AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr

+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
nt¬ ¬¬¤;t tsss +r , m +rr ln+ =¤ = a¬rªr çr mnr(mr +r =¤m ¤r= çr
mnr¸l nt¬ ¤”r +t am m l¤nr¬t +r =¤m¤r= çr ¬r¬ + +r;¤r, m;t ¬¬¬t
¬ orç;r +rr; ¤ç¬ +;n ç¸e m¸q ++rt +rt l¤nr¬t +r a+rr¤ mç=¸= ¬çt çr¬
lonrl a¤¬r ¤¸ ;r ¬t¤¬ a=¬ ;¤r+r¸ lm m ¬¸ qn ç¸ e l¤nrnrl ¤¸ ; ¬t¤¬ m a=+
a-o;, m¬ ++rt l¬;r’rr + +rr¤ ¬çt o=rl e+ ¤+n ==rr-=¸=rr =rr+; +rt
a=¬ ;¤r+r¸lm m çr; ¬çt mr¬tl nçr n+ l+ arl=r;t =mn m +rt m¸rn¸ +r
¤;¤r +;¬ + len ¤çro¸;t = arm ¤c+; a=+r =¤rmn l+nrl m¸rn¸ +rn =
==r; m ¬ s;¬ ¤re ¤-o erm çt ¬-m çl m¬ a¬rnr= nr n¸ =mqr l+
l+=t aqrn ‘rl¬ +t ¤;¤rr = a=+t ç; arqr +r ¤re¬ l+nrl +rr;n +r;
+ =+rt rrrlm+ ntªr =ªrr¬r ¤; or-or, nt¬-nt¬ ¤r; a= e mnrl
a= =mn m¸q q’¤; +t =rrr n+ m l¤’¤r= ¬çt ªrr, ¤;-n¸ l¤; +rt
a=+ ç; aro’r +r ¤re¬ +;n ç¸e, m¬ a= ntªrr +r +rm¤r +;¤rnrl a=+
;çn, m ¬çt =mqr ¤;-n¸ a¤ =mq ;çr ç¸ l+ m;t arrnrlrm+ a-¬ln
+r +r;¤r m;t ¬¬¬t +r ar’rt¤ro mr> çl a=+r ao+n =rç= ar; ¤t;nr
+r m¸¤r çt m; =r¸¬ m mr¬¸o çr¬ + +r;¤r, m ar¬ q= l=ªrln m ¤ç¸¤ =+r
ç¸l a=+t m¸rn¸ ¬ m¸q ¤¸¤r =¤ = a¤¬ rnn n+ ¤ç¸¤¬ +t lç+mn ¤rrrql
e=t l¤¬nt ar; =rç=t ¬¬¬t + =r¸¬ = m;t ar¤lrr ç¸ql a¤ m a·et n;ç
=mq ;çr ç¸ l+ ==r; +t +rq ‘rl¬ m;r ;r=nr ¬çt ;r+ =+nt çl m a¤rrr
mln = a¤¬ ¤ªr ¤; ¤cnr ç¸ar a¤¬ m-n·n n+ ¤ç¸¤¸mr çtl q=+r ¤¸¤r
+rr;n m ;¬rm¸¤r +r ¤rn· =¤ªrr a+rr¤ çl q=t ¤+r; ¤r’¤rrn o’rr m =r¤m¸¤r
+r a+rr¤ çl q=lee l¬l’¤n ç l+ +rr;n = ¤çt ç¸q =r¤rrr;r + a¤; ¤r’¤rrn
¬mng +r ¬t¤¬ l¬+r; ç, ar; nç +rt l¬l’¤n ç l+ l¤¬r nmrm¸¤r + ;¬rm¸¤r +
¤¤rç = o¤rn, çmr;r elç+ +rnr¤r ¬çt çrmr ar; ¤ç¸rrr ¤r;erl++ +rnr¤r m
+rt l¤r¬ a¤l=ªrn çrmrl
''¤t; ¬¬¬t +r ar’rt¤ro''
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
a=+ ;çn, m ¬çt =mqr ¤;-n¸ a¤ =mq ;çr ç¸ l+ m;t arrnrlrm+ a-¬ln +r
+r;¤r, m;t ¬¬¬t +r ar’rt¤ro mr> çl m a¤rrr mln = a¤¬ ¤ªr ¤; ¤cnr ç¸ar a¤¬
m-n·n n+ ¤ç¸¤¸mr çtl q=+r ¤¸¤r ~n +¤e m;t ¤t; ¬¬¬t (mr¸ +r çt çl¸
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AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ar¬ ¤¸ ; l¤’¤ m ‘rr ln +
+r;=+ ¤nr= l+n ¬r ;ç çl ¤q.
rl¬+ ¤ ;r¬¬tlnq ¤rç;t ¤nr=r
¤ çlªrnr;r = ‘rrln =ªrrl¤n +;¬
m em ç¸e çl a’rrln an¬t çt n¬
mln = ¤c ;çt çl ¤nmr¬ mr¬¤
‘rrln +r ¤nr= ¤rç; c¸c ;çr ç
¬¤l+ a=tm ‘rr ln +r a+¸ c
+r¤sr; nr mr¬¤ + +rtn; çl
q= =¤rr m ''¤l¤> mªr ¤r.
q¤e +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr'' ¤¸=n+
m =ogm¸=o¤ l=nrm ¬ ¤”rr ¤çe
le=r lonr ç l+ nlo mr¬¤ =¤¸¤
r l¤’¤ m ‘rrln ¤rçnr ç nr a=
a¤¬ +rtn; +t mç;rqnr m an;¬r
¤smr ar; a=+r ¤ªr ç l=çnrm
m =mªr =ogm¸=o¤ gr;r ¤nrq
mq ar;rrr¬rl ''¬¤ n+ ==r; m
m¬¸”n ‘r;t;-=¤t =¸-o; mªr +r
¤c¬ +r lo·n l¤qr¬ ¤+c ¬çt
çrmr, n¤ n+ l¤’¤ ‘rrln +r +rr¤
''l¤’¤-‘rrln''
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=+¤ro+tn ........
''l¤’¤ ‘rrln + lee =+rt ¤lçm¸=rt ¤rlç+ ¤nr= a=¤e çr ¤¸+ ç,
+nr l+ ‘rr ln a o; = arnt ç , ‘rr ln +r = ¤ rr loe = ç l an· ''a-nm¸ =rt
ar;rrr¬r'' gr;r a= ¤;m=rrr = ¬¸s l¤¬r, ‘rrln a=+r¤ çl'' -=ogm¸=o¤ l=nrm
''m¸mm;tl¤+r'' çt ¤¬r ;çmrl''
¤¸=n+ +t ¤=nr¤¬r + 'or
‘r-or' m l¤=nr; = le=rr ç-
= r=r; m rrrlm + m -ªrr +t
= =nr a-n m -ªrr = alrr+
ç ar ; a¬+r ¤o¬-¤ro¬ +rt
=¤= alrr+ çrnr ç ¤;-n¸ l¤;
+rt =+¤¸ ¤r l¤’¤ m a’rr ln +r
e+ e> =rmr¤n çl o¸=;t n;¤
‘rrln + lee l¬n¬ ¤nr= l+e
¬r¬ ¤rlçe, +rr ln+-l¤qr¬ +
ar¤rn +; ¤¸ + , nªrr ¤¸ ;t n;ç
= a=¤e +rt çr ¤¸ + ç l l¬¬
l¤r¤=+ çlªrnr;r + ¤¬r¬ m ¤
a=tm rr¬ =r¤ +; ¤¸+ ç, ¤rn·
an¬r çt rr¬ a¤ a¬+r ¬”c +;¬
m em mrl +nr rrrn+ çlªrnr; ¬”c
+rt l+e ¬r =+ m nr ¬çt , nç ¤ ’¬
¤ç¸n çt mçr¤¤¸¤r çl q¬+r ¬”c
+;¬ m l¬n¬r =mn ar ; rr¬
em¬ +r lç=r¤ emrnr mnr ç,
a== nr nçt nªn ¤+c çrnr ç
l+ n çlªrnr; l¬= +rn + lee
¤¬re me ç, a=t m ¤nrm çrml
rrrn+ çlªrnr;r gr;r =ªrrl¤n,+rn
lml~n-’rrln, =¤¬r’r +r +r;¤r
çt l=ç çrmtl
rrm + ¤r; e+ ·nr=nr m¸q
¤¸¤r =rn emnt ç, ¤ç ç·-
'rrm +r ¤mr¤r l+=t mªr ¤;
¬çt, m¬¸”n +t ;¤¬r +t =rrnnr
¤; l¬+r ; ç l m ªr nr m¬¸ ”n +t
;¤¬r + ¤lçmm¬ ç, ¤rlç+ ¤l;¤
rrm ç , m¬¸ ”n çt q¬ m ªrr + ¤ ¤r nr
ç l' q== e+ ¤rn =¤”c çr nt ç l+
¬¤ n+ = =r; m m¬¸ ”n ‘r;t;-=¤t
m ªr +r ¤c ¬ +r lo·n l¤qr¬
¤+c ¬çt çrnr,’rrln ¤¸¤r =¤ =
a=++r¤ çl çm o=r ;ç ç, ==r;
m ¤rlç+ ¤nr=r gr;r ‘rrln =ªr.
rl¤n +;¬ + =+rt ¤nr= a=¤e
çr ¤¸+ çl ¤qrl¬+r ¬ ¬r çlªrnr;
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+ lee ¤¬rn ªr , a-çt =
mr¬¤ a¤ alrr+ +rn+rtn ç l =+rt
a-ç aln’rtrr ¬”c +;¬ +r ¤ nr=
+; ;ç ç, ¤;-n¸ l¤’¤ m ¤l;¤n¬
+r ¬r n¸ ¤r¬ ar;++r çr mnr ç , ¤ç
a-ç +nr e =r +;¬ o mr? = =r; m
rrm ar; ¬rln + ¬rm ¤; ¬r ¬nr
rr¸¤t+;¤r ¤r;+r çr mnr ç, a=+t
mln n¬ çrnt çt ¬r¤mtl nç +rt
=+r¤ ç l+ nç =+t¤r rr¸¤t+;¤r
çt l¤’¤ + mçrl¤¬r’r +r m¸=n
+r;¤r ¤¬ ¬rel
= =r; +r; + =+rt rrm ¬¤
n+ ''=¤ =rlr¤o ¤g'' + ¤lo+
l=çrn +r ¤¸¤r =rn mr¬+; a=+
a¬¸ =r; ar¤;¤r ¤ r;++r ¬çt +; m ,
n¤ n+ ‘rrln +¤e +r¤¬r +r çt
l¤”rn ;ç mtl =+rt rrmr + rrmr ¤rnr
+t +ªr¬t ar; +;¬t m +rr;t an;
çl =+rt m¸e+r¸n l=çrnr +r mr¬¬
+r mr> q¸ or =¤r m ;¤ ;ç ç l = =r;
m mrc nr; = nt¬ ¤e- rr¬¤e,
¬¬¤e ar; m¬¤e mr¬ mn çl
q= =mn ==r; ¤¸¤r=¤ = ¤çe
or ¤er (’rl+nnr ¸ +r çt a¤nr m
+; ;çr çl çm =¤”c o=r ;ç ç,
'rr¬¤e' a¤¬t =¸ ;¢rr + lee
'¬¬¤e' +r a¤nr m crrr (+¤¤¸
+ =¤ m +; ;çr çl q= ¤+r;
çm o=r ;ç ç l+ 'rr¬' (mrnr¸
+r ==r; ¤; e+ e> =rmr¤n çl
q= =¤rr m m¸q m; e+ lm> +t
;r¬=ªrr¬t +rr”rr +t e+ +l¤nr +t
+¸e ¤l+nnr nro ar mql +l¤nr
+r ‘rt”r+ ªrr-
''leemt''
ço ç¸+m ç+st ar leemt
lm¬=rr ¬ ¬r¤ ¬¤r¤ ç,
+rq +r¸=r m;,+rq mr¬ +;,
+rq ¬; mrct ¤¤r ¬r¤ ç,
ar-leemt ¤st ¤r¤±t-met
lm¬=r ¬t¤nr =rr¤ çl
arrnrlm+ ¬mng + erm,
rrm + ¬rm ¤; + ¤e antn
+ m¸ ¤rmr¬ mr> +;+ qln~t
+; ;ç çl ¬¤l+ çmr; o’r¬ +
a¬¸ =r; 'q ’¤;' ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ;
=r¢rrr+r; +r l¤”rn çl 'm¬¤e',
¬r l+ çmr; o’r ¬ + a¬¸ =r;
=¤r rrm-¤e ç , = =r; = er ¤ ¤ rn·
çr ¤¸+r çl +rr;n m¬¤e + =çr;
çt a¬rlo+re = l¤’¤ gr;r ¤¸¬r
¬rnr ;çr ç , ar ; ¤¸ -r· a=t + =çr;
çt a¤¬ =¤¤rn¸m m ¤¤’r +;mrl
mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o ¬ q=
=¤rr m +çr ç- ''¤l’·rm + erm
+rr ln+ ¬t¤¬ +r a=+t ¤;m
=tmr n+ ¤ç¸¤r ¤¸+ çl a¤ e+
e=t ¤t¬ +t ¬=;n ç, l¬= o¬r
a¬+ ¤’r +t ¤rn ¬çt çl +nrl+
nç +rn arrmr ar; an·¤n¬r
+t al+r¤¸lç gr;r çt çrmr, ar;
q=+r ¤ r; +r +rr;n çt +; mrl''
q=+ =rªr çt mçl”r ¬ +rr;n +
+rl¤”n + ¤r; m =¤”c ‘r-or m
+çr ç- ''+rr;n, ¬t¤¬ + =rm¬
'nrm' +r aro’r ;=r¬ + lee ao
;çr çl ¤ç 'nrm' + gr;r çt =·¤t
=¤rrrt¬nr, e+nr ar; mçr¬nr
¤r¤n +;mr ar; 'nrm' + gr;r çt
a=+r ;¢r¤r +;mrl''
¤¸=n+ le=r¬ +r nç ¤nr=
mr> l¤’¤ + l¬qr=¸ ¬¬r +r =¤ m
arml>n +;¬r çl o¸=;t ¤¸=n+r
+t n;ç nç +rt a= lo·nqr¬ +t
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ; =r¢rrr+r;
¬çt +;¤r =+mtl m¬¸”n +r a=
lo·n qr¬ +r ¤r¤n +;¬ + lee
nr a¤¬ ‘r;t;-=¤t m -ªr +r
çt ¤c ¬r ¤s mr, +nr l+ a=+r
l¬¤r= çmr; ‘r;t; m çt ç l +rm¤r¬
~t+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr + ts¤ arnrn +
ct ¤ ‘er+ m =¤”c +çr ç-
q’¤;·=¤+r¸nr¬r
âns’ks•vtZqu fr”BfrA
+rrmn-=¤+r¸nrl¬
n->r=crl¬ mrnnrll
ç a¬¸ ¬l ‘r;t;=¤t n > m
ar=c ç¸ e = ¤¸ ¤r ¤ rl¤rnr +r
a-nnrmt ¤;m’¤; a¤¬t mrnr
= +r;mrnr ç¸ar, =¤ +r¸n¤rl¤rnr
+ pon m l=ªrn çl q=rqnr +
¤l¤> rrrlm+ mªr ¤rq¤e m +rt
q= =¤rr m z +¸l;l-ªrnr + c'tc
m =¤”c +çr ç·- ''ar; m¸;nr +
=rªr ¤;m ’¤; +r +nr = ¤ rr?
