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CODE OF PRACTICE ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR NON-RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS (FIRST REVISION)
Descriptors: energy efficiency, renewable energy, non-residential, buildings, code of practice, energy conservation
© Copyright 2007 DEPARTMENT OF STANDARDS MALAYSIA
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 - All rights reserved
DEVELOPMENT OF MALAYSIAN STANDARDS
The Department of Standards Malaysia (STANDARDS MALAYSIA) is the national standardisation and accreditation body.
The main function of the Department is to foster and promote standards, standardisation and accreditation as a means of advancing the national economy, promoting industrial efficiency and development, benefiting the health and safety of the public, protecting the consumers, facilitating domestic and international trade and
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furthering international cooperation in relation to standards and standardisation.
Malaysian Standards are developed through consensus by committees which comprise of balanced representation of producers, users, consumers and others with relevant interests, as may be appropriate to the subject in hand. To the greatest extent possible, Malaysian Standards are aligned to or are adoption of international standards. Approval of a standard as a Malaysian Standard is governed by the Standards of Malaysia Act 1996 (Act 549). Malaysian Standards are reviewed periodically. The use of Malaysian Standards is voluntary except in so far as they are made mandatory by regulatory authorities by means of regulations, local by-laws or any other similar ways.
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© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 - All rights reserved
Page Committee representation……………………………………………………………... Foreword…………………………………………………………………………………. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Daylight factors and distribution……………………………………………………….. Impact of air velocity on occupants………………………………………………..…. Window design requirements………………………………………………………….. Solar correction factors…………………………………………………………………. Shading coefficient of horizontal projections………. .………….............………..… Shading coefficient of vertical projections……….…………………...............……… Shading coefficient of egg-crate louvres ……….………………………................... Trade-off for daylighting controls……………………………………………………… 2 Maximum U-value for roof (W/m K)…………………………………………………… Equivalent temperature difference for roof……….………………………………..… Solar correction factor for roof…………………………………………………………. Maximum percent skylight area………….……………………………………………. Recommended average illuminance levels……….…………………………………. Unit lighting power (including ballast loss) allowance..…………………………….. Class definition for 4-pole motors…………………………………………………..… Class definition for 2-pole motors…………………………………………………..… Location of distribution transformers……………………………………………….… ACMV system equipment, electrically driven: Standard rating temperatures - cooling………………………………………………………………..… Unitary air conditioners, electrically driven: Minimum COP – cooling…………..…. ACMV system components, electrically driven for water chillers: Standard rating conditions – cooling………………………………………………..… Water chilling packages, electrically driven: Minimum COP (and kWe/RT) or IPLV………………………………………………… ACMV system cooling equipment/component, heat-operated: Standard rating conditions – cooling……..…………………………………………………….… ACMV system cooling equipment/components, heat-operated: Minimum COP – cooling……................................................................................. Sunpath diagram………................................................................................. Bibliography………….……………………….................................................. 6 9 10 12 13 13 14 15 15 17 17 18 21 22 25 26 27 35 35 36 37 38 39 7 46 i Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… Scope………………………………………………………………….......…………..… Referenced documents………………………………………………………………… Definitions…………………………………………………………………………..…… Architectural and passive design strategy………………………………….………… Building envelope………..……………………………………………………………… Lighting………….……………………………………………………………………….. Electric power and distribution………..……………………………………………….. Air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) system……..……………..... Energy management control system…………………………………………….….... Building Energy Simulation Method………………………………………………….… iii v 1 2 2 2 4 10 20 24 28 40 44
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Figure 1 Appendix A
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 - All rights reserved
The Building and Civil Engineering Industry Standards Committee (ISC D) under whose authority this Malaysian Standard was developed, comprises representatives from the following organisations: Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia Chartered Institute of Building Malaysia Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia Department of Standards Malaysia Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat Malaysia Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Jabatan Perumahan Negara Malaysian Timber Industry Board Master Builders Association Malaysia Ministry of International Trade and Industry Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia Suruhanjaya Tenaga The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia Universiti Teknologi Malaysia The development of this Malaysian Standard is under the supervision of the representatives from the following organisations of the Technical Committee on Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia Danish International Development Assistance International Islamic University of Malaysia Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications Persekutuan Pekilang-Pekilang Malaysia Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia Pusat Tenaga Malaysia SIRIM Berhad SIRIM QAS International Sdn Bhd Suruhanjaya Tenaga Universiti Teknologi MARA The following working groups developed this Malaysian Standard: The Working Group on Architectural and Passive Design Strategy which consists of representatives from the following organisations: International Islamic University of Malaysia Universiti Teknologi MARA The Working Group on Building Envelope which consists of representatives from the following organisations: Danish International Development Assistance Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia The Working Group on Lighting which consists of representatives from the following organisations: Danish International Development Assistance Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications Pusat Tenaga Malaysia
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STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 - All rights reserved
Committee representation (continued)
The Working Group on Electric Power and Distribution which consists of representatives from the following organisations: Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia Danish International Development Assistance Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Malaysia Suruhanjaya Tenaga The Electrical and Electronics Association Malaysia The Working Group on Air-conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (ACMV) System & Energy Management Control System which consists of representatives from the following organisations:
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Acson Malaysia Sales & Service Sdn Bhd Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia Carrier International (Malaysia) Ltd Daikin Air Conditioning (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Dunham-Bush (Malaysia) Bhd Group Associated (C&L) Sdn Bhd Malaysian Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Association (MACRA) Malaysia Chapter of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (MASHRAE) O.Y.L Industries Sdn Bhd Trane Malaysia TM Sales and Services Sdn Bhd York (Malaysia) Sales & Service Sdn Bhd
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 - All rights reserved
18.104.22.168 and 7.2.2 on Indoor design conditions p) new recommended design value for relative humidity from 60% .2 Stack Ventilation c.2. Table 15 .6.All rights reserved
.6.3 from the earlier MS 1525 : 2001
k) technical change of 7.9 Air leakage h) technical change to 7. 4. relative humidity and air movement (air velocity) under 8.2 Motor efficiencies deletion of 7.4 Daylighting and Ventilation from window f) change to new equation for fenestration under 5.3 Transformer with addition to a new equation on transformer loss percentage under 7.6 Natural Ventilation as listed below :a. copying and networking pro
a) New clause no 10 Building Energy Simulation Method for determining OTTV has been added b) addition of Table 1.MS 1525:2007
This Malaysian Standard was developed by the Technical Committee on Energy Efficiency in Buildings under the authority of the Building and Civil Engineering Industry Standards Committee.2.6.1. Table 16 and Table 19 c) addition of Table 14 as to include ballast loss d) addition of new definition 3. This Malaysian Standard is the first revision of MS 1525:2001.1.1 Cross Ventilation b.1. 4. 7.2 Indoor design condition
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .1. namely dry bulb temperature. 4. Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and use of Renewable Energy for Non-residential Buildings Major modifications of this revision are as follows:
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g) addition of new specification 5.1 Output rating and duty i) j) technical change to 7.3 under 7.1 .1.70% to 55% .6 Sub Metering o) new explanation on the 3 main factors considered for room comfort condition.2 Cabling
m) technical change of 7. 4.2 n) addition of new specification 7. Table 2.4 Motor drives l) addition of new specification 7.10 on Cross Ventilation e) addition of new specification in 4. Table 22.214.171.124.
3 Energy recovery x) new inclusion of other energy recovery technology in 8.2.All rights reserved
.4.8 Applications of EMS to Energy Audit.4.10.1. electrically driven cc) inclusion of lighting supply to tenancy areas and landlord areas in 9.1.3 This Malaysian Standard cancels and replaces MS 1525:2001.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .50 m/s in 8.4 System and equipment sizing t) new inclusion of scroll compressor capacity rating in 8.6 Fan system efficiency in 8. Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and use of Renewable Energy for Non-residential Buildings Compliance with a Malaysian Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations.4.1 Temperature control
u) addition of new specification 8.4.5 Mechanical ventilation control z) new qualification for exhaust air ducts exceptions in 8.4.2 Indoor design condition
s) new inclusion of scroll compressor category in 8.4.7m/s in 8. electrically driven bb) inclusion of water chiller minimum COP and NPLV rating in Table 21 Water chilling packages. dd) addition of new method of item 10 Building Energy Simulation Method ee) addition of new method scope in 10.2 Humidity control
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w) re-categorising of recovered energy process in 8.3 Energy recovery y) new inclusion of CO2 sensor control in 8.MS 1525:2007
q) new recommended design condition for air movement as 0.4 Controls v) new recommended relative humidity from 75% to 70% in 8.15 m/s -0.
and appropriately dealing with cost considerations. Introduction
CODE OF PRACTICE ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR NON-RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 0.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .4 The requirements for energy efficiency are classified under the following areas:
a) designing an efficient lighting system (Clause 6).3 The recommendations for renewable energy applications are classified under the following areas: a) maximising the availability of renewable energy resources such as solar heating.
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b) provide the criteria and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design of new buildings. solar lighting and solar assisted technologies.All rights reserved
. construction. and d) designing a good energy management system (Clause 9). operation and maintenance of new and existing buildings in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining creativity in design. retrofit of existing buildings and methods for determining compliance with these criteria and minimum standards. c) designing an efficient air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation system (Clause 8). and d) encourage the application of renewable energy in new and existing buildings to minimise reliance on non-renewable energy sources.2 As the standard sets out only the minimum requirements.1 a) The purposes of this Malaysian Standard are to: encourage the design. designers are encouraged to design and select equipment above those stipulated in this standard. pollution and energy consumption whilst maintaining comfort. and d) maximising passive solar design. c) provide guidance for energy efficiency designs that demonstrate good professional judgement to comply with minimum standards. site planning. landscaping and shading. solar electricity. b) optimising passive cooling strategies.
ANSI/SMACNA 006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible. MS IEC 60364 : Electrical installations of buildings Uniform Building By Laws. Remote Type ANSI/ASHRAE 140-2004: Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs
3. 1985 MS IEC 60929: 1995.
2.All rights reserved
. supplied electronic ballasts for tubular fluorescent lamps – Performance requirements.
