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CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL

FUNDAMENTALS

CONTROL CATEGORIES
OPERATING MODE
CONTINUOUS BATCH SEMI-BATCH

OPERATING CONDITIONS
START-UP http://www.synergySTEADY-STATE OPERATION ergs.com/images/FM%20 CONTROLLED SHUTDOWN operator%20desk.jpg EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN

MONITORING
MAINTENANCE OPTIMIZATION

SEE PERRYS 7TH ED., CHAPTER 8

CONTROL DESIGN

OPERATOR CONTROL AUTOMATIC CONTROL ALARMS INTERLOCKS DATA LOGGING AUTOMATIC TUNING SEQUENCING PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS FIELD MONITORS
http://www.tpub.com/content/draftsman/14276/css/1427 6_255.htm

STEADY STATE OPERATION

SYSTEM SHOULD RUN RELIABLY WITH MINIMAL SUPERVISION SYSTEM SHOULD MAKE ON-SPECIFICATION PRODUCT ROUTINELY MONITORED BY OPERATOR WITH A MINIMUM NUMBER OF VARIABLES CONTROL LOOP INTERACTIONS AUTOMATIC

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START UP
SYSTEM SHOULD BE ABLE TO SAFELY REACH PRODUCTION AND QUALITY LEVELS THROUGH A STANDARD SEQUENCE OF EVENTS CONTROL SYSTEM SHOULD INCLUDE ASSESSMENT (CHECKS TO CONFIRM STEPS IN THE START UP SEQUENCE HAVE BEEN CORRECTLY COMPLETED) EFFFECTS OF CHANGES SHOULD BE http://www.malvern.com/ProcessEng/process ANTICIPATED es/milling/milling_startup_offline.gif

START UP PROCEDURES
REACTORS CONTINUOUS MAY BE STARTED WITH A HEEL OF MATERIAL FROM THE PREVIOUS SHUTDOWN OR SOME PRODUCT RECYCLED TO THE REACTOR TO APPROXIMATE STEADY STATE CONDITIONS BATCH FOLLOW NORMAL START UP SEQUENCE

START UP PROCEDURES
SEPARATION PROCESSES
TYPICALLY ARE STARTED ON TOTAL RECYCLE UNTIL SPECIFICATION QUALITY MATERIAL IS PRODUCED. THIS MAY REQUIRE DELAYING START UP OF REACTION SYSTEM OR ADDING A SURGE TANK TO COLLECT PRODUCT DURING SEPARATION START UP.

CONTROLLED SHUT DOWN


CAN BE PARTIAL OR COMPLETE PARTIAL
PUT SYSTEM IN STANDBY MODE TO ALLOW RAPID AND SAFE RESTART DISTILLATION COLUMNS ON TOTAL RECYCLE

COMPLETE
SHUT DOWN PROCESS WITHOUT CREATING OFF-SPEC PRODUCT OR PRODUCING A HAZARDOUS SITUATION

STANDARD PROTOCOLS FOR BOTH

TYPICAL SHUTDOWN DESIGNS


REACTORS
SHORT TERM
STOP FEEDS MAINTAIN COOLING, BUT KEEP MATERIALS FROM CRYSTALLIZING MAINTAIN AGITATION. POSSIBLY DRAIN REACTANTS TO A SEPARATE VESSEL IF REACTION CANNOT BE STOPPED AT THE STEADY STATE CONDITIONS OTHERWISE, SAME AS SHORT TERM
SUPERPRO

LONG TERM

TYPICAL SHUTDOWN DESIGNS


SEPARATION PROCESSES
SHORT TERM - PLACE SYSTEM ON TOTAL RECYCLE AND MAINTAIN OPERATION. LONG TERM - DRAIN SYSTEM TO SAVE UTILITIES. DEPEND ON NEEDS OF PROCESS WHILE SHUTTING DOWN COOLING AND AGITATION ARE TYPICALLY MAINTAINED.

