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Noble gases are monatomic, Helium etc Other non-metals are diatomic- Hydrogen etc No atoms are gained

or lost, they are just rearranged Test for Hydrogen gas: Hear a squeaky pop when you put a lit splint into the gas Test for Oxygen gas: Relights a glowing splint Test for Carbon dioxide: Funnel lime water through, if cloudy, gas is present. Extinguishes a lit splint when put in gas For chemical reactions to occur1. Break bond between reactant atoms 2. For new bonds between atoms in the products Activation energy- Required to break reactant bonds Small energy less activation energy required Large energy more activation energy required Enthalpy- energy either absorbed by or released from the reaction H= products-reactants Exothermic reactions: -release energy (feels hot) -Products have less energy than reactants -enthalpy is negative EG- cellular respiration combustion reaction Endothermic reactions: -Absorb energy (feels cold) -Products have more energy than reactants -enthalpy is positive EG- Photosynthesis Dangerous goods: Dangerous to people, property and environment. (transport, storage and handling) Hazardous goods: Effect human health (short and long term effect on people) Dependent on substance and degree of exposure

Combustion reactions: Fuel and oxygen react to produce carbon dioxide and water -fossil fuels -solid fuels- coal (carbon) -liquid fuels- pentane, octane -bio fuels-bioethanol, biodiesel -gas fuels: hydrogen, ethane

Double replacement reactions: Number of reactants and products are the same but they swap partners Precipitation reactions: insoluble ionic compound being formed (precipitate)