# 07/09/56

IGCSE PHYSICS: 1.2 Forces & Shape

General Specification
Section 1: Forces and motion c) Forces, movement, shape and momentum describe the effects of forces between bodies such as changes in speed, shape or direction identify different types of force such as gravitational or electrostatic distinguish between vector and scalar quantities understand that force is a vector quantity find the resultant force of forces that act along a line understand that friction is a force that opposes motion describe experiments to investigate how extension varies with applied force for helical springs, metal wires and rubber bands understand that the initial linear region of a force-extension graph is associated with Hooke’s law describe elastic behaviour as the ability of a material to recover its original shape after the forces causing deformation have been removed.

Force
newtonmeters A force is a push or a pull. A force can cause an object to: – speed up – slow down – change direction – change shape Force is measured in newtons (N). Force is measured with a newtonmeter.

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The word ’normal’ means that this force acts at 90° to the surfaces of the bodies. This force increases if either or both of the masses is increased and decreases if they are moved further apart. normal reaction forces weight It is caused by repulsive molecular forces. The two upward reaction forces on the tyres balance the downward weight of the car 3. Gravitational This is the attractive force exerted between bodies because of their masses. 2. Friction is needed for racing cars to grip the road Friction is needed for walking! 2 . A mass of 1kg weighs about 10N 1 stone is about 63N. Friction This is the force that opposes motion.07/09/56 Some types of force 1. Normal reaction or contact This is the repulsive force that stops two touching bodies moving into each other. Bathroom scales measure weight. Weight is the gravitational force of the Earth on an object. The kinetic energy of the moving object is converted to heat energy by the force of friction.

07/09/56 4. 6. A hot air balloon rises when the upthrust from the surrounding air is greater than the balloon’s weight. 3 . Air resistance or drag This is the force that opposes the movement of objects through air. 7. Objects are often streamlined to reduce this force. Upthrust This is the force experienced by objects when they are placed into a fluid (liquid or gas). Magnetic Between magnets but also the force that allows electric motors to work. Drag is a more general term used for the opposition force in any gas or liquid. Electrostatic Attractive and repulsive forces due to bodies being charged. An object will float on a liquid if the upthrust force equals its weight. Electrostatic force causes the girls’ hair to rise when they touch the Van der Graaff generator. streamlined car a parachute maximises drag force 5.

________ two bodies touch each other. work. force. TRIPLE ONLY Representing Vectors An arrowed straight line is used. energy. speed. It is caused by the _________ molecules between ___________. VECTORS – also need to have their direction specified examples: displacement. acceleration. velocity. Force is measured in _______ contact force occurs when There are many types of force. newtons (N) with a newtonmeter. speed and force) are described by a magnitude and a unit. motion of one body opposes the _______ Friction is a force that _______ attractive forces relative to another.07/09/56 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: force is a push or a pull. WORD SELECTION: newtons opposes accelerate molecules force contact attractive motion TRIPLE ONLY Vectors and Scalars All physical quantities (e. SCALARS – do not have a direction examples: distance. Displacement 50m EAST Displacement 25m at 45o North of East 4 . A force can cause an object to A _____ accelerate ___________ or change shape.g. The arrow indicates the direction and the length of the line is proportional to the magnitude. mass.

The final overall vector is called the RESULTANT vector. 5N 3N 2N TRIPLE ONLY Determine the resultant force in the cases below: 1. 5N is the resultant force of the 3N and 2N forces. 4N 6N 10N 2. 6N 4N 5. 3N 4N 1N 3. 3N 4. 4N object 6N object resultant = 2N object 6N 4N TRIPLE ONLY Resultant force A number of forces acting on a body may be replaced by a single force which has the same effect on the body as the original forces all acting together. This overall force is called resultant force.07/09/56 TRIPLE ONLY Addition of vectors 4N object 6N object 4N 6N resultant = 10N object The original vectors are called COMPONENT vectors. 4N 4N 7N 2N There is no resultant 4N case force in this 5 . In the example opposite.

Once released. the glider moves at a near constant velocity as it experiences a nearly zero horizontal resultant force.07/09/56 TRIPLE ONLY Resultant force and motion Resultant force Zero Effect on the motion of an object Object’s velocity stays the same including staying stationary Object accelerates Object decelerates In the direction the object is moving In the opposite direction in which the object is moving TRIPLE ONLY Examples 1 & 2 The box will move when the man’s push force is greater than the friction force. 6 . The plane will accelerate provided that the engine force is greater than the drag force. TRIPLE ONLY Examples 3 & 4 The brakes exert a resultant force in the opposite direction to the car’s motion causing the car to decelerate.