For the purpose of this standard. ASHRAE Handbook: 2000 . the latest edition of the normative references (including any amendments) applies. Scope
This code of practice gives guidance on the effective use of energy including the application of renewable energy in new and existing non-residential buildings. Buildings or portions thereof whose peak design rate of electrical energy usage for all 2 purposes is less than 10 W/m (installed) of gross floor area are excluded from this standard. ARI 210-240 Performance Rating of Unitary Air-Conditioning & Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment ANSI/ARI 340/360: Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment ARI 550/590 Performance Rating of Water Chilling Packages Using the Vapor Compression Cycle ARI 480-2001: Refrigerant-Cooled Liquid Coolers.c.HVAC systems and equipment. only the edition cited applies. For undated references. Normative references
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1. the following shall apply. For dated references. copying and networking pro
The following normative references are indispensable for the application of this standard. first edition. SMACNA. Specification for a. SMACNA.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .
3.9 Shading Coefficient
The shading coefficient of the fenestration system is the ratio of solar heat gain through the fenestration system to the solar heat gain through an unshaded 3 mm clear glass under the same condition.7 Radiant Barrier
Radiant barrier is material that either reflects radiant heat or inhibits the emission of radiant heat. 3. Most common forms include windows and clerestories.10 Skylight
A glazed opening.
The exterior portions of a building through which thermal energy is transferred.
NOTE. horizontal or inclined. expressed in consistent units and under designed rating conditions.8 Roof Thermal Transfer Value (RTTV)
The design parameter that indicates the solar thermal load transmitted through the roof. 1 kWr = 3412 Btuh
Kilowatt refrigeration (kWr)
The unit used to denote refrigeration capacity in kW. This thermal transfer is the major factor affecting interior comfort level and the air-conditioning load. STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .
NOTES: 1. copying and networking pro
Cross ventilation is the flow of air through a building due to a wind.6
Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV)
The design parameter that indicates the solar thermal load transmitted through the building envelope excluding the roof.generated pressure drop across it. 3. 2.3
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3. Sometimes a fenestration may include its associated interior and exterior elements such as shades and blinds. which is set into roof of a building to provide daylighting.All rights reserved 3
Coefficient of Performance
This is the ratio of the rate of net heat removal to the rate of total energy input.MS 1525:2007
A glazed opening in building wall to control solar radiant heat and daylighting. 3.
Indoor air rises when warmed by internal loads (people. Design solutions must strive to optimise the benefits provided by the specific environment and to use environmentally friendly materials of high quality and durability in order to decrease waste. site planning and landscaping (multidisciplinary) approach to designing an energy efficient building would optimize the energy efficiency of a building especially when employing combined passive and active devices. f) building façade.All rights reserved
. Architectural and passive design strategy
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . h) fenestrations. Designing within contextual climate and site are the first steps in the reduction of the overall energy consumption that will result in operational cost savings. adopting mixed mode systems. i) j) building materials. If an opening is available near the ceiling. creating a vertical pressure gradient within the enclosed space. 4. In some cases mixed mode systems will maximize daylight and thermal comfort whilst minimizing solar gain. For example.MS 1525:2007
3. e) location of cores.
g) internal layout. d) floor to ceiling height.11 Stack Ventilation Stack ventilation is ventilation due to air density differences to provide air movement across a space. The architectural consideration in designing a building is influenced by its responsiveness to the immediate environment. copying and networking pro
Sustainable design approach
A combined architectural.e. engineering. roof design and colour. All buildings have a primary function to provide an internal environment suitable for the purpose of the building. i.1
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The design and construction of a building which takes optimal advantage of its environment need not impose any significant extra cost as compared to a more highly serviced building.
k) landscaping and shading. the warmer air at the upper levels will escape as the cooler outside air is drawn in through the lower opening. lights and equipments).
here the solutions may require circular. On narrow sites which the East-West longitudinal orientation may not be possible.3). penetration and intensity is the daylight factor. generally the best orientation for buildings is with the long directional axis of buildings facing North-South.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .MS 1525:2007
These factors are just as important as the selection of systems or devices to control lighting and thermal comfort (cooling) within the building.
Conventional and innovative daylighting systems that collect. solar and thermal properties of windows. The microclimate information (temperature. The orientation of buildings may also contribute to the immediate microclimate of open spaces through the provision of shading to the immediate surroundings that will in turn benefit the indoor areas adjacent to it. octagonal. wind direction and precipitation. radiant temperature. square. transport and distribute light deep into buildings and systems that reduce the need for artificial lighting are recommended. Technically the buildings’ main longitudinal orientation should be on an axis 5° Northeast (refer to Figure 1).All rights reserved
. A good daylighting system must study the following building elements in relation to the sunlight: a) the orientation and space organisation.4. This is the ratio of the internal illuminance (Einternal) at a point in a room to the instantaneous illuminance (Eexternal) outside the building on a horizontal surface:
As a guide.3. expressed in percentage. the shading devices recommended may differ according to orientation (refer to shading coefficient values for external shading devices. the brightness inside a building and the associated distribution can be classified by the daylight factors as shown in Table 1. 4. b) shape and size of glazing through which daylight will pass ( pass through or penetrate). 4.1 Daylight distribution
The simplest form of description of the daylight distribution. partition and floor surface properties. or other building geometries. and f) optical. e) protection from solar gain or glare afforded by external and internal shading devices. etc) should be analysed for the locality in making decision for design tradeoffs. 4. c) internal ceiling wall.4 Daylighting
Designing with emphasis on natural daylighting should begin at the preliminary design stage. copying and networking pro
For climatic zones near the equator.clause 5. In this case.3 Site planning and orientation
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d) the colour contrast between windows and internal adjoining walls and ceilings. minimising the East-West orientation.
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. the selected model conditions must be close as possible to actual room condition. copying and networking pro
The average daylight factors may be obtained by simulation or architectural modelling of a building design. Daylight factors and distribution
Zone Very Bright Bright Average Dark DF (%) >6 3–6 1–3 0–1 Distribution Very large with thermal and glare problems Good Fair Poor
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . It must be noted that surface reflectance of room interiors will have an effect on the daylight distribution and therefore during modelling. The figures are average daylight factors for windows without glazing
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Figure 1. Sunpath diagram
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STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .
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Natural ventilation is the use of the natural forces of wind and buoyancy to deliver sufficient fresh air and air change to ventilate enclosed spaces without active temperature controls or mechanical means.6 Natural ventilation
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Design details/recommendations to optimise cross ventilation: a) Orientate the building to maximise surface exposure to prevailing winds.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . passive and active solar energy collection (e. The exterior wall and cladding systems should be designed to provide an integrated solution for the provision of view. daylight control.g. solar water heaters. 4. etc). and b) stack ventilation (buoyancy-driven). However. There are basically two methods for providing ventilation: a) cross ventilation (wind-driven). ventilation systems. e) Make openings easily accessible and operable by the occupants. building integrated photovoltaic. h) Make outlet openings slightly larger than inlet openings to produce higher air velocities.5
Correct choice of building materials for façade design can help minimise solar heat gain. This could aid compliance to the requirements from the fire authorities for smoke venting of the spaces in the event of a fire. f) Avoid obstructions between inlets and outlets. Natural ventilation strategies rely on the movement of air through space to equalise pressure. lift cores. b) Provide inlets on the windward side (pressure zone) and outlets on the leeward side (suction zone). landscaping and planting strategies to cool incoming air. i) j) Locate outlet openings on the windward side at the occupied level. d) Provide openings on opposite walls for optimum cross ventilation effectiveness. c) Use architectural features like wing walls and parapets to create positive and negative pressure areas to induce cross ventilation. staircases should be encouraged.MS 1525:2007
4. dehumidifiers) while minimising heat gain.All rights reserved
. spill air from adjacent spaces is sufficient to provide for the required air change to ventilate the space and provide thermal comfort with reduced energy. openings can be placed on adjacent walls.6. Provisions for naturally ventilated lobby areas.
g) Have equal inlet and outlet areas to maximise airflow. and moisture management systems (e. 4.g. corridors. if this is not possible. Use good site planning.
Table 2 gives a guide on the impact of air speed on occupants.5 > 1. sound. e) Use louvers on inlets to channel air intake. air and view of the exterior. one closer to the floor (inlet) and the other. Generally pleasant when comfortable or warm. They provide a climatic relationship between the exterior and interior in the form of light. but draughty at cool temperatures.2
Design details/recommendations to optimise stack ventilation: a) Provide at least two ventilation openings. b) Maximise the vertical distance between these two sets of openings.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .0 – 1. Feels fresh at comfortable temperatures.6. f) Use architectural features like solar chimneys to effectively exhaust the hot indoor air.All rights reserved
The low incidence of significant wind force or low wind speeds to achieve sensible air movement for thermal comfort may require additional air movement with the aid of mechanical means. Impact of air velocity on occupants
Air speed (m/s) ≤0.
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4. Requires corrective measures if comfort and productivity are to be maintained. Too fast for deskwork with loose papers Equivalent to a fast walking speed Occupant Sensation Unnoticed.6. Increasing the differential height will produce better airflow.5 – 1.0 Mechanical Effect Smoke (from cigarette) indicates movement Flame from a candle flickers Loose papers may be moved. Equivalent to walking speed. It may not be possible to utilise all the functions simultaneously.4
Daylighting and ventilation from windows
One of the most fundamental components in a building is windows. Table 2.3 Air movement
Air movement affects comfort. Such spaces may be used to ventilate adjacent spaces because their stack height allows them to displace large volumes of air. c) Provide equal inlet and outlet areas to maximise airflow. except at low air temperatures. higher in the space (outlet). Acceptable in warm conditions but can be from slightly to annoyingly draughty Acceptable only in very hot and humid conditions when no other relief is available.5
4.6. The presence of air movement enhances evaporative and convective cooling from the skin and can further increase our comfort. but causing constant awareness of air movement. copying and networking pro
d) Provide adequate openings in stairwells or other continuous vertical elements so that they can work as stack wells. 4.25 0.25 – 0.
