CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL

FUNDAMENTALS

CONTROL CATEGORIES
• OPERATING MODE
– CONTINUOUS – BATCH – SEMI-BATCH

• OPERATING CONDITIONS
– – – – START-UP http://www.synergySTEADY-STATE OPERATION ergs.com/images/FM%20 CONTROLLED SHUTDOWN operator%20desk.jpg EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN

• MONITORING
– MAINTENANCE – OPTIMIZATION

• SEE PERRY’S 7TH ED., CHAPTER 8

com/content/draftsman/14276/css/1427 6_255.tpub.CONTROL DESIGN • • • • • • • • OPERATOR CONTROL AUTOMATIC CONTROL ALARMS INTERLOCKS DATA LOGGING AUTOMATIC TUNING SEQUENCING PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS • FIELD MONITORS http://www.htm .

STEADY STATE OPERATION • • • • SYSTEM SHOULD RUN RELIABLY WITH MINIMAL SUPERVISION SYSTEM SHOULD MAKE ON-SPECIFICATION PRODUCT ROUTINELY MONITORED BY OPERATOR WITH A MINIMUM NUMBER OF VARIABLES CONTROL LOOP INTERACTIONS AUTOMATIC http://www.com/images11/007 00.historicphotoa rchive.jpg .

gif • • .START UP • SYSTEM SHOULD BE ABLE TO SAFELY REACH PRODUCTION AND QUALITY LEVELS THROUGH A STANDARD SEQUENCE OF EVENTS CONTROL SYSTEM SHOULD INCLUDE ASSESSMENT (CHECKS TO CONFIRM STEPS IN THE START UP SEQUENCE HAVE BEEN CORRECTLY COMPLETED) EFFFECTS OF CHANGES SHOULD BE http://www.com/ProcessEng/process ANTICIPATED es/milling/milling_startup_offline.malvern.

START UP PROCEDURES • • REACTORS CONTINUOUS MAY BE STARTED WITH A HEEL OF MATERIAL FROM THE PREVIOUS SHUTDOWN OR SOME PRODUCT RECYCLED TO THE REACTOR TO APPROXIMATE STEADY STATE CONDITIONS BATCH FOLLOW NORMAL START UP SEQUENCE • .

.START UP PROCEDURES • SEPARATION PROCESSES – TYPICALLY ARE STARTED ON TOTAL RECYCLE UNTIL SPECIFICATION QUALITY MATERIAL IS PRODUCED. – THIS MAY REQUIRE DELAYING START UP OF REACTION SYSTEM OR ADDING A SURGE TANK TO COLLECT PRODUCT DURING SEPARATION START UP.

CONTROLLED SHUT DOWN • • CAN BE PARTIAL OR COMPLETE PARTIAL – PUT SYSTEM IN STANDBY MODE TO ALLOW RAPID AND SAFE RESTART – DISTILLATION COLUMNS ON TOTAL RECYCLE • COMPLETE – SHUT DOWN PROCESS WITHOUT CREATING OFF-SPEC PRODUCT OR PRODUCING A HAZARDOUS SITUATION • STANDARD PROTOCOLS FOR BOTH .

BUT KEEP MATERIALS FROM CRYSTALLIZING MAINTAIN AGITATION.TYPICAL SHUTDOWN DESIGNS • REACTORS – SHORT TERM • • • • STOP FEEDS MAINTAIN COOLING. POSSIBLY DRAIN REACTANTS TO A SEPARATE VESSEL IF REACTION CANNOT BE STOPPED AT THE STEADY STATE CONDITIONS OTHERWISE. SAME AS SHORT TERM SUPERPRO – LONG TERM • .

DEPEND ON NEEDS OF PROCESS WHILE SHUTTING DOWN COOLING AND AGITATION ARE TYPICALLY MAINTAINED. – • ROTATING EQUIPMENT – – SIMSCI PROSIM II .PLACE SYSTEM ON TOTAL RECYCLE AND MAINTAIN OPERATION.TYPICAL SHUTDOWN DESIGNS • SEPARATION PROCESSES – SHORT TERM .DRAIN SYSTEM TO SAVE UTILITIES. LONG TERM .

