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Published by: Rimple Poonia Dabas on Sep 11, 2013
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Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Introduction

• • • • • • • Look and play Read instructions Break into smaller parts Decide on a simple measurement Increase your level of difficulty Record pathway. How you got there. Store directions and short-cuts

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
• Popular instrument to show time, voltage both DC and AC. Shows Volts / Time. • Display waveforms. Spectrum scope shows volts to Frequency • Cathode (-ve ) is heated, emits electrons, accelerated toward a (+ve) fluorescent screen. Intensity grid, Focus grid, Accelerating anode.
(Electron gun)

• Horizontal deflection plates. • Vertical deflection plates

• At same time a voltage that increases linearly with time (Ramp) is applied to the Horizontal deflection plates. How long the display glows. • Persistence. • May need to reduce ambient light for older instruments. 3 .Cathode Ray Oscilloscope • When electrons hit the screen the phosphor is excited and emits light. • Connect a signal to Vertical deflection plate.

• Sawtooth wave. The beam is cut off during the flyback time.• This horizontal linear deflection is produced by the Sweep generator. • • When the sweep signal returns to zero ie the end of the sweep. the beam flies back to the start position. 4 .

This controlled by your adjustment settings. X is <----> Horizontal Y is ^ Vertical Height of trace 5 . The eye sees a waveform.CROs • • • • • The display is made to appear stationary.

• This pulse turns on the sweep generator initiating the sawtooth wave form. applied to the vertical plates. • A portion of the vertical amp signal is applied to the Sweep Trigger.• The signal is amplified by the vertical amplifier. • The sweep trigger generates a pulse coincident with a selected point in the cycle of the trigger signal. • The sawtooth wave is amplified by the horizontal amp and applied to the horizontal 6 deflection plates .

• The trigger can be based on 50 (60) Hz • • Provision is made for an external trigger. 7 .

Brightness (Don’t burn a spot on your screen) 8 .CRO Tube Controls • • • • • POWER on / off Scale Illumination Focus. Create spot on screen Intensity.

Cal fully clockwise. or grounds amp input.Gnd. Gnd connects Y input to 0 volts. DC couples signal directly to amp. • Variable sensitivity. 9 . Continuous range between calibrated steps. • Selects desired coupling for incoming signal. Checks position of 0v on screen.Vertical Amp • Position on display • Sensitivity of vertical amp Calibrated. AC connects via a capacitor.DC . • AC . (Blocks DC) • Gnd = no signal.

Horizontal Sweep • Sweep time / Div (or CM) Select desired sweep rate. or admits external sig to horiz amp. 10 . • Position Controls horizontal position of trace. Cal is fully clockwise. • Horizontal variable controls attenuation of signal applied to Horz amp through Ext Horiz connector. • Sweep time / Cm Variable Continuously variable sweep rates.

• Line AC line 50 (60) HZ 11 . • Coupling Selects whether trigger is at a specific DC or AC level. • Slope selects trigger at +ve increasing or -ve decreasing portion of signal. • Source: Int from Vertical Amp • Ext from Ext Trig Input.Trigger Set to Auto or normal • Trigger selects timing of the beginning of the Horizontal sweep.

12 . May be 5 times mag.Volts /Div switch • Volts / Div • Variable Fine adjustment • these controls can have a Pull out switch position.

Ch1 and Ch2 are swept alternatively. • Dual. • Why Dual? Used to measure input and Output signals of a device under test. • Ch1 and Ch2 can be added 13 .Vertical mode • The operation of vertical deflection plates • Chan 1 and Chan 2 can each operate separately.

50 to 0.1 Second. Max. Range of 0. Min. • To determine a frequency use reciprocal. Eg 4div*5ms/div = 20 ms) 14 .2. 50 to .1. delay. Note 5. sequence.1uS per div. • Frequency = 1/time period (50Hz = 1/20mS) • Time period = 1/Frequency (number of div * ?ms/div.Time base • Main. • Selects the sweep for the main mix or delay mode and also X-Y switch • Time/Div provides selection of sweep rates.1 mS.

• GND.g. capacitors. transistors. 2v p-p 1KHz square wave for setting scale. etc • Cal delivers calibrated voltage e. Earth terminal of scope 15 . Connect via banana jacks to test resistors. diodes.Other • Comp Test. Allows individual components to be tested.

Out 16 .Connections • • • • Vertical Input Horizontal Input External Trigger Cal.

707v on the screen. A CRO operating near the max freq. 17 . 3 times is suitable for most Amateur work. • A rule of thumb is 5 times. • Square waves begin to look like sine waves. Use a 20 MHz CRO. 10MHz is the 3dB point. • For 7MHz. A 10MHz signal of 1v will measure 0. will not show the harmonics and you think you are reading a clean signal. To measure 2MHZ use a 10MHz CRO. • Vertical Amps are not so wide-band as to amplify all signals.Bandwidth • A 10MHz CRO does not mean it will correctly measure signals at 10MHz. Times 3 = 21. • Clipping introduces odd order harmonics.

During X-Y this becomes ordinate input. During X-Y operation this is X axis (abscissa) • Chan 2 Vertical input Chan 2. 18 . Beam Finder push button Trace rotation Chan 1 Vertical input.Every CRO will be different • • • • Many instruments made for specific work.

And there’s more ! • Don’t worry about it • Nothing is complex • Just Simplicity multiplied • 19 .

Play ‘till operating for you. Timebase 10ms / div Change to suit. Try a range.2 or 5v / div. 20 .Operating • • • • • • • Power on Intensity fully counter-clockwise Vertical centering in center of range Horizontal centering in center of range Vertical at 0.

Mini exercises • • • • • Obtain a trace Brightness Focus Move trace up. down. Move trace side ways 21 .

22 .Measuring • Voltage RMS is 0.707 * Vp for Sine and Cosine waveforms. • Hint: Try using a multimeter in parallel until you are happy with the measured CRO readings.

Volts per Division Cal.Mini exercise DC • • • • • • • Find a battery or a plugpack (Wall wart) Determine approximate number of volts Set vertical amp. 23 . Control fully clockwise DC (AC will show ripple component only) Connect probe to battery Read volts by number of volts per division on display.

707) 24 .AC Sine-wave • • • • • Decide upon probable frequency Set timebase Obtain display DC or AC ?? One or more cycles per division or whole display? • Volts per division (Vertical) Peak to Peak • Calculate RMS volts (Peak x 0.

• Volts per division. 25 . • One or more pulses per division or whole display? • DC or AC ??? Try it. Length of pulse. Vertical • Pulses per division. Obtain display. Horizontal • Measure volts.Square wave • Decide upon probable pulses per second • Set timebase.

Phase measurements. Lissajous patterns (X-Y) • Dual trace CROs • External Trigger ( Positive going and Negative going) • Noise • Frequency resolution of CROs.Complex waves • AC ripple super imposed on a DC supply • Mixing two sine waves. 26 .

Audio or RF oscillators Read your operating manual . Test old projects. AM radios.Read your operating manual • • • • • • Read your operating manual Read your operating manual Enjoy reading your operating manual.ENJOY 27 .

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