shielding from infiltration at higher levels and the creation of a cooler microclimate around the building. 4. Creating cooler microclimate may involve strategic landscaping techniques through maximising softscape and implementation of aquascape.MS 1525:2007
The size. ventilation and lighting (daylighting).1 General requirement
Fundamentally. c) integrated building devices such as photovoltaic shading devices. including shading from the sun. Appropriate choice of material for the hardscape will be more favourable to help reduce the heat gain and reflection at the surrounding spaces. d) integrated passive solar and active systems for heating/ cooling/ lighting. Table 3. b) photovoltaic devices for electricity.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .e. external condenser. cooling. the building envelope has to block out heat gain into buildings via conduction and solar radiation. shape.8 Future considerations for sustainable design
In addition to passive design considerations.7
Strategic landscaping can reduce heat gain through several processes. Window design
Purpose Daylighting Natural ventilation Daylighting and view
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5. position and orientation of windows are designed based on intended purpose and requirements.All rights reserved
. Decisions have to be made based on the primary or prioritised requirements. to maximise the efficiency of the condensers. It is also important to properly shade any air-conditioner unit i. copying and networking pro
Design recommendation Optimum height and size for required daylight factor Orientation towards prevailing wind direction Size and sill height suited to occupant position and external features Size and location must be suited to all parameters
Daylighting and natural ventilation
4. Table 3 is a guide for the design of windows. Building envelope
4. for a typical office buildings that are air-conditioned during daytime only . To minimise solar heat gain into a building is. having a total air-conditioned area 2 2 exceeding 4000 m and above should not exceed 50 W/m and should meet the requirement specified in 5.. (2)
OTTVi = 15 α (1 − WWR) Uw + 6 (WWR) Uf + (194 x CF x WWR x SC)
Where. In non air-conditioned buildings..2
Ao1 x OTTV1 + Ao 2 x OTTV2 .. The OTTV requirement is simple. In addition. + Aon
. It is therefore important that energy management is well conducted to ensure that night time internal load is kept to the minimum..heat would be conducted into the buildings during daytime and heat would be conducted out of the building during night time (especially during early morning hours when external temperatures are low). improved ACMV and daylight use.…
is the gross exterior wall area for orientation i.. The OTTV aims at achieving the design of building envelope to cut down external heat gain and hence reduce the cooling load of the air-conditioning system..2... therefore. The Building Energy Simulation Method. A design criterion for building envelope known as the overall thermal transfer value (OTTV) has been adopted. 5. x Aon x OTTVn Ao1 + Ao 2 . Aoi 0TTVi 5. the solar heat gain causes thermal discomfort. allows designer to prove compliance by the same method used to derive the OTTV constants. and applies only to air-conditioned buildings. is the solar absorptivity of the opaque wall. This is especially so. Building Energy Simulation Method.. and is the OTTV value for orientation i from equation (2).
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Simulation studies indicate that heat may be conducted both in and out of the building depending on the time of the day. copying and networking pro
An alternative to complying with this clause is available in clause 10.2. 5.. a very important consideration in the design of an energy efficient building. Internal loads are caused by lightings and equipments that are kept running during night time and these would generate heat within the building. the formula is given as below: …. WWR
is the window-to-gross exterior wall area ratio for the orientation under consideration.. For a fenestration at a given orientation. to ensure that maximum benefit would be derived from the insulation of the building envelope.All rights reserved
. The OTTV of the building envelope for a building. This phenomenon occurs in buildings that have high internal load at night.2 Concept of OTTV
The solar heat gain through the building envelope constitutes a substantial share of cooling load in an air-conditioned building..2. 11
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .1 The OTTV of building envelope is given by the formula below:
where.. and credits are accepted for on-site renewable energy sources. clause 10 applies the whole-building energy efficiency concept.
glass).94 0.2 The shading coefficient for glass is the value assessed at an incident angle of 45 ° to the normal. a shading device and a combination of both. external shading devices) (3)
5. Table 4 is based on updated (2006) data to match with the current test reference year (TRY) weather data for Kuala Lumpur.13 0.90 0. Table 4.1 The shading coefficient of a shading system is the product of the shading coefficients of its sub-systems. for example SC = SC1 x SC2 where. it is recommended that the nearest predominant orientation be selected.3
5.23 1. Table 4 specifies CF for the various orientation of the fenestration.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . For the calculation of CF. SC SC1 SC2 is the effective shading coefficient of the fenestration system.g. and is the shading coefficient of sub-system 2 (e.All rights reserved
.09 1.3. A fenestration system may consist of a glazing material such as glass. NOTE.3. copying and networking pro
North Northeast East Southeast South Southwest West Northwest NOTES:
1. and is the shading coefficient of the fenestration system. is the solar correction factor. is the thermal transmittance of fenestration system (W/m K).90
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Uw Uf CF SC
is the thermal transmittance of opaque wall (W/m K). 2. Solar correction factors
Orientation CF 0.
5.g.90 1.92 0. Data collected indicates that the average vertical East surface solar radiation is significantly higher than the vertical West surface. This trend is seen to be caused by the normally clear sky in the morning and cloudy sky in the afternoon.
0. Shading coefficient of vertical projections
Ratio R2 0.3.71
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0.77 East 0.75
0.3 The shading coefficient of external shading devices can be obtained from Table 5.1.79 Northeast/ Southeast 0.77
R1 is the ratio: Width of horizontal projection/ Height of fenestration
0.83 Northwest / Southwest 0.82 East 0.00 NOTE.77
R2 is the ratio: Width of vertical projection/ Length of fenestration
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .40 North/South 0.84
0. Table 6 and Table 7. copying and networking pro
0. Table 5.69
0.30 .All rights reserved
.77 Orientation West 0.0.
0.1.80 .40 North/South 0.50 .50 .0.79
0.30 .77 Northwest / Southwest 0.66
0.86 Northeast/ Southeast 0.87 Orientation West 0. Shading coefficient of horizontal projections
Ratio R1 0.
66 0.62 0.80
0. may be traded-off with an increased of OTTV by 15%.75 0.4.00
0.1 Saving in energy consumption for lighting due to daylighting technique is greater than the cooling energy penalties from additional glazed surface provided that the building envelope is carefully designed for daylighting.60
0.40 – 1.60 0.5.48 0.56 0.69 0.60 0.51 0.40
0. Fenestration for the purpose of daylighting should be designed to prevent direct solar radiation while allowing diffused light for effective daylighting.80 – 1.39
0. if provided.2 In order to take advantage of daylighting.60 0.69 0.40 – 1.63 0.5%.20 .44
0. copying and networking pro
0.60 – 1.77 0.1.42
0. Lighting control for daylighting purpose should comply with clause 6.42 0.47 0.38
1.20 – 0.54 0.33
0.80 – 1. 5.32
0.63 0.32 0.48
0.41 0.38 0.44
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NOTES: R1 R2 is the ratio: Width of horizontal projection / Height of fenestration is the ratio: Width of vertical projection / Length of fenestration
5.All rights reserved
.80 0.60 – 1.52 0.52 0.55 Northwest/ Southwest 0.60 – 1.20 – 0.20 0. Shading coefficient of egg-crate louvres
Ratios R1 R2 North/ South 0.55 0.38 0.48 0.MS 1525:2007
Table 7.35 0.20 1.73 0.63 0.41
1.20 – 0.62 0.61 East Orientation West Northeast/ Southeast 0.36 0.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .64 0.52 0. The suggested daylight factor to be provided for an effective daylighting use in an office space is 1.51 0.43
0.52 0.77 0.38
0.40 – 0.80
0.39 0.20 – 1.60 0.40
0.3 Daylighting controls used for interior lighting in the perimeter zone within 5 m of each exterior wall.54 0.49 0.49 0.71 0. 5.59 0.80
0.20 – 0.54 0.20 1.50
0.42 0.52 0.40 0.50 0.38 0.40 0.46
0. the visible transmittance of the daylight fenestration system should not be less than 50%.51
4 Maximum U-Value (W/m²K)
5. the average thermal transmittance for the gross area of the roof shall be determined from:
where. + Arn x Wrn Wr = r 1 Art + Ar 2 .5.
Ur is the average thermal transmittance of the gross area (W/m K).1 The roof of a conditioned space shall not have a thermal transmittance (U-value) greater than that tabulated in Table 9.. Table 9...
(Ar 1 U r 1 )
x (Ar 2 x U r 2 ).5..6 0. + Arn
….. + (Arn x U rn ) Ar 1 + Ar 2 ..
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 ..... Ari is the respective area of different roof sections (m²). U r1 is the respective thermal transmittance of different roof sections (W/m K).4 5. Maximum U-value for roof (W/m²K)
Roof Weight Group Light (Under 50 kg/m²) Heavy (Above 50 kg/m²) 0..4.. The average weight of the roof is calculated as follows:
A x Wr 1 + Ar 2 x Wr 2 .
…..All rights reserved
Table 8... + Arn
where. and Wra is the respective weight of different roof sections (kg/m ). copying and networking pro
5... Trade-off for daylighting controls
Type of control On-off control Dimming control Percentage increase in OTTV (%) 15 15
Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 09-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only.2 If more than one type of roof is used.5
The total unshaded glazing area should not be more than 30% of the total floor area.. and A ri is the respective area of different roof sections (m²). Wr is the average weight of roof (kg/m )..
see 5. as from Table 10. and is the gross roof area (m ) where Ao = Ar + As.All rights reserved
. Ar Ur
is the opaque roof area (m ).1 Roofs with skylights Concept of roof thermal transfer value (RTTV)
Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 09-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only. is the solar factor (W/m ).6 5.5.7 and the treated surface is free from algae growth. the equivalent temperature difference (TDeq) of different types of roof construction have been standardised as follows:
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . is the temperature difference between exterior and interior design conditions (5 K). the concept of Roof Thermal Transfer Value (RTTV) is applied if the roof is provided with skylight and the entire enclosure below is fully airconditioned.6.3 If the roof area is shaded from direct solar radiation by ventilated external shading devices such as a double ventilated roof.3 The RTTV of roof is given by the following equation. 5. 5.
2 2 2
SC SF Ao
(Ar x U r + TDeq ) + (As x U s x ∆T) + ( A s x SC x SF) Ao
….2 For roofs with skylight.
RTTV is the roof thermal transfer value (W/m ).6. is the thermal transmittance of skylight area (W/m ). in addition to the requirement of 5. is the shading coefficient of skylight.4 Equivalent temperature difference
For the purpose of simplicity in RTTV calculation. is the thermal transmittance of opaque roof area (W/m K).4 If external roof surface reflective treatments are used where the solar reflectivity is equal to or greater than 0. 5. 5. the U-value may be increased by 50 %. copying and networking pro
In the case of an air-conditioned building.6. the U-value may be increased by 50 %.1 the maximum 2 recommended RTTV is 25 W/m .