+nrl+ çm nr ¬t¤n ¤;m’¤; +
m lo; ç , ¬ =r ¤;m ’¤; ¬ +çr l+ m
a¬m ¤=¸mr ar; a¬m ¤er- l¤;r
+=mr, m a¬+r ¤;m’¤; çramr
ar; ¤ m; erm çrml''
nt’r¸ m=tç =lçn ==r; +
¤rn· =+rt +rl¤”nq”crar ¬ e+
=¤; m nçt +çr ç l+ za ¤t =ot +r
arl=r;t o’r+ ==r; m a+r¸n¤¸¤
+r ln+r;t ¤l;¤rr ¬ er¤ mrl =+rt ¬
e+ çt =¤; m +rl¤”n¤r¤rt +t ç l+
zt ¤t =ot m +rr;n a¤¬ =¤¤rn¸m
m ¤¸ ¬· m ¤ ¤ ’r +; ¬r¤ mr, ar ; rrm
ar; +m + ¢r> m =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ +r
¬n¸r¤ +;¬ emmrl
¤l¤> rrrlm + m ªr ¤rq¤e
l¤’¤-·nr¤t +rt”r¤r ¬;=çr; +t
¬r rrr ”r¤rr +;nr ç , l¤’¤ +
al¤’¤r=t ¬rl=n+ a=+t n;¤
rnr¬ o nr ¬ o, a=m +rq a-n;
¬çt ar¬ ¤rer çl +nr m¸rn¸ ¬
++rt l+=t +r mr¤ l+nr ç ?
+re¤+ a¬rlo+re = =¤+r
l¬menr arnr ç ar; l¬menr
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AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
''n¤ a=¬ +çr, m ;r ¬t ¤ç¸ n
aor= ç , nçr n+ l+ m ; ¤ r¤r
l¬+enr ¤rçn ç, n¸m oç;r, ar;
m; =rªr ¬rmn ;çrl l¤; ¤ç ªrrsr
ar; arm ¤c+;, m¸ç + ¤e lm;r
ar; nç ¤rªr¬r +;¬ emr l+ ç
m ; l¤nrl nlo çr =+ nr nç +cr ;r
m¸ q= ce ¬re nr +rt ¬ =r m ¤rçnr
ç¸ ¤=r ¬çt, ¤;-n¸ ¬=r n¸ ¤rçnr ç
¤=r çt çrl''
-rrq¤e a¤¬t +rl¤”n¤rl¤nr
+ =¤rr m =¤”c +çnt ç l+ ''¤+r¸
+r lo¬ ¤r; +t ¬rq(n;ç¸ ar¤.
mrl'' a¬ lo¬r m l+n¬r +rn+;
=+c çrmr, a= =¤rr m +çr ç-
''+nrl+ ¤ lo¬ e= +e’r + çrm
l+ =¸ l”c + ar;++r = , ¬r ¤;m ’¤;
= =¸¬t ç, a¤ n+ ¬ nr ç¸e, ar;
¬ l¤; ++rt çr m l ar ; nlo ¤ +r¸ a¬
lo¬r +r ¬ rrcrnr nr +rq +rt ¤r¤
rt ¬ ¤¤nr, ¤;-n¸ a¬ ¤¸¬ ç¸ar +
+r;¤r, l¬¬+r a=¬ ¤¸¬r ç, a¬
lo¬r +r rrcrnr ç l'' a¬ lo¬r
m mr¬¤ +r l+n¬r +rn+; +”c
çrmr, a=+r a-or¬ ¤rq¤e +t
l¬+¬lel=rn ¤l+nnr = emrnr
¬r =+nr ç- ''a¬ lo¬r m m¬¸”n
m¸rn¸ +r c¸cm,ar; ¬ ¤rem,ar;
m;¬ +t ere=r +;m,ar; m¸rn¸
a¬= (o¸;¸ +rrmmt l''
¤rq¤e +r a¤n¸ +n ¤¤r ¬
l+n¬r loe oçer¬ ¤rer ç ,
+ç¬ +t ar¤’n+nr çt ¬çt l
¤;-n¸ q= ¤l¤> m ªr +r mr¬¬
¤rer +t ¤=n¸-l=ªrln +r rnr¬ =
o=rr ¬re nr e=r emmr l+ a¤
¤ en +r =mn alrr+ o¸ ; ¬çt
çl rrrlm+ =ªrr¬r m ¬r +¸e +rt
çrnr ç, a= ¤; l+n¬ =¸o; cm
= ¤or srer mnr ç- '' ¤;m’¤;
+r ¤l;¤r; ¤rl¤nr = lme+; ¤¬r
çl nlo ar¤ ¤;m’¤; + ¤l;¤r; +
ermr m ¤¸¤r nr em+rm-¤¸¤r erm
o =r¬ +t a¤ ¢rr +;n ç nr ar¤+r
l¬;r’r çr¬r ¤smrl'' nç +len¸m
+ m¸¤rrrm + +r;¤r çl ¤rn· =+¤¸¤
r l¤’¤ +t e+ ¬=t çt l=ªrln çl
m nr q= =¤rr m l=¤ qn¬r çt
+ç¬r ¤rç¸mr l+ ¤+r¸ l¤’¤ +r; +
=+r;rrm+ l¤¤r;r ¤re m¬¸ ”nr +r
‘rtrr =og¤¸lç ¤or¬ +; +nrl+
¬+r;rrm+ l¤¤r;r ¤re ·nl+n ¬
++rt =¸rr; ç, ar; ¬ ++rt =¸rr;ml
;r¤¤r,+=,o¸nrrr¬ arlo a¬+
aorç;¤r ç; n¸m m lmeml''
q= =n¸+nr+ m =ogm¸=o¤
gr;r lel=rn a¤¬ ¬t¤¬ + =¤¸¤
r a¬¸+r¤r ¤ e=rr +r l¤=nr; =
lonr mnr çl ar’rr +;nr ç¸ l+
=¸¤¤r mr¬¤ ¬rln +r q= ¬r¬+.
r;t = =rn +r mrmo’r¬ lmemrl
a-nm¸=rt ar;rrr¬r gr;r a¤¬
+rtn; +t mç;rqnr m an; +;
¬t¤¬ + ¤;m e¢n 'mr ¢r' +r
¤r =+ mr nªrr ¤ lo+ o’r ¬ +
mçr¤r+n 'nr¤ml=' (n¸ ¤çt ç.
...¸ + =¤=¤ +r ¬r¬ ¤remrl
=n +¤t;or= ¬t + q-çt ‘r-or
+ =rªr l+ -
m;r m¸qm +e¸ ¬çt,
¬r +¸e ç =r n;rl
n;r n¸q+r a¤¤r,
+nr erm m;rll
çmr; l¤qr¬ m Time (=mn¸ and Space (¬mç¸ +t +r q Value (m¸ rn¸ ¬çt
çl ar¤ m; m çr ar; m ar¤ m ç¸l ar¤ ¬çr nro +;rm, m ¤çr Present (a¤l=ªrn¸
;ç¸mrl ''m¸='', am; ¤r=n¤ m ''m¸='' ç nr Omnipresent (=¤·nr¤+¸ çl
'm¸='-=¤·nr¤+
- = o g m ¸ = o ¤
''a¤¬-a¤¬ Level (=n;¸ ¤; q= oºr¬ +r ¤¤r;-¤=r; +;r, Interna-
tional Level (a-n;r¤c¸tn =n;¸ ¤;l m a+er çt q= rrm +r o+or; ªrrs çt ç¸,
ar¤ =+rt +t +rt sgn¸ct ¤¬nt çl'' -=ogm¸=o¤
''aroºr''
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AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
nrm +nr ç?
l¤=n¸ n ¤ lo+ (lç-o¸ ¸
=rlçrn +r ¤ç =m=n qr¬ ¬r
+rr;ntn arrnrlrm+nr = = ¤ lrrn
ç, nrm a=+r =+¤¸¤r +rrm =mqr
¬rnr çl 'nrm=¸>' l¬=m ts: =¸>
ç , a¬m a¤cr m nr m +t aro
a¤=ªrrar + ¤r; m =¤¤c =¤ =
=mqr+; le=rr mnr ç l+ =rrr+
e+ e+ nr¤ +r ¬tnnr ç¸ar a¤¬
a=et =¤=¤ m ¤oe ¬rnr çl
¤ r¤t¬ +re m q¬ a¤=ªrrar
= m¸ ¬;¬ + lee =rrr+ +r çonr m
+r =çr;r e¬r ¤snr ªrr el+¬
l=çnr m m =ogm¸ = +¸ ¤r = , ¤ n¬
‘rl+n +¸¤sle¬t + l¬n>¤r m
=r; l¬nm l¤rrr¬r +r ¤re¬ =ç¬
m çt çrnr ;çnr çl nrm, lo·n
+ =rªr lme¬ ç aªrrng arrmr
+r ¤;mrrmr (=r¤erl++ ¤n¬r
ºrl+n¸ = lme¬ nr nrm =¸> m
le=rr ç l+ l¤ng +t ¤¸lrrnr +r
l¬;rrr çt nrm çl
+rr;ntn nrm oºr¬ m ¤l¤rn
''nr m'' +r m¸ e ac ºn ''mr ¢r'' ç l
ar¬ = =r; m +rr;ntn nr m + ¬rm
= ¬r ºrr;tl;+ +=;n +;¤rq ¬r
;çt ç, a=+r +rr;ntn nrmoºr¬
m ¤l¤r n nr m = +r q =+¤-rr
¬çt çl
''+rr;ntn nrm nr ¤o =¤t
+r¤n= +r am;-¤e çl'' nç
nr m =rrr+ + l>l¤rr nr¤r (
arlo-+rr ln+, arlo-o lç+ ¤
arlo-ol¤+¸ +r ºrm¬ (¬rºr¸
+; onr çl ¬¤ n+ =rrr+ q¬
l=çnrm +r ¤l;¤n
l>l¤rr nr¤r (=+¤¸ ¤r ;r mr ¸ =
¤¸¤r m¸+n ¬çt çr ¬rnr ç n¤ n+
=mrlrr=ªr ¬çt çr =+nr ar ;
=mrlrr=ªr ç¸ e l¤¬r, ¤;mnr¤
+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r;
a=++r¤ çl nç qr¬ =ogm¸= +t
+¸¤r + l¤¬r ¤r¤n ¬çt çr =+nrl
q= =+¤-rr m ¤;rçr¤l¬ºrog +
o¸=; arnrn m +çr ç-
o¸e+rr l¤¤rnrnrmr
o¸e+r nr¤oºr¬mgl
o¸e+rr =ç¬r¤=ªrr
=ogm¸;r· +=¤rr l¤¬rll ::ll
=ogm¸ = +t onr + l ¤¬r
l¤¤rn-rnrm o¸e+r ç, nr¤ o’r¬
o¸e+r ç ar; =ç¬r¤=ªrr +rt o¸e+r
çl
l=çnrm +r oºr¬
l=çnrm, nrm + oºr¬ ¤;
arrrrl;n ç ¬r +q ç¬r; ¤¤r ¤¸¤
¤r¤t¬ >l¤r mr=n-o¬rªr ¬t ¬
¤ ln¤rlon l+nr nªrr e+ a-n
>l¤r ¤rn¬le ¬ q= lel¤¤ç +;
l¬nm ¤¬rn ¬r 'nrm=¸>' + ¬rm
= ¬r¬ ¬rn çl ¤r;rl¤r+ +ªrr +
a¬¸ =r; mr=n -o ¬rªr ¬t ¤çe
·nl+n ªr, l¬-çr¬ q= nrm +r
lçmren m +erºr ¤¤n ¤; l¬¤r=
+;¬ ¤re ºrrº¤n =¤r·¤ ¤n¬r
+ =r+r; =¤ +rm¤r¬ lºr¤ =
=t=rr ªrrl >l¤r +r, q= qr¬ +r
mr¬¤nr + mr¢r çn¸ ¤or¬ +;¬ +
lee +çr mnr ªrrl qr¬ nªrr l¤g
rrr = n¸+n nç nrm, m¸= lºr¤n
¤;+¤;r m =mn-=mn ¤; lonr
¬rnr ;çr çl
l=çnrm +nr ç?
nç nrm (l=çnrm¸ ¬r.
