2. fourand-a-half-furlong event at old Havre de Grace. Citation finally made his maiden start on April 22. Nothing beautiful. The chart said he was “slow to reach best stride” over a track labeled “slow.

His time over the fast track was 1:00 1/5. “Not that he was the real Citation.T h e M a k i n g s O f A N i c e H o r s e Alfred G. but a real nice colt. Grand Entry. It was another eight lengths back to the show horse. drew clear.500 overnight allowance for non-winners of two other than maiden or claiming. won by one and three-quarters lengths and covered the course over a track labeled “good” in :59 1/5. Jones was out of town for the race. sometimes called “Cy” around the barn. The track called the five-furlong event the Perry Point Purse. if you know what I mean. Vanderbilt’s Newsweekly. take a three-length lead. the promising juvenile had to take a little break. and six juveniles were entered. then was eased.” Citation returned to Havre de Grace on May 21 for his third start. a nearly 17-1 shot. another $3.” 36 . but the trainer reported to his father that he thought Citation “was a pretty good colt.” Jones said. “I was beginning to think he was a pretty good colt. Citation then came down with a temperature and influenza. To Jimmy Jones’ dismay. Snider shook the colt up at the top of the stretch and Citation quickly passed Little Tony. Citation. Citation broke well but let Little Tony.

“He broke the track record. During the five-furlong race. “There’s the next Kentucky Derby winner. The Morning Telegraph reported that after the race several members of the press box declared. Then he hit overdrive and rushed home to win by a half-length and in a time of :58 flat. Citation was five-for-five. not a superhorse. Citation sat fourth early under Doug Dodson. he instructed 37 .550 Elementary Stakes by two lengths.” Six days later. but Jimmy Jones still wasn’t sure what he had.000 Sealeggy Purse on July 24. he covered the three-quarters mile in 1:10 3/5 over a fast track.The stable stayed several weeks longer than planned in Maryland to let Citation recover before moving on for a summer at Arlington. and then I was convinced he was starting to move into being. After a short training period. but a good horse. He wasn’t anxious to find out. Citation was entered in the $4. Citation returned under Dodson to beat nine challengers in the $24. Carrying 122 pounds as the second highweight. That’s why when he entered three juveniles in the August 16 Washington Park Futurity.” Jimmy said.

even as late as August of ’47 when I raced those three at Arlington. which in turn might interrupt their growth. ‘Don’t whip these horses up. Whoever is winning. “We were always easy on young horses. by a length. You’ll all get the same money. leave it alone. fast-coming Citation. Bewitch. I think they’ll be one-two-three. let them be. Bewitch’s time for the six “fast” furlongs was 1:10 2/5. “I instructed those boys. “We wanted them to continue to grow.” Jones said. I just wanted to win the money.” Jones and his father thought that pushing young two-year-olds would make them nervous.T h e M a k i n g s O f A N i c e H o r s e the jockeys of the hot filly Bewitch and of colts Citation and Free America not to fight each other for the victory. There was not much pressure to see who was best. put it in the till and let them keep growing. Citation. the entire Calumet stable went 38 .’ At that time.” Bewitch led from the start. From Arlington. Free America. shaking off 22-1 May Reward and then holding off. Another head back was Free America. being unbeaten was not the answer.

respectively. Working out with the big guy of the stable didn’t hurt the two-year-old a bit. and there were rumors New York tracks might begin barring horses shipped from other areas. broke out at the New England tracks. About the same time. the disease for which horses undergo the Coggins test). Citation. They were among the last horses to get in. Jimmy Jones quickly got the three horses onto a van and shipped them to Belmont. and Citation and Bewitch were being pointed to the Futurity and Matron Stakes. Jones trained him up to the event with Citation.to Garden State Park in New Jersey. Citation rushed from sixth at 39 . Another Calumet van arriving two hours later was stopped at the gate by the new embargo. On September 30. and Bewitch weren’t to start until the fall at Belmont Park. but Armed. and it certainly must have helped Armed. for he defeated Assault by eight lengths. Armed had a big match race coming up with Assault in September. a severe epidemic called “swamp fever” (now known as equine infectious anemia. With no good races in which to prep Armed for his match race.

Another neck back came his rival stablemate Bewitch. He and Snider returned to Belmont’s straight Widener track four days later to face thirteen challengers in the Futurity at six and a half furlongs. and Jones figured that he’d shown more 40 . Citation had to race hard for the first time in his career. going forwardly from the start. The Daily Racing Form chart described it succinctly: “Won easily…Citation.T h e M a k i n g s O f A N i c e H o r s e the head of the stretch under Albert Snider to a onelength victory over Gasparilla in the Futurity Trial. Deep in mud. drew out rapidly through the stretch. Next came Citation’s impressive season finale in the November 8 Pimlico Futurity. His time over a fast track was 1:11 for the six furlongs. a few days after Man o’ War’s death.” He won by three lengths over Whirling Fox. He beat King Ranch’s good mud horse Better Self by a length and a half and clocked the mile and a sixteenth in 1:48 4/5. The young colt was thoroughly tuckered out by that effort. but was kept under steady pressure to the finish. assumed command with a rush when called upon.

the various polls named him best two-year-old colt and best two-year-old of 1947. It was a sweep for Calumet. Citation was sent to Florida for a well-deserved vacation. as Armed was named handicap horse and Horse of the Year and Bewitch earned the two-year-old filly championship. 41 . While he was there.than enough as a juvenile.

The colt was the winter-book favorite for the Kentucky Derby. Wright. who never crossed paths with Citation as a juvenile. wasn’t as interested in freshening the colt as he was in proving to his close friend and rival Edward S. according to his trainer. stronger. and Jimmy Jones wanted to give him the longest break possible before the grind of the prep camDuring this time.What Kind Of Horse Do We Have Here? A paign. Citation returned to Florida for a second time. nice looking” while not growing much in height. Moore that Citation was better than Moore’s good colt Relic. Relic. fter his championship juvenile season. Wright went to the barn one morning and 42 . had made a splashy debut as a three-year-old at Hialeah by winning the Hibiscus Stakes and Bahamas Handicap. becoming “stouter. Citation began to fill out. meanwhile.

Armed. it was a weight-for-age event. toting highweight of 130. which meant Citation would race at 113 pounds. it didn’t leave Jones much time to get Citation tightened up. This. The $5. Citation still needed at least one more race before the Everglades. but there was a hitch: it was against older horses. was sixth and next to last. Either way. He took a chance and dropped Citation into a sixfurlong allowance named the Ground Hog Purse on Ground Hog’s Day. Still. fifteen fewer than four-year-olds and seventeen fewer than older horses. That figured to be in either the Everglades Stakes or the Flamingo Stakes. was for 43 . Citation won handily by a length over a five-year-old named Kitchen Police. Jones put Albert Snider back up — Doug Dodson had ridden Cy in his final race of 1947 — and crossed his fingers.told Jones he wanted Citation to beat Relic the first time they met. and the only spot Jones could find at the proper time and distance was the seven-furlong Seminole Handicap on February 11.000 race was the right distance for a season opener. a week apart in late February. too. Citation’s famous stablemate.

Jones asked himself. first Buzfuz and then Delegate. That never was a consideration. Jones saddled Faultless as a threehorse Calumet entry. the other horses in the Seminole included top nationally known sprinters Delegate and Buzfuz. he covered the nine furlongs in 1:49 over a fast track. Under Snider. the jockey was not to beat up on the colt. Citation stalked the early leaders. Relic did not make the field of either the Everglades or the Flamingo Stakes after suffering a training injury. The race was a lot to ask of a horse that would not actually turn three for two more months. “My God. 44 . the chart says Citation beat two opponents “easily” by a length.W h a t K i n d O f H o r s e D o We H a v e horses three and older. and the field shaped up to be a lot tougher than what Citation had faced in the Ground Hog. before easily drawing clear to win by a length. Besides Armed. what kind of a horse do we have here?” The answer: one that would give Wright bragging rights over Moore for a long time to come. Snider told Jones that after the first quarter-mile he and Cy just were playing with the field. In the former. Later. In addition. Jimmy Jones told Snider that if the going got too tough.

A ferocious storm had come up while the men were fishing off the Florida coast. joined the search in his airplane.In the $62. Citation gave a much more impressive showing. 45 . he was told the trio was missing and presumed lost at sea.100 Flamingo. An air-and-sea search was underway and Jimmy. After the Flamingo. also at a mile and an eighth. Doug Dodson had left in a snit because Snider had replaced him on Citation. Under restraint early in a field of seven. a racing fan from Toronto. who had learned to fly during a stint in the Coast Guard during World War II. Jones wouldn’t find out why for quite some time. He won by six lengths over the fast track in a time of 1:48 4/5. (Tobe) Trotter and Donald Fraser. he just knew it was true. Citation moved to the lead over the second quarter mile and rapidly drew clear without urging. When Jones arrived at the track a few days later. H. Jimmy Jones asked the talented young Snider if he’d like to become the regular stable jockey. Snider quickly agreed to the offer but cautioned Jones he couldn’t start until after a fishing trip planned with trainer C. Fact was Citation ran better for Snider than for Dodson.

It was not until eight months later after he had moved his tack to Agua Caliente across the Mexican border that he won his first race.W h a t K i n d O f H o r s e D o We H a v e All the searchers ever found was the dinghy from the men’s fishing boat on a small. Arcaro. Actually. began riding at Bainbridge Park near Cleveland in 1931 but not with any great success. The entire racing community mourned the loss. Arcaro was pretty much king of the entire American jockey colony by that time. in January of 1932. had pretty much owned the Derby. Jr. in 1945. Arcaro. a Cincinnati native born in 1916. it was just a little more than two months until the Kentucky Derby. He won the roses and subsequently swept the Triple Crown with Calumet’s Whirlaway in 1941 and took the Derby again with Fred Hooper’s Hoop. who had won his and the Jones Boys’ first Derby with Lawrin back in 1938. and he owed his breakthrough to the Jones Boys. and Jimmy Jones no longer had a rider for Citation. It was presumed the dinghy had been swamped by waves and the men swept overboard. Nevertheless. he went to work for trainer Clarence 46 . mangrove-covered island. He decided to call on Eddie Arcaro. After that meet. Since then.

He won a healthy 132 races in 1933. and so he did. Arcaro made his Derby debut with Calumet’s fine filly Nellie Flag. But his contract allowed him to take outside horses when there was no conflict. They finished fourth. Many rich and celebrated collaborations followed.” Arcaro literally put himself in danger to help Ben Jones get Whirlaway ready for the 1941 Derby. making him available when Ben Jones offered him what proved to be the winning Derby mount on Woolford Farm’s Lawrin.000 if he’d jump stables. and the jockey trusted the trainers’ horse sense and judgment.” Jimmy Jones told The New York Times when Arcaro died in 1997 at the age of eighty-one. The following year Warren Wright bought the jockey’s contract for $6.000. The Jones Boys loved the way Arcaro rode. “He was the perfect extension of the trainer on the horse. “He was like an extension of me out there. no doubt helping to 47 .Davison. And nobody had his sense of the way the race was being run. Jones was right by his side at the time. who schooled him in his chosen profession. A year later. Greentree Stable offered in the autumn of 1936 to increase Arcaro’s salary from $750 a month to $1.

