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Dctid's Enlish Tecchin World www.eILworId.

neL
unguuge LrunsIer


Lcnuce trcnsjer (clso lnoun cs L: interjerence, linuistic
interjerence, cnd cross mecnin) is most commonl discussed in the
context oj Enlish lcnuce lecrnin cnd tecchin, but it ccn occur in
cn situction uhen someone does not hcte c nctite-letel commcnd oj c
lcnuce, cs uhen trcnslctin into c second lcnuce.

Positive und negutive trunsIer

WIen LIe reIevunL unIL or sLrucLure oI boLI Iunguuges Is LIe sume, IInguIsLIc
InLerIerence cun resuIL In correcL Iunguuge producLIon cuIIed posILIve LrunsIer -
"correct" meunIng In IIne wILI mosL nuLIve speukers' noLIons oI uccepLubIIILy. An
exumpIe Is LIe use oI cognuLes. NoLe, Iowever, LIuL Iunguuge InLerIerence Is mosL
oILen dIscussed us u source oI errors known us neguLIve LrunsIer. NeguLIve LrunsIer
occurs wIen speukers und wrILers LrunsIer ILems und sLrucLures LIuL ure noL LIe sume
In boLI Iunguuges. WILIIn LIe LIeory oI conLrusLIve unuIysIs (LIe sysLemuLIc sLudy oI u
puIr oI Iunguuges wILI u vIew Lo IdenLIIyIng LIeIr sLrucLuruI dIIIerences und
sImIIurILIes), LIe greuLer LIe dIIIerences beLween LIe Lwo Iunguuges, LIe more
neguLIve LrunsIer cun be expecLed.

TIe resuILs oI posILIve LrunsIer go IurgeIy unnoLIced, und LIus ure Iess oILen dIscussed.
NoneLIeIess, sucI resuILs cun Iuve u Iurge eIIecL. GeneruIIy speukIng, LIe more
sImIIur LIe Lwo Iunguuges ure, LIe more LIe Ieurner Is uwure oI LIe reIuLIon beLween
LIem, LIe more posILIve LrunsIer wIII occur. or exumpIe, un AngIopIone Ieurner oI
Germun muy correcLIy guess un ILem oI Germun vocubuIury Irom ILs EngIIsI
counLerpurL, buL word order und coIIocuLIon ure more IIkeIy Lo dIIIer, us wIII
connoLuLIons. SucI un upproucI Ius LIe dIsudvunLuge oI mukIng LIe Ieurner more
subjecL Lo LIe InIIuence oI "jclse jriends" (IuIse cognuLes).

Dctid's Enlish Tecchin World www.eILworId.neL


Conscioos und onconscioos trunsIer

TrunsIer muy be conscIous or unconscIous. ConscIousIy, Ieurners or unskIIIed
LrunsIuLors muy someLImes guess wIen producIng speecI or LexL In u second Iunguuge
becuuse LIey Iuve noL Ieurned or Iuve IorgoLLen ILs proper usuge. UnconscIousIy, LIey
muy noL reuIIze LIuL LIe sLrucLures und InLernuI ruIes oI LIe Iunguuges In quesLIon ure
dIIIerenL. SucI users couId uIso be uwure oI boLI LIe sLrucLures und InLernuI ruIes, yeL
be InsuIIIcIenLIy skIIIed Lo puL LIem InLo prucLIce, und consequenLIy oILen IuII buck on
LIeIr IIrsL Iunguuge.

Moltiple ucqoired lungouges

TrunsIer cun uIso occur beLween ucquIred Iunguuges. n u sILuuLIon wIere rencI Is u
second Iunguuge und SpunIsI u LIIrd, un AngIopIone Ieurner, Ior exumpIe, muy
ussume LIuL u sLrucLure or InLernuI ruIe Irom rencI uIso uppIIes Lo SpunIsI.

Ixumples

unguuge LrunsIer produces dIsLIncLIve Iorms oI Ieurner EngIIsI, dependIng on LIe
speuker`s IIrsL Iunguuge. Some exumpIes, IubeIed wILI u bIend oI LIe numes oI LIe Lwo
Iunguuges In quesLIon, ure: CIIngIIsI (CIInese); CzengIIsI (CzecI); DengIIscI
(Germun); DungIIsI (DuLcI); EngrIsI (or "JupIIsI": Jupunese); IngIIsI (InnIsI);
rungIuIs (rencI); HIngIIsI (HIndI); KongIIsI (Koreun); MungIIsI (MuIuysIun);
PogIIsI (PoIIsI); PorgIIsI (PorLuguese); RungIIsI (RussIun); SerbIIsI (SerbIun);
SpungIIsI (SpunIsI); SwengIIsI (SwedIsI); TugIIsI (TuguIog); TungIIsI (TumII);
TIngIIsI (TIuI); TurkIIsI (TurkIsI); und YIngIIsI (YIddIsI).

SImIIur InLerIerence eIIecLs, oI course, uIso InvoIve Iunguuges oLIer LIun EngIIsI, e.g.
rencI und SpunIsI (respuoI).

TIese exumpIes couId be muILIpIIed endIessIy Lo reIIecL LIe IInguIsLIc InLerucLIons oI
speukers oI LIe LIousunds oI exIsLIng or exLIncL Iunguuges.

Dctid's Enlish Tecchin World www.eILworId.neL


SucI InLerIered-Iunguuge numes ure oILen uIso used InIormuIIy Lo denoLe InsLunces oI
code-swILcIIng, code-mIxIng und borrowIng (usIng Ioun words).

Brouder eIIects oI lungouge trunsIer

WILI susLuIned or InLense conLucL beLween nuLIve und non-nuLIve speukers, LIe
resuILs oI Iunguuge LrunsIer In LIe non-nuLIve speukers cun exLend Lo und uIIecL LIe
speecI producLIon oI LIe nuLIve-speukIng communILy. or exumpIe, In NorLI
AmerIcu, speukers oI EngIIsI wIose IIrsL Iunguuge Is SpunIsI or rencI muy Iuve u
cerLuIn InIIuence on nuLIve EngIIsI speukers' use oI Iunguuge wIen LIe nuLIve
speukers ure In LIe mInorILy. ocuLIons wIere LIIs pIenomenon occurs IrequenLIy
IncIude Qubec, Cunudu, und predomInunLIy SpunIsI-speukIng regIons In LIe U.S.









AII LexL Is uvuIIubIe under LIe Lerms oI
LIe GNU ree DocumenLuLIon Icense.