EMERGENCY SHUT DOWN • ONE BUTTON SHUT DOWN BY OPERATOR – PROCESS SHOULD BE PROTECTED AGAINST CATASTROPHIC FAILURE DURING AN UNMONITORED SHUT DOWN PROCESS SHOULD BE FAIL-SAFE – • ALARMS AND INTERLOCKS SHOULD PROTECT LOCAL PROCESSES – – FIRST LEVEL ALARMS ALERT THE OPERATOR TO TAKE ACTION SECOND LEVEL ALARMS AUTOMATICALLY INTITIATE PROTECTIVE ACTION http://ridetheclock.com/ http://www.plastomatic.gif .com/fails afe-explanation.

MONITORS • INSTRUMENTATION THAT IS NOT REQUIRED FOR NORMAL OPERATION – USED FOR FIELD OBSERVATION – USED FOR START-UPS – USED FOR MAINTENANCE – USED FOR OPTIMIZATION P T HEAT EXCHANGER P T P T P T .

HI. LOLO. AS APPROPRIATE. .SAFETY & ALARM SYSTEMS • OPERATOR ALARMS AND INTERLOCK ALARMS – (LO. HIHI) – SHOULD BE ON LOOPS THAT ARE INDEPENDENT FROM CONTROL LOOPS • • RELIEF SYSTEMS NEED TO BE DIRECTED TO FACILITIES TO SAFELY PROCESS THE RELEASE SAFETY SYSTEMS SHOULD BE INTERLOCKED TO SHORT OR LONG TERM SHUTDOWN LOOPS.

cbu.gif . AND INTERLOCKS ARE ALSO DEVELOPED http://www.CONTROL DESIGN • • REQUIRES PFD’S P&ID’S ARE THE PRIMARY DOCUMENT – SHOW LOOPS – SHOW INTERLOCKS – SHOW PLCs • • STANDARD DIAGRAMS CAN BE USED FOR SOME SYSTEMS SPECIAL CONTROL DIAGRAMS LADDER LOGIC.edu/~rprice/lectures/figures/loop.

CONTROL LOOPS CONTROL STATION • • SENSORS .LEVEL ANALYTICAL SENSORS MEASURE SPECIFIC CHEMICAL PROPERTIES .TO MEASURE CONTROL VARIABLE AND ADJUSTED VARIABLE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES • • • PRESSURE TEMPERATURE FLOW – – VOLUMETRIC MASS • • • TRANSPORT PROPERTIES • • DENSITY VISCOSITY SYSTEM INVENTORY .

SENSOR PROCESS .CONTROL CONFIGURATION • FEED BACK CONTROL SET POINT CONTROL ELEMENT CONTROLLER Cont. Var.

CONTROL CONFIGURATION • FEED FORWARD CONTROL CONTROL ELEMENT CONTROLLER Input Var. SENSOR PROCESS MODEL SET POINT . SENSOR PROCESS Cont. Var.

CONFIGURATION COMPARISON • FROM PERRY’S CHAPTER 8 STEAM TO HEAT EXCHANGER • FEEDBACK BASED ON PROCESS EXIT FLOW TEMPERATURE • FEEDFORWARD BASED ON PROCESS FEED FLOW .

LOOP RESPONSE • DYNAMIC RESPONSE IS MEASURED BY HOW QUICKLY A SYSTEM RETURNS TO CONTROL AFTER A PERTURBATION. – – – – CONVERGENT DIVERGENT CYCLING AT STEADY STATE. THE IDEAL CONTROL PATTERN IS LINEAR .

ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS • CONTINUOUS SENSORS AND CONTROLLED DEVICES TYPICALLY ARE ANALOG CONTROLLERS ARE TYPICALLY DIGITAL DISTRIBUTED CONTROL – USES LOCAL I/O PANELS – DATA HIGHWAY IS USED TO CONVEY ACTUAL AND SET POINT CONDITIONS TO AND FROM THE CONTROL ROOM PANEL • • .