Then he told Arcaro to guide Whirlaway through that gap. Whirlaway won the Derby by eight lengths.W h a t K i n d O f H o r s e D o We H a v e seal the bond between them. “I thought he was crazy. it seemed like a reunion of the Jones Boys and Arcaro with Citation at the Derby would be a good way to recover. feared him. It took some great salesmanship on Ben Jones’ part to get Arcaro to take the Derby mount. Instead. Jones mounted a pony and went out to sit on the track at the quarter pole. Jones had developed a secret weapon — he cut a hole in the left cup of Whirlaway’s blinkers. about four feet off the rail. When Snider was lost at sea in 1948. rightfully. Jones asked Arcaro to work the horse. Jimmy Jones reached Arcaro by phone in Las Vegas and 48 . “but all he said was ‘Trust me. Whirlaway had a scary habit of bolting to the outside during a race and jockeys. Jones wasn’t about to make Arcaro test his theory by himself.” Arcaro said years later. The rest of the Triple Crown followed. The theory was that little spot of vision would keep him straight. The day before the race.’ ” The horse ran straight between the rail and Jones.

‘Who?’ and I said. but I’d probably fall off. I just threw something funny at him: ‘I think I could ride him. ‘Where have you been all your life? Citation. but he already was committed to a Derby horse. He can pull a buggy and beat these horses.’ ” Maybe so. the Derby winner. Arcaro said. If after those races Arcaro thought he had a better shot with Citation. Citation and Arcaro faced five challengers in their first 49 . Jimmy and his string went north to Maryland. the Chesapeake Trial and the Chesapeake Stakes at Havre de Grace. Ben Whitaker’s My Request. while Ben took another string that included a fastimproving three-year-old named Coaltown to Keeneland in Kentucky. “I said. he’d get off My Request.immediately tried his best sales pitch. but he was old and big.’ ” And so it went until Jones and Arcaro reached a compromise: Arcaro would “try out” Citation in his next two prep races.’ and he said. Pinky (Brown) was a good exercise boy. “I told him Pinky could ride this horse and beat My Request in the Derby. ‘I’m calling to put you on a Derby horse.

Instead. But just when it seemed he would pass both Saggy and Hefty. Arcaro urged Citation to go after the leaders. Citation was the 3-10 favorite. hand-riding hard. Citation missed by a length. apparently in an effort to see just how much horse he had under him. Rounding the home turn. The answer was plenty but not enough to withstand what Jimmy Jones still swears was a nasty trick by jockey Carson Kirk on Hefty and a racing judge named George Brown. Arcaro reined him back to fourth. Hefty began drifting out. “Arcaro said. Citation broke well and easily could have taken the lead over the “muddy” track. he wasn’t considered anything special. He carried Citation almost to the outer rail before Arcaro got loose and. ‘I could have caught and beat him if you’d allowed me to hit him one or two times.’ ” Jones said. but back on April 12. 50 . 1948. As usual. second choice at 4-1 was Saggy. a horse he’d beaten by ten lengths in the Flamingo.W h a t K i n d O f H o r s e D o We H a v e teaming. Saggy later would gain fame as the sire of Kentucky Derby winner Carry Back. and the colt quickly ate up the distance between them. set out after Saggy again.

” Jones saved most of his wrath for Kirk and. this defeat — the only one of Citation’s twenty-race sophomore season — would continue to bother Jones in a way that the colt’s loss at age two to Bewitch never had. Jimmy was sure the drift had been intentional. all did not go 51 . He beat me to it. “If I had been a steward. and Eddie said.’ So I was disgusted with Eddie. I wanted to see if he was as good as you said he was. Again. later. I told him he shouldn’t have taken him back.” Jones once told the late Derby historian Jim Bolus. but I was guilty of telling him not to whip him up. for he watched films of Hefty’s other races and never saw him drift out again. Five days later Citation and Arcaro returned to the Havre de Grace oval for the second half of their “tryout” in the Chesapeake Stakes. Fifty years later. ‘Well. who had found nothing objectionable in the ride. “I intended to hurt Carson Kirk somehow sometime. He died. Brown.” Further insult was added when Jones learned that Brown and Kirk were longtime friends.“I looked at it as a mistake. that guy wouldn’t have ridden again in a long time.

who would bolt at whim. Unfortunately.” One of the bits snapped after Citation was loaded in the gate. but he was somewhat inquisitive and difficult to handle. giving the rider better control. He was not like Whirlaway. Later it became known as the “Citation bit. Still. The colt.” he said.W h a t K i n d O f H o r s e D o We H a v e according to plan. (Saggy was fourth and last. pretty much couldn’t be steered and gave Arcaro a grand tour of the oval. Jones didn’t have any. “It was a double snaffle bit that went up through the brow band and between the ears on the horse. known as the Norton. Jones had a special bit custom made during Citation’s twoyear-old year. already given to gazing up at trees and the sky as he raced around a track. used by his grandfather. one on either side of the bit. he managed to win by four and a half lengths.” although Jones said it was modeled on a driving bit. “Two rings.) After the Chesapeake. To get more control over him. Citation always had been a little bit strong-willed. Citation went back to post wearing the ordinary D-bit always kept at the gate for emergencies. Arcaro demanded to know 52 . and the starter sent the colt back to the paddock for a replacement. slid up and down.

Arcaro telephoned Jones and said he had gotten off My Request and would ride Citation in the Derby. According to the chart.whether the colt always was so unmanageable.” His time over the fast track was 1:37 2/5. Jones hustled to a nearby boatyard where a mechanic jury-rigged another bit out of a valve spring. Citation won by a length and a quarter and “with something left. 53 . A couple days later. 1948. Jones assured him the problem had been the broken bit. a perfect one-mile “work” for America’s most famous race. the one-mile Derby Trial at Churchill Downs on April 27. Only one more tune-up race remained. four days before the Derby. When Arcaro returned to California to make his decision.

Adams’ Grandpere. while galloping at Washington Park in Chicago. Citation. Although Coaltown and Citation were ranked onetwo as yearlings at the start of their two-year-old campaigns. As a result. L. Walmac Stable’s Billings. Brann’s Escadru.The King Takes His Throne W ith both Citation and Coaltown as probable starters. My Request. P. Coaltown never got much chance to show off during the 1947 season. however. Calumet stood a good chance of winning its third Kentucky Derby. J. Ben Jones had developed Coaltown into a formidable threeyear-old. who had finished second to Citation in the Derby Trial. the 1948 race scared away all but four outside challengers: Arcaro’s former mount. Mrs. and W. ironically under Doug Dodson. Coaltown fell and hemor54 . was not considered a shoo-in. now. After watching him win Keeneland’s Blue Grass Stakes. many thought he might be better than Citation. In August.

Then. as now. It took an hour for the colt to recover sufficiently enough to return to the barn. That. Some preferred Coaltown over Citation but not for his recent record. however. taking Greentree’s Devil Diver over Shut Out.rhaged in the nose. And then there was Arcaro’s inner fear that his own history would repeat itself. neither had any winner of the Derby Trial. certain things were considered jinxes. He was. he was sent back to Calumet Farm and didn’t rejoin the racing stable until it went to Florida. leaving him unbeaten in four starts. was not evident when Coaltown won the Blue Grass Stakes in trackrecord time. Although neither Jones had 55 . The Joneses feared he would die. normal that winter. No winner of the Futurity at Belmont ever had won the Derby. and Citation had the whammy working against him. Devil Diver finished sixth to his stablemate. but for the rest of his career he had a breathing problem. He’d had to choose between two mounts in the 1942 Kentucky Derby. for all intents and purposes. After a partial recovery. Arcaro spent those last few days before the 1948 Derby badgering Ben Jones about whether Citation really could beat Coaltown.

Ben kept reassuring Arcaro that he wanted to be riding Citation. Thompson for most training wins. both thought Citation was by far the better horse. Jimmy Jones had by then receded into the background to let his father saddle and call the shots on both Coaltown and Citation. They saw an early lead as that colt’s best shot at winning over a track made sloppy by overnight rain. Later. even though he had been appointed Calumet’s head trainer a year earlier. The reason for Ben Jones’ regaining the mantle as trainer for the Derby was obvious: A victory would allow Ben to tie H. At the time of the appointment. J. the elder Jones was recuperating from surgery and was named general manager of Calumet.T h e K i n g Ta k e s H i s T h r o n e said so publicly. They told Arcaro to reserve Citation for a late drive and not to get into any duels with the frailer Coaltown. Pierson to try to set the pace with Coaltown. The media blithely reported then and for years afterward that Jimmy had been happy to give his 56 . the Joneses told jockey Newbold L. there would be gossip that Ben and Jimmy had “elected” Citation to be the winner over Coaltown. No evidence supported the claim. According to historical accounts.

The small field meant there was no place or show wagering. however. Calumet’s entry went to post at a rather generous 2-5 odds before a welldressed crowd of about 70. “It would have caused a family war if I’d done anything about it. and Coaltown quickly took the lead under Pierson. and ball caps still were years away. In the first and second posts.” So with Ben’s name in the program. Jane back to their kitchens. Escadru. Ladies weren’t the only ones to wear hats.” he said. Citation and Coaltown broke on top. respectively. Jones said fifty-plus years later. It probably wouldn’t have done any good. I. though the end of the war had sent Rosie the Riveter and G. dressed for the occasion with fedoras and hamburgs de rigueur. That.father a chance to get credit for winning with a horse he had trained from day one. too. Coaltown was about six lengths 57 . Arcaro simply straightened his horse and allowed Billings. T-shirts. By the time the pack reached the backside. and Grandpere to go inside him.000. simply wasn’t the case. Men. “If I’d fought it. it would have been to no avail. The days of fans sprawled comfortably in shorts.

A. covering the mile and a quarter in 2:05 2/5. Jimmy Jones thought it was not a particularly good ride by Arcaro and that he had left the colt with too much to do. by the time he went into the far turn he was within contact.T h e K i n g Ta k e s H i s T h r o n e in front and showing no signs of tiring. they were running as a twosome. tricked me again? He’s going to try to steal it with Coaltown. Citation quickly pulled away from the pack. By the half-mile pole. The victory gave Calumet its third Derby. and Ben Jones his coveted tie with H. no doubt. “Has that B. The margin between Citation and last-place Escadru was more than twenty-eight lengths. but Arcaro gave him a smack of the whip as insurance. Citation drew ahead on his own.” Arcaro realized he had better get in gear and loosened his hold. Arcaro hand-rode Citation the rest of the way as he won by three and a half lengths. J. At the quarter pole. Jimmy remembered muttering something along the lines of. Arcaro and Jimmy Jones felt a brief moment of panic. Thompson. It was at about the same time. Cy was within three and a half lengths of his stablemate. Nevertheless. Coaltown finished another three lengths ahead of My Request. The race also was just the fourth in which 58 . Arcaro his record fourth.

made effusive comparisions between the Derby winner and the best horse the century had produced thus far: “Citation stands in about the same position of complete domination as did Man o’ War after the Preakness Stakes of 1920. according to Red Smith of the New York HeraldTribune. Grier and Upset were to Man o’ War. Arcaro had gotten into an argument with a traffic cop and landed in jail. Arcaro set another mark: first jockey to win a Derby while under bail. In that race. 1948. There is nothing outside his own stable. “But now comes the Preakness Stakes.a stable entry had finished one-two. The last to do so had been Idle Hour Farm with Bubbling Over and Bagenbaggage in 1926. for some obscure reason. which appears closer to the champion’s class than John P. Also. The owners of the other colts can run for 59 . the amazingly liberal odds of 2 to 5 were available against Citation and his hitherto unbeaten stablemate. An editorial in The Blood-Horse of May 8. Coaltown. and there is no contestant for Citation’s crown. The night before the race. He caused three minus pools before he came to the Kentucky Derby.

