PULVERIZED COAL FIRED FURNACE

P.Basu Unit 15

435 MWe tangential fired PF

A PF boiler plant .

Oil/gas/ PF fired furnace .

Furnace size depends on Fuel Amount of flue gas. burning rate of fuel and slagging propensity also affects the furnace volume .

Characteristic temperatures of ash .

Burner locations in tangential PC .

Axial heat flux in a PC furnace • The heat flux in mid-height is much more than elsewhere .

Axial temperature distribution in PC .

Isothermal in PC furnace • Highest temperature is 20000 • Considerable temperature non uniformity in furnace .

LHV qF = Fgrate kW/m2 B.Heat release rates • Volumetric heat release rate LHV qv B= kg/s fuelV burnt • Grate heat release rate B kW/m3 B. LHV = Heat released in furnace in kW .

Furnace volume is shown by hatched area .

110-0. qv Coal Type Dry-bottom furnace MW/m3 Anthracite Semi anthracite Bituminous Lignite Oil 0.116-0.Typical values of Vol.35 0.35 Grate release rate 1.163 0.1m/s Biomass Gas .5-3.23-0.5 MWt /m2 Grate velocity 6.09-0.176 0. Heat release rate.20 0.140 0.14-0.15 0.

45 2.91 5.56 3. .59 3.63 •One ton/h steam is roughly equivalent to 0. qF Boiler capacity (tons/h)* Upper limit of qF in MW/m2 (ST= Softening Temperature) ST 1300 C ST =1300 C ST 1300 C 130 220 420 500 1000 1500 2.49 4.12 5.16 6.79 3.65 5.44 6.37 4.77 2.3 MWe.12 5. which gives 1 t/h approx equal to 0.Upper limits of Average Grate heat release rate.42 4.91 4.13 2.75 MWth heat input •To get the electrical power output (MWe) of the plant multiply heat input with (plant efficiency/100).65 3.

0 7. However the depth must not be shallower than the above limit .0 5.5 6.Minimum depth of furnace It ensures that flame does not hit the wall facing the burner causing damage 130 220 420 670 >670 Boiler capacity (t/h) Coal (m) Oil (m) 6.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 7.5 5 (5-6)dr * dr *-maximum nozzle diameter of swirl burner Note: A square cross-section is good for tangential firing.

32 .2.Burner region heat release rate.4 .1 1.4 .93 -1.LHV = Furnace heat release in MW/m2 It ensures that the peak heat flux and temperature is not too high to cause dry out and other severe conditions in wall Fuel qb in MW/m2 0.2.16 Brown coal & Bituminous coal Anthracite and semi-anthracite Lignite 1. qb qb B LHV 2(a b) Hb B.

which might rupture the tubes Boiler capacity (t/h) Anthracite (m) Bituminous (m) Oil (m) 65-75 8 7 5 130 11 9 8 220 13 12 420 17 14 670 18 17 Hfu is the height between top of the burner zone and superheater section .Shortest distance between burner and Heating surface (Hfu) It avoids any potential flame impingement on the Superheaters hanging from the wall.

Furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) • High FEGT makes the furnace compact but increases potential for fouling (coal firing) or corrosion (oil firing) • FEGT < 1250-14000C for oil • FEGT < Lesser of Ash DT or (ST-100) C • Gas temp before Platen < 1100-1250 C • Gas temp. after platen <(DT-50) or < (ST-150) C Where. DT and ST are ash deformation & softening temperatures .

ψ – fraction of flame radiation absorbed by surface.furnace surface area.Heat transfer in furnace • Furnace heat absorbed. as – flame-wall emissivity. Qabs Qabs B(Q fu I ou ) BVC p (Tth FEGT ) as 4 4 F (T fl T fw ) F. Tfw – Temperature of flame and wall respectively • FEGT is related to flame temperature T fl fl Tth FEGT Tth n n ou Substitution yields as C B0 4n ou ou 1 0 . Tfl.

6 M .TthTou M Tou • FEGT (Tou) from empirical relation Tou Tth .q' 1 Tth 1 3 a fu M . F ou 1 F ou 1 B0 M a fu 0.B 0.6 0 .6 0.a fu B0 0.Furnace heat transfer 0.6 • From experimental results (as~afu) • From above we get heat transfer surface area.66 B.

8 kg/s medium bituminous coal having LHV of 18. Ash softening temperature is 1350 C .289 kJ/kg .Problem • Find the size of a dry bottom pulverized coal fired furnace to fire 19.