TDeq is the equivalent temperature difference (K).6.6.. As Us
is the skylight area (m ).5.5.MS 1525:2007
RTTV = where.
is the overall roof thermal transfer value (W/m ).. is the respective area of different roof sections (m ).5
For a given orientation and angle of slope.84
50 – 55
RTTV i is the respective roof thermal transfer value of different roof sections (W/m ).77
Ao1 x RTTV1 + Ao 2 x RTTV2 + .. The correction factors for other orientations and other pitch angles may be found by interpolation.All rights reserved
NOTE. Table 11.68
60 – 65
SF is the solar factor (W/m²).. and CF is the correction factor with reference to the orientation of the roof and the pitch angle of its skylight and is given as in Table 11.
If the roof consists of different sections facing different orientations or pitched at different angles.(7)
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .99
SF = 323 x CF
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35 – 45
0.30 North/South East West Northeast/ Southeast 1.MS 1525:2007
Table 10. copying and networking pro
1. the solar factor is given by the following equation.66
0.. Equivalent temperature difference for roof
Roof construction type(kg/m2) Under 50 Over 50 Equivalent temperature difference (K) 24 20
.. Solar correction factor for roof
Orientation Slope angle (°) 5 ... the RTTV for the whole roof shall be calculated as follows: RTTV = where.88
0.Aon x RTTVn Ao1 + A02 + .01 Northwest/ Southwest 0.
if provided with skylights.2
4.6 The gross roof area shall include all opaque roof areas and skylight areas. including framing.8
The following information shall be provided by a professional engineer or registered architect: a) a drawing showing the cross-sections of typical parts of the roof construction.3 More than 25 4.3 2.9 5.8 3.6. c) The skylight areas.8
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5.1 Lighting power density (W/m2) 20 3.5). as a percentage of roof areas do not exceed the values in Table 12 where visible transmittance (VT) is the transmittance of a particular glazing material over the visible portion of the solar spectrum.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .50 500 700
3. provided the following conditions are met:
a) All electric lighting fixtures within the skylight areas shall be controlled by automatic daylighting controls.8 6.3 3.9 15 2.6
5.7 Daylight credit
5.1 6.4 3. and d) the RTTV of the roof assembly.7 6. b) the U-value of the roof assembly. b) The skylight area for which daylight credit can be taken is the area under each skylight whose dimension in each direction (centred on the skylight) is equal to the skylight dimension in that direction plus the floor or ceiling height.75 and 0.7.2 9.1 4. (The skylight area shall only be interpolated between VT values of 0.6 4.75 500 700 2.2 2.MS 1525:2007
5.3 4.7. insulation and air space. copying and networking pro
300 0.All rights reserved
. Maximum percent skylight area
Visible Transmittable Illuminance (Lux) Less than 10 300 0.1 Skylights for which daylight credit is taken may be excluded both from the U-value calculation and the calculation of the RTTV.0 7. c) the OTTV calculation.0 7. 5.2 The skylight areas in Table 12 may be increased by 50 % if an external shading device is used that blocks over 50 % of the solar gain during the peak design period.0 4.
5. when such surfaces are exposed to outdoor air and enclose an air conditioned space. Table 12.
9. 5.9. copying and networking pro
It is recommended that a door that separates conditioned space from the exterior is protected by an enclosed vestibule. d) Doors that open directly from a space less than 300 sq meter in area. gasketed.6 It is recommended that the following areas of the building envelope be sealed.1
Air Leakage General requirement
The building envelope should provide adequate barrier to prevent uncontrolled mixing of outside air with air-conditioned space.9.
5.5 meters when in closed position. Interior and exterior doors should have a minimum distance between them of not less than 2. 5.4 Where the false ceiling is used as return air plenum to the AHU (air handling unit). The energy required to remove moisture from uncontrolled leakages of outside air into the building is one of the highest energy load contributed by the external environment into a building in the tropical climate.MS 1525:2007
5. such as mechanical or electrical equipment rooms.2 All open-able fenestration and doors between conditioned space and non-conditioned space should have an advisory label on it requesting that fenestration and doors are to be kept closed when not in use.3 Any duct that provides a connection between conditioned space to outside air should have a damper in between to prevent air leakages into conditioned space when the duct is not in operation.9. the energy used to remove moisture would be higher than the energy used to remove heat contributed by solar radiation.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .9.All rights reserved
.9. c) Doors not intended to be used as a building entrance door.
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NOTE. Exceptions to 5.5 can be made in the following cases: b) Doors in buildings less than four stories above ground. with all doors opening into and out of the vestibule equipped with self-closing devices.9 5.9. In a leaky building. caulked. partitions should be placed in the false ceiling space between conditioned space and naturally ventilated space to prevent air leakages. 5. e) Doors in building entrances with revolving doors. or weather-stripped to minimize air leakage:
a) joints around fenestration and door frames. c) Doors opening directly from a residential unit. Vestibules should be designed so that in passing through the vestibule it is not necessary for the interior and exterior doors to open at the same time.
00 pm and 6. television broadcasting. discos and casinos where lighting is an essential technical element for the function performed.MS 1525:2007
b) junctions between walls and foundations.All rights reserved
g) all other openings in the building envelope surrounding conditioned space.
g) special lighting needs for research laboratories.
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The above. c) specialised luminaires for medical and dental purposes. copying and networking pro
Applications excluded from this clause include:
a) outdoor activities such as manufacturing. seams.1. between walls at building corners. commercial greenhouse and processing facilities.00 am. between walls and structural floors or roofs. f) joints.9. and penetrations of vapor retarders.
k) lighting for signs. d) outdoor recreational facilities. night-clubs. i) j) emergency lighting that is automatically ‘off’ during normal operations. and l) store-front display windows in retail facilities. shall not reduce the outside air ventilation rate as specified in 8. walls and floors. museums and monuments. d) site-built fenestration and doors. high risk security areas identified by local ordinances or regulations or by security or safety personnel requiring additional lighting. audio-visual presentations and those portions of entertainment facilities such as stage areas in hotel ballrooms. b) lighting power for theatrical productions. h) lighting to be used solely for lighting indoor and outdoor plant growth during the hours of 10.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .4
6. storage. e) display lighting required for art exhibition or display in galleries. and between walls and roof or wall panels.
travellator Entrance and exit Staff changing room.2
The maintained illuminance levels for general building areas are as given in Table 13.2. 6. Canteen.MS 1525:2007
6. sufficient and suitable lighting for the performance of a range of tasks and provision of a desired appearance. cloak room. waiting room Inquiry desk Gate house Infrequent reading and writing General offices. shops and stores.1 Lighting must provide a suitable visual environment within a particular space i.
Table 13. Entrance hall. stairs Escalator.All rights reserved
General principles of efficient lighting practice
6.2. locker and cleaner room. passageways. Recommended average illuminance levels
Task Illuminance (Lux) Example of Applications
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Lighting for infrequently used area
20 100 100
Minimum service illuminance Interior walkway and car-park Hotel bedroom
100 100 150 100 100 100 300 200 Lighting for working interiors 200 300 – 400 300 – 400
Lift interior Corridor. reading and writing Drawing office
150 200 150 – 300 150 150 100 100 300 – 500 200 – 750 300 Localised lighting for exacting task 500 1000 2000 STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .e. lavatories. Cafeteria Kitchen Lounge Bathroom Toilet Bedroom Class room. Library Shop / Supermarket/Department store Museum and gallery Proof reading Exacting drawing Detailed and precise work
6.5 Lighting controls
6.3 For facilities with multiple buildings.4. copying and networking pro
Table 126.96.36.199.MS 1525:2007
6. shall not exceed 5 W/m . drive-ways. lighting power W/m2 Restaurants Offices Classrooms/ Lecture Theatres Auditoriums/ Concert Halls Hotel/ Motel Guest Rooms Lobbies/ Atriums/ Concourse Supermarkets/ Department Stores/ Shops Stores/ Warehouses/ Stairs/ Corridors/ Lavatories Car Parks 15 15 15 15 15 20 25 10 5
6. pedestrian malls.4
The fluorescent ballast loss shall not exceed 6.5.
Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 09-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only.2 Lighting zones control for daylight energy savings scheme
The minimum number of lighting control for daylight energy savings scheme should take into consideration the following criteria: a) all spaces enclosed by walls or ceiling height partitions should be provided with at least one operated-on-off lighting control for each room.2 The lighting power load for external car parks. Unit lighting power (including ballast loss) allowance
Type of Usage Max.1 All lighting systems except those required for emergency or exit lighting should be provided with manual.4.2.5 Luminaires shall be selected for efficient distribution of light without producing discomfort glare.
6. the building exterior lighting power requirements may be traded off among the buildings.3 should apply. 6.0 W (see MS IEC 60929: 1995)
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . 6. automatic or programmable controls.3 Maximum allowable power for illumination systems
Lighting load shall not exceed the corresponding maximum value as specified in Table 14.2. 2 landscape areas.1
Exterior building lighting power requirements
The same lighting systems criteria specified in 6.4 6. The area shall be the net site area excluding the built-up area. For lighting loads exceeding 100 kW automatic control should be provided. 6.All rights reserved
.3 Installed power and energy consumption should be minimised by the use of more efficient lamp/ballast systems and luminaires. 6.
b) the number of each type of lighting device. 6. 6.
6. hotels and hospitals. Switches controlling the same load from more than one location should not be credited as increasing the number of controls to meet the requirements of this clause. retail and department stores and service corridors under centralised supervision) should be controlled in accordance with the work activities. d) controls requiring trained operators.3 Switches provided for task areas.5 Control accessibility
Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 09-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only.5. c) the total number of switches should be at least one switch for each 1 kW of connected load. 188.8.131.52. and e) controls for safety hazards and security. copying and networking pro
All lighting controls should be located at an accessible place with the following exceptions: a) lighting control requirements for spaces which must be used as a whole.5. The manual should include the following information: a) the design service illuminance. such as public lobbies of office buildings. and controls may be centralised in remote locations. 6.8 Local manual controls or automatic controls such as photoelectric switches or automatic dimmers should be provided in day lighted space. c) programmable controls.7 Exterior lighting not intended for 24 hour continuous use should be automatically switched by timer and/or photocell.MS 1525:2007
b) one switch is provided for each task or group of tasks within an area of 30 m or less.6 Hotel and motel guest rooms should have a master switch which automatically turns off all lighting.5. power outlets and reduce operating air-conditioning loads except for essential loads. Controls should be provided so as to operate rows of light parallel to the facade/ exterior wall.4 Lighting control requirements for spaces which are used as a whole (such as public lobbies of office buildings.All rights reserved
6. b) automatic controls.6 Operation and maintenance (O and M) manual and as built drawing
An operation and maintenance manual and as built drawing manual should be provided to the owner.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . retail and department stores and service corridors under centralised supervision should be controlled in accordance with the work activities. and d) availability of lighting zones control for energy saving. hotels and hospital. and controls may be centralised in remote locations. if readily accessible may be mounted as part of the task lighting fixtures.