ªrmn + nrlmnr +t o¬ ç, q=m
=+rt ¤ +r; + nr m ¬ = +rl+nnr m,
+m nr m, ;r¬nr m, l+nrnr m,
qr¬nr m, ennr m, +rr¤nr m,
çonrm arlo =l+mlen ç, q=t.
lee q= ¤¸¤r nrm nr mçrnrm +rt
+çn çl q== =rrr+ + l>l¤rr
nr¤ arlo o lç+ (Physical¸
arlo +rrln+ ( Mental ¸ arlo
ol¤+ Spiritual ¸ ¬¤c çr ¬rn
ç nªrr =rrr+ ¬t¤¬m¸ +n çr
¬rnr çl mçl¤r ~t a;l¤-o ¬ q=
¤rlªr ¤ am;r¤ ( Terrestrial
Immoratality¸ +t =qr ot çl
¤rn¬le nrmoºr¬ m =rrr¬r¤ro
+ zt ¤ ºer + m nr m + aro
amr- nm, l¬nm, ar=¬, ¤r¤
rrnrm, ¤rnrçr;, rrr;¤rr, rnr¬ ¤
=mrlrr +r ¤¤r¬ çl ¤rlç+ ¤nr=
= q= n¸m m a¬+r ¤re¬ +;¬r
a=++r¤ çl
q=len qn¬ mçr¤¤¸ ¤r
oºr¬ + ¤r; m ¬m¤n ermr +r
çt ¬r¬+r;t ç l =ogm¸ =o ¤ =rrr+
+t ºrl+n (+¸¤sle¬t¸ +r ¤n¬
+;n ç l ¤ç ¬rm n +¸ ¤sle¬t
=rrr+ +r a¤n¸ +n a¤cr mnr m +t
=+rt =rrr¬re =¤n a¤¬ arrt¬
+;¤rnt çl q= ¤+r; ¬r nrm çr.
nr ç a=m =rrr+ +r =çnrm nr
a=çnrm +rq +rm ¬çt +;nr
çl +¸¤sle¬t + l¬n>¤r m =r;t
l+nre =¤n· çt çrnt ç q=lee
23
23
14
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+;¬ +r l=çr n ç l nç
ºrl+n¤rn +¤e =mªr =ogm¸=
+t +¸¤r gr;r çt ¤r¤n çrnr çl
l=çnrm +nr ar¤ºn+ ç?
o¸l¬nr +r; m ¤s ºrç;r nªrr
erc +=¤r m ;ç¬ ¤re a¬lm¬n
er m n¬r¤¤¸ ¤r ¬t¤¬ ¬tn ç¸ e
l+=t e=t =¤;rm¬rºr+ ar¤rlrr
+t nerºr m ;çn ç , ¬r a-ç n¬r¤
nªrr =+rt ¤+r; +t ¤tmrl;nr =,
l¬¬ ¤; ¤nmr¬ ar¤rlrrnr +r;m;
¬çt çr nt, e¸ c+r;r loer =+ l +¸ e
erm =¬rn¬ =rn nªrr ¤;mrrmr
+t çrlo+ nerºr m çl q=m =
¤ç¸n = erm a¤¬ ql·en e¢n
+t ¤rl¤n çn¸ nrm a¤¬rn çl
ar¬ nr m +t ¤¤r =+¤¸ ¤r
l¤’¤ m ç l +¸ e =mn ¤ro rrt; -rrt;
a¬+r ar=rç +m¬r ; ¤s ¬r
ar;++r çr ¬rnr ç +nrl+ a¬m =
alrr+rºr erm nç ¬r¬n ç l+ nr
nr =mn +t +mt nr l¤; +rn +
al¬nlmn rr-c çr ¬ + +r;¤r ;r ¬.
r¬r nr m + ªr+r o ¬ ¤re =rr¬¤r¬
¤ ;ç¬ =ç¬ =¤rrt l¬nm alrr+
=mn n+ ¤¬rn ;=r¬r ar=r¬
¬çt ç l q=+ aer¤r nr m +t
l¤l+r-¬ l+nre ¬ = ar=¬, ¤-rr,
m¸ o rn , ¤ r¤rrnrm arlo ¤ç¸ n =
ermr + lee +;¬r ar=r¬ ¬çt
ç, alrr+rºr ermr m m¸= aªr¤r
nrmr ct¤; +t l¬m;r¬t + l¤¬r
ar;+r m nrm +t m¸qrn +;¬ +r
¤;rmºr ¬çt lonr ¬rnr çl
l¬¬+ ¤r= =mn ¤ rr¬ +t
+mt ç a¬+ len nr m +t +¢rrar
m ¬r¬r nr nr a·nr¤çrl;+ çr.
nr ç nr alrr+ =r¤t er çr nr
çl +nr q=+r nç mne¤ ç l+
nrm ¬¬=rrrr;¤r + len ¬çt ç?
l¬¬+ ¤r= nr nr =mn +t +mt ç
nr ¬r =rrr¬ =+¤-¬ ¬çt ç, ¬r
l¬nmr¬¸=r; nrm + ¤lºr¢r¤r m
¤ç¸¤ =+l =rmr-nn· arr; çrmr,
çr nr l¤; nrm =¤+ len =++r¤
¬çt çl
l¤; +rt, e+ arnlrr+ l¤+.
l=n arrnrlrm+ m¸ =, a¤¬t
arrnrlrm+ ºrl+nnr +r a¤nrm
+;+ a¤¬ lºr¤nr + len nrm
+ a+nr= arnlrr+ =rrrr;¤r ¤
ar=r¬ ¤¬r =+nr ç ¬r lºr¤n +
lee a¤¬r¬r, =;e ¤ ¤+rr¤ºrte
çr l m¸ =o ¤ l=nrm e+ e = çt
arrnrlrm+ m¸ = ç ¬r a¤¬ lºr¤nr
+ len l¬m m ¬rn l¤¬r nr rr;
¤; nrm + ªr+r o¬ ¤re, mç¬
¤ lºr¢r¤rr + l+n l¤¬r çt l=çnr m
+ gr;r, nrm + =¤rrrm er+r a¤.
e-rr +;r on çl l=çnrm m, e+
q·e¸+ ·nl+n +r m¸=o¤ l=nrm
= ot¢rr e¬t çrnt ç nªrr a¬+
¤nrn a¬¸=r; rnr¬ e¤ m>¬r¤
+;¬r çrnr çl q=t ar;rrr¬r =
¬t¤¬ m ¤l;¤n¬ arnr ç ar; ar
;çr ç, l¬¬+ ç¬r;r-er=rr erm
=r¢rt çl
l=çnrm + a+nr=
m +nr ºrrlme ç?
l=çnr m m m¸ =o ¤ l=nrm
+ ¤ ln ¤¸ ¤r l¤º¤r= e¤ =m¤ ¤r
+ =rªr ot¢rr m lon mn m->
+r ¬r¤ e¤ rnr¬ ºrrlme ç l
m¸=o¤ l=nrm e+ =rrr+ +r, ¬r
a¬+r lºr¤n ¤¬¬r ¤rçnr ç 'e+
m->-(e+ lo·n ºr-o'¸ on ç,
l¬=+r ¤¸¤¤r¤ mr¬l=+ =¤ =
¬r¤ +;¬r çr nr ç nªrr ¤ç ¤nern
ç l+ ¤lnlo¬ rnr¬ += +;¬r ç?
;r ¬r¬r rnr¬, mr¬l=+ =¤ =
m>¬r¤ + =rªr çrnr çl +¸e lo¬r
n+ emrnr; m > +r ¬r¤ +;n ;ç¬
= ''a¬¤r ¬r¤'' (=rrr+ + l¤¬r
¬¤ çt a o; +t +r q ar ; çt ‘rl+n
¬¤¬r ‘r¸= +; ont ç, nr m> ¬ro
m ¤oe ¬rnr ç , l¬= =rrr+ e+rm
çr+; =¸¬nr ;çnr 縤¬ ¬rnr çl
nç =trr nr; ¤; q= ¤rn ¤; l¬+r;
+;nr ç l+ ¬r¤, l+n¬t =rr¬nr,
l¬¤+¤cnr, l¤º¤r= nªrr nt¤nr
+ =rªr l+nr mnr çl
+¸e =rrr+r m nç ¬r¤ e+
=¤nrç m çt a¬¤r ¤¬ =+nr ç
nªrr a-n m +¸e mçt¬ nr alrr+
=mn +rt em =+nr ç l q=+r
m¸ =n +r;¤r ç l+ =rrr+ q=
ar;rrr¬r + ¤ln l+n¬r m+rt; çl
lºr¤n +r m> ¬r¤ + =rªr-=rªr
=¸ ¤ç ºrrm t:-t: lm¬c + lee
rnr¬ +rt +;¬r çrnr çl
e+ otl¢rn ·nl+n ¬=-¬=
l=çnrm + mrm ¤; arm ¤cnr
ç, ¤ç ºrtrr çt mç=¸= +;nr ç l+
n¬r¤ o¸; ç¸ar ç, rnr¬ +l-qn
+;¬ +t ºrl+n ¤ct ç nªrr l¤¤r;
alrr+ rr¬rrm+ ç¸e çl rnr¬ +t
a¤=ªrr m ¤ç¸n = =rrr+r +r l¤l.
+r-¬ ¤+r; +t nrlm+ m¸qre nªrr
l+nre =¤n· çrnt çl
=rrr+ q¬ nrlm+ l+nrar
+r ¬ nr a¤¬t q·er¬¸=r; +;
=+nr ç nªrr ¬ çt l¬nl->n
+; =+nr ç l nç l+nre ç;
=rrr+ + lee, a=+ ºr;t; +t
ar¤ºn+nr¬¸ =r; aem-aem
çr nt ç l e =r q= +r;¤r çr nr
ç l+ nç lo·n ºrl+n, ¬r m¸ =
23
23
15
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q= +r;¤r l=çnr m m nr lm+
m¸ qre , a-n nr m l¤oren m
q·er¬¸=r; ¤rlen ¤+rr¤ er¬ +
lee, l+=t +m l¤ºr ¤r m ·n¤l=ªrn
l¤lrr gr;r +;rq ¬r¬ ¤ret nr lm+
l+nrar + a¬¸ =r; ¬çt çr nt
çl l=çnrm m ermr +r =m¸ç m
rnr¬ +;n o=r+;, e+ l¬;t¢r¤
r+nr nç o =r+; a¤l++rn çr
¬rnr ç l+ +rrm e¬ ¤re em+rm
¤rn+ ·nl+n +t nrlm+ m¸qre
l+r-¬-l+r-¬ çl ¤ç¸n = =rrr+
rnr¬ + or;r¬ e=r ql-qnrntn
ar¬ o, am m e¤ =r¸ ºrt a¬¸ +r¤
+;n ç, ¬r a-çr¬ ¤çe ++rt +rt
mç=¸= ¬çt +t ç¸q çrnt çl
l=çnrm += +rn +;nr ç?
¤r¤t¬ +rr;ntn rrmm-ªr ¤or
+ a¬¸=r; mr¬¤ ºr;t; ¤;ml¤nr,
l¬= çm q º¤; nr l¤l+r-¬ ¬rmr =
¤¸+r;n ç, +t =mm =ªr¸e a¤=ªrr
ç aªrrng ¬r ¤gr¤s m ç, ¤çt
l¤¤s m çl mr¬¤ ºr;t; m =¸¢m
=n; ¤; ¬=r e¤ ¬rlsnr +r e+
¬re ç ¬r ;tc +t çsgst + l¬¤e
lç== = e+; me m ªrrn;rqs
ml-ªr n+ e+ l¬lº¤n a-n;re
¤; e+ + a¤; e+, q= n;ç e·
¤+r aªr¤r a¬r +-qr +r ar¤=
m ¬rsnr çl
nç ¤+ =¸¤r¸+¬r ¬rst m çrn
ç, ¬r ;tc +t çsgst + =mr¬.
r-n; ¬t¤ = a¤; +t ar;, l=; +
a¤;t lç== n+ ¬rnt çl l=; +
q= a¤;t +rrm +r =ç= r; +çn ç ,
¬r qº¤; +r l¬¤r= =ªrr¬ çl
¬¤ +¸¤sle¬t ¬rmn çrnt ç
nr nç =ç= r; m l=ªrn a¤¬ =¤rmt
= lme¬ + lee eç;rnt ç¸q a¤;
+t ar; aont çl =mªr =ogm¸=,
=rrr+ +t +¸ ¤sle¬t +r ¤ n¬
+;n ç l ¬rm n +¸ ¤sle¬t ¤; =mªr
=ogm¸= +r ¤¸¤r l¬n->¤r çrnr
ç, ¤ çt a=+ ¤m +r a¬¸ºrrl=n
e¤ l¬nl->n +;n çl =mrlrr=ªr
çr¬ + lee ¤çet ºrn ç, ¤¸¤r ;rm
m¸l+nl +rr;ntn nrm oºr¬r¬¸=r;
+rq ;rm a=rrn ¬çt çl m¸=+¸¤r
=¤t ºrl+n¤rn ot¢rr = +¸ ¤sle¬t
ºrl+n ¬rm n çr +; eç ¤+r +r +r.
o¬ +;nt ç¸q, =ç=r; n+ ¤ç¸¤nt
ç l +¸ ¤sle¬t gr;r ¬r nr m +;¤rnr
¬rnr ç, a== m¬¸¤n + =+rt am
¤¸¤rn· =¤=ªr çr ¬rn çl
=rrr+ +r ¬r a m ¤tmr;
nr +m¬r; çrnr ç, mr> a=t +t
nr lm+ l+nre , rnr¬r¤=ªrr m
çrnt ç e¤ +¸¤sle¬t ºrl+n a=t
¤tmr; am +r nrm +;¤r+; a=
¤¸¤r =¤=ªr +; ont çl
l=çnrm + er+r
m¬¸¤n m çr¬ ¤ret ¤tmrl;nr
+r arrr¸l¬+ l¤l+r=r l¤qr¬ ¬
or ~l¤rnr m ¤rcr ç (t¸ ºrr;t.
l;+ nªrr (z¸ mr¬l=+l +rr;ntn
nrlmnr ¬ ¤rnr l+ ºrr;tl;+ nªrr
mr¬l=+ ¤tmrl;nr + aer¤r
arrnrlrm+ ¤tmrl;nr +rt çrnt çl
o¸ =; ºr-or m , +m +r arrnrlrm+
l¬nm, ¤¸¤ ¬-m + +m q= ¬-m
+t ¤tmrl;nr nªrr o¸·=rr + +r;¤r
ç, ¬r m¬¸¤n +r ¬-m-¬-mr-n;
n+ ++rt =mr¤n ¬ çr¬ ¤re ¤+
m ¤rrr ;=rn çl l=¤ ;rmr +r o¸;
+;¬ + acºn =, q= +rm e¬r
q=+ m¸ =n ac ºn +r çt er s
o¬r ç, +nrl+ nç nr =rrr+ +r
a=+ +mr + , a¬ ¤-rr¬r = m¸ +n
+;nr ç ¬r l¬;-n; ¤e¬ ¤re
¬-m-m¸rn¸ + ¤+ m a= ¤rrr+;
;=rn çl
nrm oºr¬ mr¬¤ ºr;t; nªrr
erl++ alnmr¬= + ¤t¤ aln
=¸¢m =+¤-rr +r mr-nnr onr ç
¬r ºr;t; l¤ºr¤r +t ;¤¬r + lee
arr;ornt çl
¤rn¬le >l¤r ¬ a¤¬t ¤¸=.