He won easily by five and a half lengths and recorded a time of 2:02 2/5 for the one and three-sixtheenths miles. Whitney’s Vulcan’s Forge and King Ranch’s Better Self. That left three opponents: C. Then. who both were shipped from Jamaica in New York.T h e K i n g Ta k e s H i s T h r o n e second money. or they can run for the chance that ‘something’ will happen. but after his Derby victory. Wright quickly supplemented him into the second leg of the Triple Crown. but changed his mind. Citation even defeated another one of those dread- 60 .” but Citation quickly sprinted to the front despite stout restraint. They may as well have stayed in their barns. Arcaro allowed the colt to gallop along a couple lengths in front of Vulcan’s Forge until the head of the stretch. Ben Jones originally planned to send Coaltown. he shook the colt up with two smacks of the whip. not even Citation can be immunized against all of these. V. too. The track was listed “heavy. Some smartypants years ago tabulated 150 ways in which a horse can lose a race. and Citation pulled away.” Citation had not been nominated to the Preakness. and Survivor Stakes winner Bovard.

the Preakness had gone to post with Arcaro on the front of the magazine. Usually. the magazine had done a spread on Elizabeth Arden Graham’s supposedly unbeatable entry for the Kentucky Derby. Also pictured was a ticket for a pari-mutuel wager on the Number 4 horse. Two years earlier. Jimmy didn’t find them a bother because he and Citation didn’t spend much time there. which turned out to be Citation’s number in the Preakness. horsemen feared cover stories about their horses in Time. three weeks separated the Preakness and Belmont. The Jones Boys. then her horses ran out of the money. But there were many more newspapers then. and Jimmy Jones said all the major ones converged on Belmont Park. With television in its infancy. This par- 61 . it’s hard to imagine that a potential Triple Crown attracted as much of a media circus back in 1948 as it does today. This year. There was nothing unlucky about the whole thing. Just as some of today’s top athletes think being pictured on the cover of Sports Illustrated can doom a hot streak.ed racing “jinxes:” a cover story in Time magazine. and Arcaro were two-thirds of the way to their second Triple Crown in seven years.

“He won it very easily. Escadru.000 out of it besides. he’d thrilled his friend. But to him. Garden State owner Gene Mori. though. then encouraged him to move into the lead after a half-mile. Seven other horses were entered.900 Jersey Stakes. and the Jersey fans who got a chance to see a potential Triple Crown winner. the one and a quarter-mile race made sense because of the extra week. there were four.” Jones said.T h e K i n g Ta k e s H i s T h r o n e ticular year. “It got the cobwebs out of him. he shipped Citation to Garden State Park to run in the $61. 62 . He coasted home over the fast track eleven lengths in front and in track-record time of 2:03. He would have to do something strenuous with Citation during that period — why not run him in what looked like an easy race? With just four average sorts opposing him.” Jones said. it was an easy race. Arcaro again restrained Cy early. forerunner of the Jersey Derby. Back in New York. including such familiar names as Better Self.” In addition. more horsemen appeared willing to take a try at Citation. “People thought I was crazy. and we got $50. It was a good work. Instead of training Citation up to the Belmont.

Jimmy Jones. the trainer would have done anything to take back that jocular send-off. Sackett’s Gasparilla.” Jones said. Golden Light of Belair Stud. J. Rounding out the field were A. The main reason for the surprisingly large field: the one and a half-mile distance. Bull Lea had not yet sired any twelve-furlong winners. he would have been shaken 63 . was confident. the ground broke beneath Citation. almost to his knees.and Vulcan’s Forge. and his nose hit the dirt. a bad last…If he hadn’t been an agile fellow. “Arcaro was agile. and Faraway of Glen Riddle Farm.” Jones said. and he scrambled like crazy to get back up. “He was last. When the gate opened. Arcaro lost his stirrups but was able to stay atop the horse. “I really thought he was a cinch…. W. “I told Arcaro in the paddock — maybe it was a premonition: ‘I don’t see how you can get beat unless you fall off him. however. He went down.’ ” A few minutes later. though. he did acknowledge he’d felt some pressure to bring home the Triple Crown. so opponents could only hope Citation’s possible lone weakness was distance. Later on. Helis’ Salmagundi.

Jones said Citation caught the entire pack within the first quarter-mile. tying Count Fleet’s stakes record. the mishap seemed of no consequence. relentlessly pressed him for the lead for a little better than seven furlongs. 64 . Citation had a four-length lead. and that. No one else ever got closer than two lengths. Citation was the eighth Triple Crown winner in American racing history. He crossed the wire eight lengths in front of Better Self and stopped the clock in 2:28 1/5. I don’t know what the ruling would have been.T h e K i n g Ta k e s H i s T h r o n e off. It was the longest challenge of any of Citation’s Triple Crown rivals. and he had made Arcaro the first jockey to sweep it twice. The drama continued as 28-1 Faraway. who faded to finish eighth. and he opened up from there.” Within seconds. But he was able to stay on and he got his feet back in the stirrups…If he’d hit the ground and got back on. By the quarter-mile pole. and it cost poor Faraway. was Escadru shortly after Faraway gave up the chase. with Ted Atkinson up. Calumet tied William Woodward’s Belair Stud in completing its second sweep. briefly. Although the chart doesn’t post the order until the end of the first half-mile.

“Big Cy. The Belmont Stakes had been the eleventh race of the durable colt’s 1948 season. There were plenty more still to come.” At that point.Now the fans and newspapers were calling the horse hero. some owners might have considered syndicating and retiring such a valuable horse to stud. But Warren Wright had a number of good stallions at stud and only one Citation on the racetrack. 65 .

A Season Of Honors T he new Triple Crown champion gave no signs of needing freshening for Chicago’s Stars and Stripes Handicap at Arlington Park on July 5.100 event at 3-10 odds. he kept Citation in hand until the upper turn. Then the bay colt quickly moved from fifth place to first by a length and a half at the head of the stretch. Going up against a field of eight rivals ranging in age from three to five. As usual. Citation was coupled with Calumet’s Fervent. just three weeks after the Belmont. tying the track 66 . and that’s exactly how Arcaro rode him. He went to post in the $56. The Daily Racing Form chart notes that he was under “stout urging” to maintain his final margin of two lengths. but Arcaro probably was simply reminding Citation he should never hang on the front. 1948. His time for the mile and an eighth was 1:42 2/5.

Citation spooked when a manure truck hit a tin feed tub.” a deep muscle leading from the stifle to the hip. Citation had to forego training for a while and missed the Arlington Classic. settling on using inductothermy. the precursor of deepheat treatment machines. Citation was obviously hurt. Coneley examined Citation and made the same diagnosis.000 allowance sprint called the Buckingham Purse at Washington Park on August 21. but he was good as new and ready to race again by late August. Jimmy finally concluded that Citation had pulled what old-time horsemen called the “flyshaker. While walking the shedrow of his barn one day. but the nature of the injury wasn’t clear. The noise caused the colt to jump straight in the air and land with a thud. but a freak track mishap intervened. Jimmy Jones planned to start Citation next in the Arlington Classic. 1948. He kept that opinion to himself until an old veterinarian named R.record set by Armed at age six the year before. The weight allowances 67 . Jones finished tightening him up by entering him in a $4. He and Jones outlined a course of treatment. D. Jones bought a special machine for Citation that generated heat by electricity and directed it to the sore muscle to speed healing.

Citation was bet down to 1-5 odds. Pierson was in the irons. Citation settled a couple lengths off pacesetter King Rhymer. Citation was back. One was Speculation. The Daily Racing Form chart footnotes said he “won going away with speed in reserve. Stable jockey Newbold L.A S e a s o n O f H o n o r s were not particularly significant for the underdogs. a mile-and-aquarter event for three-year-olds. and won by two and a half lengths. who had won the Arlington Classic in Citation’s absence. including stablemate Free America.” His time for the six furlongs was a crisp 1:10 4/5. It could have been more. Four others were entered. and Papa Redbird. took over the lead in the stretch. The others were King Rhymer at 114 and Clevelander at 108. and there was no place or show wagering. who was assigned 117 pounds to Citation’s 120. and 68 . But the other three horses each got eight pounds from the champion. was in at 122. so only three horses were entered to face him. Once again there was no place or show wagering. Exactly one week later he moved back into stakes competition in the American Derby. but everything else was the same as always. Citation was highweight at 126.

but that wasn’t coming up until October 2. Arcaro said Citation was “dead short” for a race of that distance. At the quarter-mile pole. Then came stablemate Free America. Arcaro took hold of Citation to stalk pacesetter Papa Redbird for a little more than a half-mile. he would run him in a weight-for-age event called the Sysonby Mile on September 29. but the Daily Racing Form chart said the champion “had little left.” His official time was 2:01 3/5 over a fast track.this time the betting odds on the Calumet Farm entry dropped to a measly ten cents on the dollar. First Volcanic came running. After the customary good break. they coasted a length and a half in front. then took the lead. Citation held him off to win by a length. “I always preferred racing up to a major stake rather 69 . The Joneses headed East for the good stakes racing autumn always brought to New York. and he rode with his usual confidence. Then came two quick surprises. Jimmy Jones had his eye on the two-mile Jockey Club Gold Cup. Arcaro was back in the saddle. Afterward. pulling within a half-length before Citation put him away. He decided that instead of putting Citation through one final workout.

A S e a s o n O f H o n o r s than training up. and five-year-olds Spy Song and Natchez. First Flight and Star Reward. Very tight. and at least two of them. “That way. Coaltown. He was tight. six challengers took on Citation. Phalanx and Miss Grillo. you get a better look at your horse. The result of the Sysonby was accomplished as easily as the proverbial taking of candy from a baby. then let the colt loose to move quickly to the lead and pull away. Arcaro wrapped up on him at the sixteenth pole — the Jockey Club Gold Cup was just three days away — and Citation won by three. would leave their own marks in history with races 70 . The Calumet entry was 1-10. In the Jockey Club Gold Cup.” Jones said in a biography about him and his dad called In the Winner’s Circle. Also entered were two four-year-olds. for he also entered Calumet’s second-best three-year-old.” Jones could be sure Citation would be pressed by at least one classy horse. His time for the mile was 1:36. Arcaro again restrained Citation for the first half-mile as Spy Song set the pace. and he benefits more mentally from the competition than he would in a workout.

also known as The 71 . The chart of the race said Citation was “tired. and :24 2/5. The rest of the field comprised Beauchef.” but Arcaro was ecstatic. Arcaro allowed the colt to go straight to the lead. Citation was a generous 3-10 on the tote board at post time. But this race had another mile and a quarter to go and Citation was opening up a lead of five lengths while galloping.” Citation didn’t need much time to recover. “I just wanted to test him. They hit the wire seven lengths in front while covering the two miles in 3:21 3/5. and Doubtless II. With a quarter-mile to go. which would have been leisurely in a shorter race. Citation found another gear and ripped open a huge lead before the rider could gather him up.run in their honor. :23 3/5. some would say he had no choice. for the colt was extraordinarily strong that day.” he told Jimmy Jones in the winner’s circle. Arcaro smacked him. Conniver. “This is some horse you’ve got here. Jones brought him back as planned two weeks later for the similarly named Gold Cup. The jockey was able to steady him enough to hit early quarter-mile fractions of :24 2/5. Rose Beam.