ELEM. I/O PANEL CONT. ELEM. 1 AL 2 INTR. PANEL DATA HIGHWAY BACKUP CRT CONTROL CRT ALARM CRT TREND CRT CONTROL COMPUTER DATA STORAG E MUX BOX LOCAL MUX COMPUTER INTEFACE • • SYSTEM CAN ALSO BE CONNECTED TO PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS FOR BATCH OPERATION AND INTERLOCK FUNCTIONS SYSTEM CAN HAVE PARALLEL DATA HIGHWAYS . 2 SENS 3 C. 3 AL 1 INTR. 2 AL 3 INTR.DATA HIGHWAY DESIGN SENS 1 C. ELEM. 3 INTERLOCK I/O PANEL CONT. SIG. 1 SENS 2 C.

FUNCTION – CONTROL. CONTROLLER.FUNCTION – INDICATION. POSITION 3 . GAUGE. V. RATIO FOR RC • POSITION 4 .FUNCTION AGAIN – FFRC. L.g. ETC. .INSTRUMENTATION SYMBOLS • • ISA SYMBOLISM IS TYPICALLY USED • • • • • FOR LABELING DEVICES FOR LABELING LOOPS POSITION 1 . e. F. T. RANGE (HIGH OR LOW FOR ALARMS) . CAN BE SAME AS POSITION 1 FOR RATIO DEVICE. ρ.VARIABLE CONTROLLED – P. μ. ALARM. POSITIONS POSITION 2 .

CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROL MODES • STEADY STATE CAN BE DIRECT OR INDIRECT FRC DIRECT FLOW CONTROL FCV INDIRECT FLOW CONTROL LRC FCV .

.CASCADE EFFECTS • FOR THIS EXAMPLE THE FEEDS TO THE REACTOR ARE SET BY ONE MASTER FLOW WITH THE SECOND FLOW FED BY RATIO.

• USING A FLASH FEED BASED ON LEVEL CONTROL – – PROVIDES A MORE IMMEDIATE RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN THE REACTOR FEED THE GAIN WOULD NEED TO BE ADJUSTED TO ALLOW FOR THE CAPACITANCE OF THE SYSTEM.CASCADE EXAMPLE • USING A FLOW CONTROL TO THE FLASH TANK – – WOULD REQUIRE THAT IT CHANGE ACCORDING TO THE MASTER FEED THE EXTENDED LAG TIME WOULD MAKE THIS CONTROL INEFFECTIVE. .

advantageengineeri ng.com/pumpTankStations/ind ex. HI/HIHIH/LO/LOLO ALARMS AND RELIEF SYSTEMS.• • • GENERAL INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN COMMENTS CONTROL LOOP SENSORS .LOCATE ON PUMP DISCHARGE LINES PUMP TANKS AND SUMPS .php .SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITH LEVEL CONTROL.LOCATE AT THE POINT OF CONTROL ON ALL DIAGRAMS CONTROL VALVES . http://www.

SURGE AND OTHER PROCESS TANKS . • • . HEAT EXCHANGER CONTROL . SOLIDS FLOW CONTROL .GENERAL INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN COMMENTS • STORAGE. HI/HIHIH/LO/LOLO ALARMS AND RELIEF SYSTEMS. BELT SCALE OR WEIGH TANK.GENERALLY OBTAINED BY VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES FOR CONVEYING EQUIPMENT. CONNECTED TO A WEIGHING DEVICE.SHOULD TYPICALLY CONSIST OF A CONTROL VALVE ON THE HEATING/COOLING MEDIA WITH A SENSOR ON THE TEMPERED FLOW DISCHARGE.SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITH LEVEL CONTROL.

GENERAL INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN COMMENTS • CONTROL ROOM DISPLAY . ONLY LOCAL GAUGES AND NONPROCESS ITEMS SHOULD BE EXCLUDED.ibm.ALL PROCESS VARIABLES AND ALL ALARMED POINTS SHOULD BE ON THE CONTROL ROOM PANELS.j pg .com/ibm/hist ory/exhibits/tucson/i mages/5403PH15. http://www03.

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