n+ 'nr m =¸ >' m ¤tmrl;nr +r
¤mt +;¤r nt¬ ~ l¤rnr m l+nr
ç t. ºrr;tl;+ (arlo o lç+¸,
z. mr¬l=+ (arlo +rrln+¸ nªrr
:. arrnrlrm+ (arlo ol¤+¸l
m¬¸ ¤n +t ar rnr l rm+
¤tmrl;nr + lee arrnrlrm+
qer¬ +t ar¤ºn+nr çr nt ç l
m¬¸¤n +t arrnrlrm+ ¤tmrl;nr
+r arrnrlrm+ qer¬, nr m
+ l¬nlmn a+nr= gr;r + ¤e
arrnrlrm+ m¸ = ¬ = m¸ =o ¤
l=nrm +t moo gr;r çt =++r¤ çr
=+nr çl
e+ mr> m¸ = çt ç ¬r lºr¤n +r
a=+ ¤¸¤ ¬-mr + +m ¤-rr¬r +r
+rc+; a= , ¬t¤¬ + =çt ac ºn,
arrm=r¢rrr+r; gr;r ¤tmrl;nr
nªrr o¸·=rr = e¸c+r;r loer¬ m
a=+t =çrnnr +; =+nr çl
m¸ =o ¤ l=nrm ¬ a¬ + + = ¬
m nç l=ç l+nr ç l+ l=çnrm
+r l¬nlmn a+nr=, e+¤ => =
¤et ar ;çt ¤tmrl;nr ¬ = mlonr,
srnl¤ct¬ nªrr a-n rrrn+ ;rmr
¬= +=;, e¤.arq.¤t.]esg= m
¬ l=¤ ar;rm çt ¤ç¸¤r =+nr ç
¤lr+ a-ç ¤¸¤r =¤ = ot+ +rt +;
=+nr çl
a¬lm¬n m;t¬, l¬¬+r
l¤l+r=+r + ¤r= +r q qer¬ ¬çt
ªrr ar; m;¬ + lee ers lon mn
ªr, a-çr¬ l=çnrm +r al-nm
23
23
16
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ç l arrr¸ l¬+ l¤l+r=r l¤qr¬
¬çr l+=t ¤tmr;t m er+r ¤ç¸¤r¬
nr a= ot+ +;¬ m a=mªr ;çnr
ç , ¤çr nr m =¤enr¤¸ ¤ + a= ot+
+;nr çl
çmr;r ºr;t; e+ mrrnm ç,
l¬=+ gr;r qr¬ ¤r¤n l+nr ¬r
=+nr çl q=tlen ¤lo+ oºr¬,
=rrr+r + lee ¬r arrnrlrm+nr
+ ¤ªr ¤; arm ¤c¬r ¤rçn ç,
¤¸¤r =¤=ªr çr¬ +t ar¤ºn+nr
¤; ¤e onr çl ol¬+ ¬t¤¬ + e+
aorç;¤r = nç ¤rn =¤¤c +t ¬r
=+nt çl mr¬ er çm 'a' =ªrr¬
= '¤' =ªrr¬ n+ +t nr>r +;¬t ç l
am; ¤rç¬ ¤re¸ ¤ l¤e+¸e ot+
çren m ç nr ¤ç =ªrr¬ '¤' n+ çm
¬rot ar; =¸l¤rrr¤¸¤+ ¤ç¸¤remr,
¤¬re a= ¤rç¬ +, ¬r ¤¸;t çren
m çl =¢r¤ m, arrnrlrm+ ¤mln
+ lee ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = =¤=ªr çr ¬r
¤çet ar¤ºn+nr çl l=çnrm +r
l¬nlmn a+nr= ot+ nçt +;nr
ç l+ ¤ç çm =¤= ¤çe ¤¸¤r =¤
= =¤=ªr +;nr çl
+¸¤sle¬t ºrl+n
¤;ml¤nr +r aç ¬r;tº¤;
+rrm ºrl+n +çernr ç, nç qº¤;
+t ¤;rºrl+n ç (¤ ¤e er l++
a¬r ºrl+n¸l l¬= çm ;rrrr,
=tnr, o¸ mr nr +ret arlo + ¬rm =
¤¸¬n çl q= çt +rr;ntn nrmoºr¬
m ''+¸¤sle¬t'' +çr mnr çl nç
lo·n ºrl+n mr¬¤ ºr;t; + m¸ errr.
r; m (;tc +t çsgst +r l¬¤er
lç==r¸ =¸¤r¸¤nr¤=ªrr m ;çnt çl
nç ;tc +t çsgst + arl=r;t
lç== + ¤r;r ar; =rc nt¬ arc
emr+; +¸ ¤set mr; =r e ç¸e, =r ¤
+t n;ç ¤s t ;çnt ç l q=tlee
nç +¸¤sle¬t +çernt çl ¤¸l+
+¸¤sle¬t nç erl++ a¬r ç ¬r
alnmr¬= = ar¤-¬ ç¸q ç, nç
e+ l>+reoºrt ºrl+n ç ¬r nrm
+;¬ ¤re +r, a=+t =rnnr +r
+rr¬ e¤ arrm=r¢rrr+r; +;rnt
ç ar; a= ==r; + o¸·=rr nªrr
¤-rr¬r =, al-nm =¤ = m¸+n
+;r¬ + ¤º¤rng mr¢r +t ¤rl¤n
+;rnt çl
+¸ ¤sl e¬t nªr r :z,aaa
¬rlsnr + ¤¤tor ¬c¤+ + ¤t¤
rrl¬¤o =+¤-rr çl q¬ ¬rls nr
+r ¤¸ ; mr¬¤ ºr;t; m e+ ¬re
l¤er ;çnr çl q¬m = nt¬ m¸=n
¬rlsnr ç ¬r m¸errrr; = ar¤= m
le¤cnt ç¸ q a¤; +t ar ; ml=n¤+
+ a¤;t lç== n+ l¬= =ç=r;
+çn ç, ¬rnt çl mrn ¬rst ¬r
¤ m¸ =r ç , =¸ ¤r¸ +¬r +çernt ç l
or a-n ¬rlsnr, ¬r =¸¤r¸+¬r +
ame-¤me ¤ent ç, qsr nªrr
l¤mer + ¬rm = ¬r¬t ¬rnt çl
=¸ ¤r¸ +¬r m ªrr s -ªrr s a-n;re
¤;, e+ + a¤; e+, ¬t¤ = a¤;
+t ar; e· ¤+ nr ¤n¬r + +-q
nr erl++ a¬r +-q nªrr nt¬
ml-ªrnr çrnt çl
q¬ ¬rls nr , ¤+r nªrr
m l-ªrnr +r nmrm ¬re, aem
arnrm m l=ªrn çl l¬=+ ¤r; m
l¤qr¬ +r +¸e ¤nr ¬çt çl nç
qn¬t =¸¢m a¤=ªrr m ç l+ aln
a-¬n ¤nrmºrrer + a¤+;¤r +rt
q¬+t a¤l=ªrln +r ¤nr ¬çt emr
=+n çl
¬¤ rnr¬ nªrr m> ¬r¤ =
+¸ ¤sle¬t ¬rm n çr ¬rnt ç nr nç
=¸¤r¸+¬r + ;r=n a¤; aont ç¸q
=ç=r; n+ ¤ç¸¤nt ç, ¬r a=+r
al-nm m-n·n =ªrr¬ ç , ¬çr
q=+ =¤rmt '¤;m lºr¤' ºrrº¤n
alnmr¬= +r l¬¤r= çl ¤¸l+ nç
=¸ ¤r¸ +¬r + ¤r;r ar ; e¤ c e n
ç¸e a¤; aont ç, nç ¤¸; ¬rst
n> +r a¬r¤r¬ ¤¬r ont ç nªrr
e+-e+ +;, e· ¤+r-m¸errrr;,
=¤rlrr¤or¬, ml¤r¤¸ ;, a¬rçn,
l¤ºr¸ ç e¤ arqr ¤+ ar ; nt¬
ml-ªrnr ¤g ml-ªr, l¤¤¤r¸ ml-ªr
e¤ =q ml-ªr +r +ro¬ +;nt ç,
ar ; a-n m =rrr+ +r =mrlrr
l=ªrln, ¬r l+ =mr¤ ¤r rr +t
l=ªrln ç, ¤r¤n +;r ont çl
¬rmn +¸¤sle¬t, =¸¤r¸+¬r +
;r=n = alnmr¬= = =trrr =+¤+
=ªrrl¤n +; ent çl q== mr¬¤
ºr;t; ¤¸¤rn· ;rmm¸+n çr ¬rnr ç
nªrr =rrr+ a¬rn¸+n çr+; arm
+t, arrnrlrm+ nr>r çn¸ nnr;
çr ¬rnr çl ºr;t; + lee ;rm m¸+n
çr¬ + l=çnrm rnr¬ + or;r¬
¬r ¤rçgn e¢r¤r ç, a¬m nrlm+
l+nre ¬ = orn -¤rn lçe¬r,
++¤¬, q¸ +¬r, e c¬r, ;r ¬r,
ç =¬r, l=; +r n ¬t = rr¸ mr¬r,
nret ¤¬r¬r, çrªrr e¤ ºr;t; +t
al¬nl->n mlnnr, n¬ ;rºr¬t
nr ;m lo=rrq o¬r nr a-n +rq
ar=¬, ¤rr, m¸qr nr ¤r¤rrnrm +t
l=ªrln arlo m¸=nn· çrnt çl
+¸¤sle¬t ¬rm;¤r +r ¤+rr¤
ar;++r +;¬ ¤rer ++rt-++rt
=¤ l·e+ çr ¬ ¤ret nr lm+ l+nrar
= nç =r¤+; +rn+rtn çr ¬rnr ç
l+ nr nr +¸ e men çr mnr ç
ar; l¤; l+=t ao¸ºn ºrl+n +t
¤+s m ar mnr ç el+¬ nç +rn
l¬;rrrr; çl
¤r=n¤ m nç nrlm+ l+nre
nr ºrr;tl;+ çe¤e lo·n ºrl+n
23
23
17
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ºrl+nnr + mrrnm = +rn
+; ;çt çr nt ç , ¤ç nç +ret+rr ln
¬r¬nt ç l+ =rrr+ +r ºrr;tl;+
e¤ mr¬l=+ ;r mr = m¸ +n +;¬ +
lee +nr l¤ºr¤r m¸qre ar¤ºn+
ç? nç l+nre +rq +rt çrl¬ ¬çt
¤ç¸¤rntl ºr;t;-ºrrrr¬ + or;r¬
a=rrn ;rmr =lçn =+rt n;ç +
ºrr;tl;+ e¤ mr¬l=+ ;rmr = ¤¸¤r
m¸l+n lme ¬rnt çl nçr n+ l+
¤ºrr¬¸mn ;rm ¬= çtmrl¤lenr
= +rt e¸c+r;r lme ¬rnr çl =+rt
n;ç + ¬ºr e¸c ¬rn çl
=rrr+ ¤cr ç¸ar a-nqr¬,
+rr ln+ ¬mng + ¤rç; al=.
nr¤ + l¤l+r-¬ =n;r +r a¬¸+r¤
+;¬r, al¬lº¤n+re n+ +r
+r¸ n ¤ +rl¤¤n o =r =+¬ +t
¢rmnr arlo ¤r¤n +; =+nr çl
arrm=r¢rrr+r; çr¬ + ¤º¤rng
arm ¤e +; =rrr+ +r =rnnr +r
+rr¬ çr ¬rnr ç ¬r a= +m ¤-rr¬r
= m¸+n +;nr ç ar; q= ¤+r;
+m¤-rr¬r + +c ¬r¬ = o¸·=rr
+r çt a-n çr ¬rnr çl
+¸ ¤sle¬t + =ç= r; m
¤ç¸ ¤¬ ¤; =rrr+ +t arrnrlrm+
nr>r ¤¸¤r çr ¬rnt çl q= a¤=ªrr
n+ ¤ç¸¤¬ ¤; =rrr+ +r =¤n +
¤ gr çr ¬ +r ¤¸ ¤r eç=r= çr ¬rnr
ç q= çt mr ¢r nr ag n +çn
çl l¤; +rt nlo +rq =rrr+ q¬
l+nrar = arnlrr+ +rn+rtn
ç nr ¤ç q-ç ;r+¬ çn¸ m¸=o¤
l=nrm = ¤rªr¬r +; =+nr ç,
¤rªr¬r +;¬ ¤; l+nre nr+re
=+ ¬rnmtl
mr¬¤ ºr;t;
arrmr +r +rrln+ rr;
çmr; >l¤rnr ¬ mç¬ ºrrrr
+ ¤ro q= l=çr-n +r =¤t+r;
l+nr ç l+ ¬r ¤gr¤s m ç, ¤çt
=¤ +¸e l¤¤s (ºr;t;¸ m çl q=
¤+r; m¸errrr; ¤+ = arqr ¤+
n+ +r ¬mng mrnr +r ar ;
arqr ¤+ = e+; =ç=r; n+
+r ¬mng ¤;¤g +r çl
¤lo+ m-ªrr m le=rr ç l+
mr¬¤ ºr;t;, arrmr +r +rr ln+ rr;
mr> ç l arrmr =rn ¤ +r; + +r ºrr
= c+t ç¸q ç·- t. a-¬mn +rºr
(q·n, +rr ln+ ºr;t; + =¤ m , ¬r
+rr¬¬ +;¬ = l=ªr; ;çnr ç¸,
z. ¤ r¤rmn +r ºr (¬t¤¬ ºrl+n¸,
:. m¬r mn +r ºr (ml=n¤+ ¬r
=¤¤cn· ¤¸ lç = l+r-¬ ç ¸, ¡.
l¤qr¬mn +r ºr (¤¸ lçmrrr¸,
:. ar¬-omn +r ºr (ar¬-o
nr a¢rn ar¬-o ¬r ºr;t; nr
lomrm = =+¤l-rrn ¬çt çrnr¸,
c. l¤ngmn +rºr (arrnrlrm+
¤¸lçmrrr¸ nªrr :. =ngmn +rºr
(al-nm a¤=ªrr ¬r a¬-n +
=rªr lme ¬rnt ç ¸l m¬¸ ¤n +
arrnrlrm+ =¤ = ¤¸¤r l¤+l=n
çr¬ + lee =rnr +rºrr +r ¤¸¤r
l¤+r= çr¬r aln ar¤ºn+ çl
+rrln+ l¤+r=¤ro + l=ç
rn + a¬¸=r; m¬¸¤n ¬ ¤ªrm ¤r;
+rºrr +r ¤n¬ +;¬ m =¤enr
¤r et ç, al-nm nt¬ +rºrr +r
¤ç l+= ¤+r; ¤n¬ +;mr?