Supply system voltage has significant impact on losses.) Electric motors
A. copying and networking pro
All electrical power distribution equipment should be selected for their energy efficiency and to minimise cost of ownership.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . 3 phase induction motors.MS 1525:2007
c) the total wattage of each type of lighting device. 2 pole and 4 pole. d) the installed lighting load for interior and exterior. motor continuous rating should not normally exceed 30% of its estimated maximum load. transformers and distribution systems of buildings except those required for emergency purposes. Motor selection should be based on economic justification. where appropriate as mentioned under 7.
7. Cost of ownership includes the capital cost and the cost of energy over the equipment life time.
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7.C. CEMEP efficiency class EFF 1). Electric power and distribution
This clause applies to the energy efficiency requirements of electric motors. the supply voltage should be maintained as close as possible to the design/optimum voltage of the equipment installed. in the range 1.1.1 Alternative Current (A.1 Output rating and duty
Unless specific circumstances apply.
7.1 to 90 kW should be high efficiency motors (HEM.1.2 Motor efficiencies
Only motors of EFF 1 and EFF 2 classification as shown in Table 15 and Table 16 should be used.
8 ≥ 85.7 ≥ 87.1 ≥ 91.0 ≥ 92. copying and networking pro
Motor Efficiency (%) Motor Class Eff2 ≥ 76.2 ≥ 94.6 ≥ 93.2 ≥ 93.2 ≥ 90.MS 1525:2007
Table 15.2 ≥ 85.4 ≥ 87.9 Motor Class Eff1 ≥ 83.3 ≥ 89.2 3 4
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5.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .0 ≥ 93.1 1.4 ≥ 92.5 7.0 ≥ 86.8 ≥ 92.4 ≥ 90.All rights reserved
.5 2. Class definition for 4-pole motors
Motor Capacity (kW) 1.0 ≥ 82.7 ≥ 95.5 ≥ 93.0 ≥ 90.2 ≥ 78.6 ≥ 93.4 ≥ 89.9 ≥ 94.0 ≥ 88.5 ≥ 91.6 ≥ 84.0 ≥ 91.4 ≥ 88.
0 ≥ 92. 7.2.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90
7.5 2.0 ≥ 82.
7.7 ≥ 87.6 ≥ 86.MS 1525:2007
Table 16.1 1.1.5 ≥ 93.2 ≥ 85.0 ≥ 94.0 kW.1 The cross-section area of the cables and wires should comply with the provisions of MS IEC 60364 on Electrical Installations of Buildings.1 will provide for minimum initial size and thus cost of the cable based on the thermal limits of the cable.5 11 15 18.5 ≥ 91.0
5. inverter controlled motor drives shall be used to control the speed of the motors for variable loads.6 ≥ 88.3
Motor power factor
Power factor for motors shall be corrected to better than 0.4 ≥ 89.8 ≥ 92.6 ≥ 89.6 ≥ 93. to minimise losses due to reactive currents in the cables back to the main switchboard.2 While compliance with the provisions of 7.1 ≥ 85. taking into account not only the material and installation cost of the cable but also the cost of the energy losses in the cable over the life of the cable.7 ≥ 94.4 Motor drives
Where applicable.6 ≥ 95.5 ≥ 81.6 ≥ 84.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .2.3 ≥ 93.3 ≥ 91.4 ≥ 92.5 h.7 ≥ 87.4 ≥ 90.0 ≥ 88.2 ≥ 92.8 ≥ 84.9 Motor Class Eff1 ≥ 82.2 3 4
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Motor Efficiency (%) Motor Class Eff2 ≥ 76.5 ≥ 91.2.0 ≥ 93. Class definition for 2-pole motors
Motor Capacity (kW) 1. It is recommended that soft starters be specified for motors exceeding 7.p.All rights reserved
7.1.9 ≥ 93.2 Cabling
7./5.5 ≥ 90. larger sizes of the cable would be selected if the lowest overall lifetime cost is considered.
Location of Distribution Transformers
Load fed by Transformer > 600 A 300 A to 600 A Distance of Transformer from Load Centres Not more than 20 meters Not more than 100 meters
7. 7.All rights reserved
(LL + NLL) *100 P.F. copying and networking pro
Transformer loss percentage = Where.2. LL NLL P. b) larger secondary neutral conductor to carry third harmonic current.85.3.3. and
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . methods such as the configuration for laying the cables.3. installing appropriate harmonic filters and appropriate sizing/derating of the cables should be considered. 7.MS 1525:2007
7. capacitor or power factor improving devices should be provided for automatic or manual correction. In cases where load power factors fall below 0.3 The average power factor of the loads being served by the transformer should not be less than 0.85. This normally includes transformers with:
a) enlarged primary windings to withstand third harmonic circulating current.3.3 To minimise losses due to eddy and harmonic current effects.3.6 Where harmonics content is significant. a transformer with higher harmonics withstand capability should be selected.3. 7.4 Transformer configuration should endeavour to maintain a firm capacity that meets the full load requirements and should not normally exceed 150% of the load demand. c) magnetic core designed with lower normal flux density using higher grade iron.
Table 17.2 Assessment of transformer efficiency in terms of load and no load losses may be effected using the following:
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Location of distribution transformers should comply with Table 17. x KVAtr
is the load losses in kW (winding losses) is the no load losses in kW (iron losses) is the power factor of load is the rated transformer capacity in KVA
Other methods for selection of transformer that can be adopted include assessment of “Total Present Worth” of “Capital cost plus the capitalisation of the energy losses over the transformer lifetime”.1 All transformers in the building’s electrical system shall have efficiencies not lower than 98 % for sizes below 1 000 kVA and not less than 99 % for sizes equal to or greater than 1 000 kVA at full load conditions.F.
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In general.35 W at upper temperature limit excluding the losses in the discharge resistors.1 8.
8. an individual feels comfortable when metabolic heat is dissipated at the rate at which it is produced. electrical energy meters should be installed at strategic load centres to identify consumption by functional use and refer also to 9.1 Sub Metering
To facilitate monitoring of energy consumption and energy management. For the purpose of engineering design.
7.1. b) relative humidity. humidity.All rights reserved
. The higher the space relative humidity. mean radiant temperature.4 Inverters
All inverters or devices with electronic switching gates shall be of at least the 12-pulse type. The use of “harmonics mitigating transformer” which utilises multiple – secondary windings which are phase-shifted for cancelling zero-sequence third harmonics current may also be considered.1 Load calculations Calculation procedures
Cooling system design loads for the purpose of sizing systems and equipment should be determined in accordance with the procedures described in the latest edition of the ASHRAE Handbook. the lower the amount of heat the human body will be able to transfer by means of perspiration 28
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .5
Power factor correction capacitors
Power factor correction capacitors should be the low loss type with losses per kVAR not exceeding 0.8
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7. The human body temperature needs to be maintained at a constant 37 ± 0.5 °C regardless of the prevailing ambient condition. Air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) system
8. room comfort condition should consider the following three (3) main factors: a) dry bulb temperature.1. insulated secondary conductors configured in parallel and transposed to reduce heating due to skin effect and associated AC resistance.MS 1525:2007
d) smaller. and c) air movement (air velocity). metabolic rate and air movement preference of the occupant. The 24-pulse type is recommended to minimise harmonic currents.6. or other equivalent publications.2 Indoor design conditions
Room comfort condition is dependent on various factors including air temperature.
/evaporation.15 to 0. A draught is created when the temperature of the moving air is too low and/or the velocity is too high. At normal comfort room temperature (23 to 26 °C).2. the better the effect. Generally.
8.15 m/s – 0.1. efficient unloading devices.
Outdoor air quantities may exceed those shown. Redundancy in capacity of equipment.3 Outdoor design conditions
23 º C – 26 °C 22 ° C 55 % – 70 % 0.All rights reserved
. Air movement (or air velocity) is essential for bodily comfort as it enhances heat transfer between air and the human body and accelerates cooling of the human body. the relative humidity for indoor comfort condition should not exceed 70 %. and the more varied the air currents in velocity and direction. if incorporated into the sizing of the duty equipment. multi compressors etc so as not to diminish the equipment/system efficiency when operating at varying loads.1.5 g vapour per kg dry air).50 m/s 0.