ROTATING EQUIPMENT

SIMSCI PROSIM II

EMERGENCY SHUT DOWN


ONE BUTTON SHUT DOWN BY OPERATOR
PROCESS SHOULD BE PROTECTED AGAINST CATASTROPHIC FAILURE DURING AN UNMONITORED SHUT DOWN PROCESS SHOULD BE FAIL-SAFE

ALARMS AND INTERLOCKS SHOULD PROTECT LOCAL PROCESSES

FIRST LEVEL ALARMS ALERT THE OPERATOR TO TAKE ACTION SECOND LEVEL ALARMS AUTOMATICALLY INTITIATE PROTECTIVE ACTION
http://ridetheclock.com/

http://www.plastomatic.com/fails afe-explanation.gif

MONITORS
INSTRUMENTATION THAT IS NOT REQUIRED FOR NORMAL OPERATION
USED FOR FIELD OBSERVATION USED FOR START-UPS USED FOR MAINTENANCE USED FOR OPTIMIZATION
P T
HEAT EXCHANGER P T P T

SAFETY & ALARM SYSTEMS


OPERATOR ALARMS AND INTERLOCK ALARMS
(LO, LOLO, HI, HIHI) SHOULD BE ON LOOPS THAT ARE INDEPENDENT FROM CONTROL LOOPS

RELIEF SYSTEMS NEED TO BE DIRECTED TO FACILITIES TO SAFELY PROCESS THE RELEASE SAFETY SYSTEMS SHOULD BE INTERLOCKED TO SHORT OR LONG TERM SHUTDOWN LOOPS, AS APPROPRIATE.

CONTROL DESIGN
REQUIRES PFDS P&IDS ARE THE PRIMARY DOCUMENT
SHOW LOOPS SHOW INTERLOCKS SHOW PLCs

STANDARD DIAGRAMS CAN BE USED FOR SOME SYSTEMS SPECIAL CONTROL DIAGRAMS LADDER LOGIC, AND INTERLOCKS ARE ALSO DEVELOPED
http://www.cbu.edu/~rprice/lectures/figures/loop.gif

CONTROL LOOPS
CONTROL STATION

SENSORS - TO MEASURE CONTROL VARIABLE AND ADJUSTED VARIABLE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES


PRESSURE TEMPERATURE FLOW
VOLUMETRIC MASS

TRANSPORT PROPERTIES
DENSITY VISCOSITY

SYSTEM INVENTORY - LEVEL ANALYTICAL SENSORS MEASURE SPECIFIC CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

CONTROL CONFIGURATION
FEED BACK CONTROL
SET POINT CONTROL ELEMENT CONTROLLER

Cont. Var. SENSOR PROCESS

CONTROL CONFIGURATION
FEED FORWARD CONTROL
CONTROL ELEMENT CONTROLLER

Input Var. SENSOR PROCESS

Cont. Var. SENSOR

PROCESS MODEL

SET POINT

CONFIGURATION COMPARISON
FROM PERRYS CHAPTER 8 STEAM TO HEAT EXCHANGER FEEDBACK BASED ON PROCESS EXIT FLOW TEMPERATURE FEEDFORWARD BASED ON PROCESS FEED FLOW

LOOP RESPONSE
DYNAMIC RESPONSE IS MEASURED BY HOW QUICKLY A SYSTEM RETURNS TO CONTROL AFTER A PERTURBATION.
CONVERGENT DIVERGENT CYCLING AT STEADY STATE, THE IDEAL CONTROL PATTERN IS LINEAR

ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS


CONTINUOUS SENSORS AND CONTROLLED DEVICES TYPICALLY ARE ANALOG CONTROLLERS ARE TYPICALLY DIGITAL DISTRIBUTED CONTROL
USES LOCAL I/O PANELS DATA HIGHWAY IS USED TO CONVEY ACTUAL AND SET POINT CONDITIONS TO AND FROM THE CONTROL ROOM PANEL