~t a;l¤-o ¬ a¤¬t ¤-¤
=çnrmt lºr¤nr + =rªr, ¬r ~tmr
+ ¬rm = ¬r¬t ¬rnt ªrt, a¤¬t
rnr¬ +t a¤=ªrrar + or ;r¬
nç mç=¸ = l+nr l+ al-nm
l¤+r= +¤e n+rt çr =+nr ç,
¬¤ erl++ ¤n¬r (l¬= a-çr¬
+¸ ¤¤r +t alrrmr¬l=+ ºrl+n
+çr ç¸ ¤¸ª¤t ¤; a¤nl;n çrl
¤ªrm ¤r; +rºr ¬r mr¬¤nr
m ¤n¬ çr ¤¸+ ç, ¤çr l¤or ¤;
al¤or +r arlrr¤rn çl ºr ¤r nt¬
arrnrlrm+ +rºr ¬r mr¬¤nr m
¤n¬ çr¬r ¤r+t ç, nçr al¤or
¤; l¤or +r ¤+r¸r¤ çl a¤n¸+n
=rnr +r ºrr + ¤¸ ¤r l¤+r= +r
çt rnr¬ m ;=r+; mçl¤r ~t
a;l¤-o ¬ +rl¤¤n¤r¤rt +t ç l+
''armrmt mr¬¤ ¬rln lo·n ºr;t;
(oç¸ rrr;¤r +;mtl''
çmr; >l¤rnr ¬ m¬¸ ¤n ºr;t;
+r l¤;rc =¤=¤ ¤mrl¤rn +;+,
a=+ a-o; =+¤¸ ¤r =¸ l¤c +r
o=rr, q=+ ¬-mornr ¤;mº¤;
+r =ªrr¬ =ç=r; m ar; a=+t
¤;rºrl+n (+¸¤sle¬t¸ +r =ªr.
r¬ m¸errrr; + ¤r= çl =rrr+ +t
+¸ ¤sle¬t ¤ n¬ çr +; =ç= r;
m en çr ¬rnt ç, q=t +r mr¢r
+çr mnr çl
l=çnrm + +nr ¤rno ç?
- q== =rrr+ + =+rt ¤+r;
+ a=rrn ;rm ¬= +=;, e¤.
arq.¤t.]esg=, mlonr, omr ¤
srnl¤ct¬ arlo ºrr;tl;+ ;r mr =
m¸l+n lme ¬rnt çl
- mr¬l=+ ;r m ¬ = +rn,
l¤-nr, al¬-o r, ar+r ºr, n¬r¤,
¤rl¤nr arlo = m¸l+n,
- =+rt ¤ +r; + ¬ºrr ¬ =
ºr;r¤, a¤tm, =m +, ç ;r q¬,
+rr m, ¤ts t, l=m; c, m¸ c=rr,
¬or arlo = l¤¬r ¤; ºrr¬t +
e¸c+r;rl
- m¬r ¤ qrl¬+ e¤ +rr.
¤¬rrm+ a= n¸ e¬ +r o¸ ; +;
ºr;t; +r ¤¸¤r =¤=ªr ¤¬rnr çl
- arrnrlrm+nr + ¤¸ ¤r
qr¬ + =rªr +r¸ n nªrr +rl¤¤n
+t rrc¬rar +r rnr¬ + =mn
¤rn¢r o=r ¤r¬r =++r¤l
- e+rmnr e¤ nroorºn m
¤¸lçl
- =rrr+ +r a=+ +mr +
a¬ ¤-rr¬r = m¸+n +;nr ç, ¬r
l¬;-n; ¤e¬ ¤re ¬-m-m¸rn¸ +
¤+ m a= ¤rrr +; ;=rn çl
- qº¤;tn ºrl+n gr;r nrm.
l=+ ¤¸lrr + ºrr-n çr¬ = mr¬¤

23
23
18
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+rr;ntn >l”rnr ¬ =¸ l”c +t
ar¤lrr + =¤rr m a-nm¸=rt çr+;
=rr ¬ +t nr ¤rnr l+ =+¤¸ ¤r ¤ gr¤s
m¬¸”n ‘r;t; m çl ¬¤ >l”rnr ¬
ar ; mç¬ =rr ¬ +t nr ¤rnr l+
q= ¬mng +r ;¤lnnr '=ç=r;' m
l=ªrn ç ar; a=+t ‘rl+n m¸errrr;
ml q¬ or¬r + +r;¤r +t ==r; +t
;¤¬r +t mql a= ¤;m ¤¸=”r +t
‘rl+n a=+ aro’r = ¬t¤ an;nt
mql q=+ ¤n¬ çr+; ar¤mm¬
+;n ç¸e =ç=r; m ¤ç¸¤¬ +r ¬rm
çt 'mr¢r' çl
m¸ =-l’r”n ¤;+¤;r m ¬r
‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr +r l¤rrr¬ ç ,
a=+ a¬¸ =r; m¸ = a¤¬t ‘rl+n
= +¸¤sle¬t +r ¤n¬ +;+ a¤;
+r ¤ern çl m¸= +r q= ‘rl+n ¤;
¤¸¤r ¤+r¸r¤ çrnr ç, q=lee ¤ç a=
m¸= + aro’r + a¬¸=r; ¤ent çl
+nrl+ nç =ç=r; m l=ªrn ¤;m
=rrr +t '¤;r’rl+n' çl an· nç
mr> a=t +r aro ’r mr¬nt ç l
q=+r =¤”c aªr ç l+ l¬= ·nl+n
+r =ç=r; m l=ªrn a= ¤;mnr¤
+t l=lç çr ¬rnt ç, ¤çt q=+r
=¤re¬ +;¬ +r alrr+r;t çl nç
‘rl+n l¤’¤ m e+ =mn m mr> e+
·nl+n + mrrnm = +rn +;nt çl
an· ==r; m, e+ =mn m nç +rn
mr> e+ çt ·nl+n gr;r =¤-¬ çr
=+nr çl +nrl+ nç =r¤+rrm =rrr
ç, q=lee ¤ç ·nl+n l¤’¤+r; m
a+r¸n¤¸¤ +rln+r;t ¤l;¤n¬ +;¬
+t =rmªn ;=rnr çl
l¬= o¤t ‘rl+n +r ¤rç; çm
+¸¤sle¬t ¬rm;¤r
;rrrr, =tnr, ¤r¤nt, a+¤r, +r¤r¬t,
¬rmmrnr, =;=¤nt arlo ¬rmr =
¤¸¬n çl ¤çt ¤;m ¤n¬r çmr; ‘r;t;
m, ;tc +t çsgst + al-nm l=;
aªrrng m¸errrr; m ¬rlm¬ (=l¤¤
rt¸ + =¤ m =rc nt¬ ¤; emr+;
=¸ ”r¸ ¤n a¤=ªrr m ;çnt ç , l¬=
nrlmnr ¬ +¸¤sle¬t +çr çl q=+
¬rm ng ç¸ e l¤¬r m¬¸ ”n +r ·n¤çr;
¤ºr¸¤ng ;çnr çl =mªr =ogm¸=
+t +=¤rr = çt ¤ç arlo ‘rl+n
+¸¤sle¬t ¬rmn çrnt çl
= n +¤t;or=¬t ¬ a=t ‘rl+n
+r ¤¤r¬ +;n ç¸e +çr ç l+-
+¤t;r rrr;r amm +t,
=ogm¸= oq e=rrnl
aec nrlç ¤lcn =or
=¤rmt =m emrnll
=n mn + a¬¸=r; e+ rrr;r
amm er+ = ¬t¤ +t ar; ¤et,
¤ç =+rt er+r +t ;¤¬r +;nt ç¸q
m¸errrr; m ar+; oç; mq l q=
¤+r; =r+rt er+ a= ¬mng ¬¬¬t
;rrrr (+¸¤sle¬t¸ ¬ ;¤l m¬¸”n
¬t¤¬ m a= ¬rm n +;+ a¤¬
=¤rmt (+¸”¤r¸ + ¤r= ¤ç¸¤rq ¬r
=+nt çl ;rrrr ar; +¸”¤r (¤¸ª¤t
e¤ ar+r’r nr¤¸ + lme¬ +r
¬rm çt ''mr¢r'' çl ¤;-n¸ l¬= m¸=
+r ar+r’r nr¤ (+¸”¤r¸ +t l=lç
çrnt ç, mr> ¤çt q= +rm +r +;
=+nr ç a-n +rq ¬çtl nç çmr;
rrm ‘rr=> ¤ ¤tn qlnçr= = ¬r¬r
¬r =+nr çl =¤rmt l¤¤+r¬o¬t
¬ a¬+ m¸=ar = ¤rnrer¤ l+nr
el+¬ a¬m nr¤ qr¬ +t ¬rm¸ln
+r q ¬çt +; =+rl arl=r; ;rm+¸ ”¤r
¤;mç = + ¤r= çt =mrrrr¬ çr =+rl
mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o ¬ +¸¤sle¬t +r
nr ¤l¤rn l+nr ç- nç nrm’rl+n
çl nç çmr;t a-n; =rrr + =r+rt
+ qr (¤+r ¸ m +¸ ¤slen çr +;
=trrt ¤st ç ar; =¤= ¬t¤ + ne
m , ¬r =¤ ç a= n->r m +¸ ¤sle¬t
+çr mnr çl ¤;-n¸ nç çmr; a¤;,
çmr; l=; + a¤; lo·n ‘rl+n
+ =¤ m l¤omr¬ ç - ¤çr ¤ç
+¸ ¤slen, l¬¤ln n, ¤ =¸ ¤n ¬çt
ç ¤lr+ ¬rm n, ¤ n¬, ‘rl+n¤¸ ¤
r, ¤=rl;n ar; l¤’rre ç, nç ¤çr
al+r·n+n çr¬ + lee ¤nt¢rr +;
;çt ç ar; q=t ‘rl+n +t ar; çm
a¤¬ ar¤+r =rr e¬r çr mrl nç
‘rl+n m¬ + a-o; e+ lo·n mr¬=
‘rl+n + =¤ m ¤+c çrnt ç ar;
nç e= ¤rn+ +rn +r +; =+nt ç
l¬= ·nl+nmn m¬ al+r·n+n ¬çt
+; =+nr, nç a= =mn nrlm+
mr¬= ‘rl+n ¤¬ ¬rnt çl ¬¤ nç
a=t n;ç ¤ r¤r nr ‘r;t; m ¤ +c çr nt
ç ar; +rn +;nt ç, n¤ nç ¤çr
e+ nrlm+ ¤r¤r ‘rl+n nr nrlm+
‘r;t; ‘rl+n + =¤ m lo=rrq ont
çl nç ¤rç; +t ar; a¤; +t ar;
¤¸c +; nªrr ¬t¤ +t ar; l¤’rrenr
m ¤e+;, q¬ =r+rt =¤r m ¬rmn
çr =+nt çl aªr¤r nç a¤nl;n çr
=+nt ç ar; ¤çr ¤=n¸ar + lee
e+ =¸l¬l’¤n ‘rl+n ¤¬ =+nt çl
nç ¬t¤ +t ar ; ‘r;t; m ¤;= =+nt
ç l ¤çr +rn +;+ , a¤¬r ;r¤n
=ªrrl¤n +;+, a¤; = l¤’rrenr +
a-o; ¤ =rl;n çr +; çmr; a-o; +
l¬= o¤t ‘rl+n +r ¤rç; çm ;rrrr,=tnr, ¤r¤nt, a+¤r, +r¤r¬t, ¬rmmrnr, =;=¤nt arlo ¬rmr =
¤¸¬n ç ¤çt ¤n¬r çmr; ‘r;t; m, ;tc +t çsgst + al-nm l=; aªrrng m¸errrr; m ¬rlm¬ (=l¤¤rt¸
+ =¤r m =rc nt¬ ¤; (+¸¤set¸ emr+; =¸”r¸¤n a¤=ªrr m ;çnt çl l¬= nrlmnr ¬ +¸¤sle¬t +çr
çl q=+ ¬rmn ç¸e l¤¬r m¬¸”n +r ·n¤çr; ¤ºr¸¤ng ;çnr çl =mªr =ogm¸= +t +=¤rr = çt ¤ç arlo
‘rl+n +¸¤sle¬t ¬rmng çrnt çl
23
23
19

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
20
¬n m¸=o¤
=m=n m¸=+rrq-¤ç¬r,
lo¬r+ ta mr¤ zat: = ¤rn+ ;l¤¤r; +r ¤rn· tt¤¬ = or¤ç; t ¤¬ n+ (zrr¤c¸ nªrr
¤rn+ m¸=¤r; +r ºrrm c ¤¬ = : ¤¬ n+ +rcr ar~m ¤; ¤¸¤n =ogm¸=o¤ + lmºr¬ +t
¤¸¤rnr ar; ¬t¤¬ +t =+rt =m=nrar = m¸l+n çn¸ =rm¸lç+ m> ¬r¤ +r arnr¬¬ l+nr ¬r
;çr ç l¬=m ar¤ =+rt +t =ç+rrlmnr a¤l¢rn çl
¬rc·- nlo ar¤ çrsrnt =+rrm m ºrl+n¤rn-ot¢rr + +rn+m arnrl¬n +;¤r¬r ¤rçn
ç nr ar~m = a¤l¢rn =çnrm ¤r¤n +; =+n çl
==ªrr +t a-n ºrr=rrar ¤ a¤¬ a¤¬ ¢r>r m l¬nlmn =rm¸lç+ m> ¬¤ +r arnr¬¬
+; ¤ a¤¬t =rmªnr¬¸=r; er+e +¤e ct¤t ¤;, m¸=o¤ +t lo·n ¤r¤rt m m> '=t .st.'
