This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
IGCSE PHYSICS: 1.2 Forces & Shape
Section 1: Forces and motion c) Forces, movement, shape and momentum describe the effects of forces between bodies such as changes in speed, shape or direction identify different types of force such as gravitational or electrostatic distinguish between vector and scalar quantities understand that force is a vector quantity find the resultant force of forces that act along a line understand that friction is a force that opposes motion describe experiments to investigate how extension varies with applied force for helical springs, metal wires and rubber bands understand that the initial linear region of a force-extension graph is associated with Hooke’s law describe elastic behaviour as the ability of a material to recover its original shape after the forces causing deformation have been removed.
newtonmeters A force is a push or a pull. A force can cause an object to: – speed up – slow down – change direction – change shape Force is measured in newtons (N). Force is measured with a newtonmeter.
Weight is the gravitational force of the Earth on an object. Friction This is the force that opposes motion.07/09/56 Some types of force 1. A mass of 1kg weighs about 10N 1 stone is about 63N. normal reaction forces weight It is caused by repulsive molecular forces. Normal reaction or contact This is the repulsive force that stops two touching bodies moving into each other. Friction is needed for racing cars to grip the road Friction is needed for walking! 2 . 2. The word ’normal’ means that this force acts at 90° to the surfaces of the bodies. This force increases if either or both of the masses is increased and decreases if they are moved further apart. Bathroom scales measure weight. The kinetic energy of the moving object is converted to heat energy by the force of friction. The two upward reaction forces on the tyres balance the downward weight of the car 3. Gravitational This is the attractive force exerted between bodies because of their masses.
Objects are often streamlined to reduce this force. Magnetic Between magnets but also the force that allows electric motors to work. An object will float on a liquid if the upthrust force equals its weight. A hot air balloon rises when the upthrust from the surrounding air is greater than the balloon’s weight. Upthrust This is the force experienced by objects when they are placed into a fluid (liquid or gas). Drag is a more general term used for the opposition force in any gas or liquid. streamlined car a parachute maximises drag force 5. Electrostatic force causes the girls’ hair to rise when they touch the Van der Graaff generator. 7. Air resistance or drag This is the force that opposes the movement of objects through air. 6. Electrostatic Attractive and repulsive forces due to bodies being charged.07/09/56 4. 3 .
velocity. speed. WORD SELECTION: newtons opposes accelerate molecules force contact attractive motion TRIPLE ONLY Vectors and Scalars All physical quantities (e. TRIPLE ONLY Representing Vectors An arrowed straight line is used.07/09/56 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: force is a push or a pull. newtons (N) with a newtonmeter. Displacement 50m EAST Displacement 25m at 45o North of East 4 . The arrow indicates the direction and the length of the line is proportional to the magnitude. SCALARS – do not have a direction examples: distance. force. mass. motion of one body opposes the _______ Friction is a force that _______ attractive forces relative to another. Force is measured in _______ contact force occurs when There are many types of force. VECTORS – also need to have their direction specified examples: displacement. work. energy. A force can cause an object to A _____ accelerate ___________ or change shape. acceleration. speed and force) are described by a magnitude and a unit. It is caused by the _________ molecules between ___________. ________ two bodies touch each other.g.
The final overall vector is called the RESULTANT vector. 4N 4N 7N 2N There is no resultant 4N case force in this 5 . 3N 4.07/09/56 TRIPLE ONLY Addition of vectors 4N object 6N object 4N 6N resultant = 10N object The original vectors are called COMPONENT vectors. 5N is the resultant force of the 3N and 2N forces. 3N 4N 1N 3. 5N 3N 2N TRIPLE ONLY Determine the resultant force in the cases below: 1. This overall force is called resultant force. 4N 6N 10N 2. In the example opposite. 4N object 6N object resultant = 2N object 6N 4N TRIPLE ONLY Resultant force A number of forces acting on a body may be replaced by a single force which has the same effect on the body as the original forces all acting together. 6N 4N 5.
Once released. 6 . The plane will accelerate provided that the engine force is greater than the drag force. the glider moves at a near constant velocity as it experiences a nearly zero horizontal resultant force. TRIPLE ONLY Examples 3 & 4 The brakes exert a resultant force in the opposite direction to the car’s motion causing the car to decelerate.07/09/56 TRIPLE ONLY Resultant force and motion Resultant force Zero Effect on the motion of an object Object’s velocity stays the same including staying stationary Object accelerates Object decelerates In the direction the object is moving In the opposite direction in which the object is moving TRIPLE ONLY Examples 1 & 2 The box will move when the man’s push force is greater than the friction force.