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Outdoor air-ventilation rates should comply with Third Schedule (By Law 41) Article 12(1) of Uniform Building by Laws. high efficiency motor. 1984.1 Air conditioning systems and equipment shall be sized to provide no more than the space and system loads calculated in accordance with clause 8. Air movement in an occupied space gives a feeling of freshness by lowering the skin temperature.50 m/s. if required due to special occupancy or process requirements or source control of air contamination or indoor air quality consideration.4 Ventilation
33. copying and networking pro
The indoor design conditions of an air-conditioned space for comfort cooling should be as follows: a) Recommended design dry bulb temperature b) Minimum dry bulb temperature c) Recommended design relative humidity d) Recommended air movement e) Maximum air movement
8.2 System and equipment sizing
8.3 °C 27. If the indoor air temperature is high and the relative humidity is high (above around 11.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .7 m/s
The recommended outdoor design conditions shall be as follows: a) dry bulb temperature b) wet bulb temperature
8. should include efficiency devices such as variable speed drive. the human body will feel uncomfortable.
such as perimeter zones (3 m room depth) in contrast to interior zones.2.3 Separate air distribution systems should be considered for areas of the building having substantially different cooling characteristics.1 Zones which are expected to operate non-simultaneously for more than 750 hours per year should be served by separate air distribution systems. 8. not less than 85 % of non conditioned make up air should be introduced directly into the space concerned unless the exhausted conditioned air is utilised for secondary cooling purposes. a minimum of two chillers or a single multi-compressor chiller should be provided to meet the required load. 8.2 Zones with special process temperature and/or humidity requirements should be served by separate air distribution system/s from those serving zones requiring only comfort cooling. 8. Exception: Zones requiring comfort cooling only which are served by a system primarily used for process temperature and humidity control. 8.3 Multiple units of the same equipment type. copying and networking pro
8. or the total conditioned 2 floor area of the zones is less than 100 m .3
Separate air distribution systems
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8. such as multiple chillers. with combined capacities exceeding the design load may be specified to operate concurrently only if controls are provided which sequence or otherwise optimally control the operation of each unit based on the required cooling load.1 Controls Temperature control
Each system should be provided with at least one thermostat for the regulation of temperature. As an alternative off-hour controls should be provided in accordance with 8. need not be served by a separate system if the total supply air to these zones is no more than 25 % of the total system supply air.4.4 8.4 Individual air cooled or water cooled direct expansion (DX) units greater than 35 kWr (reciprocating compressor) or 65 kWr (scroll compressor) should consist of either multi compressors or single compressor with step/variable unloaders.400 m /h.4. Alternatively.4. Multi-stage thermostat should be provided for equipment exceeding 35/65 kWr in conjunction with 8.4.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .3. or should include supplementary provisions so that the primary system/s may be specifically controlled for comfort purposes only.3.2 Where chillers are used and when the design load is greater than 1 000 kWr. heat recovery devices should be provided.3. Each thermostat should be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of sensors over a minimum range of between 22 °C to 27 °C.4 For air conditioned space requiring exhaust air volume in excess of 3. 8.2.
8. The following are examples that meet these requirements: a) manually adjustable automatic timing devices.4. A readily accessible manual or automatic means should be provided to partially restrict or shut off the cooling input (for the exposure) to each floor. b) manual devices for use by operating personnel.1 Control setback and shut-off
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8.3 Energy Recovery
It is recommended that consideration be given to the use of recovery systems which will conserve energy (provided the amount expended is less than the amount recovered) when the energy transfer potential and the operating hours are considered.
184.108.40.206 Humidity control
In a system requiring moisture removal to maintain specific selected relative humidity in spaces or zones.2.2 and serving multiple zones. should be provided with controls that will automatically reset the system cold air supply to the highest temperature level that will satisfy the zone requiring the coolest air. On a multistorey building where the perimeter system offsets only the transmission gains of the exterior wall.
8.4. no new source of energy (such as electric reheat) should be used to produce a space relative humidity below 70 % for comfort cooling purposes.1. and c) automatic control system.
8.3 Multi zone systems
8.1.1 Zoning for temperature control
At least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature should be provided for: a) each separate system. other than those employing variable air volumes for temperature control should be provided with controls that will automatically reset the off-coil air supply to the highest temperature that will satisfy the zone requiring the coolest air. As a minimum each floor of a building should be considered as a separate zone.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .All rights reserved
.1 Reheat systems
Systems employing reheat where permitted by 8. Single zone reheat systems should be controlled to sequence reheat and cooling. an entire side of uniform exposure may be zoned separately.4. other than those employing variable air volume for temperature control.4. and b) each separate zone as defined in 8. copying and networking pro
Each system should be equipped with a readily accessible means of shutting off or reducing the energy used during periods of non-use or alternate uses of the building spaces or zones served by the system.4.
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8.5 Mechanical ventilation control
Each mechanical ventilation system (supply and/or exhaust) should be equipped with a readily accessible switch or other means for shut-off or volume reduction when ventilation is not required. 8. 8. heat recovery wheel. isolation areas should be pre-designed.4.1 ACMV system should be equipped with automatic controls capable of accomplishing a reduction of energy use for example through equipment shutdown during periods of non-use or alternative use of the spaces served by the system. 8.4.4. copying and networking pro
a) systems serving areas which are expected to operate continuously.4 For buildings where occupancy patterns are not known at time of system design. Examples include the use of condenser water for reheat. thermostat control.4.
b) systems which have a design air flowrate of 1 800 m /h or less.2 Outdoor air supply and exhaust systems should be provided with motorised or gravity dampers or other means of automatic volume shut-off or reduction during period of non-use or alternate use of the spaces served by the system. Use of outside economy air cycle design where feasible should be considered. and d) where restricted by process requirements such as combustion air intakes. .MS 1525:2007
Recovered energy in excess of the new source of energy expended in the recovery process may be used for control of temperature and humidity.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .4. Isolation is not required for zones expected to operate continuously. and b) equipment with a connected load of 2 kWe or less may be controlled by readily accessible manual off-hour controls. duty cycle programming and CO/CO2 sensor control.4 Off-hour control
8. heat pipe or any other energy recovery technology.
8. Examples of such devices would include timer switch control.4.4. desuperheater heat reclaim.3 Systems that serve zones which can be expected to operate non-simultaneously for more than 750 hours per year should include isolation devices and controls to shut off the supply of cooling to each zone independently. Exceptions:
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45 W per m /h of air flow rate.
8.1 High-pressure and medium-pressure ducts should be leak tested in accordance with HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual published by SMACNA or any other equivalent standards.6
Fan System Efficiency
For fan system with air flow rate exceeding 17000 m /h and operating for more than 750 hours a year. plenums and enclosures installed in or on buildings should be adequately insulated to prevent excessive energy losses. c) When the heat loss and/or heat gain of the piping. Additional insulation with vapour barriers may be required to prevent condensation under some conditions.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .Metal and Flexible published by Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA) or any other equivalent duct construction standards.
Exceptions: Duct insulation is not required in the following cases:
a) Where the design temperature differential between the air in the duct and the surrounding air is 8 °C or less provided that the duct is within the air-conditioned space. b) Piping at fluid temperatures between 23 °C and 49 °C. Additional insulation with vapour barriers may be required to prevent condensation under some conditions. does not increase the energy requirements of the building. copying and networking pro
Piping insulation is not required in any of the following cases: a) Piping installed within ACMV equipment. without insulation.5 Piping insulation
All piping installed to serve buildings and within buildings should be adequately insulated to prevent excessive energy losses.MS 1525:2007
8. c) Within ACMV equipment.
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8.6 Air handling duct system insulation
All ducts. b) When the heat gain or loss of the ducts. without insulation. d) Exhaust air ducts subject to qualification as in 8. with the rate of leakage not to exceed the maximum rate specified.All rights reserved
. the power required by the motor for the entire fan system at design conditions 3 should not exceed 0.7 Duct construction
All ductwork should be constructed and erected in accordance with ANSI/SMACNA 006-2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards .
8.6 item a.7.
c) Multiple units systems In this type. and the refrigerant condenser may be air.8 Balancing
The system design should provide means for balancing the air and water system such as but not limited to dampers. screw. 8.10 ACMV system equipment
ACMV system equipment provides.7. copying and networking pro
8. 8. as required. The cooling function may be either electrically or heat operated. The water chilling package. air-cooling with controlled temperature and dehumidification.11). each receiving a supply of electric energy. in one (single package) or more (split system) factory assembled packages. and delivers the conditioned air to the central duct system. rotary. performs the required ventilating or air-conditioning functions.7. means for air-circulation. For fibrous glass ductwork.All rights reserved
8. Where the equipment is provided in more than one package. scroll or reciprocating. for final delivery to the conditioned space(s) of the building. all transverse joints should be sealed using mastic or mastic plus tape or equivalent material.2 When low pressure supply air ducts are located outside of the conditioned space (except return air plenums).
8. the separate packages should be designed by the manufacturer to be used together. either ACMV System Equipment (see 8. a number of units of ACMV Equipment.10) or an engineered and fieldassembled combination of ACMV System Components (see 8. perform the functions of cooling air for distribution to a space or zone of the building. including its heat-rejecting element. water or evaporatively-cooled.
Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 09-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only. ‘ACMV System’ are considered to be of three basic types: a) Central air-distribution systems In this type. temperature and pressure test connections and balancing valves.3 Automatic or manual dampers installed for the purpose of shutting off outside air intake for ventilation air should be designed with tight shut-off characteristics to minimise air leakage. to water-air heat exchangers (terminal units) serving the conditioned space(s) of the building. and the piping system supplies cooled water.9
For the purposes of this part. compression refrigeration or absorption refrigeration type water-chilling package provides chilled water to a central piping system. and the terminal units are considered to be ACMV System Components. air-cleaning. b) Central circulating water systems In this type. receives recirculated room air (plus outside air as required) from a central duct system.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . a centrifugal. pressure sensitive tape is acceptable.
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Equipment Air conditioners: Air cooled with condenser Size <19 kWr Sub-category Split system Single package ≥ 19 kWr and < 35 kWr ≥ 35 kWr Air conditioners: Water and evaporatively cooled < 19 kWr ≥ 19 kWr and < 35 kWr ≥ 35 kWr STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . and minimum external static conditioned-air flow resistance. should show a coefficient of performance (COP) cooling as defined in 3. Commercial/Industrial Unitary Air.1 ACMV system equipment.7 2.0
Refrigerant-water heat exchanger (oC) NOTES:
3. copying and networking pro
Table 18.10.10. requirements for separated (split) assemblies. electrically operated. 8.7 2.1. cooling mode 8. Unitary air conditioners.All rights reserved Split system and single package Split system and single package Split system and single package Split system and single package Split system and single package Minimum COP 2. Standard Ratings are also based on other standard rating conditions such as but not limited to electrical conditions.1. Central Air Conditioners Air Evaporatively and Water Cooled.1.6
Water-cooled Air-cooled Item Dry-bulb Wet-bulb (water-source) Inlet Outlet
Room air entering equipment (oC)
Condenser ambient (air-cooled) (oC)
35. electrically driven : b Standard rating temperatures .0 3. ACMV system equipment.2 at the standard rating conditions specified in Table 18 and additional standard rating conditions specified in applicable standards for particular ACMV system equipment not less than values shown in Table 19.1 ACMV system equipment as listed in 8.2 whose energy input in the cooling mode is entirely electric. water-cooled and evaporatively-cooled) packaged terminal airconditioners.5 3. Data in this table apply to the following types of equipment: a. as provided in the applicable standards. cooling coil air quantity.MS 1525:2007
8. ARI Std 210/240 b. ARI Std 340/360 2.10.2 These requirements apply to but are not limited to unitary (central) cooling equipment (air-cooled.Conditioning Equipment.0
o c o
Water Chilling Package 6.11 ACMV system components
ACMV system components provide. rotary. 4. Data in this Table apply to the following types of ACMV System Components: Centrifugal or Rotary or Reciprocating water-chilling packages ARI Std 550 / 590 – 98. The chiller may be of the centrifugal. ambient Temperature Air-cooled Evaporatively-cooled NOTES: 1. as defined in 3. copying and networking pro
Table 20. ARI standard 480-95 for refrigerant-cooled liquid coolers. screw. electrically driven for water chillers: b Standard rating conditions – cooling
Conditions Leaving chilled water temperature oC Entering chilled water temperature oC Leaving condenser water temperature oC Entering condenser water temperature C Fouling factor. at the Standard Rating Conditions specified in Table 20 for water chillers and at additional standard rating conditions specified in applicable standards for particular system components show a Coefficient of Performance (COP) – cooling. cooling mode
ACMV system components. water Condenser Evaporator Fouling factor. Refrigerant condensers. as listed in Table 21.0 DB 23. means for chilling water with controlled temperature.