+rt ¤ernl
arnrrm l¤qr¬ =r=m +-q, ¬rrr¤¸;
ºrr=rr-+rcr
+. ¤rc¬ ;rs , ¬¬ mlo; + ¤te, mrm =t-nr, +rcr
a¬¸;rrr
m ; r
¬r m q ’r r
m¸¤rrr çl m ¡
=re = eo¬
m ªr t l m ;
mr nr -l ¤nr
¬ m¸ =o ¤ +
¤r; m =¸ ¬r
ar; a¬+ o’r¬ l+el m¸q +rt
a-çr¬ m¸=o¤ + l=çnrm o’r¬
+ ¤r; m ¤nrnr, rnr¬ emr¬ +r
+çr ar; m> ¬¤ +;¬ +r +çrl
‘r¸=-’r¸= m t-z mçt¬ m;r rnr¬
emnr ¬çt ªrrl m eo¬ = ¤r¤=
+rr;n ar¬ ¤ret ªrt +nrl+ ¤çr
¤; ¬r+;t +t ¤ç¸n ¤;’rr¬t çr mq
ªrtl ¬¤ m +rr;n ar¬ +t ¤m¬
''=rn =m¸q ¤r; m¸=o¤ +r ¤mr+.
= lc+c ¤¸+ +;¤r ;çt ªrt, a=
lo¬ =¸¤ç ¤= e= çt m¸=o¤ +r
z lm¬c +r rnr¬ l+nr ar; +çr
l+ m a+rt +rr;n ¬çt ¬r¬r ¤rçnt
ç¸l +¸e o; ¤ro çt m¸q ¬r+;t +r
+r e ar mnr ar ; m ;r a=m ¤n¬
çr mnrl m;t ¬r+;t ‘r¸= çr mql
n¤ = m;r m¸=o¤ m rnr¬ em¬
emr ar; l¤’¤r= +rt çr¬ emrl
l¤; c mçt¬ ¤ro çm =¤+ =e;t
q-+tm-c çr¬ ¤re ªrl ¤r =¤+
+l=e çr me nr m ¤ç¸n l¬;r’r
çr mq l ¤= rnr¬ emrnt ;çnt
ªrtl e+ lo¬ ¤ç¸n ¤rªr¬r +;¬ ¤;
m¸=o¤ = z lm¬c ¤r¬ ¤; ¤rn ç¸q
nr a-çr¬ +çr l+ rnr¬ +;r ar;
m> ¬¤r =¤ ot+ çr ¬remrl e+
=¤nrç ¤ro çt e+ lo¬ m; =¤¤¬
m m¸=o¤ ¤re mr¤re + =¤ m
arnl a= lo¬ çt ¤¸;t ++¤¬t m
l=¤ m¸q çt q-+tm-c lmer ar;
=rªr çt =rªr =¤= a·e +m¤r;t
+r q¬rm +rt lmerl m ¤ç¸n =r¸’r
ç¸q ar; m;r ¬¤ n+ eo¬ m, m¬
¤rçr n¤ n+ +r =¤; m¸=o¤ ¬
a¤¬r çrªr ¤+s +; ¤ç¸n a·er
l¬+rerl a¤ m +rr;n m ç¸ ar;
ar¬ ++rt +rt +rq =m=nr arnt
ç nr e=r emnr ç l+ m¸=o¤ ¬
m;r çrªr ¤+s ;=rr ç l¤; l+=t
+rt ¤t¬ = s;¬r +nr? a+rt çre
çt m m¸q e+ mçt¬ ¤çe ¬rrr¤¸;
m, m¸=o¤ + =r¢rrng o’r¬ +;¬

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m¸= +nr +;nr ç, onr enr
+¸e ¬çt, el+¬ çmr; rrm m ¤st
a¬t¤ n;ç +t +r r lnnr ¤ or çr mq l
n m¬¸”n ‘r;t; ¬r ç lç-o¸ +r +rt
¤çt ç, m¸=emr¬ +r +rt ¤=r çt
ç, q=rq +r +rt ¤çt ç, l+=t +rt
rrm +r aromt çr, ‘r;t; + cr¤ m
+rq an; ¬çt çl
e+ mr> çmr;r rrm ¬r ç l¤’¤
‘rrln +t ¤rn +;nr ç, ar; mr¬¤
mr> +r =¤rlrrn +;+ ¤renr ç-
q=rq +r aem ç , m¸ =emr¬r
+r aem ç, o¸=;r +r aem ç,
e=r ¬çt +çnr çl n ¤rn ot+ ç
l+ çm ¤n¬ + +re = m¸¬;n ç¸e
ar ;ç çl
mm; ¬r m¸= ç ¤r nr mr¬¤
mr> m ¤l;¤n ¬ er¬ +t ¤rn +;nr
ç l a¤ ¤r o¸ =; -o¸ =; rrm ¤re er m
a¤¬-a¤¬ lç=r¤ = =r¤n çl
çm¬ +rt a¬ ¤l;l=ªrlnnr + +r;¤r
= a¤¬ ar¤+r aem-aem
m¸ cr m ¤r c +;+ = +t¤r orn;
m +o +; lenr çl ¤;-n¸ çmr;r
rrm qn¬r çt ¬çt çl n m¬¸”n +
l¤+r= +t l+nr ç, ar¤ ermr +
=¤n + l¤+r= +t l+nr çl
m; ‘r;t; m ar; ar¤+ ‘r;t;
m +rq an; ¬çt çl ¬r ar¤+
¤r= ç ¤r çt m; ¤r= çl m¬ m¸=
+t +¸¤r = nr a¬+t mç;¤r¬t =
a=+r ¬t¤¬ m +rm m e¬r =t=r
lenr çl ar¤ +rt =t=r =+n çrl
ar¤ +rt a¤¬r l¤+r= +; =+n
çr l n ar¤+r a¤¬r l¤+r= ç
m¸=o¤ +t lo·n¤r¤rt
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22
ar; l¤+r= +rt e=r ¬r ar¬ n+
¬çt ç¸arl
q=tlee çmr;r o’r çt ¬çt,
==r; +rt ¤sr ar’n¤ +; ;çr ç,
mr¢r-¤r¢r + lee ¬çt, q=tlee
l+ Disease (¤tmr;t¸ +nr =rrm
çr ;çt ç? a¤ n =r;r ¤l;¤n¬
rrm ¤; Based(arrrrl;n) ç l
q=tlee q= ¤+n ==r; + rrm
¤ç¸n çt a=m¬= m çl l¤’¤ +t
¬r l=ªrln ç, ¬r ==r; m rrc¬re
rrcnt ç, a== çm aem nr ¬çt
;ç =+n çl q= +r¸mse ¤; ;ç¬r
ç nr a¬ ermr + =rªr ¤r erm
¬=r ar¤= m +; ;ç ç, çm+r
+rt a¬+ lç=r¤ = a= mrçre m
¤e¬r ¤smrl nr ar¬ rrm +r ¬r
c+;r¤ ‘r¸= çr mnr ç a¬= çm
aem ¬çt ;ç =+nl a¤ ¬r rrm
l¬= +r;¤r = ¤or ç¸e, ¤r a¤¬
lç=r¤ = ¤e ;ç çl
e+ mr> lç o¸ rrm ¬r ç alç =r
¤;mrrrm +t ¤rn +;nr ç, +¤e
lç-o¸ çt +;nr ç, lç-o¸ çtl mr¬¤
mr> + +rnr¤r +t ¤rn +;nr ç,
l¤’¤ ‘rrln +t ¤rn +;nr çl l¤’¤
‘rr ln +t ¤rn ar ; +rt +;n ç
-Hydrogen (¤m¸ = , el+¬
çm a= s; = ¬çt +;n ç ¤lr+
çm a¤¬ l¤+r= +t ¤rn +;n çl
q=lee +rr;n +t ar ; l¤’¤ +
erm ¤nror ar+l”rn çr ;ç çl
a¤ n ;r m +nr =rrm (ot+¸
çr ;ç ç, a¬+r ¤s a=m¬= +t
¤rn em ;çt ç, ¤st o¸l¤rrr m ¤=
ç¸e ç l+ rrm çt ;rm +r ¬r’r +; o
nr n l¤qr¬ +nr +;mr? ¤r=n¤
m rrm +nr ç? erm =mqn çt
tl
çmr;t = =+¸ ln ar ; ¤l’¤m
+t ==+¸ln m ;rn-lo¬ +r an;
çl çmr;t +rr”rr l¬n¬t ¤l;”+¸n
ç , ¤l’¤m m a=+ lee +r q
Proper(a¤n¸+n¸ ‘r-o ¬çt çl
a¤ rrm +r a-çr ¬ Religion +;
lonrl Religion nr ¤oe on ç,
rrm +r ¤oe çt ¬çt =+n, ¤r nr
rrr;¤r +;¬ +t ¤t¬ ç- mm; rr¬
+ ere¤ m ¤oe ;ç ç, rrm nr
¤oer çt ¬çt ¬r =+nr, Reli-
gion ¤oer ¬r =+nr çl
ar¬ ¬r ¤oer¤ ar ;çr ç,
nçr ¬r çr ;çr ç, +rq =rrrr;¤r
rrc¬r ¬çt çl n alnm ar; ¤¸¤r
l¤+r= ç- ¤lo+ o’r¬ +rl
a¤ ;rm +rt =rrm çr ;ç ç
q=tlee ==r; ¤sr ar+l”rn çr
;çr ç l n ¤rn +rt =çt ç l+ m ; ¤r=
q= o’r m sa ¤ln’rn erm ;rm +
lee arn çl m ar¤+r ¤nra l+
nrm +nr ç? ;rm +nr ç?
nrm + ¤r; m ¤st +rrlnnr ç
ar¬ nrm +r +çt ¤¤r¬ aremr
nr ar¤+ lomrm m e+ çt ¤rn
aremt l+ +r q ;r m ç q=+r ‘rr;t.
l;+ +=;n +;¤rq ¬remtl ¬¤l+
nrm +r =¤rr ;rm = ç çt ¬çtl
q= ¤+n +r ¤n¬le nrm o’r¬
Authentic (¤rmrl¤r+¸ mªr çl
ts: =¸>r m +çt +rt ;rm +r ¤¤r¬
¬çt çl çmr;r o’r¬ nr mr¢r +t
¤rn +;nr ç ar; mr¢r ar¬ e+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
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23
+rr;n + =m+ret¬ =nr m
= e+ s: ¤”rtn =ogm¸=o¤ ~t
;rmere ¬t l=nrm ¬ ¤r¤t¬ +r.
r;n +t =m¸ç ¤lo+ arrnrlrm+
rr;rrr; m = nrm +t e+ algntn
¤çln l¤’¤ +r ¤ or¬ +t ç l ¬r rr¤¸ ;
+t arrnrlrm+ ==ªrr arnrrm
l¤qr¬ =r=m +-q (e.¤t.e=.
+ .¸ + = =ªrr¤+ e¤ = ;¢r+
=ogm¸=o¤ l=nrm ¤nmr¬ m +r.
r;n + arr;t-¤l’¤mt ;lm=nr¬t
;r¤n ;r¬=ªrr¬ + ¤t+r¬; l¬e
+ ¤er¬r mr¤ + l¬¤r=t çl tssa
+ o’r+ + mrn = çt =ogm¸=o¤
l=nrm e+ l¤’r¸ ç arrnrlrm+
lm’r¬ +t am¸¤rq +; ;ç çl
tscs m m¸=o¤ +r ;ç=nmn
arrnrlrm+ a¬¸+r¤ ç¸e ¬r a-ç
lo·n ‘rl+nnr = ar’rt¤r o =¤=¤
¤ r¤n ç¸ el =ogm¸ =o ¤ l=nrm er=rr
ermr +r ‘rr;tl;+ e¤ mr¬l=+
=nr¤r = e¸c+r;r loer+; a-ç
=¤n +t =rr¬ e¤ q’¤;r¬¸+r¸ln +
mrm ¤; am=; +; ¤¸+ çl
ar;l++r+ ¬t¤¬
=ogm¸=o¤ l=nrm +r ¬-m
z¡ ¬¤+¤; tszc +r ¤t+r¬; + ¤¸¤
m z: l+.mt.o¸; l=ªrn ¤er¬r mrm
+ e+ m;t¤ l+=r¬ ¤l;¤r; m
ç¸ arl =ogm¸ =o ¤ +r ¤¤¤¬ +lo¬
=rr”rr m ¤tnr, ¬¤ =ogm¸=o¤
crq nr nt¬ ¤”r + ªr n¤ a¬+
m¸=o¤ l=nrm +r
¬t¤¬ ¤l;¤n
l¤nr¬t +r =¤m ¤r= çr mnr, q==
a¬+ ¬t¤¬ +t +lo¬rqnr ar;
¤nror ¤c mql m¸=o¤ +t mrnr¬t
‘r¸= = çt arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+n =
=;r¤r; ªrt l¬-çr¬ a¤¬ a+e
¤ c +t ¤;¤l;’r rr; e¸ +rn +;n ç¸ e
+t e¤ ¤¸¤¤n al=nr¤ +r ¤¬rn
;=rrl ¬¤ a¬+t mr +rm ¤; ¬rnt
ªrt n¤ a¬+ ¤l;¤r; m a¬+t
o=r+rre +;¬ ¤rer a-n +rq
+rt ¬ çr¬ + +r;¤r, =ogm¸=o¤
+r a= =mn e+ =ªrr¬tn a¬r.