the $111. It was a weightfor-age event.A S e a s o n O f H o n o r s International. nobody else bothered to accept a chance at the proffered $25. and the pair galloped along in quarter-mile fractions of around :24 right through the finish. carried 123. Arcaro reined Citation in after the start.000 in the event of a walk- 72 . Run at a mile and five-eighths. Jones and Citation returned to Maryland once again with Jones planning to cap off the colt’s season in the Pimlico Special. an invitational to be run at one and three-sixteenths miles on October 29. and six-year-old Miss Grillo. fouryear-old Carolyn A.000 purse. by another five as he stopped the clock at 2:42 4/5 on a fast surface. Citation beat Phalanx by two lengths and Carolyn A. Unfortunately. Arcaro again steadied Citation. and the rest of the older horses carried 126. That accomplished. and they raced third behind pacesetters Better Self and Ace Admiral. Arcaro allowed Citation to make a fast move toward and into the lead. Two distaffers. The track had made provisions for such an eventuality. After a half-mile. so Citation and the rest of the threeyear-olds got in at 119 pounds. The conditions called for the purse to be downscaled to $10.700 race attracted a field of nine.

as Jones constantly reminded himself. Citation had crossed the line of super horse to superstar. Gene Mori. Jones was contacted constantly by racetracks hoping to persuade him to let Big Cy run at their ovals. the pair picked up the pace a bit. And. One call came from Jimmy’s old friend. After a poky opening eighth of a mile in :13 2/5.over. and then the Santa Anita Handicap. it was time to give Citation a break. for Arcaro allowed Citation to put on a decent exhibition. to his holdings and asked Jimmy to stop there en route to Los Angeles for a big 73 . Citation had done more than enough for the year. And that’s exactly what the fans were treated to. the record should have been a perfect eighteen. a track near San Francisco. Every paper in the country carried Jones’ announcement that Citation would be shipped to Southern California for the winter. Mori recently had added Tanforan. Either way. He had won not only the Triple Crown but seventeen of eighteen races. They covered the course in 1:59 4/5. for fouryear-olds. After freshening. he would be pointed to the Maturity Stakes. Because of Citation’s star power. owner of Garden State Park and Hialeah. By that time.

000 purse. Per his custom. Jones put the finishing touches on Citation at Tanforan in a $5. The weather didn’t improve any over the next week before what was just the second running of the Tanforan Handicap on December 11. or as Daily Racing Form put it. the one who had persuaded him to pick up an easy $50. Citation won by a length and a half. Citation was going to be on the train West anyway.000 with Citation in the Jersey Stakes just before the Belmont. Mori said Citation’s appearance would help to reestablish San Francisco as a racing center and launch the track toward success. Arcaro and Citation stalked Bold Gallant for a halfmile and then took command on the outside entering the stretch. Once again. Jones finally consented. Mori was an old friend. Citation went to post at odds of ten cents on the dollar. rain. and 74 . and Mori thought it’d be pretty easy for the colt to pick up the winner’s share of the $50.” The time was a crisp 1:12 despite a muddy surface. Cold.A S e a s o n O f H o n o r s end-of-the-year race called the Tanforan Handicap.000 six-furlong allowance for three-year-olds on December 3. “as his rider pleased.

Jones publicly blamed himself.900 ten-furlong stakes. calcifies. When See-Tee-See made a big challenge in the stretch. got in at weights ranging from 105 pounds to 117.fog — typical weather for this time of year in the Bay Area — made for an off track labeled “good” for the $54. Jones eventually blamed the mishap on two factors: his own poor judgment and the track surface. a stress injury where the fetlock joint becomes inflamed. The rest of the field. all of them entered no doubt because of huge weight advantages and the $10.000 second-prize purse. and gathers more fluid. The ailment was diagnosed as an osselet. Citation came out of the race with a sore left foreleg. The weight shift didn’t bother Citation a bit. Citation won by five lengths and in track-record time of 2:02 4/5. Arcaro allowed Citation to take the lead soon after the start and kept on going. Arcaro shook up his colt and put him into a drive. sometimes growing to the size of an orange. which included sevenyear-old Texas Sandman and eight-year-old Happy Issue. saying he’d gone to 75 . Six horses opposed Citation. Citation would carry 123 pounds.

and it was injurious to him. Conventional treatment called for a period of cooling out the ankle followed by a process called “firing.” Jones said.” Regardless of the exact cause. there was nothing to be done about it now. the latest firing tool was a piece of iron heated by electricity. “He didn’t know they’d had a seepage problem in recent years and doctored it by cutting the dirt back and putting some concrete in it. “When Mori had bought the track. “I had run him so many times that summer that I had begun to think he was immortal. he didn’t know much about it. which was used to burn little holes in the skin. Jones pointed to the track surface as another culprit. But a half-century later.” he said. The theory was this additional irritant would increase blood flow and speed healing of the osselet. I didn’t know it. a soggy spot.” At the time. It was hard. He didn’t know it.A S e a s o n O f H o n o r s the well once too often. The water came down and broke through and created a seepy spot. He simply wanted to send Citation to the farm to 76 . There was a big hill. Jones was not a fan of firing. They buried the concrete two or three feet down…Concrete has no resiliency. a semimountain next to it.

Jones held Wright off as long as he could. and runner-up to Coaltown as champion sprinter. He ordered Citation sent to Florida with the racing stable and began pushing for firing the injury. champion three-year-old. and only in retrospect would racing realize just how unfortunate it was that Wright had gotten his way. I wanted the job. champion three-year-old colt.let the ankle cool. champion handicap horse. Citation was named Horse of the Year. He could have got another trainer. They didn’t get it. But the fact of the matter was.” Jones helped the veterinarian sent to Florida from Lexington do the firing. Jones said. Warren Wright disagreed. There were a lot of things he could have done. He was strong on this. 77 . But it would be a long while before Big Cy raced again. They put Citation in his stall and hoped for the best. Wright “was a salty old guy and he could have fired me.

and. Arthur Davidson did the procedure with Jimmy Jones’ assistance on December 29. just like I was.” Jones remembered the vet78 . Wright ordered the firing of the osselet anyway. but Jones figured the young Davidson “was scared of the old man. Ben Jones announced that day the colt would miss his scheduled debut at four in the Santa Anita Maturity and would instead be shipped to Florida from Southern California. subsequently. Both of them knew they were taking a gamble in performing the procedure on an inflamed ankle. Citation would be out six or seven weeks. the osselet in Citation’s ankle on December 14.The Long Road Back J immy Jones discovered the heat. the elder Jones said. 1948. But the ankle would not cool out properly under the hot Florida sun. and Dr. three days after the Tanforan Handicap.

When calendar year 1949 came to a close. which further slowed his recovery. Jones wished he could turn him out in some cold air up north in Maryland. but he was afraid if he let Citation out of his sight he might never see him again. Jones aimed for a comeback at Belmont Park’s spring meet and didn’t make that deadline.” He was wrong. Citation’s past performance line read zero wins. either. “I think we can get away with it. Between those lines lay endless days of Citation’s 79 . but the colt’s ankle began to bother him again. and Citation seemed to be improving. He postponed his goal to the following meet at Washington Park. He worried someone else would get the chance to train him. he put on weight. The first few weeks of 1949 and the Hialeah season went by. That wish. As he stood idle in his stall. zero seconds. too. was unfulfilled. Yet again. Instead. but Citation still wasn’t ready. Jones took him onto the main track one day between races to jog for the fans. he set his sights on the Arlington Park meet and again was disappointed. and zero thirds in zero starts. the Joneses predicted Citation would make his return at Belmont Park in the fall. Citation’s ankle swelled again.erinarian as saying.

000 Belmont Purse was a six-furlong allowance for older horses. Looking much like the Citation of old. one year and one month to the day after his last race. he stalked the leaders in third place from the start until the stretch. 1950.000 La 80 . He hit the wire a length and a half in front of Bold Gallant and in a time of 1:11 2/5 over a sloppy track. It was only over the last few months of 1949 that Citation was able to stand up to long jogs and gallops and then light breezes. Jones brought Cy back for a little allowance handicap.T h e L o n g R o a d B a c k standing in his stall or jogging lightly only to have his ankle start swelling again. and the $5. Jones said — and the colt raced well for him. and Chutney — and gave each of them anywhere from eight to fifteen pounds. Citation faced three opponents — Bold Gallant. Brooks vigorously shook up his mount. Roman In. Fifteen days later. The date was January 11. Finally. although fourth-place Chutney carried him wide down the backside. Citation made his return at Santa Anita. on January 26. Once in the stretch. and Citation easily took the lead nearing the eighth pole. Regular stable jockey Steve Brooks was in the saddle for Citation’s return — Arcaro wasn’t interested. the $6.

He gave as many as twenty-three pounds to Huon Kid. came up to challenge. nevertheless. Brooks was in the irons again. Miche got by him. but this loss nevertheless came in an allowance race. although the richer allowances are meant for horses working their way into or back to stakes events. and Brooks shook up Cy again. tagged with 130 pounds. The margin between them was a neck. from which they can be bought for pre-set prices. Wright had two major goals for Citation that season: to win the Santa Anita Handicap and to become the 81 . Then Miche. Next step up the ladder are allowance races. was highweight in a field of six. Cy moved up quickly when urged coming around the turn and briefly moved in front of Royal Blood. Miche. and the pair settled into fourth early with Citation under restraint.Sorpresa at six furlongs. the only four-year-old in the field. Cheap horses run in claiming races. a kind of “middle class” event at any Thoroughbred track. a 14-1 shot. Citation was in the latter category. became just the third horse to defeat Citation in thirty-one starts. again out of the Santa Anita chute. but Citation never stopped fighting. Citation. getting sixteen pounds.

000 away from a million. If he were to do either. Seven challengers also were loaded into the gate for the mile and an eighth event. and the dinky purses of the tighteners had left his total earnings still more than $170. owned by Abe “Murphy” Hirschberg. the San Franciscan who had owned the great Seabiscuit. On February 11. had bought Noor and another horse named Nathoo for $175. Citation was highweight at 130. Nathoo never won for Howard. Among them: the speedy Bolero. and Ponder was next at 128. and an Irish-bred that had caught Jones’ eye. S. 1950. even though there were some very good horses in the field. Jones saddled Citation and his 1949 Kentucky Derby-winning stablemate Ponder for the $50.000-added San Antonio Handicap. at 110 pounds. who had finished third in the 1948 Epsom Derby. Howard.000 from the Aga Khan. C. Jones needed to step up the pace and pressure on Citation. and it took Noor a while to get going. the aforementioned Miche carrying 116. The rest of the weight assignments ranged from 108 pounds to 121.T h e L o n g R o a d B a c k sport’s first million-dollar earner. a brown five-year-old named Noor. Soon after his exportation to the United 82 . The Big Cap was less than a month away.

but it was hard for Jones to be discouraged. then Bolero while racing wide. Now Citation had lost two races in a row for the first time in his life. They broke well. 1949. But Cy didn’t hold on to the lead long enough for it to show up on the chart. though. then settled back to stalk first Solidarity. In the early months of 1950. and the two raced in their usual style. Noor developed osselets. He did not start for Howard until October 14. He’d lost the two races by only a length and a neck while giving weight and still getting racing trim after a thirteen-month layoff. ninth earlier. Arcaro sent Citation after Bolero and he got past inside the eighth pole.000 by placing in three stakes. Arcaro was back on Citation for the stakes. Jones would say if he’d have been older and 83 . Citation finished a length behind Ponder and a halflength in front of Noor. he would start earning back his purchase price as well as a big name. but he finished the season with earnings of $10. came charging late and wore down his stablemate inside the sixteenth pole to win the race. Still.States. Bolero finished another threequarters of a length back in fourth. Over the last quarter-mile. Instead Ponder.