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. Refrigerant Condenser.00000
35. scroll or reciprocating. whose energy input is entirely electrical.000044 0. remote type ARI standard 550 / 590 – 98 also contain procedures for adjusting ratings for other than the standard rating fouling factor. which receives its suction refrigerant vapour from a packaged or field assembled combination of cooling coil and fan (central station air handling unit) and delivers liquid refrigerant to the air handling unit. b.2 -
m2 K/W m K/W m K/W
0.2 35. The condenser is not within the package unit. should. remote type: a. electrical conditions. Standard Ratings are also based on other Standard Rating Conditions. 3. absorption (heat-operated) type or using other prime movers.MS 1525:2007
0. electrically operated.1
ACMV system components.7 12.
5. as provided in the applicable standards.0 29.0
Condenserlessd Water Chilling Package 6. ACMV system components.11. electrically driven type. see the following standard.00018 0. A second type of ACMV System Components involves the condensing unit.2 not less than the values shown in Table 21.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . for delivery to terminal units serving the conditioned space of the building. indoor or condenser air quantities : minimum external flow resistance etc.7 12.000044 0.00018 0. in one or more factory-assembled packages.9 WB
65 0.9 4.All rights reserved
.e air-cooled condenser) is integrally incorporated into the package by the manufacturer.0 4.7 5.8 2.68
< 105 kWr (30RT) Air cooled.26 1.21 1.8 4.45 / C ) + (0.62
*COP @ NPL V Conditions Minimum COP 2.75 0.7
Water cooled.4 5.80 0.7°C (80°F) at 0% load. 2. Chiller efficiency rating compliance shall be m either Minimum COP @ 100% Load Condition or Minimum COP @ NPLV Condition and not at both conditions.88 0.75 0.7 2.21 0. with condenser ≥ 105 kWr and < 530 kWr (150RT) ≥ 530 kWr and < 1060 kWr (300RT) ≥ 1060 kWr (300RT) Water cooled. Water chilling packages.0 4.26 1.30 1.90 0.6 2.9 3.61 0. 100% Load Conditions Minimum COP Maximum kWe/RT 1.8 2.36 1. and is defined by the following formula:
NPLV = 1 /[(0. positive displacement (Reciprocating and Scroll) Water cooled. the temperature should vary linearly from the selected ECWT at 100% load to 26.0 4.01 / A) + (0.4 5.
Table 21. positive Displacement (Rotary Screw) All capacities < 530 kWr (150RT) ≥ 530 kWr and < 1060 kWr (300RT) ≥ 1060 kWr (300RT) < 1060 kWr (300RT) ≥ 1060 kWr (300RT)
2.8 2.MS 1525:2007
The energy consumed by the heat rejecting device (cooling tower or heat exchanger) is not included in the COP consideration for the condensing unit. electrically driven: Chiller energy performance rating
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STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .2 Maximum kWe/RT 1.9 3. centrifugal NOTES :
1.42 / B ) + (0. and cooling tower pumps and fans circulating water or air through the condenser and cooling tower are not to be included in the consideration of the COP for the component. unless the device (i. NPLV denotes Non-standard Part Load Value where for part-load entering condenser water temperatures (ECWT). note that COP is applicable to a single chiller.2 5.88 0.12 / D )]
Where. copying and networking pro
*COP @.7 5.26 1. Chiller water pumps circulating chilled water through the piping system external to the package.18 0.68 0.2 4.84 0.
cooling mode 8.7 0.2 29.00009 12.4 WB 35.0
6. Spec 23.MS 1525:2007
8. oil) Units Entering conditioned air Entering condenser air
Heat source Indirect fired (Steam.
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Water chillersb Leaving chilled water Fouling factor Entering chilled water Entering condenser Fouling factor Leaving condenser water
7. b) recovered energy from other processes. Heat-operated cooling equipment/components shall show a COP-cooling not less than the values shown in Table 23 when tested at standard rating conditions shown in Table 22.1 Coefficient of performance (COP) .2 Per mfg.0 DB.4 0.12.40.1-1994 and Addenda for Gas-fired absorption summer air-conditioning appliances. the heat energy input should be limited to: a) solar energy. 23. In the heat-operated (absorption) system equipment/components.12 ACMV system equipment/component – heat-operated (absorption).All rights reserved
.7 DB. pumps included in the package for circulating refrigerant and absorber fluids in the refrigeration cycle are included in determining the COP of the equipment/components.
Table 22. and c) natural gas or others (non electric). heat-operated: Standard rating conditions – cooling
Standard rating conditions Direct fired (Gas.00018 -
l/min Condenser water flow rate Per mfg spec NOTES: 1. Per ANSI Standard Z21.Cooling
The definition in 3.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . ACMV system cooling equipment/component. 2. Per ARI Standard 560-92 for Absorption water-chilling packages. copying and networking pro
For heat-operated cooling equipment /component. hot water) Temperatures -
Temperatures 26. 19.9 35.2 applies together with the following supplementary.
13 System testing and commissioning
Air system balancing should be accomplished in a manner to minimise throttling losses and the fan speed should be adjusted to meet design flow conditions.
8. Hydraulic system balancing should be accomplished in a manner to minimise throttling losses and the pump impeller should be trimmed or pump speed should be adjusted to meet design flow conditions.0 Type Xa 0.6 Type Ya 1. control sequence descriptions and maintenance and calibration information should be included. heat-operated : c Minimum COP – cooling
Heat Source Direct fired (Gas. pumps. cooling towers. Oil) Type Xa 0. schematics.6 NOTES: 1.All rights reserved
. controls.MS 1525:2007
Table 23. ACMV control systems should be tested to assure that control elements are calibrated. As-built drawings should contain information relating to rated capacities of all air conditioning plants which includes.0
Type X = Single effect absorption chillers Type Y = Double effect absorption chillers As listed in Table 22 at sea level.
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2. ACMV system cooling equipment/components. but not limited to air handling units and fans. Required routine maintenance action should be clearly identified. filters and piping.
8. hot water) Type Ya 1. copying and networking pro
Indirect fired (Steam.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . adjusted and in proper working condition.15 Preventive maintenance
The owner should implement preventive maintenance system and schedule periodic maintenance on all the critical items of air-conditioning systems such as compressors.14 Operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings
An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings should be provided to the owner. air handlers. The manual should include basic data relating to the operation and maintenance of ACMV systems and equipment. ACMV controls information such as diagrams. 3. Where applicable.
and d) providing analysis tools to aid the study of equipment operations. in the event of a fire. copying and networking pro
c) integration of equipment sub-systems.All rights reserved
. It should be considered for buildings having area greater than 4 000 m of airconditioned space. This is performed by the EMS function of the building automation system. and d) overall system reliability. a building automation system has three functions: a) control of equipment. Generally.
9.2 Control of equipment
The purpose of the control of equipment is to save energy.3 Monitoring of equipment
The purpose of monitoring the equipment is to improve the efficiency of operations by: a) providing centralised information of current equipment conditions. b) indoor air quality.
9. c) providing a “management by exception” function to alert the operator of any abnormal equipment conditions. Energy management control system
9. by allowing information from multiple equipment subsystems to be stored and reported in a consistent format.4 Integration of equipment subsystems
Equipment subsystems are integrated for the purpose of improving: a) safety/security. b) providing historical information of equipment conditions. b) monitoring of equipment.MS 1525:2007
9. air-handling units can be used to create a sandwich system for smoke control. by utilising the smoke purging system for periodic air purging to achieve good indoor air quality. for example. and
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STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . for example.1 Energy Management System (EMS)
The Energy Management System (EMS) is a subset of the building automation system 2 function. c) information management.
5.6. However. copying and networking pro
9. Chillers are typically supplied with microprocessor based control panels.1 Application of an EMS to the ACMV system Central plant
In buildings where chillers are used. The EMS should have the facility to start and stop the air handling units based on a time schedule. the air handling units are typically the largest consumers of energy in the building. this is known as chiller sequencing (chiller optimisation programming).6. a high level data interface between the chiller control panel and the EMS should be provided. b) outdoor air temperature/enthalpy. and b) selection of the most energy efficient combination of chillers to satisfy building load. c) maximum AHU valve position.3
Any other large energy consuming equipment such as water pump sets.
9. The energy consumed by a chiller decreases as the set point of the leaving chilled water is increased.MS 1525:2007
9.5. the EMS should be used to issue start/stop commands to the chiller control panel.
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.7.2 Air handling units (AHU)
Next to the chiller.
9. For further energy savings.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .6 9.
9. and d) indoor relative humidity condition. the cooling coil valve of the air handling units should be controlled by an intelligent controller which integrates with the EMS. Where possible.5. The chiller is typically the largest single energy consumer in the building. electric heaters and others should be included under the EMS programme. it is typically not appropriate to apply an EMS to control other equipment such as computers. The start /stop commands should be based on: a) time schedules to match occupancy patterns.1
Energy consuming areas Air conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) system
This system is typically the largest energy consumer in the building and has the largest saving potential. The EMS must place special emphasis on the ACMV system as specified in 9.2 Lighting system
The lighting system is typically the second largest energy consumer in the building and should also be considered for inclusion in the EMS as specified in 9. The EMS should automatically increase the set point of the leaving chilled water whenever possible to minimise energy consumption.5 9. The EMS may adjust the set point based on (but not limited to): a) time schedule.
b) security lighting. b) those required for exit lighting.MS 1525:2007
Where permitted by the mechanical design of the air handling units. c) lobby lighting.6.2 Common areas
Lighting for common areas include: a) decorative lighting.4
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Where appropriate the EMS should start and stop mechanical ventilation equipment such as supply or exhaust fans. but not limited to: a) time schedules.
