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Diverse Learner Indigenous Learners

General Characteristics - Speak a language other than English (Butler - Bowden, 2003). - Be unaware of appropriate behaviour (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2008). - Have poor school attendance (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2008). - Show low self expectations of behaviour and performance (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2008). - Lack of interest in being educated in topics that do not relate to their life style and community ( Butler- Bowden, 2003). - Have a low and decreasing

Teaching/ Learning strategy Peer mediated Strategies (Alberta Education, 2005).

Justification

Integration of cultures (Butler Bowden, 2003).

Using roles models within their culture so they can relate to them as they already look up to elders in their community. (Ashman, 2009) Having older Indigenous roles models to set expectations (Hyde et al, 2010). Curriculum differentiation to be culturally reflective and hands on (Hyde et al, 2010) (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations,

Indigenous children are accustom to learning through a community environment and feel more comftable and confident when the outcome of a task success is rated as a group as apposed to the individual (Alberta Education, 2005). It is the cooperation that reflects their community life rather than being in competition with one another that resinates with indigenous learners (Nichol, 2004). The inclusion of cooperative learning activities such as thinkwrite-pair- compare and other peer mediated strategies will aid in increasing the confidence levels of Indigenous learner (Alberta Education, 2005). Incorporating tasks that revolve around the Indigenous culture where possible will help engage the learner as it will directly relate to them and educate the other learners about the importance of our countries heritage (Butler Bowden, 2003). May be more likely to attend school if the indigenous learners feel supported and perceive aspects of their culture in the class and school environment (Ashman, 2009). Providing students with the opportunities to have leadership roles and responsibilities around the school can help Indigenous students participation within the school community and attendance rate (Ashman, 2009). Seeing peers undertaking leadership roles will offer other indigenous learners

enrolments (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2008). - Poor health and nutrition (Ashman, 2009). - Socio economic disadvantage and in equality (Hyde et al, 2010). - Low academic performance (Hyde et al, 2010)

2008).

older role models within the school environment (Ashman, 2009). This can show other indigenous students the level of expectations and behaviours they are to uphold during school (Ashman, 2009). It may also help the rate of participation. Increasing participation will help students see pathways through education for their future careers (Ashman, 2009). Education providers need to hold high expectations for their Indigenous learners. (Hyde et al, 2010). Then have indigenous acheivers set expectations for younger children as it reflects the roles of authority within their community (Hyde et al, 2010).

Curriculum must be relevant to the learners and delivered through observation using plenty of concrete material resources (Hyde et al, 2010). Using hands on activities can create a supportive atmosphere where the learner can be involved in the learning process especially if they are an at risk student (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2008). Poor health and nutrition can be a cause of low academic performance. Ashman (2009) identifies that middle ear infections are one of the leading causes for Indigenous learners to be achieving low literacy rates. Make sure to be aware of students who may be suffering in school due to health problems and report them to heads of school for appropriate treatment (Ashman, 2009).

Schools need to educate their staff about the cultural context of their students (Sarra, 2006) Strong relationships need to be built between the classroom teacher, students and students families (Hyde et al, 2010). This can be done by inviting them into the classroom and the schools to teach us important Indigenous happenings and include and celebrate ceremonial dates in the school that are important to the Indigenous culture (Alberta Education, n.d).