DATA HIGHWAY DESIGN


SENS 1 C. ELEM. 1 SENS 2 C. ELEM. 2 SENS 3 C. ELEM. 3 AL 1 INTR. 1 AL 2 INTR. 2 AL 3 INTR. 3 INTERLOCK I/O PANEL CONT. I/O PANEL
CONT. SIG. PANEL

DATA HIGHWAY

BACKUP CRT CONTROL CRT ALARM CRT TREND CRT CONTROL COMPUTER DATA STORAG E

MUX BOX

LOCAL MUX

COMPUTER INTEFACE

SYSTEM CAN ALSO BE CONNECTED TO PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS FOR BATCH OPERATION AND INTERLOCK FUNCTIONS SYSTEM CAN HAVE PARALLEL DATA HIGHWAYS

INSTRUMENTATION SYMBOLS

ISA SYMBOLISM IS TYPICALLY USED


FOR LABELING DEVICES FOR LABELING LOOPS POSITION 1 - VARIABLE CONTROLLED
P, V, T, F, L, , , ETC.

POSITIONS
POSITION 2 - FUNCTION
INDICATION, GAUGE, CONTROLLER, ALARM, CAN BE SAME AS POSITION 1 FOR RATIO DEVICE.

POSITION 3 - FUNCTION
CONTROL, RANGE (HIGH OR LOW FOR ALARMS) , RATIO FOR RC

POSITION 4 - FUNCTION AGAIN


FFRC, e.g.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROL MODES


STEADY STATE CAN BE DIRECT OR INDIRECT
FRC DIRECT FLOW CONTROL

FCV INDIRECT FLOW CONTROL LRC

FCV

CASCADE EFFECTS
FOR THIS EXAMPLE THE FEEDS TO THE REACTOR ARE SET BY ONE MASTER FLOW WITH THE SECOND FLOW FED BY RATIO.

CASCADE EXAMPLE
USING A FLOW CONTROL TO THE FLASH TANK
WOULD REQUIRE THAT IT CHANGE ACCORDING TO THE MASTER FEED THE EXTENDED LAG TIME WOULD MAKE THIS CONTROL INEFFECTIVE.

USING A FLASH FEED BASED ON LEVEL CONTROL


PROVIDES A MORE IMMEDIATE RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN THE REACTOR FEED THE GAIN WOULD NEED TO BE ADJUSTED TO ALLOW FOR THE CAPACITANCE OF THE SYSTEM.

GENERAL INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN COMMENTS


CONTROL LOOP SENSORS - LOCATE AT THE POINT OF CONTROL ON ALL DIAGRAMS CONTROL VALVES - LOCATE ON PUMP DISCHARGE LINES PUMP TANKS AND SUMPS - SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITH LEVEL CONTROL, HI/HIHIH/LO/LOLO ALARMS AND RELIEF SYSTEMS.
http://www.advantageengineeri ng.com/pumpTankStations/ind ex.php

GENERAL INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN COMMENTS


STORAGE, SURGE AND OTHER PROCESS TANKS - SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITH LEVEL CONTROL, HI/HIHIH/LO/LOLO ALARMS AND RELIEF SYSTEMS. HEAT EXCHANGER CONTROL - SHOULD TYPICALLY CONSIST OF A CONTROL VALVE ON THE HEATING/COOLING MEDIA WITH A SENSOR ON THE TEMPERED FLOW DISCHARGE. SOLIDS FLOW CONTROL - GENERALLY OBTAINED BY VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES FOR CONVEYING EQUIPMENT, CONNECTED TO A WEIGHING DEVICE; BELT SCALE OR WEIGH TANK.

GENERAL INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN COMMENTS


CONTROL ROOM DISPLAY - ALL PROCESS VARIABLES AND ALL ALARMED POINTS SHOULD BE ON THE CONTROL ROOM PANELS. ONLY LOCAL GAUGES AND NONPROCESS ITEMS SHOULD BE EXCLUDED.

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