Citation was assigned 132 pounds. 84 . By that time.900 and even then was considered the most prestigious handicap on the West Coast. Eleven horses were entered. and the tough filly Two Lea. second highweight was Ponder at 124. Ponder. Two Lea went right to the lead and set a blistering pace of :22 3/5 for the first quarter and :46 2/5 for the half. therefore. he’d have pushed for more time with Citation before taking on such a big challenge as the $135. was sixth after the fast half-mile. The mile and a quarter stakes on February 25 guaranteed the winner $97.T h e L o n g R o a d B a c k more confident of his position. he was in third and only two and a half lengths behind his stablemate. But by the time Two Lea hit the quarter-mile pole. But he felt Wright had sent him out to Southern California specifically to win that race and he. caught in close quarters early. And she kept right on going. covering the mile in 1:35 1/5 as she held the lead to the head of the stretch. must give it a try.000 Santa Anita Handicap. the 6-1 second choice behind the Calumet entry. though. including the three-horse Calumet entry of Citation. Noor. who at age four was in the midst of a championship season. Citation. got in at a generous 110 pounds.

continued the chase. who had circled the field on the final turn to move within a length of Two Lea. Arcaro tried to go inside Two Lea but couldn’t get through. Citation should have been the winner.he also was chasing Noor. Time of the race was two minutes flat — a track record. he made a decision almost as damaging as going to Tanforan late in Citation’s three-year-old season. Ponder finished fourth. while Two Lea gamely held on for third. it was hard for him to be disappointed in any of his runners. Jones was crushed.000 San Juan Capistrano at 85 . Eventually Two Lea gave way. Jones wheeled him right back in the $64. Thus. In Jones’ mind. another length back. especially Citation. his effort falling a length and a quarter short. The horse managed to get up for second. Noor moved into the lead. lugging his twenty-two extra pounds. Seeking vindication for his great horse. The two jockeys who had caught him in close quarters early ended up being suspended for the meet for bothering him so much. while Citation. He had wanted to finish one-twothree — not two-three-four. He was forced to check and to take Citation outside. a neck behind his stablemate. But considering the circumstances.

Noor drew even closer and they raced as a team to the wire. It was cold comfort that Turf writers were very impressed with Big Cy. After a long wait for the photo. moved into second place before the midway point and then took over the lead from Old Rockport at the half-mile pole. with Steve Brooks up. In the last sixteenth. who had been haunting Jones’ dreams. Noor.T h e L o n g R o a d B a c k one and three-quarter miles a week later. Citation was assigned 130 as highweight in a field of eight. The swing was a little less in Noor’s favor but not much in light of the Irish import’s burgeoning talent. They voted him out- 86 . The racing secretary must have held the other six horses in pretty low regard: their weights ranged from 104 to 108 pounds. But the worst news was yet to come — Citation came out of the race lame and Jones would have to back off again. He would be the one credited with setting the track and American records of 2:52 4/5. Johnny Longden and Noor then came rushing to challenge Citation. Jones got the bad news: It was Noor by a nose. also came back and was second highweight at 117. who maintained a head in front as the two horses battled for the next three and a half furlongs. Citation.

Citation stayed sound. and Jones entered him in the $23. the pace was extraordinarily fast. Again. Roman In’s time for the race was a world record-equaling 1:08 2/5. Roman In. Jones and the stable moved north to Golden Gate. This time the race conditions were in Citation’s favor. and the chart reports Roman In was “hard-ridden” to hold Citation off by three-quarters of a length. Stand-in jockey Gordon Glisson took his time with Citation as Terry’s Man ripped through the first half-mile in :44 2/5. equal weights to Roman In and Terry’s Man. The trainer was unsure when he would be able to race Citation again. then took command as he straightened for home. $4. He got in at 120 pounds. From there. By that time Glisson had Citation rolling.300 Golden Gate Handicap on June 3. who had stalked the leader. The race was a six-furlong.standing horse of the Santa Anita meet despite his record of one win and four seconds in five starts. But Citation’s leg did begin to improve while they were in the Bay area. it had taken a record effort to beat Big Cy.000 allowance called the Surprise Purse on May 17. Steve Brooks 87 . and after a good work Jones entered him in his first start in two and a half months. Again.

Cy took command approaching the eighth pole. and an incredible 1:07 3/5. and though Bolero forced him wide heading into the stretch.T h e L o n g R o a d B a c k was back aboard as Citation’s rider. The chart notes show Brooks used the whip freely. ironically. who was assigned 123 pounds to Citation’s 128. and Citation responded to win by three-quarters of a length. as he would be for all but two of Citation’s remaining career starts. had started riding regularly for Calumet in 1949 and promptly won the Kentucky Derby for Wright on Ponder. The $14. was 1:34 flat set by stablemate Coaltown at Washington Park on August 20. the best being the speedster Bolero. with Brooks up. He would continue to ride for the stable for the next fifteen years. born in Nebraska. It seemed more like a two-horse race.630 — an enormous milestone since it made him Thoroughbred racing’s all- 88 . as Citation. though he never signed a contract. The time for the mile was a world-record 1:33 3/5. Five others were entered. The mark he broke. Brooks. 1949.550 winner’s share of the purse pushed Citation’s career earnings to $924. Then Brooks sent Citation after Bolero. stalked Bolero through eye-popping fractions of :22 1/5. :44 1/5.

The newspapers also focused on the quest. there came Noor with Johnny Longden. On Trust went right to the front while Citation. By this time. Citation wasn’t quite able to hold him off.780 Forty-Niners Handicap on June 17.time leading earner. At least this time. who had won $918. Wright and Jimmy Jones were no longer the only people thinking millionaire. with Brooks up. Noor won by a neck and in a time of 1:46 4/5 — again a world record. tucked behind in second. Citation got a mere $2. with Citation slowly closing in on the leader around the second turn. Once again. a featherweight 100. the weights were a lot less lopsided. Cy was assigned 128 pounds for the mile and an eighth race. So was Noor. On Trust at 108. and the five-year-old moved quickly into the lead. and Stepfather. Citation was entered in the $10. The horse he passed was Stymie. and also once again. and soon sports fans across the nation were following Citation’s campaign. The pair raced that way through the first half-mile. 89 . it also seemed that Noor had become Citation’s nemesis. Roman In was at 111 pounds. Noor got 123.000 for his effort. Brooks then swung Citation outside and hit him once.485 over his lifetime.

and Citation developed a low bow.T h e L o n g R o a d B a c k A week later. But the champion came out of a workout lame and Jones retired him for the season. The rest of the field all got in at 107 pounds or less. He did. Again the final time that beat Citation — 1:58 1/5 — was a world record. This time it was Noor who would give weight. The fact was that although the osselet had healed perfectly. But it no longer could be denied that Citation was not the horse he’d been at age three. Jones then moved his string east to Arlington Park. Noor was seventh early. albeit a mere pound at 127 to Citation’s 126. who quickly opened up a ninelength lead. and Citation went along. the firing had compromised a tendon in his left ankle. who hit the wire three lengths in front. Longden sent Noor after the leaders about seven-eighths of a mile into the race. Noor and Citation again returned to run in the $57. but he was no match for Noor. however. 90 . Brooks called on Citation on the turn. move another $12. while Citation settled into third behind On Trust.000 closer to a million dollars.000 Golden Gate Handicap at one and a quarter miles. At least he hoped it was just for the season. and the Irish-bred quickly surged into the lead.

With all those factors considered. He set a world-record for the mile. Wright still wanted Citation to become racing’s first millionaire. he became the world’s leading money-winner while racing on what obviously was an unsound leg. 91 . when he was shipped to rejoin Jimmy Jones at Santa Anita. a fan might even argue for making Citation Horse of the Year. and he died on December 28. He had been ill for some time. totally unfair unless one looked at his season only in terms of his win-loss record. however. but he’d never been worse than second while giving weight in all but two starts. That was. He stayed at the farm until early December.Citation returned to Calumet and the leg was fired again. Warren Wright probably was never aware of the racing officials’ insult. and it took record times to defeat him in five of his losses. B. He had won only two races in nine starts. part of the committee that picked annual champions for Thoroughbred Racing Associations. racing officials J. At the end of the year. Campbell of New York and Hialeah and Charles McLennan of Hialeah. called Citation the “biggest disappointment” of the year. Moreover. 1950.

and Jones realized that while Citation could run. 1951.The Toughest Ninety Grand A fter Warren Wright’s death. “But I was trying to get him a million dollars.250 allowance at Bay Meadows called the Uncle Tom’s Cabin Purse. there seemed to be no reason to push Citation’s latest recovery. to see Citation win a million dollars. The horse was six years old now. “it wasn’t the same. losing the Golden Gate Handicap by 92 . He was like an old fighter with a bad hand.” Jones figured the only way he could do it was to cut training to the bare minimum and let the horse race himself into shape. Jimmy Jones would pursue Wright’s goal.” Jones said. but he would allow the old champion to do it at his own pace. Citation finally entered the starting gate again with Steve Brooks up in a six-furlong $3. both mentally and physically. It had been nearly ten months since Citation had raced. On April 18.

hit twice by Brooks. Citation. the Livermore Veterans Hospital Day Purse. He made up ground down the stretch. It would get worse. Weight would not be an excuse this time. On April 26. The conditions were such that Citation would carry 120 pounds. but Jimmy Jones saw no other way for Citation to reach the $1-million goal. Citation came back for another little six-furlong allowance at Bay Meadows. but Brooks didn’t push him. only this time Pancho Supreme finished ahead of A Lark.000 short of a million. was game but nevertheless beaten two and a quarter lengths.three lengths to Noor. Citation broke alertly and stayed close to the leader throughout the race. His career money totaled $939. He finished third. Now Citation had two consecutive thirds marring his marvelous race record. beaten a length by A Lark and a nose by Pancho Supreme.” Jones said. The race looked like a rerun of the Uncle Tom’s Cabin.060 — still nearly $61. It was the worst finish of his career and his share of the purse was a tiny $430. 93 . “He was getting better (physically) as time went on. the same as two of his five unremarkable opponents.

Jones couldn’t be absolutely sure because he wouldn’t risk setting him down for a real timed work.” Jones said. the Calumet string moved on to Hollywood Park.500 purse. He sat eighth most of the way and then rallied under Brooks down the stretch to finish fifth. “He was ready to do a little bit and do what he could do. Each time he was getting a little better. and even then Jones told Brooks just to let Citation go as far as he could. Citation started with the Hollywood Premiere Handicap. He took him to the gate or to the paddock so the horse could prepare himself mentally. Fitness was going to have to take care of itself through racing. but the record already was ruined by that time. and Citation seemed to like the racing strip. but Citation gave Jones no real reason to stop trying.T h e To u g h e s t N i n e t y G r a n d After the Bay Meadows meet. “It was hard on his record. Fans had to be wondering whether the milliondollar goal was worth the cost. but out of the money for the first time in his career. I was no longer protecting the 94 . a six-furlong sprint with an $18. The chart showed Citation never really got into the race.