WORD SELECTION: number rest direction zero opposite velocity accelerate resultant Changing shape Force can change the shape of an object. a _______ zero then the body will either If the resultant force is _____ rest or continue to move at a constant ________. Brittle materials such as glass do not change shape easily and break before noticeably stretching. can be used to replace A single force. A squashing force puts an object under compression. the object will __________.07/09/56 TRIPLE ONLY Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: resultant force. Resilient materials do not break easily. called _________ number of forces that act on a body. A stretching force puts an object such as a wire or spring under tension. A car is decelerated when accelerate opposite the braking force acts in the _________ direction to the car’s motion. velocity remain at _____ direction as an object’s If the resultant force is in the same _________ motion. 7 .

07/09/56 Elastic materials return to their original shape when the forces on them are removed. Plastic materials retain their new shape. Place the weight holder only on the spring and note the position of the pin against the metre rule. Repeat stages 1 to 3 for 2N. spring weights pin metre rule Typical results Pin position with holder only (mm) Added weight or Force (N) Pin position with weight (mm) Extension (mm) 450 450 450 450 450 450 1 2 3 4 5 6 480 509 541 570 601 629 30 59 91 120 151 179 8 . Add 1N (100g) to the holder and note the new position of the pin. DO NOT EXCEED 6N. 3. 5N and 6N. Calculate the extension of the spring. 2. 4N. Stretching Springs Experimental procedure: 1. 4. 3N.

The line on a graph of force against extension will be a straight AND go through the origin.07/09/56 Force against extension graph Force (N) 0 0 Extension (mm) Hooke’s law Hooke’s law states that the extension of a spring is proportional to the force used to stretch the spring. Calculate the length of the spring if a force of 12N is applied. Question A spring of original length 150mm is extended by 30mm by a force of 4N. ‘Proportional’ means that if the force is doubled then the extension also doubles. 12N is three times 4N Therefore the new extension should be 3 x 30mm = 90mm New spring length = 150mm + 90mm = 240mm 9 .

0 0 Extension 10 . Hooke’s law is no longer obeyed by the spring if its elastic limit is exceeded. If this critical extension is exceeded. the spring will be permanently stretched.07/09/56 Elastic limit Up to a certain extension if the force is removed the spring will return to its original length. known as the elastic limit. The right hand spring has been stretched beyond its elastic limit Force against extension graph if the elastic limit is exceeded Force (N) elastic limit 0 0 Extension (mm) Stretching an elastic band Force An elastic band does not obey Hooke’s law. The spring is behaving elastically.

eChalk Fifty-Fifty Game on Vectors & Scalars . (see pages 4 and 13) State what is meant by Hooke’s law and explain how a graph can be drawn to verify that a spring obeys this law. A chart shows the kinetic. 2.NTNU BBC KS3 Bitesize Revision: What is a force Balanced forces Unbalanced forces BBC AQA GCSE Bitesize Revision: Resultant force Types of forces Vector Addition . Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 21 11 . A graph illustrating Hooke’s law will have a line that is straight origin ___________ and passes through the _______.eChalk Vector Chains . 5.eChalk Vector addition . 4.com Force combination balloon game . 3.PhET . 6. and sum them together. potential.PhET .'Whys Guy' Video Clip (3:30mins) . WORD SELECTION: stretched elastic permanently extension origin force rubber straight Online Simulations Effect of forces on motion using a space module Freezeray. A ________ rubber band does not obey Hooke’s law. angle. normal reaction.by KT Microsoft WORD Vector addition . (a) What is force? (b) Explain the meaning of the following types of force: gravitational. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. You can even slow time. 7.Explore Science Stretching Springs .Shows Charged Balloon & Effect of a magnet on a TV screen. ______ elastic This law is not obeyed if the spring is taken beyond its ______ permanently limit after which it will become _____________ stretched. Drag vectors onto a graph. drag. What is meant by ‘elastic limit’? Sketch a graph showing how the loading force varies with extension when extending an elastic band.A realistic mass and spring laboratory. Answer the questions on pages 21 & 22.07/09/56 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: stretched Hooke’s law states that when a wire or spring is _________ the extension is proportional to the load increase in length or _________ force applied.eChalk Electric & Magnetic Forces .Fendt Forces on objects immersed in liquids . change their length and angle. electrostatic and friction.eChalk Vectors & Scalars . Transport the lab to different planets. and components of each vector can be displayed in several formats.Learn how to add vectors. TRIPLE ONLY Forces & Shape Notes questions from pages 4 and 12 to 22 1. (see pages 12 to 17) Explain the difference between vectors and scalars quantities and give two examples of each. The magnitude. Representing vectors . Resultant of two forces . and thermal energy for each spring.

07/09/56 DOUBLE ONLY Forces & Shape Notes questions from pages 12 to 22 1. normal reaction. 12 . (a) What is force? (b) Explain the meaning of the following types of force: gravitational. 4. What is meant by ‘elastic limit’? Sketch a graph showing how the loading force varies with extension when extending an elastic band. 2. 6 and 9 on pages 21 & 22. 5. electrostatic and friction. drag. (see pages 12 to 17) State what is meant by Hooke’s law and explain how a graph can be drawn to verify that a spring obeys this law. Answer questions 1. 2. 3.