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Carbohydrates Are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

The source of energy in all living things Carbohydrate polymers add strength and support to cell membranes. 3 types of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides - simple sugars Simplest form of carbohydrates, building blocks for larger molecules. Names of carbohydrates depend on the number of carbon atoms ie

Triose n=3, ( glyceraldehyde) Pentose n=5 (ribose, deoxyribose) Hexose n=6 (glucose, fructose and galactose)
Monosaccharides usually exist as ring structures when they dissolve in water. Some monosaccharides can exist in different structural forms eg Glucose. These molecules have the same chemical formula but different structural formulas and different functions. They are called structural isomers.

Disaccharides - double sugars Formed when two monosaccharides join together The reaction is called a condensation reaction. (Why?) It releases water. They can be two similar monosaccharides eg maltose made from two glucose. Two different monosaccharides eg sucrose (sugar) glucose and fructose.

Polysaccharides - chains of hundreds of monosaccharide Can be broken down into monosaccharides by a hydrolysis reaction. (WATER ADDED) Small molecules, water soluble, sweet. Suitable for transport and storage in the body and plant.

Polysaccharides are polymers made of many of monosaccharide units. They form by a condensation reaction. They are insoluble and not sweet. Storage polysaccharides like S------ (plants) tend to be folded to form a compact molecule. Structural polysaccharides tend to be coiled or straight.

Examples of Polysaccharides include: Starch: Main carbohydrate food store in plants, made of glucose based amylose and amylopectin, compact, insoluble and readily converted to sugar. Glycogen: Ccarbohydrate store in animals (liver and muscle) can be quickly converted to glucose for energy.