07/09/56 TRIPLE ONLY Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: resultant force. A car is decelerated when accelerate opposite the braking force acts in the _________ direction to the car’s motion. Brittle materials such as glass do not change shape easily and break before noticeably stretching. the object will __________. A squashing force puts an object under compression. Resilient materials do not break easily. velocity remain at _____ direction as an object’s If the resultant force is in the same _________ motion. called _________ number of forces that act on a body. can be used to replace A single force. WORD SELECTION: number rest direction zero opposite velocity accelerate resultant Changing shape Force can change the shape of an object. A stretching force puts an object such as a wire or spring under tension. 7 . a _______ zero then the body will either If the resultant force is _____ rest or continue to move at a constant ________.
07/09/56 Elastic materials return to their original shape when the forces on them are removed. DO NOT EXCEED 6N. 4. Plastic materials retain their new shape. Place the weight holder only on the spring and note the position of the pin against the metre rule. Calculate the extension of the spring. 5N and 6N. Stretching Springs Experimental procedure: 1. 3N. Add 1N (100g) to the holder and note the new position of the pin. spring weights pin metre rule Typical results Pin position with holder only (mm) Added weight or Force (N) Pin position with weight (mm) Extension (mm) 450 450 450 450 450 450 1 2 3 4 5 6 480 509 541 570 601 629 30 59 91 120 151 179 8 . 3. 2. Repeat stages 1 to 3 for 2N. 4N.
12N is three times 4N Therefore the new extension should be 3 x 30mm = 90mm New spring length = 150mm + 90mm = 240mm 9 . The line on a graph of force against extension will be a straight AND go through the origin. Calculate the length of the spring if a force of 12N is applied.07/09/56 Force against extension graph Force (N) 0 0 Extension (mm) Hooke’s law Hooke’s law states that the extension of a spring is proportional to the force used to stretch the spring. ‘Proportional’ means that if the force is doubled then the extension also doubles. Question A spring of original length 150mm is extended by 30mm by a force of 4N.
The spring is behaving elastically. If this critical extension is exceeded. 0 0 Extension 10 . The right hand spring has been stretched beyond its elastic limit Force against extension graph if the elastic limit is exceeded Force (N) elastic limit 0 0 Extension (mm) Stretching an elastic band Force An elastic band does not obey Hooke’s law. known as the elastic limit. Hooke’s law is no longer obeyed by the spring if its elastic limit is exceeded.07/09/56 Elastic limit Up to a certain extension if the force is removed the spring will return to its original length. the spring will be permanently stretched.
com Force combination balloon game .07/09/56 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: stretched Hooke’s law states that when a wire or spring is _________ the extension is proportional to the load increase in length or _________ force applied.eChalk Vector Chains . You can even slow time. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. normal reaction. and sum them together. Resultant of two forces .Learn how to add vectors. and components of each vector can be displayed in several formats. TRIPLE ONLY Forces & Shape Notes questions from pages 4 and 12 to 22 1.PhET .A realistic mass and spring laboratory. What is meant by ‘elastic limit’? Sketch a graph showing how the loading force varies with extension when extending an elastic band. Answer the questions on pages 21 & 22. Drag vectors onto a graph. Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 21 11 . 5.by KT Microsoft WORD Vector addition .Shows Charged Balloon & Effect of a magnet on a TV screen.eChalk Fifty-Fifty Game on Vectors & Scalars .'Whys Guy' Video Clip (3:30mins) . angle. (see pages 12 to 17) Explain the difference between vectors and scalars quantities and give two examples of each.eChalk Vectors & Scalars .Explore Science Stretching Springs .eChalk Electric & Magnetic Forces . and thermal energy for each spring. (a) What is force? (b) Explain the meaning of the following types of force: gravitational. A ________ rubber band does not obey Hooke’s law. Transport the lab to different planets. Representing vectors . A graph illustrating Hooke’s law will have a line that is straight origin ___________ and passes through the _______. electrostatic and friction. The magnitude.PhET . 2. (see pages 4 and 13) State what is meant by Hooke’s law and explain how a graph can be drawn to verify that a spring obeys this law. A chart shows the kinetic. 6. WORD SELECTION: stretched elastic permanently extension origin force rubber straight Online Simulations Effect of forces on motion using a space module Freezeray. potential.NTNU BBC KS3 Bitesize Revision: What is a force Balanced forces Unbalanced forces BBC AQA GCSE Bitesize Revision: Resultant force Types of forces Vector Addition . change their length and angle.eChalk Vector addition . 4.Fendt Forces on objects immersed in liquids . 7. ______ elastic This law is not obeyed if the spring is taken beyond its ______ permanently limit after which it will become _____________ stretched. drag. 3.
electrostatic and friction. 2. 6 and 9 on pages 21 & 22. drag. (see pages 12 to 17) State what is meant by Hooke’s law and explain how a graph can be drawn to verify that a spring obeys this law. 4. 2.07/09/56 DOUBLE ONLY Forces & Shape Notes questions from pages 12 to 22 1. 12 . normal reaction. 5. 3. Answer questions 1. (a) What is force? (b) Explain the meaning of the following types of force: gravitational. What is meant by ‘elastic limit’? Sketch a graph showing how the loading force varies with extension when extending an elastic band.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.