Citation sat fifth the first half-mile and then moved up to 95 . with Bill Shoemaker up. or wide. Citation gave his trainer new incentive to push on. The field was not so easy.” About this time. Coaltown. As a mare. I was just trying to get him to the goal of the million-dollar mark. Bewitch got in at 109 pounds. Coaltown was highweight at 125.650 Argonaut Handicap at one and a sixteenth miles. Jones. He liked the riders to hold the back reins in a short cross so that their hands were in his mane. who had been looking at films. finally realized why Citation had raced better for the late Albert Snider and Eddie Arcaro than for Doug Dodson. He didn’t run as well with a long. and Be Fleet at 118.record. followed by Citation at 121. for Calumet also had entered Coaltown and Bewitch in a total field of ten. went straight to the front and opened a four-length lead. Next time out. Jones worked with Brooks to change to the short cross. eventually. The race was the $30. cross and the rider’s hands on the side of his neck. a distance that might give Citation more time to get rolling at the end. and. the jockey got the idea.

000 second-place purse pushed his total earnings to $944. Unfortunately. Citation finished second. Brooks then let him go on the second turn and Citation moved to the lead at his own pace. and he gave Citation the kind of trip — and the hold — with which the horse always had been most comfortable. Still. he lost a lot of ground entering the stretch and could not reach Be Fleet. Citation seemed to be racing himself into good shape. This time. while Bewitch dawdled in last place. Jones wheeled him back at Hollywood to face Be Fleet again on June 14 in the $15. and Be Fleet took command turning for home. and the $5. but acceptable nevertheless. who won by three.460. 96 . Steve Brooks was back in the saddle. But by that time.000 Century Handicap at a distance of a mile. The duo sat third early behind Sir Butch and Be Fleet with Citation under restraint.T h e To u g h e s t N i n e t y G r a n d fourth over the next quarter. Be Fleet was giving Citation three pounds. jockey Fred Smith had roused Citation. Coaltown stopped badly before reaching the eighth pole. not the shape of three years earlier. and the old horse was making up lengths on the leaders.

250 American Handicap at one and an eighth miles. He was a good one. Be Fleet set a quick pace of :23 2/5 and :46 4/5 under pressure from All Blue.He had a head in front of Sir Butch at the quarter pole and a half-length margin at the stretch call. during the first half and began making up ground about the same time All Blue took the lead. The Calumet entry was bet down to seventy-five cents to the dollar. Citation carried 123 pounds for the Fourth of July feature. however. she “was not excessively per- 97 .250 of the purse. Bewitch was first.710. though. who apparently was playing the role of rabbit. and he took the lead over the third quarter and held it until mid-stretch. The old guy was on a roll. According to the chart. and Jones took advantage. Citation got $8. pushing his career money total to $952. He then held off Be Fleet to win by the same edge. in front of Citation. two fewer than 6-1 second choice Moonrush. Citation and Bewitch had sat fifth and sixth. respectively. His time for the mile was a very respectable 1:35 4/5 over a fast track. By the head of the stretch. entering him — as well as Bewitch and a horse named All Blue — in the $56.

But the $100. do it in his next start. It was like a reverse replay of that Washington Park Futurity four years earlier when Jones wouldn’t permit his three jockeys to hit their horses. too.T h e To u g h e s t N i n e t y G r a n d severed with at the end. There seemed little doubt about the nature of All Blue’s role.” Citation moved past her to win by a half-length. as well as Be Fleet. he moved past both 98 . The $33.760. He could.000 guaranteed the winner of the mile and a quarter event sure would be a lot flashier. in fact. Citation would have to beat nine challengers. Bewitch had beaten Citation and Free America then. including stablemates Bewitch and All Blue. Now the million-dollar goal finally seemed within reach. But Citation already was in this race.050 first-place purse pushed Citation’s total earnings to $985. which was worth $20. sitting just a length and a half off Be Fleet. Citation was assigned 120.100 Hollywood Gold Cup just by finishing second. Over the next quarter. the $137. He was sent straight to the lead and was two lengths in front of Be Fleet when he hit the first half-mile in :46 4/5. who was the 122-pound highweight.000.

of them, and he had a head lead over All Blue when they hit the half-mile pole in 1:10 3/5. The chart footnotes said, Citation “was never in danger thereafter and won as his rider pleased.” What pleased Brooks was a four-length triumph over Bewitch, who had charged from seventh place over the last half-mile. Citation had the money record and more. His earnings now stood at $1,085,760, and he’d won the race with the flair and style of earlier days. His time was 2:01. Bewitch’s $20,000 share of the purse, meanwhile, also made her the all-time money-winning mare. Best of all, Citation was sound and on a hot streak. Jones toyed with the idea of entering him back in the Sunset Handicap the following week. But, after talking with Lucille Wright that night, Jones announced that Citation would be retired immediately. He had done enough, more than enough, with thirty-two victories, ten seconds, two thirds, and one off-the-board finish in forty-five starts over four seasons, two of them with a bad leg. He had set or tied track records at two distances. Among those thirty-two

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victories were twenty-two stakes, including his historic sweep of the Triple Crown. And then there was that often-debated but successful chase for the million-dollar mark, a chase that Jones believed sustained Warren Wright in his last few months. “I think that ambition and the hope of seeing Citation achieve it for him helped to keep Mr. Wright alive,” Jones said. “…It wasn’t his dying wish, but it certainly was his last enthusiasm.” In Jones’ opinion, the quest had been worth the effort for that reason alone. But now it was time for Citation to lead the kind of life to which all horses, but especially champions, are entitled. Before going home to Calumet, though, Mrs. Wright allowed fans to get one more look at him with farewell parades at Hollywood and Arlington Park. Citation always had seemed aware — and appreciative — of audiences. The parades were a perfect way to start bringing him down from the high-speed life of a racehorse to a more leisurely pace as a stallion in one of Calumet’s beautiful white-fenced paddocks.

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For the first couple of years. The cross of the Blenheim and Bull Lea bloodlines had worked 102 . Calumet planned to limit the horse’s book to twenty mares. the news went across United Press International’s national broadcast wires: “Secretariat has a papoose!” And so it was when Citation returned to the farm in 1951 to prepare for his new life at stud.000 each — Calumet also was guaranteed the choice of the best mares available. when the Appaloosa mare to whom Secretariat had been test-bred produced a foal.A New Life E ven the casual racing fan awaits the beginning of a champion’s stallion career with eager anticipation. Calumet management thought a smaller book led to a higher percentage of live foals. including seven of the farm’s. Farm manager Paul Ebelhardt decided he would primarily use mares who traced to Blenheim II. With only thirteen outside bookings — seasons were $5. In 1974.

and Rosary II was by Blenheim’s son. He earned 103 . Donatello. Shameen. A Gleam. and Rosary II. Hoyden. Personnel were hopeful. started racing.” The reasons were twofold: Bull Lea’s downturn in production of good horses his last six years at stud. Teddy. Despite the careful planning. Always. Always was by Sun Teddy. producing Coaltown. and finished third in the Belmont. Mar-Kell. and Shameen. The first three on the list were daughters of Blenheim II.” Hope must have sprung anew after Citation’s first crop. bought especially for Citation. “the line ended there. going back through his sire. and Hill Gail. Bull Dog. The best of the group was Fabius (a son of the aforementioned Shameen). who ran second in the Kentucky Derby.well. Amphibian. but “we didn’t have too much confidence. born in 1953. won the Preakness. Jimmy Jones said. and the lack of success by other sons of Bull Lea already at stud. The seven mares he finally decided on included Easy Lass (dam of Coaltown). Bull Lea had been the greatest of a long line of top studs. Jones said. Hoyden was a halfsister of the great Bewitch. Now it seemed. was by Royal Minstrel. the farm tried to temper its enthusiasm. and his grandsire.

“He wasn’t a bad sire. a foal of 1956 who went on to beat the boys in the 1959 Santa Anita Derby. where he won the Duke of Edinburgh Stakes.” Jones said. he just didn’t have enough of them. and Evening Time. “He had two or three pretty good horses. Winner of $313. she was named co-champion three-year-old 104 . and In Dispatches. winner of the Betsy Ross and runner-up in both the Gazelle and the Monmouth Oaks. At the end of his stud career.” Among the elite that Citation later sired was Silver Spoon.930 in her career. who was sent to England. The next crop included Manteau. those aforementioned six stakes winners represented fully half of the Citation offspring to win black-type races. and Medal Play was second in the Test. Not a bad net out of twenty matings. winner of the Nursery Stakes.384. winner of the Ohio Derby. Also in that bunch were Beyond. Two other members of that crop were stakes-placed: Jutland was third in the Carter Handicap. Ten more of his sons and daughters placed in stakes races. But the successes grew fewer and further between after that. but he wasn’t good. winner of the Acorn Stakes. Carmel.A N e w L i f e $331.

In terms of quality. and. managed to win $243. but Jones said it was not entirely the stallion’s fault. One of his very best horses. also were foaled in ’56. Calumet’s blue-blooded broodmare band had gotten pretty old. Sky Clipper. winner of the Sapling. ironically. Jones noted. winner of the Peter Pan. a foal of 1958. Lucille. never won a stakes race. Watch Your Step. She was Citation’s only champion. winner of the Withers and runner-up in the Jersey and Hollywood Derbies.” He badgered Wright’s widow. Citation’s other stakes winners included Get Around. Guadalcanal. a dashing Hollywood figure. By that time. “old mares rarely have a good colt. Among the races in which he was runner-up were two Jockey Club Gold Cups and the Travers. He also was third in the Belmont and Woodward Stakes. who won the Regret and Miss Woodford and ran second in the Spinaway.337 in his career despite a bad case of second-itis. Citation’s production tailed off in the 1960s. Markey once summoning him 105 . and Recite. to restock but found she had lost much interest in the horses since marrying Admiral Gene Markey. Jones recalled Mrs.filly in ’59. and Keenation. who won the Sapling Stakes.

921. Calumet had been forced to 106 . but she couldn’t remember the animal’s name or pedigree. 239 (eighty-eight percent) of which reached the races and 168 (sixty-two percent) of which won. They would have visited by the hundreds if they had been permitted.” Jones said. Markey. Eventually. Citation produced 271 foals of racing age. that’s Germany. or an average of $15. but Man o’ War was by far the better sire. As Jones said. he said.A N e w L i f e to the house shortly after the Markeys returned from one of their annual vacations in Europe. Fans certainly didn’t hold it against Citation. “They breed better horses in Mexico than they do in Germany…That mare won’t be worth a quarter.” And. Jones got discouraged and resigned to take a job with his old friend Gene Mori at Monmouth Park. She did know she had bought it in Baden-Baden. Unfortunately. Comparisons of Citation’s racing career stood up to Man o’ War’s no matter how you looked at them. She proudly told Jones she’d bought him a mare. “My God. not bad but not good. Altogether. Mrs. Those offspring earned a total of $3.758. she wasn’t.728.

Many more stars have come along since — Triple Crown winners Secretariat. But 107 . he was declared the winner of the computerized “Race of the Century” by a neck over Man o’War. In 1968.” Citation was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame as a charter member in 1959. plus Spectacular Bid and Cigar to name a few.000 people a day during the farm’s heyday in the ’40s. War Admiral. Arlington and Hialeah inducted him into their own halls of fame. Equipoise. followed by Buckpasser. Exterminator. The Daily Racing Form also included him among the horses in its 20th Century Hall of Fame. “But he may have known me. Tom Fool. Nashua. Occasionally those fans standing at the white fences included Jimmy Jones. and Affirmed. but he just isn’t sure. He wishes he could say Citation remembered him. “He was always an independent cuss.restrict visitation after the traffic reached as many as 500 to 1. Native Dancer. He didn’t acknowledge people very much. Kelso. as well.” Jones said. and Count Fleet. Seattle Slew. Swaps.

