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1. Khi nim: Tro bay l mt loi bi c thu ti b phn kh thi ca ngnh nng lng t qu trnh t chy than.

Khi than c t chy th c khong 80% x than cn li t l nm di dng tro bay, phn cn li c a qua ng khi. 2. c tnh ca Tro bay: Tnh cht vt l: Hnh thi: Tro bay l phn t khi cu thy tinh Mt : 1.9 ~ 2.3 (Chim khong 65% trng lng ring ca xi mng) Kch thc phn t: 1.0 ~ 120/m (Bnh qun kch thc u vo: 20 ~ 30/m mn: 2400 ~ 4000 cm2/g ( mn Blaine) Thnh phn vt l: Section Surface area of Fineness Density (g/cm3) Waiter Requirement, max% 7 days 28 days 91 days Autoclave Expansion max (%) Strength Activity% Tnh cht ha hc: Thnh phn chnh: SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 Tnh cht: Alkali Fineness (+325 Mesh) max% Brain method (cm2/g) ASTM 618 C F 34 34 105 105 75 75 75 75 0.8 0.8 KSL 5405 I II 10 40 4500 3000 1.95 1.95 105 95 90 80 100 90 Product 3130 2.35 95 80 90 -

Cc tnh cht khc: Hot tnh Pozzolan (Phn ng Pozzolan: L hin tng xy ra khi xi mng ng c thnh b tng, mt phn vi t do khng c phn ng cn st li s kt hp vi nc v thnh phn chnh ca tro bay l Silica gy nn phn ng chm, c tc dng lm tng cng ca xi mng k t sau 28 ngy. Thnh phn ha hc: Section SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3, min% SiO2, min% SO3, max% Moiture Content, max % Loss on Ignition (LOI), max % ASTM 618 C F 50 70 5.0 3.0 6.0 5.0 3.0 6.0 KSL 5405 I II 45 45 1.0 3.0 1.0 5.0 Product 49.1 0.9 4.4

3. Mc ch s dng: Trong ngnh sn xut xi mng: Nguyn liu xi mng: c th thay th 4 ~ 5 lng nguyn liu trong xi mng bng t st Hn hp xi mng vi tro bay: vi xi mng Portland c th trn t 5 ~ 30%

Hn hp Re-mo-con: i vi hp cht Re-mo-con thng thng ty theo mc ch s dng c th thay th 10 ~ 30% xi mng Trong ngnh xy dng cng trnh dn dng ng x: Gim co ngt, tng cng ng c lu di, gim n mn. Cng: Tng vng chc, sc khng ha hc. p: Gim nhit thy ha, tng vng chc Knh o: Tng vng chc, hiu qu thi cng cao Cc trm cu tr di nc: Tng vng chc, sc khng ha hc.

Cc cng trnh Grouting: Tng khong cch di chuyn vi hiu qu thi cng vt tri, gim co ngt, lm chm ng c Trong cc cng trnh kin trc Cc cng trnh chng thm: Hiu qu chng thm vt tri bng vic tng sc y nc Cc cng trnh xy, trt: Tng nng sut thi cng, gim nguyn liu.

T nhng nm 50 ca th k trc, cc nh khoa hc bit s dng tro bay ca cc nh my in t than lm ph gia cho b tng. Khoa hc k thut ngy cng pht trin khng nh c s k diu ca tro bay trong cng ngh b tng. Tro bay l mt loi puzzolan nhn to bao gm SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 (chim khong 84%) l nhng tinh cu trn, siu mn, lt sn t 0,05 50 nanomet (1 nanomet = 1x10-9m) t din 300 600m2/kg. Dng tro bay lm ph gia b tng s lm tng cng b tng ln t 1,5 2 ln; lm tng nht ca va gip b tng chui vo cc khe l d dng; kh vi t do CaO trong xi mng (khong 6%) l thnh phn gy n lm gim cht lng b tng trong mi trng nc. c bit, trong vic nhng khi b tng cc ln cc cng trnh thy in, khi c ph gia tro bay, ta c th b tng gin on m khng phi lin tc nh b tng thng. Khng ch nhit ban u, gim ng sut nhit trong khi b tng, tng bn, ko di tui th

cng

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gi

thnh

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Tro bay lm ph gia sn xut xi mng bn sulfat, ph gia cho b tng t chn i vi cng trnh i hi chu lc cao. Vi va trt tng c th thay th 30 35% xi mng, to b mt mn, tt, chng thm. Sn xut gch block (gch khng nung) c s dng tro bay cn c th gim lng xi mng nhiu hn na. c bit l trong cng ngh b tng m ln khng th thiu ph gia tro bay.

B tng s dng ph gia tro bay s to nn b tng bn sulfat chu c chua, mn, tng bn ca ct thp Khi, bi, tro cc nh my nhit in thi ra lm nhim mt khu vc rng ln, nh hng n sc khe ca con ngi. Trc y tro bay c xem l rc c hi nay c gii php thu hi v a vo s dng, r rng l tin b k thut bin rc thi thnh vng. Nhng ngi c cng trong lnh vc ny xng ng c tn vinh. KS. on Vn H v cc cng tc vin (Cng ty TNHH XDCT Hng Vng) c cng trong vic ng dng tin b khoa hc k thut s dng tro bay lm ph gia trong sn xut cu kin b tng c sn cho ngnh thot nc vi cht lng tt hn, gi thnh r hn b tng thng m trong bn bo co ca h phn nh kh y . Tuy nhin, cht lng ca tro bay ph thuc nhiu vo cht lng than (than c hm lng lu hunh cao, than c nhit lng thp) v cng ngh t than: t than phun; t than tng si tun hon; t than tng si p lc v cng ngh kh ha than. Kch thc v cht lng tro bay s c khc nhau, cp phi b tng s dng tro bay t cc ngun cung cp khc nhau, nn cn c s iu chnh t c cht lng tt nht.

Cn nh gi ng tc ng ca cc kim loi nng v hot tnh phng x ca tro bay (t uranium v thorium) sau khi c rn ha trong cu kin b tng c sn. Nu gii hn cho php th khng c g phi bn khon. Nn a hn cng ngh ny vo sn sut bi v li ch qu r rt. Theo d bo n nm 2020 s c thm 28 nh my nhit in t than i vo hot ng. Lc lng tro, x thi ra hng nm vo khong 60 triu tn. Hng lot l cao cc khu gang thp s dng nhin liu l than s thi ra mt lng tro bay kh ln. Cc nh qun l cn u t trang thit b thu hi tro bay nhm hn ch nhim mi trng, to c sn phm c gi tr dng trong nc v c th xut khu. Hnh thnh thng hiu tro bay ca tng nh my, c y cc thng s k thut, s d dng cho ngi s dng. Khi , gi thnh ca tro bay chc chc s r hn nhiu so vi hin nay, thu ht nhiu nh sn xut, xy dng s dng tro bay. Khi sn phm tro bay thnh nguyn liu, thnh hng ha th c quan qun l (B Xy dng) cn ban hnh tiu chun, nh mc k thut cho tng loi sn phm c php s dng tro bay p dng thng nht trn phm vi c nc.

KS. Phan Phng Sanh (Hi KH&KT Xy dng TP. HCM)

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