9.3 Terminal Units
Terminal units include variable air volume (VAV) boxes. b) carbon monoxide (CO) level in parking garages or carbon dioxide (CO2) level in large rooms with highly variable occupancy. fan coil units (FCU) and split units should be started and stopped by the EMS.All rights reserved
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .
9. The minimum number of controls shall be not less than one for every 1 000 W of connected lighting power. and d) corridor lighting. automatic or programmable controls except:
a) those required for emergency lighting.1 Lighting systems shall be provided with manual. the speed of the fan should be decreased and the set point of the cooling valve control loop should be increased to minimise energy consumption. Some applications may require a number of fan coil units or split units to be grouped together as a common zone for start and stop control by the EMS. and c) continuous lighting required for security purposes.7 Application of EMS to the lighting system
9. Control should be based on. and c) duty cycling algorithm.7.7.
The status of these switches should be monitored by the EMS. Suitable means or facilities for the monitoring of energy consumption (sub-metering) should be provided to all incoming power supply to a building and the outgoing sub-circuits serving. and h) duty cycling algorithm. and e) lighting supply to tenancy areas and landlord areas. e) control loop set point reset algorithm.9 Characteristics of EMS
The EMS should be supplied with a full complement of energy management features including but not limited to: a) direct digital control algorithms. copying and networking pro
Applications of EMS to Energy Audit
Buildings provided with EMS as specified in 9. Control of lighting for common areas should typically be based on time of day schedules or occupancy schedules.3 Work Areas
In cases where the EMS controls the lighting in the work areas. the lighting for common areas should be controlled by the EMS.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 . The EMS should come with an energy tracking and reporting system so that a historical record of energy usage is maintained for analysis and energy audit purposes. but not limited to the following: a) central air-conditioning system.MS 1525:2007
Where appropriate. local override switches should be provided to allow localised control.All rights reserved
9. d) general power supply.8
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9. f) chiller sequencing and optimisation algorithm. b) starting and stopping of equipment based on a time schedule. c) major water pumping system. c) temporary override of the time schedules to accommodate changes in usage. g) demand limiting algorithm. d) chilled water leaving and/or entering temperature reset algorithm.
9. b) lift and escalator system.1 should be equipped with data logging facilities for the collation of data for energy auditing.
760 hours time step per year. TRNSYS. 7 & 8).5 The base building shall be as functional as the design building and shall share all the same characteristic of the design building with the exception of the following:
a) Building Form b) Building Envelope c) Daylighting & Lighting control d) ACMV system (This permits designers to compensate for a poor building envelope with a daylighting control system or/and a more efficient ACMV system)
10. 10. DOE-2. b) a minimum of hourly variation in occupancy.4. The base building shall meet the relevant minimum requirement as specified in this standard (see 5.All rights reserved
.4 Complying with the minimum requirements for OTTV.3 The design building shall be modelled accurately from the architectural design drawings available. Building Energy Simulation Method
(An alternative compliance method)
10. 6. IES. and 8. The simulation program should include calculation methodologies for the building components being modelled and incorporate the following:
NOTE Freeware and commercially available software such as. referred to as the design building. copying and networking pro
10.1 Same floor area as the design building 10. thermostat set-points. EnergyPlus may be used for this purpose. 6. The first simulation should be for a building as per design. but not limited to.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .MS 1525:2007
10.1 Scope of Building Energy Simulation Method
The building energy simulation method is a performance based approach to compute the predicted energy use of buildings. 7. 10.
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The simulation program should be a computer-based program for the analysis of energy consumption in buildings. a square building with the following characteristics: 10.2 The building energy simulation should be performed twice. the model assumed for deriving the OTTV.4. lighting power. and ACMV system operation. c) thermal mass effects.
a) a minimum of 8. defined separately for each day of the week and holidays.3 Same function (internal load) as the design building 10.2 Same number of floors as the design building 10.4. and d) sufficient thermal zone to model the design building.4.4 The base building shall be modelled as. Lighting and ACMV components and equipments under item 5. The second simulation is for a reference building referred to as the base building. RTTV. ESP.4. miscellaneous equipment power.
and if 10. CIBSE: AM11 or equivalent and the report should be furnished by the software developer. 10.2 the energy performance rating for equipment or components specified in the design building are not less than the rating used to calculate the base building energy consumption.6. Modelling or simulation of the Base building need not be performed.1 the design building annual energy use.1 The simulation program should have a report such as ASHRAE Standard 140. is encouraged. and for locations where weather data are not available.6 Compliance. at least.
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .MS 1525:2007
Compliance will be established if. for the city in which the design building is to be located. The annual energy consumption of the design building is permitted to be reduced by subtracting 100% of the annual renewable energy or siterecovered energy utilised. 10.5.2 If the on-site renewable energy sources or site-recovered energy sources meet or exceed the energy used by the design building as simulated as per the requirement here.7. does not exceed the base building annual energy use as calculated by the same simulation program.7 Exceptional Compliance.
Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 09-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only.1 Utilisation of on-site renewable energy sources (such as photovoltaic) or siterecovered energy. 10.All rights reserved
. For cities or urban regions with several climatic data entries. The simulation program should perform the simulation using a Test Reference Year weather data that consist of. 10. copying and networking pro
10. 10. the designer shall select weather data that best represent the climate at the construction site. such as temperature and humidity from representative climatic data. but shall not be more than 300km away of a design location and be of similar altitude and land/cityscape.6.7. hourly values of climatic data.2 Climatic Data.
1-1972 Absorption water-chilling package Room air conditioners
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .All rights reserved
. heat activated air conditioning and heat pump appliances. remote type. Reciprocating water chilling package Packaged terminal air-conditions Commercial and Industrial Unitary air conditioning equipment.1 : 1996 Gas fired.
ANSI/ARI 480 : 1987 ANSI/ARI 520 : 1990
ANSI/ARI 550 : 1992
ANSI Z21.MS 1525:2007
ANSI/ARI 210 : 1994 ANSI/ARI 590 : 1992 ANSI/ARI 310 : 1990 ANSI/ARI 360 : 1986
Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 09-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only. ARI 560 : 1992 ANSI Z234.40. compressor units and IEC 555-2 : 1982 Disturbances in main supply network caused by household appliances and similar electrical Centrifuged or rotary screw water chilling package. Refrigerant – Cooled liquid coolers. copying and networking pro
Unitary air-conditioning and air-source heat pump equipment. Positive displacement refrigerant compressors.
Water and Communications Pusat Tenaga Malaysia
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .All rights reserved
. Water and Communications Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia
Working Group on Lighting:
Mr Ole Olesen / Mr Steve A Lojuntin Ir Hizamuldin bin Abdul Rahman Mr Baihaki bin Azraee Mr Muhammad Fendi bin Mustafa
Danish International Development Assistance Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Ministry of Energy.Acknowledgements
Technical Committee on Energy Efficiency in Buildings:
Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 09-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only. Water and Communications Persekutuan Pekilang-Pekilang Malaysia Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia Pusat Tenaga Malaysia SIRIM QAS International Sdn Bhd Suruhanjaya Tenaga Universiti Teknologi MARA
Working Group on Architectural and passive design strategy:
Pen Prof Dr Abdul Razak Sapian / Pen Prof Dr Noor Hanita Abdul Majid Prof Dr Azni Zain Ahmed / Prof Madya Dr Samirah Abdul Rahman
International Islamic University of Malaysia Universiti Teknologi MARA
Working Group on Building envelope:
Dr B G Teoh Mr C K Tang Mr Ole Olesen Prof Dr Ir K S Kannan Ar Lee Bee Chew Mr Baihaki bin Azraee Ar Chan Seong Aun
Danish International Development Assistance Danish International Development Assistance Danish International Development Assistance Danish International Development Assistance Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Ministry of Energy. copying and networking pro
Prof Dr Ir K S Kannan (Chairman) Ms Nurul Amal Ahmad Faizal (Secretary)/ Ms Nor Anisazila Abdul Rahim (Secretary) Ir Chen Thiam Leong Mr Ole Olesen / Encik C K Tang / Dr B G Yeoh Pen Prof Dr Abdul Razak Sapian / Pen Prof Dr Noor Hanita Abdul Majid Ar Lee Bee Chew Mr Baihaki bin Azraee Ir A K Woo Ar Chan Seong Aun Mr Muhammad Fendi bin Mustafa Mr Mohd Fauzi Ismail Ir Francis Xavier Jacob / Ms Nurhafiza Mohd Hassan Prof Dr Azni Zain Ahmed / Prof Madya Dr Samirah Abdul Rahman
Pusat Tenaga Malaysia SIRIM Berhad Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia Danish International Development Assistance International Islamic University of Malaysia Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Ministry of Energy.
L Industries Sdn Bhd . copying and networking pro
Working Group on Air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) system & Energy management control system:
Mr Dennis Lim Ir T L Chen Mr Chea Suei Keong Mr Jack Chan Mr KW Koh Mr Tio Chin Wue Mr Ng Yong Kong Mr Ong Ching Loon Mr Chin Wai Meng Mr Wong Mun Cheong
Acson Malaysia Sales & Service Sdn Bhd Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia Carrier International (Malaysia) Ltd Daikin Air Conditioning (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Dunham-Bush (Malaysia) Bhd Group Associated (C&L) Sdn Bhd York (Malaysia) Sales & Service Sdn Bhd Malaysian Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Association (MACRA) Malaysia Chapter of American Society of Heating. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (MASHRAE) O.MS 1525:2007
Working Group on Electric Power and Distribution:
Ir Looi Hip Peu Ir Lalchand Gulabrai Ir Poh Ah Bah Ir Francis Xavier Jacob Ir Chew Shee Fuee
Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia Danish International Development Assistance Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Malaysia Suruhanjaya Tenaga The Electronics and Electrical Association Malaysia
Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 09-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only.All rights reserved
.Y.York (Malaysia) Sales & Service Sdn Bhd Trane Malaysia TM Sales and Services Sdn Bhd
STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2007 .