As the millennium came to a close. on the relative greatness of the two. as they do now. he was buried in the farm’s gorgeous equine cemetery. Citation. He was the darling of all the employees at Calumet Farm and lived the life of luxury in his beautiful huge oak stall and whitefenced paddock. 108 . and each was a colossus. The Blood-Horse of August 15 of that year reported: “Citation at three was so awesome that racing men who had seen both compared him with Man o’ War. Opinions differed then. He lived to be twenty-five — long enough to erase any memory of all those aches and pains he’d suffered working for that million dollars in 1950 and ’51. After the infirmities of old age brought death on August 8. of course. 1970. a panel of experts assembled by The BloodHorse voted him third behind Man o’ War and Secretariat on a list of the top 100 horses of the century. was blissfully unaware of those debates or his lack of success at stud. for these were horses of different generations.A N e w L i f e Citation remains one of the first names mentioned in any debate about the nation’s best ever. Another panel chosen by The Associated Press picked him in a tie for third in a list of the 20th Century’s top ten.

A marble monument bears their names. including Citation’s dam Hydroplane II. Other famous racehorses and broodmares. dogwood. The engraving on Citation’s stone is simple but complete: Citation Bay 1945 – 1970 Bull Lea – Hydroplane II First Thoroughbred Millionaire 109 . a semicircle of graves and markers representing Calumet’s Kentucky Derby winners around a bronze sculpture of Bull Lea. His was the precision of a well-oiled machine. are buried or remembered with tablets scattered around the beautiful landscaped cemetery.” The great horse’s grave is in one of the prime spots. he would have few equals in any generation. crabapples. Honey locust. and pin oak provide shade and color. the power of a tidal wave. a perfect contrast to the gravestones. To be sure.“Citation exemplified greatness in the Thoroughbred.

1959 Get Around Guadalcanal Manteau Watch Your Step 8th Triple Crown Winner in 1948 1947: Best 2-year-old 2-year-old colt 1948: Horse of the year Best 3-year-old 3-year-old colt Handicap horse Raced at 2.085. 5 and 6 45 starts. 3-year-old filly champion. Preakness Stakes winner. 32 wins 10 seconds 2 thirds Including 22 stakes won 8 stakes seconds Charter member 110 .760 Sire of Fabius. 1951 $1.A N e w L i f e July 14. 1956 Silver Spoon. 3.

April 1968 111 .Racing’s Hall of Fame Winner of Computer Race of Century.

She is dressed like a proper society matron in a light-colored suit with dark trim that matches her hat and blouse. But she has on no gloves. this is racing’s version of the unsinkable Molly Brown. Her picture was spotted regularly in the newspapers and magazines of any big cities 112 . even getting a face lift in Europe. This is no Society 400 lady at the track. Mrs. Over the next year or so. three strands of pearls. his widow watched at Hollywood Park with a bevy of celebrities and VIPs.Enduring Legend A lthough Warren Wright did not live long enough to see Citation hit the million-dollar mark in earnings he so coveted. A series of photographs in the now-extinct Los Angeles Examiner shows Mrs. and huge earrings. Wright made up for all the time she had sat in Warren’s shadow. And the sunglasses she is wearing and the huge binoculars she is gripping also set her apart. Wright intensely watching the race.

glamour. the new Mrs. Lucille and Gene began following the Calumet horses to Saratoga Springs. But. After their marriage. a heavily decorated veteran of World War II and writer/ movie producer who had been married to actresses Joan Bennett. With the charming Markey. and fun that had been missing in her life with Warren Wright. Mrs. apparently stumbled upon fidelity the day he fell in love with Lucille. New York. and he apparently reciprocated the feelings. as Jimmy Jones noted. Hedy Lamarr. She bought a new home in Los Angeles’ classy Bel Air section. Markey. Unlike with most newcomers. in the late summer and to Florida in the winter. Kentucky’s racing set immediately accepted the loquacious. He was Rear Admiral Gene Markey. a new love soon began stealing her time away from the racing stable and breeding operation. Each year they also traveled to Paris in the early summer and to Germany in autumn. the Markeys gave little time to the business side of Calumet. party-loving Markey.with racetracks. Between their sojourns abroad and the parties at home. 113 . who Hollywood said would never be true to one woman. Markey took her husband to the Bluegrass to show him off. Wright found the warmth. and Myrna Loy.

as the stock thinned and his father’s longtime problems with diabetes and high blood pressure became incapacitating. Then. Calumet led the nation’s owners in earnings in 1952. He 114 . Ben. Calumet Farm won the 1952 Kentucky Derby with Hill Gail. the stable kept winning for quite a while on the continued production of Bull Lea and the famous Calumet broodmares. meanwhile. but every winter well into the 1950s he went to Florida with a string of horses. spent a total of five winters in Southern California. Ben Jones had a home at Calumet. ’56 through ’58. Jimmy consolidated the stable in the East. Similar success followed in 1957 (Iron Liege). 1958 (Tim Tam). As general manager. died at the age of seventy-eight on June 13. and in 1968 (Forward Pass via the disqualification of Dancer’s Image). Jimmy. and in ’61. a charter inductee of Racing’s Hall of Fame.E n d u r i n g L e g e n d Still. 1961. But the quantity of top bloodstock began dropping precipitously in the late 1950s and early 1960s as Bull Lea’s potency deserted him and his offspring failed to meet the early standards he set.

occasionally throwing in a good year among some clunkers. One of the horses he purchased for them was Restless Jet. who ran fifth in the 1973 Kentucky Derby. though. Jones served as an advisor to several owners. but in those decades the stable was more like the Mets than the Yankees. Darling. the great Bull Lea died at the age of twenty-nine. when young John Veitch was hired in 1976 — just in time to start the training of Our Mims. both Lucille and Gene Markey were in 115 . Calumet continued to race through the 1960s and the ’70s. During his tenure at the New Jersey track. 1964. after Lucille Wright’s friend. Missouri. when he left to become director of racing at Monmouth Park. He was named Alydar.was buried in the family plot in Maryville. Jimmy continued to train for Calumet until October 1. The stable was rejuvenated. whom she called “Aly. who became the champion three-year-old filly in 1977. That same year. Jones retired altogether about twenty years ago when he had to undergo heart surgery. The year of her Eclipse Award.” By this time. the Aly Khan. she was joined on the track by a promising half-brother.

They even managed to go to Keeneland to see Alydar win the Blue Grass Stakes en route to his thrilling but disappointing second-place finishes to Affirmed in the Derby. when she died of bronchial pneumonia at the Miami Heart Institute. though during her marriage to the 116 . 1982.. did not witness Alydar’s breathtaking spring and summer even though his father had designated him as heir. Lucille hung on until July 24. who had been estranged from his mother. Sometime in the late 1970s. Mrs. Mrs.E n d u r i n g L e g e n d failing health. and Belmont. Wright negotiated selling Calumet Farm to William S. Farish. Warren Wright Jr. but the Kentucky Derby prep campaign of Alydar and his subsequent Triple Crown battles with arch-rival Affirmed seemed to perk them up. Wright just wasn’t ready to give up the glamour of being known as the owner of Calumet. Gene Markey succumbed to cancer on May 1. She was ninety-three. According to longtime farm secretary Margaret (Maggie) Glass. but at the last minute she broke off talks. 1980. Never trained in the farm’s affairs and never adept at business. Preakness. he died shortly before the 1978 Preakness Stakes.

Calumet stands as it did when Alydar lived in all its red. Calumet Farm and various trusts and holdings were passed on to Warren Wright Jr. white. took over farm operations. T. 1992. On March 26. bought the farm and vowed not to change a blade of Calumet’s grass. the husband of daughter Cindy. Calumet was sold at auction. the farm spent money faster than Alydar could make it. Unfortunately. J. Alydar proved to be at least as great a sire as Bull Lea and brought in millions of dollars in stallion fees. Lundy. and green beauty — and fans can come out and watch foals romp in the pastures and take tours.’s children. Fortunately. Polish immigrant industrialist Henryk de Kwiatkowski. He has been true to his word.admiral she had claimed to be several years younger. Calumet collapsed in the horse industry’s most costly and infamous bankruptcy. 117 . under Lundy’s management. Hershel Lathery. After her death. who went to work at Calumet as a teenager just before Citation’s Derby. After Alydar was euthanized in 1990 following a catastrophic and mysterious stall accident. remains at the farm as the grounds manager and guides the tours. a longtime and passionate horse owner.

at the age of eightyone. 1997.E n d u r i n g L e g e n d Maggie Glass is “officially” retired. 1979. and they now stand in their own section at the Kentucky Horse Park in Lexington. when Nashua won the Camden Handicap at Garden State Park to put his career earnings at $1. He suffered a ruptured esophagus in a fall from a horse. Steve Brooks. She headed a campaign to save the trove of the farm’s gold and silver trophies from public auction. Citation’s Triple Crown jockey. underwent emergency surgery and died September 23. ahead of Citation’s $1. remains the farm’s unofficial historian. achieved during his last fifteen races 118 . Eddie Arcaro. He had remained active in racing until the end. The champion’s magnificent streak of sixteen consecutive victories.365. but Calumet remains her life. keeping voluminous scrapbooks that she willingly shares with writers. Citation’s money record lasted until May 19. He was just fifty-eight.760. appearing as honorary chairman at the first National Jockey Challenge at Lone Star Park that summer.085. seventy-eight. was less fortunate. who joined Arcaro and the Jones Boys in the Hall of Fame. 1956. Glass.100. died of cancer on November 14.

however. the record was equaled by Cigar. has lasted as the longest by a top racehorse. 119 . will live forever.at age three and first after his comeback at five. Citation’s legend. In 1996.

PEDIGREE CITATION’s 120 .

. Inc. Reprinted with Permission of the Copyright owner.CITATION’s RACE RECORD 121 Copyrighted © 2000 by Daily Racing Form.

CITATION’s RACE RECORD CONTINUED 122 .

Chesapeake Stakes 123 .

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Gold Cup .

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Challenge Purse 136 .

Tanforan Handicap .

Belmont Purse 138 .

Pamphlet by Margaret Glass. 1974) Jim Bolus.” The Morning Telegraph. 1979.” The New York Times. Nov. 1947. Hambla Bauer. and other Arcaro obituaries. Triple Crown Victor. 1950. July 25. and other Steve Brooks obituaries. 15.” Los Angeles Examiner. Succumbs in Louisville. “Citation Makes His Million in Gold Cup. Wild Ride. (New York: Henry Holt and Co. Sept. 11. 1997. “The King Is Dead. Owl Book Edition. Only Jockey to Win Racing’s Triple Crown Twice. (Updated in 1999) 139 . “Nature of Citation’s Ailment Is Explained. “Saga of World’s First Million-Dollar Thoroughbred. Aug. May 1993.” San Francisco Examiner. 1951. In the Winner’s Circle.” The Thoroughbred Record. “Two Fellows From Missouri. “Eddie Arcaro. 5. July 17.. 1948. 1995) Joe Hirsch & Gene Plowden. Arthur Daley. 11. 25. condensed later in Reader’s Digest.” The Morning Telegraph.References Ann Hagedorn Auerbach. The Calumet Story. “Boss of Calumet Farm.” Saturday Evening Post. 1951. “Of Four Halls of Fame. “Citation Dies at 25. July 15. 1970. Nov.” Daily Racing Form. Sept. (New York: Mason & Lipscomb Publishers.” The New York Times. Is Dead at 81.