ªrren m ;=rr mnrl =¸l¤rrrar +
a+rr¤ + ¤t¤ ;çn ç¸e m¸=o¤ ¬
e+ =ªrr¬tn =+¸ e = ta¤t n+
+t ¤crq ¤¸¤r +tl l¤; ¬¤ ¤ç ts
¤”r + ç¸e, a-ç a¤¬t mr +t ¤¸ç
r¤=ªrr + +r;¤r +re¬ l’r¢rr +r
l¤¤r; rnrm+; +rr;ntn ;e¤ m
e+ lel¤+ +t ¬r+;t +tl
l¤ lc’r ‘rr=¬ +re m e+
‘rr n ‘rç; ¤t+r¬ ; m n¤ ; e¤
¬ +’r¬ + qo -lmo =rmr¬ ¤
nrl >nr + ar¤rmm¬ + +r;¤r
;r¬mr; a¤e-rr ªrrl pon = qm.
r¬or; n¸ ¤r l=nrm ¬t¤¬nr¤¬ ç n¸
alrr+ o ; n+ +lo¬ ¤l;~m +;n
ªrl a¬+ ¤=-¬nr ¤¸¤r ·n¤çr;,
q mr¬or;t ar ; +rn + ¤ ln =m¤ ¤r
= a-ç ¬ l=¤ =rªrt +m¤r;tnr =
¤lr+ a·¤ alrr+r;t ¤m = aro;
¤ ¤’r=r ¤r¤n ç¸ql
a¬+t ‘rtrr çt ‘rrot çr mq
ar ; a-çr ¬ ¤rl;¤rl;+ ¬t¤¬
ar;++r l+nrl ¤ro + ¤”rr m a¬+
¤r¤ ¤·¤ (e+ ¤¸>t nªrr ¤r; ¤¸>¸
ç¸el
• m¸rn¸ +r +rn
¤”r tscs +t ‘rtn >n¸, m¸=o¤
+ ¬t¤¬ m e+ ¬nr ¤l;¤n ¬
erq l a¬+ ¬t¤¬ m a¤r¬+
·n¤rrr¬ n¤ arnr ¬¤ ¤ç a+r;¤r
m¸ rn¸ -+rn +t lm;¤n m arn ,
nol¤ ¤ç l+=t +rt ;rm = ml=n
¬çt ªrl =ªrr¬tn ¤nrln”rt ~t;rm
o¸¤ ¬ =ogm¸=o¤ +r ¤nrnr l+
a¬ ¤; mr;+’r(mç-¬¢r>r +r
=m¸ç ¬r m¸rn¸+r;+ çrnr ç¸ +t
o’rr çl o¸¤ ¬t ¬ ¤nrnr l+ e+
l¤’r ”r l+nr ¤çln gr;r mrn>t +t
ar;rrr¬r +; a¬+r ar’rt¤ro ¤.
r¤n +; nr q= +rnr¤ç m¸ rn¸ = ¤¤r
¬r =+nr çl mrn>t ¬r aerl++
o¤t ç, +¤e ¤çt a-ç m¸rn¸ +
+rn = ¤¤r =+nt çl m¸=o¤ +
len ‘rr=>r + ¤-¬ ¤ec¬r nªrr
mlo;r + ¤++; emr¬r ¬t¤¬ +
=rr”r = +çt ¤nror +lo¬ ªrrl
el+¬ m¸rn¸+rn = al¬·er¤¸¤+
a-ç q= =çr; +r a¤¬r¬ + len
m¬¤¸ ; çr ¬r ¤srl a-ç mrn>t nq
+;¬ +r ¤;rm’r lonr mnrl lo·n
=¸;¢rr +¤¤ ar; nq +t =¤enr
+ lee ¤¸; l¤lrr-l¤rrr¬ = ¤l¤>
al·¬ ¬er+; =¤r rrr=r m>r +
¬r¤ + =rªr nq m arç¸lnnr o¬
+r +çr mnrl
¤”r tscs + a+c¸¤; mrç m
¬¤;r>r + or ;r¬ ¤¸ ;t m++rt;nr
+ =rªr m¸=o¤ ¬ l¤rrr¬ ar;++r
m¸=o¤ l=nrm + l¤”rn m
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤¸¤r e+rmnr nªrr l¬”+¤cnr
¤¸ ¤ + ¤ lnlo¬ nç ‘rr=>tn l¤r
rr¬ =+¤-¬ l+nrl q= ¤¸¤r +;¬
m : mrç eml a¬ lo¬r +r =m;¤r
+;n ç¸e m¸=o¤ ¬ ¤ro m +çr-¤ç
e=r ªrr ¬= e+ q’¤;tn ‘rl+n
¬ +¸l>m +rn +r ¤rnr¤;¤r nnr;
+; a-ç =r=rl;+ ¬t¤¬, ¬r ¤ç
n¤ n+ ·nntn +; ;ç ªr , a=
¤oe+;, arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ +t
ar; am=; l+nrl
¬t¤¬ ¤oe¬ ¤rer a¬¸+r¤
~t o¸ ¤ ¬t ¬ l¤lrr¤n a¬¸ ”or¬
¤r;++r +;¤rnrl 礬 +¸¤s m ç;
m> + ¤ro '=¤rçr' + =rªr o’rt
rrt m lmet 礬 =rmmt +t ar.
ç¸ln on ªr nªrr o’rt rrt +r ot¤+
ar; am;¤nt l¬;-n; =rªr ¬en
;çn ªrl
q= ¤+r; +;t¤ nt¬ mrç m
=¤r-er=r m> +r ¬¤ ¤¸;r ç¸arl
l¬= lo¬ ¤¸¤r arç¸ln ot, q=+
ame lo¬ +nrl+ ¬¤ ¬çt +;¬r
ªrr q=lee m¸=o¤ l¤=n; ¤; çt
=r n ;ç , ¤;-n¸ aron¤’r ¤ rn·
or ¤¬ çt ar=r =r¸e mql ar=r
¤o l+n ;¬rq m ec ç¸e ªr l+
a¤r¬+ rnr¬ em mnrl m¸=o¤
¬ ¤nrnr l+ a¬+r a= =mn n+
+¸e +rt mre¸m ¬çt ªrr l+ rnr¬
+nr çr nr ç ? ar ; mrn>t m >
+r aªr +nr ç? m¸=o¤ +r a¤¬
a-o; ¬rl+r = e +; +¤o n+
e+ a¬t¤ ¤+r; +r =¤o ¤+r’r
lo=rrq lonrl m¸=o¤ l¤¤r; +;¬
em l+ lo=rrq nr ar=rr = onr
ç, el+¬ ¤c m ¤+r’r çt ¤+r’r
+= lo=rrq o ;çr ç?
¬¤ m¸=o¤ ¬ q= ¤+r’r ¤;
rnr¬ +l-on l+nr nr a=m +r¤;
+t m¸¬¬ ¬=t ar¤r¬ =¸¬rq otl
m¸=o¤ ¬ =r¤r l+ ar¤r¬ +r n>
nr +¤o m ç el+¬ m; ¤c m +r¤;
+t m¸¬¬ +t ar¤r¬ += =¸¬rq o
;çt çl ¬¤ m¬ ar¤r¬ ¤; rnr¬
+l-on l+nr nr ¤rnr l+ ¬rl+r m
= mrn>t m>r +t ar¤r¬ l¬;-n;
l¬+e ;çt çl a=t +t m¸¬ m¸q
+r¤; +t m¸¬¬ + =mr¬ =¸¬rq o
;çt çl'' m¸=o¤ a= ¤+r’r ar;
ar¤r¬ +r a¤¬ a-o; +r¤t o;
n+ o =rn =¸ ¬n ;ç l a= =mn
+;t¤ ¤rn· ¤r¤ ¤¬ +r =mn çr
mnr ªrrl q= =mn ¤r¬t +t =¤.
erq çrnt ªrtl rr; + =¬r¬rr; +r
¬e ¤·¤r ¬ =r¸er ers lonr ªrr
q=lee ç¤r + =rªr ¤r¬t +t ¬¤
n¬ ar¤r¬ ç¸q nr a=+ +r;¤r
a¬+r rnr¬ +r m çr mnrl l¤;
ar=r ¤-o +;+ o=r¬ =¸¬¬ +r
+q ¤r; ¤nr= l+nr ¤;-n¸ +rq
=¤enr ¬çt lmetl q=+ ¤ro
a¬+r =¤r=ªn ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = ot+
çr mnrl
m¸ =o ¤ +çn ç l+ ar¬ m
a·et ¤+r; = =mq ;çr ç¸ l+
m; m ¬r ar’¤n ¬¬+ ¤l;¤n¬
arnr ç a=m m> +r ¤+rr¤ nr
ç çt ¤;-n¸ l¤’r”r ¤+rr¤ a¬+t
e+rmnr +r ªrrl
=¤rer=r m>r + a¬¸”or¬
+ or;r¬ m¸=o¤ +r m¬ ¤¸¤r ‘rr-n
;çr l+=t ¤+r; + +rr¤ a¬+ m¬
m ¤or ¬çt ç¸e ¬= e+ n;¤ mrn
=rst çr ar; o¸=;t n;¤ =rrr+
¤r¤r;¢rr +t l¬;-n; ¤rªr¬r a=
¤;m =rrr = +;, ¤=t çt l=ªrln
m¸=o¤ +t ;çtl m¸=o¤ +çn ç l+
m¬ =¤rer=r m>r +r ¬¤ l+nr
el+¬ m; m ¬r ¤l;¤n¬ arnr
ç ¤r m;t e+rmnr + +r;¤r arnr
çl
a¤n¸ +n ar;rrr¬r + ¤ro
m¸ =o ¤ ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = =rlr¤+ çr
mn l nçr n+ l+ m¸ =o ¤ ¤ts t
ar; l=m;c + rr¸e n+ +r =ç¬
¬çt +; =+n ªrl m¸=o¤ +r q=
¤rn = ar’¤n ç¸ ar l+ m > =
e=r ¤l;¤n¬ ar =+nr ç q=+t
+r¤¬r +rt ¬çt ªrtl q= ar’¤n
¬¬+ ¤l;¤n¬ + +r;¤r a¬+r r
rrlm+ ¤¸=n+ ¤c¬ +t q·er ç¸ql
o ¤nr m = =¤rmt ~t l¤¤ +r-r-o¬t
+t çt ¤¸ =n+ ¤c ¬ +r lmetl =¤rmt
¬t ¬ ¤r; ¤r; ¬r; lonr lonr ç l+
arnrrm ¬mng m l¤¬r =ogm¸=
= ot¢rr ¤r¤n l+n +rq =¤enr
lme¬t a=+r¤ çl q=lee m¸=o¤
+r +rt m¸= ¤¬r¬ +t ¤¤e q·er
ç¸ql o¤nrm = ¤t+r¬; = arr; +t
ar; ¤¬r¤ +t n;¤ ¬r ;r¤ erq¬
¬rnt ç a= ¤; ¬rm=; ¬rm+ ; e¤
=c’r¬ çl
nç ¤t+r¬ ; = +;t¤ z:
l+ermtc; o¸;t ¤; l=ªrn çl ¬çr
e+ ; nte rrr ; ¤; m¸ =o ¤ l=nrm +
m¸l+nornr =n =ogm¸=o¤ ¤r¤r
~t m mrq ¬rªr¬t nr mt (¤ get¬¸
mç¬ n¤=nr m et¬ ;çn ªr l a¬=
ot¢rr e¬ = a¬+t +rnr ¤ec
mql ot¢rr e¬ + +;t¤ aro mrç
¤ro çt :t.tz.tss: +t +¸ ; ;rl>
¬ a¬ mçr¬g arrmr +r a¬+
ç¬r;r l’r”nr = et¬ lenrl a¬m
m¸ =o ¤ +rt e+ ªr l +rr ln+ l¤nr
=¤r or =re +t am m çt ers +;
¤e mn ar ; arrnrlrm+ l¤nr
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24
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤r¤r ¬t +t =mrlrr ¤; ¤¸¬r
a¤¬r +t, nr ¤ a=t =mn ¤¸¤r
=¤=ªr çr mnl ¤;-n¸ q=+ =rªr çt
¤r¤r¬t +r aro’r lmer l+ ''m¬
n¸q ¬r ¤=ro lonr ç a= mr¬¤
+rnr¤r + lee =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ m
¤r cl'' m¸ =o ¤ ¬ a¤¬ =ogm¸ =o ¤
¤r¤r ~t mmrq ¬rªr ¬t + aro’r
+r mr¬n ç¸e :a.ac.tssc = ;e
=¤r = c =re c mrç ¤çe =¤·er
= =¤rl¬¤¸n e+; q= ¤=ro +r
¤rc ;ç çl
mrn>t +r lo·n ¤+r’r,
m¸ =o ¤ + len ¬q =rr ¬ e +;
arnrl a-çr¬ mç=¸= l+nr l+
+rrln+ ¬mng m a¤¬ al=nr¤
e¤ ¬t¤¬ + ¤rç;t +rrm + ¤te e+
a·¤rr; =rrr çl ¤ç ¬ nr a¤¬t
+rrln+ =tmrar m ¤rr ç ar; ¬
çt a¬+t ·nl+nmn ¬rm=+nr,
+rrln+ ¬mng l¬=m ¤ç ;çn ç,
a== ¤rrt ç¸q çl a-çr¬ mç=¸=
l+nr l+ a¬+t ·nl+nmn =rrr
qn¬t ¤nror l¤=n¸n çr mq ç l+
=m=n ¤ gr¤s +r a¤¬ arle m¬
m e =+n ç e¤ ¤ç =m=n l¤’¤
ç ar; ¬r +rt =¬t¤ e¤ l¬¬t¤
=rrr q=m l¬¤r= +; ;çt ç ¤ç
a¬+t a¤¬t ç e¤ ¤ç a¬+r
++¤¬ mç=¸= +; =+n ªrl a¤¬
a¤¸¤ a¬¸+r¤ gr;r a-çr¬ nç
+rt mç=¸= l+nr l+ ¤r=n¤ m ¤
''¤çt'' ç ¬r ¤or m ¤g ¤r+n
ç -''nr¤ml=''(n¸ ¤çt ç ¸ ¬ =r l+
¤r¤t¬ ¤lo+ =nr ¬ =¤·nr¤+,
a¤l;¤n¬’rte l¬;r+r; q’¤;tn
‘rl+n ''¤g'' +r +çr çl
¤¸;r¬ ar; ¬n
¬t¤¬ + ¤t¤ =rr”r..
a¤r¬+ =r =rl;+ +rr ln+
¬mng m ¤te erc¬r m¸=o¤ +r
¤ç¸n çt a=l¤+; em ;çr ªrrl
a-çr¬ mç=¸= l+nr ¬= a¬+r
l¤’rre al=nr¤ ¢r¸q a¤=ªrr m
=mc+; e+ a¤l;l¤n e¤ l¤¤;tn
¬mng + ao; al¤+l=n al=.
