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fast and changing at a faster pace • Allows adaptation.Definitions (Amabile et al 1996) • Creativity is defined as • Production of novel and useful ideas in any domain • SEE ORDER IN DISORDER • Innovation is defined as • Successful implementation of creative ideas in any organisation • Creativity of individuals and teams is the starting point for innovation • Creativity and innovation are important • Life is becoming increasingly complex. maintain flexibility and is part of decision making • Creativity requires originality and flexibility • Contributes to physical and psychological health and optimal functioning .
size . formation of work teams with diverse skills and perspectives. and problem solving approaches used . roles. specification of clear strategic goals. task characteristics. provision of challenging and interesting work.Factors influencing creativity • Factors • Individual level • Group and organisational level Category of factors Motivation Resources Management practices Group characteristics Factors (Based on Amabile et al 1996) Organisational motivation to innovate is the basic orientation towards innovation and supports for creativity and innovation Everything that an organisation has to aid work in domain targeted for innovation including training Refers to allowance of freedom in conduct of work. group cohesiveness. focus on technology and reward and incentive structures Norms. diversity.
rigid and formal management structures Supervisory encouragement Work group encouragement Autonomy Resources Pressures Organisational impediments . sense of ownership and control over work and ideas Adequacy of allocation indicating importance. conservatism. constructive challenging of ideas.Factors affecting creativity Category Organisational encouragement Factors (Amabile et al 1996) Encouraging of risk taking and idea generation at all levels Fair supportive evaluation of new ideas. mutual openness to ideas. challenge due to intrinsic nature Internal strife. open interactions. shared commitment Autonomy in day to day conduct of work. support for team work and ideas. collaborative idea flow and participatory decision making Goal clarity and clarity of problem definition. time Excessive work load pressure. Reward and recognition of creativity. Diversity of team members background.
ability to resolve conflicting traits in self and belief that self is creative • Dispositions• high level of intrinsic motivation. follow intrinsic interests. self confidence. independence of judgment. intuition . autonomy. • Personality• high valuation of aesthetic qualities in experiences. interests. free from evaluations and constraints • Capabilities • Insight is a result of integration of previously learned behaviors • potential . attraction to complexity.Factors at individual level • Age – • creativity decreases with age unless individual is intentionally creative • Intelligence• certain level required for certain measures of creativity only.
when person is fully immersed in what is being done and has a feeling of energized focus. shows full involvement and success and excludes other stimuli . challenge and satisfaction of work itself • Creative thinking is capacity to put existing ideas in new combinations and is facilitated by diversity of experience and learning • Divergent thinking –process by which one extrapolates many possible answers to an initial stimulus or target data • Intuition of flash intelligence.flash of a recognition that problem is solved • Flow.Processes influencing creativity • Associative process is involved in divergent thinking and problem solving • Cognitive flexibility-process by which obvious patterns of thinking are discarded and new higher order rules are adopted • Intrinsic motivation –process where people feel motivated by interest.
inappropriate norms. project management. feedback. and ―norms in which innovation is prized and failure not fatal‖ • Inhibiting pressures • lack of respect (specifically for originality). freedom from criticism. good role models and resources (including time). competition. constraint. autonomy. time pressure. encouragement specifically for originality.Pressures or impediments • Two types-alpha and beta • Alpha is objective • Beta is based on individuals interpretations • Positive pressures • freedom. lack of autonomy and resources. and unrealistic expectations . red tape.
Resources influencing creativity • Time • Original ideas are remote with respect to original problem • Creative ideas require time for incubation .
Demographic factors • Birth order • Middle born children are more creative • • • • family size Number of siblings Interval among siblings Family and school atmosphere • Large families have authoritarian structures • Freedom and autonomy facilitates creativity .
It requires both hemispheres • Requires consistent communication among many areas in brain and increased emotional expression • Defocused attention • Knowledge –declarative. factual. intuition and logic.Neurological factors • Creativity reflects originality and appropriateness. imagination . ability to consider two different perspectives simultaneously. incubation. tactics or procedural knowledge • Intuition.
performs detailed feature analysis of incoming information enabling construction of sophisticated representations that form basis for cognitive processing • Both the systems can be dissociated anatomically and processually.Cognitive neuroscience of creativity • Creative thinking is the result of ordinary mental processes • Human information processing is hierarchically structured and creative mentation lies at the highest—prefrontal cortex • Two different types of neural systems • Emotional brain-attaches a value tag to incoming information and enables evaluation of its biological significance—does ―Me-relevant computation‖ • Perceptual brain. .
formulation of plans and strategies for appropriate behavior and instruction of adjacent motor cortices for execution-requires both systems • Emotional Process of evaluating the significance of complex social situations—Me-relevant emotions • Cognitive process of Selective attention and Feature analysis leading to mental models • Each have separate memories which track their activities • Full reintegration of these systems occurs in the prefrontal cortex • At all levels of functional hierarchy neural structures have direct access to activation of the motor system .Cognitive neuroscience of creativity • Executive function—consisting of integrating of processed information.
ordering and sequencing and directed attention .Cognitive neuroscience of creativity • Pre-frontal cortex performs executive functions and thus is central to creative thinking • Enables higher cognitive functions such as self construct.connected to higher order information and cognitive processing systems—does working memory. self reflective consciousness. abstract thinking. temporal integration. temporal integration and sustained and directed attention • Two main parts • Ventero-medial –connected to higher order emotional processing system—does social function through ―merelevant‖ assessment • Dorso-medial. cognitive flexibility. cognitive flexibility. complex social functions. and willed action • Other cognitive functions are working memory. planning.
Process of creativity • Every neural circuit can compute specific information and also produce novel combinations • More integrative the neural structure more combinational novelty can occur • Appropriateness is a function of higher order structures that assess a complex and changing set of rules or values implicit in persons culture. This generates a selection process which selects the appropriate idea out of many • Four types of creativity based on types of structures and processing modes .
Are not domain specific. Become conscious when represented in working memory. Called revelation Emotional Insight has origin in associative unconscious thinking when thresholds are lowered (Incubation) . Do not conform to convention. Occur when neural activity of emotional structures is spontaneously represented in working memory after an Spontaneous intense emotional activity/ experience. Require specific skills. It is independent of domain knowledge Attention is related to search for task related information. Creativity is domain specific. Insights depend upon specific emotion and conform to persons values and norms. Quality of insights depends upon expertise and how flexible cognitively the prefrontal cortex is—domain independent trait.Types of creativity Deliberate Attention is related to retrieval of affective memory. Depend upon expertise Cognitive .
praise.Impediments to business creativity (Amabile 1998) • Business creativity-requires both originality and appropriateness • Six set of factors impede business creativity • Challenge—match work to persons capabilities • Freedom.leaders who put in place systems and processes which support creativity-support failures . communication • Organisational support. foster collaboration.autonomy to choose process not ends • Resources-appropriate time and money • Work group features—mutually supportive with diversity of perspectives and backgrounds • Supervisory support—in form of extrinsic rewards.
Intrinsic motivation CREATIVITY Expertise Creative thinking skills THANKS-ANY QUESTIONS .