............. 46-47.......... 64....11......... 78 de Kwiatkowski...................... 118-119 Citation bit..................... 20-21....107....... 99... 29.............. 118 Hollywood Gold Cup .. 109................... 16-18.. 10........ 7........23.............................. 77................................... 22-27...... Gordon ..................... 92-97. 54..................... 51.........17......................... Doug . 118 Bull Dog .. 109 Hyperion.................... 9-14.......... Arthur............ 38-39.. 73......... 118 Glisson.... 114........... 41......................... 35............. 82 Glass............... 25-26........ 111..................... 95-96............. 100-102..... 110 first million-dollar earner .................. 8......... Paul ....................... 98 Hydroplane II ............ 21-23............. 43.... 113-118 Calumet Baking Powder ............................ 24-27.... 22-23.. 52 Coaltown ............................ 91.... 23-24........ 45.......14......................................... 86-87 Brooks... 18. 105. 118 Armed........................... Henryk ........ 95 Ebelhardt.............. 41.......... 85............................ 49.... 48-100...................... 97........ 23..... 117 Dodson.. 65 Bewitch . Margaret (Maggie) ...... 33-35................ Eddie ................... 102 Fabius .......................... Steve......................... 11....... 54-60...... 38-39........... 69-75....... 112...........................................................105.............. 103 Bull Lea ............................ 114-115.......22............ 77............................................................... 6-11... 9...... 34-35.. 83............. 22-23.................. 88...................................................... 84............ 34-40................................... 110 Hall of Fame .......... 103 “Big Cy” ........... 42-46... 102-109........... 70..................103........................ 95-99........................... 80-81................................. 16 Chesapeake Trial ......................... 114 140 ........ 80......... 87 Guadalcanal ................... 94-95......................................................................... 88......Index Alydar ..... 9... 117 Calumet Farm ....................................... 67 Belmont Stakes .......... 54-58............................. 69-70......... 6.....115-117 Arcaro.................. 26-28....... Dr..... 86...................... 63......... 64..................... 43-44......... 116................ 107-109... 103............. 103 Davidson..................................37............. 66.... 44....... 37-41..... 24 Iron Liege ........................ 88-90.............. 33.................................21....................... 21-25............... 49 Citation ................................ 46-64...... 35.... 9............................ 66........................................... 95...............

.... 110............... Lucille ............. 85 Triple Crown.Jones................ 112-113.............. 26... Gene ... 82-86..... 63..... 10......... 103.. 116 Rose Leaves ............ 117 Manteau .......... 42....................................... 46-48....... 73.... 73-74... Newbold L..... 33....... Albert ........................................................ 75-76.. 59. 78............. 19-20.............. 48........... 39-40.......................12..... 61. 95 Tanforan .. 99..................... 31.......104...20-21......... Warren ................. 73-74....................... 110 Snider...... 27............... ... 110 Markey................. 8......... J............ 56...................................... 37............ 77. 58.... 106 Noor........ 73..... 12.......................... 33................................ 54-55........ 19....... 71... 44-51.... 31-32 Kentucky Derby ..... 22................... 48........... 103.............. Warren Jr..... 56-58........... 59-61.. 84-85 Watch Your Step..... 100........................17......... 60.... William Monroe ................... 93 osselet ...... 20...... Gene ....... 12 141 ............... 15....... 32-33.... 66............ 19-20............................................................... Ben ...................... 17..................................... 68 Preakness ............. 91-93...... 114-116 Lundy.....105........ 32...................... 100........... 112-113........................................ 51 Wright.............................................................. 46... 104.... 23.......... 33.... 12................................................104................ 110 Whirlaway .. 35...21-23 Two Lea ........ 118 Jones..... 91-92. 50.. 90 Pierson................... 107................ 42........ T...105........... 116-117 Wright.......................... 89.. 110.......19.... 47....... 116-117 Wright................ 7.. 89-90............ 78. 43-45.................................. 61............................ 35-36.. 118 Twilight Tear ...................... 8-9. 60-64.......... 116.. 69................. 64. 115-116 Wright....... 46............. 78.... 17-18............................. 116 McMahon....................................... 39.......... 113............................. 113-115 Jones Stock Farm .... Jimmy.......... 34-37........................ 28-31................... 27-28......... 33........................... 22 Saggy .................................. 54............... 109............62... 20. 6................... 22.. 100........ 10..... 88......... 29..................... ................................................56... ...... 23... 107................ 29. 47-48.......... 24....... 78.. 46-48......... Dick ..50........ 106........... 67........ 114 Jones Boys .... 19 Mori.................... 61........ 52 Silver Spoon .....

Livingston). Winning the Kentucky Derby (Churchill Downs).Photo Credits Cover photo: (Bert Morgan) Page 1: Citation with Eddie Arcaro and Jimmy Jones (The Blood-Horse). Fabius (Turfotos). and yearlings (all Trans-Photo) Page 5: Ben Jones. Winning the Jersey Stakes (Bert Morgan) Page 11: Citation winning the Belmont (The Blood-Horse). Mr. Belmont Futurity winner’s circle (Bert and Richard Morgan Studio). Citation head shot (Bert Clark Thayer) Page 2: Bull Dog (The Blood-Horse). Ben Jones at Churchill Downs (Stan Taylor) Page 6: Gordon Glisson (Santa Anita). C. Warren Wright (Morgan Photo Service). Belmont winner’s circle (Bert Morgan) Page 12: Citation at Calumet (J. Jimmy Jones (both The Blood-Horse). Steve Brooks (Arlington Park) Page 7: Citation winning Belmont Futurity (Bert Morgan). Meadors). Winning the Tanforan Handicap (Tanforan) Page 13: Citation winning Hollywood Gold Cup. Kentucky Derby winner’s circle (Churchill Downs) Page 10: Citation winning the Preakness (Bert Morgan). (The Blood-Horse). Albert Snider (Bert Morgan). Hyperion (The Blood-Horse). Bull Lea (Jimmie Sames Studio). Pimlico Special winner’s circle (The Blood-Horse). Wyatt) 142 . Mrs. and Mrs.C. main residence. Winning the Everglades (Hialeah). Eddie Arcaro (C. Doug Dodson (Hialeah). Wright with Citation (Hialeah) Page 4: Calumet Farm images: office (Cusick Studio). Preakness winner’s circle (The Blood-Horse). Winning first race back at Santa Anita (Santa Anita). Guadalcanal (Bob Coglianese) Page 16: Citation statue (The Blood-Horse). Cook). Hydroplane II (The Blood-Horse) Page 3: Warren Wright Sr. Winning the Elementary Stakes (Washington Park) Page 8-9: Citation winning the Flamingo (Hialeah). training track. Final public appearance (both Hollywood Park). Cy’s Last Sigh (John C. Citation lying down in stall (Courtesy of the California Thoroughbred Breeders Association) Page 14: Citation in his paddock (Charles Rippy) Page 15: Silver Spoon (The Blood-Horse). Gravestone (Barbara D.

Over her career Smith also has been an adjunct professor at the University of Pittsburgh. She was one of the handful of women who pioneered as female sportswriters. covering the Pittsburgh Pirates. and Pitt Panthers beginning in 1975. Max. longtime sportswriter and national racing writer for United Press International. Penguins. and four cats. Keeneland. the Louisville Courier-Journal. Spur. is racing columnist/ sports copy editor at the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. harness horse owner. she and her husband. Newsday. Kentucky Derby Magazine. and lifeguard. news reporter. guest lecturer. a freelance writer/publicist and TV racing analyst. Steelers. An active freelance writer as well. She also is the author of four sports books for children. Evan Pattak. the Saratogian. A graduate of Pitt. and the Breeders’ Cup souvenir magazine. her race writing has appeared in USA TODAY. racing analyst for the Ladbroke Racing Network.ohla Smith. book editor. live in the Frick Park section of Pittsburgh with their golden retriever. P 143 .

Citation, with Eddie Arcaro aboard, is accompanied to the track by trainer Jimmy Jones. “Big Cy,” as the horse was known to his devoted fans, is considered one of the greatest racehorses of the 20th Century.

Bull Lea (below right), sire of Citation, was the foundation of the successful Calumet breeding operation. Bull Lea and his sire, Bull Dog (left), are from the great Teddy tail male line. Citation’s dam, Hydroplane II (bottom), with her 1949 Bull Lea colt, is a daughter of top English sire Hyperion (below left).

The master of Calumet, Warren Wright Sr. (above right), and with his wife, Lucille, at Hialeah (above left). Mrs. Wright posing with Citation in March of 1948.

the main residence (above).Calumet Farm during Citation’s time: the office (top right). . the training track (right). and yearlings being hand-walked (below).

.The Jones Boys—father Ben (left) and son Jimmy (above)—and jockey Eddie Arcaro (right) all became part of the Calumet legend. Ben Jones (below) posed in front of the Churchill spires in May of 1948.

and the ill-fated Albert Snider (far right). Gordon Glisson (top). . Doug Dodson (bottom left).Other jockeys who rode Citation included Steve Brooks (bottom right).

As a two-year-old. Albert Snider up). . He also tackled the Futurity at Belmont (above) and returned victorious to the winner’s circle (left. Citation captured the Elementary Stakes (below) for his first stakes win.

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Citation spent part of the 1948 Kentucky Derby trail in Florida, where he won four races, including the Everglades (facing page, top right) and Flamingo (facing page, top left) Stakes at Hialeah. In the Derby (facing page), Citation battled stablemate Coaltown, but in the end it was all “Big Cy.” A jubilant Calumet contingent leads Citation into the winner’s circle at Churchill Downs (above).

Citation continued his Triple Crown quest with an easy victory in the Preakness (top). In the winner’s circle (above), owner Warren Wright Sr. (on left) and trainer Jimmy Jones (in middle) receive more accolades for their horse. Two weeks later, Citation romped in the Jersey Stakes (below).

Citation completed the Triple Crown with an eight-length triumph in the Belmont. In the winner’s circle (above), a trophy and plate are presented to Warren Wright (second from left) by Leigh M. Battson (right) as Jimmy Jones (far left), Eddie Arcaro (middle), and George D. Widener (far right) look on.

Due to injury.Citation ended his three-year-old season with victories in the Pimlico Special (top right) and Tanforan Handicap (above). . he never started at four. Citation spent the last half of the year at the farm (top left) after injuries flared again. but returned at five to win in his first start back at Santa Anita in January of 1950 (above left).

The champion made his final West Coast public appearance at Hollywood Park on July 21. 1951 (above).In winning the 1951 Hollywood Gold Cup (top).Citation became horse racing’s first millionaire and earned a well-deserved rest. .

.Citation surveys his kingdom at Calumet.

Citation’s top offspring included champion filly Silver Spoon (above left). No. who finished second in two Jockey Club Gold Cups. . and Guadalcanal (below. Preakness winner Fabius (above right). 5).

1970. . his marker in the Calumet cemetery (left).Citation’s legacy lives on in many ways: his statue at Hialeah (above). including Cy’s Last Sigh (below). Foaled April 19. and through his descendants. Cy’s Last Sigh was the final foal sired by Citation.

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