nr¤ m o¤r lonr mnr çl m¸=o¤ ¬
=rrr¬r + ¤º¤rng ¬r aog+r¸n
o¸’n a¬¸+r¤ l+nr ªrr a=+ ¤r;
m ¤ro m ¤ç ¤ç¸ n lo¬r n+ l¤=nr;
= =r¤n ;çl ¤ç nç l¤’¤r= ¬çt
+; =+n ªr l+ +r q l¤¬r ar nl;+
amr + ;ç =+nr ªrr, ar; l¤; +rt
a-çr¬ o¸’n + or;r¬ ¬r a¬¸+r¤
l+nr ªrr, ¤ç qn¬r ¤r=nl¤+ ªrr
l+ a= mln+r m +ç+; =rrl;¬
¬çt l+nr ¬r =+nr ªrrl ¤”rr ¤ro
a-çr¬ ¬r¬r l+ m¬ ¬r a¬¸+r¤
l+nr ªrr ¤ç, +rl¤”n +t ar+¸ln
ªrt, ¬¤ ar¬ +t =ªr¸e a¤=ªrr =
mr¬¤ ‘r;t; ¤ç¸n çr+r e¤ ¤m+.
ter çr mrl a-çr ¬ aog+r¸ n +rl¤”n
a¬¸ +r¤ l+nr ¬r mr¬¤ =+nnr +t
¤nt¢rr +; ;çr çl
m¸=o¤ + len, ‘rtrr çt, nç
mr¬¬r ar¬ oorn+ ;çr l+ mrn>t
+t a¤r=¬r ¬ a-ç mrn + a= s;
= m¸+n +; lonr ¬r a¬m ¤çe
¬s ¬mrn ªrrl a-çr ¬ nç +rt
mr¬r l+ +rrln+ +lo¬rqnr, ¬r
a¤ n+ =ªrrnt =¤ = emrnr;
ar ;çt ªrt, ¤ç a¤ =mn + =rªr
ar=r¬ çr¬t ar;++r çr mnt ç,
e l+¬ a¬ ¤; ‘rtrr çt nç ¤ +c çr
mnr l+ ¬t¤¬ a¤ ¤çe ¬=r ¬çt
;çr çl ¬t¤¬ +t =r=rl;+ ¤r=n.
l¤+nrar ¬= =rr¬r, =r¬r, +rm
+;¬r nªrr ¤rl;¤rl;+ +n·nr +
l¬¤ ç¬ arlo m a-ç a¤ ¤ç mç;t
loe¤=¤t ¬çt ;çt ¬r =rrr¬r +t
rrc¬r = ¤çe ;çr +;nt ªrtl a-çr.
¬ e+ ¤l;¤n¬ ar; o=rr, nol¤
¤ç q¸o ¤çe = çt ¬çt ¤ren ªr
el+¬ a¤ =¤ ¤re¬ +t mrm ¤.
¤enr = mç=¸ = çr ¬ emt ªrt, ¤rç
nç a¬+ ar=¤r= ;ç¬ ¤rer +r
=l¤+; em nr ¬çt, q== +rq
a-n; ¬çt ¤snr ªrrl
a¬+t =·¤rq + +r;¤r
a¬+ +rnr en + =rlªrnr ¬
m¸=o¤ +r ;e¤ + =ªrr¬tn +m.
¤r;t =rr +r ¬nr ¤¸¬ lenrl =rr
+ m¸ogor ¤; l¤¤r; +;n ¤+n
¬r a-ç =çt emnr ªrr a= ¤;
a¬+r m ; =mqr nr¤rot ==r
=rªrt-+m¤rl;nr +r ¤=o arnr,
e l+¬ = rr +t +rn +rl;¤rt +
a¬+ =rlªrnr ¤ ¤¤-rr+r +r ¤ç
·nlªrn +; ;çr ªrrl
n¸ l¬n¬ + +r ”c alrr+r;t e¤
¤¤-rr+ ¬r a+=; +m¤rl;nr +
lçnr + l¤=ç a¬+r ¤rl¬¤ ç+
¬ o ¬ nªrr a-ç a¬+ alrr+r;r =
¤l¤n +;¬ + len +¤c¤¸¤r ¤re
¤en ªr, a=m m¸=o¤ +r =çnrm
¬ lme¬ = a-ç +lo¬rq çrnt
ªrtl q== +rnren m ‘r>¸nr ¤or
çr ¬ emt nªrr ¬t¤¬ + len = rr”r
ar; +rt +lo¬ çr mnrl ¤ç a¤¬
¤l;¤r; + =rªr ; e¤ + +¤= m
erc = e+ +m; ¤re rr; m ;çn
ªrl mlmnr m ¬¤ nr¤+m ¡: lsmt
=ctmc = alrr+ çr ¬rnr ªrr n¤
a¬+ nªrr a¬+ ¤l;¤r; + =o=nr
+ len ¬t¬r a=ç¬tn çr ¬rnr
ªrr +nrl+ a¬m a¤¬ +m; +r
o sr ;=r¬ + len e+ =tle m
¤¬ +n +;¬ +t +rt ¢rmnr ¬çt
ªrtl ¤l;”onr + arrrr; ¤; +¸e
23
23
25
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+;¬ +t ‘rn ¤; l¤¬r ¤r;t
arn nç =¸l¤rrr a¤e-rr +;r¬
+r q’rr;r l+nr e l+¬ a-çr ¬
e+om = a-ç q=+ len m¬r
+; lonr l
=¤n +t ner’r....
q=+ +¸e mçt¬r ¤ro m¸=o¤
¤ç¸ n a’rr-n çr mn l +rr ln+ ¬t¤¬
= a¬+t loe¤=¤t =rrm çr mntl
a¬+t q ’¤; m ¬r nor+or ar=ªrr
ªrt, rrt; rrt; ¤ç o¸c l¤’¤r= m
¤oe mntl a¤ ¤ç a¤¬r alr
r+r’r =mn q’¤; ar;rrr¬r nªrr
rnr¬ +;¬ m ·nntn +;n ªrl ¤ç
¬ = çt a-nm ¸ =rt ç¸ e, ¤ç ¬t¤¬ +
¤r; m çt ar’¤n +;¬ eml m¬ m
a¬+ ¤’¬ ao¬ em-· ''¤r=n¤
m, m +r¬ ç¸? m nçr +nr ç¸? m
+çr ¬r ;çr ç¸? ''nç l¤¤r; a-ç
;rn-lo¬ emrnr; =nr¬ eml ¬¤
a-çr¬ mrn>t +t =rrr¬r + ¤ro
arn a¤¬ q= ¬¬l;n m ¤oer¤
¤r¤ng ¤l¤> ¤¸;r¤rr + ¤r;mn,
+¸e ¤l¤snr = ¤;rm’r l+nr nr
a-ç ¤nernr mnr l+ ¤r=n¤ m
a-ç o¤t +t l=lç ¤r¤n ç¸q çl
a-çr¬ a-ç +rrln+ ¬t¤¬ m l¬.
;-n; ar ;çt +lo¬rqnr +r o¸;
+;¬ + len a= ‘rl+n +r ¤nrm
+;¬ +r ¤;rm’r lonrl
m¸ =o ¤ ¬ a¬+t ;rn ¤; rnr¬
o ¬ = ‘rret¬nr¤¸ ¤ + m¬r +;
lonrl a-ç l¤’¤r= ªrr l+ q’¤; ¬
a¬+ ¬t¤¬ m ¤l;¤n¬ +; a-ç
arrnrlrm+ mrm ¤; q=len ¬çt
srer ç l+ q== ¤ç ¤=r +mr
=+ ar ; =¸ =ro +rr ln+ ¬t¤¬
l¬nl am; q’¤; ¬ a-ç q’¤;tn
¤ªr ¤; ¤crnr ç nr m¸=o¤ ¬ mr¬r
l+ a=¬ e=r l+=t =rr= ac’n
= l+nr ç ar; ¤ç arm +rt ;r=.
rrr lo=rremrl za¤t ‘rnr-ot +t
mçr¬nmg çl=nnr m e+ =¤rmt
l¤¤+r¬-o l¬-çr¬ ¬ l=¤ +rr;n
¤lr+ aml;+r nªrr n¸;r¤ m lç-o¸
arrnrlrm+ l¤;r=n +r açr;
l+nrl a¬+ gr;r ¤ln¤rlon o’r¬
¤; m¸ =o ¤ armrmt +¸ e mrç m
arrnrlrm+ a¬¸ =;¤r + or ;r¬ ar
¤ç¸¤l ¤lo+ l=çr-n ¬r =r¤+rr.
lm+ =¤ = erm¸ çr n ç , a¬+ gr;r
mr¬¤nr + ¤ rnr lm+ =¤r-n;¤r ¤;
=¤rmt ¬t + ¬r; ¬ m¸=o¤ +r ¤+r.
rl¤n l+nrl m¸=-l’r”n ¤;+¤;r +r
¤¸¬¬tl¤n +; a== ¤lo+ o’r¬
¤; ¤e¬ +t l¤¤+r¬-o ¬t ¤¸;¬r;
¤+ren +;n ªrl a¬+r l¤’¤r=
ªrr l+ + ¤e nçt mrm =m=n l¤’¤
m arrnrlrm+ l¤+r= +r mrm
¤’r=n +; =+nr ªrrl
¤r¤r ~t
mmrq¬rªr ¬t = m¸er+rn..
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o +t ;rn ¤;
rnr¬ o n ç¸ e m¸ =o ¤ ¬ ¤¸ ¤r nr¤;nr
+ =rªr m¸= +t ner’r ar;++r +tl
¬¤ a-ç e+ +rt ¬ lme =+r nr
a-çr¬ l¬;r’rr mç=¸= +tl a-ç
rnr¬ + or;r¬ ¬rm=; (e+ ercr
=r mr¤ ¬r ¤t+r¬; = z: l+.mt.
o¸; ç¸ m l=ªrn ar~m +r o=r¬
+t ar+c q·er ç¸q, l¬= a-çr¬
¬¬; a or¬ +; lonr, l¤; +rt
a-çr ¬ mç=¸ = l+nr l+ ar-nl;+
mrm ¤e¤nt çr aot çl a¤e tss:
m ¤ç ar~m mn ¤çr l’r¤ a¤nr;t
+¸¤re¸ o¸l”c ¤re ¤m¸=r =-nr=t
mçrn¤’¤; ¤r¤r ~t mmrq¬rªr ¬t
= a¬+t +rc ç¸ql
¤ rn¢r =¤ = a¬+t m¸ er+rn
+ ¤r; m l¤’r ”r +¸ e ¬çt ªrrl
ar~m ers¬ + ¤ro +rt ¤r¤r +t
+¸¤re¸ l¬l¬m”r o¸l”c m¸=o¤ +
=rªr ¤¬t ;çt e¤ +¸e lo¬r ¤ro
a-ç ¤r¤r +r ¤l¤> =ªrr¬ o=r¬
+t ¤¸¬· q·er ç¸ql a¤e tss: m
¤r¤r = nç a¬+t o¸=;t m¸er+rn
ªrtl ¬¤ m¸=o¤ q¸+ nªrr ¤r¤r +
¤;¤r=¤’r l+n n¤ ¤r¤r ¬ m¸=o¤
+ l=; ¤; çrªr ;=r+; ar’rt¤ro
lonr l l¬= ¢r¤r ¤r¤r ¬ m¸=o¤ +r
=¤’r l+nr a-çr¬ l¤o¸n m¸¬;¬
¬=t arnlrr+ nt¤ n;m ‘r;t; m
mç=¸= +tl l=çnrm +t algntn
l¤lrr gr;r nç ¤r¤r +r m¸=o¤ +r
otl¢rn +;¬ +r n;t+r ªrrl m¸=o¤
‘rtrr çt ar~m = ¤r¤= er c arn ,
+¸e +rt ‘r-or +r aror¬-¤or¬
¬çt ç¸ arl n¤ m¸ =o ¤ ¬ ªrr s r
mr¬r l+ a-ç l¬= m¸= +t ner’r
ªrt ot+ ¤ç lme ¤¸+r ªrr, nªrr
a¬+r ¬t¤¬ e+¤r; l¤; = ¤oe
¤¸+r ªrrl
l¤l¤> rrc¬rn..........
mq -¬¸ ¬ tss: n+ a-çr ¬
mr¬l=+ ·n¤rrr¬ ar; +rt alrr+
¤cr ç¸ ar mç=¸ = l+nrl nç l=ªrln
ar~m ¬r¬ + ¤ro +rt emrnr;
¤¬t ;çtl am=n tss: + a-n m
a¤=ªrr qn¬t ¤nror =r;r¤ çr mq
l+ m¸=o¤ +rnren m ¬r+; +rn
¬çt +; =+, ar; a-çr¬ l¤¬r
+rq e¸cgct +r ¤rªr¬r-¤> lon,
sgn¸ct ¤; ¬r¬r ¤-o +; lonrl
:t lo=+¤; tss: +t =¸¤ç : ¤¬
e+ ¤sr qc+r emrl n¬ +r¸++¤
= =m¸ ¤r arr;t-¤l’¤mt +rr;n
lçe mnr, ¤¸ª¤t lçet a=+ +¸e
23
23
26
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m¸=o¤ ¤; ¤r@ =¤ = +rq
¤ +rr¤ ¬çt ¤s r, nol¤ a-çr ¬ ¤ro
m ¬r¬r l+ ¤r¤r +t mrn ¬ ¤”rr
¤¸¤ l¤nr¬t +t mrn + ¤ro, e+
¤r; ¤¸¬· a-ç a¬rªr ¤¬r lonr
ªrrl l¤; ‘rtrr çt, ¤ro m ¤r¤r +t
=mrlrr ¤; ¬r¬ +t e+ aqrn
ar-nl;+ mrm a-ç mç=¸= ç¸q,
l¬= a-çr ¬ lomrmt ¤re =mq+;
=ªrlmn +; lonrl m¸ =o ¤ +r
·n¤çr; a=rrrr;¤r çr mnrl
¬¤ ¤ç +rn = emrnr; aem
ªr, n¤ +rt ar-nl;+ ¤;’rrl¬nr
a¬ ¤; ¤¤e ¤m = ¤çr; +; ;çt
ªrtl ¤ç a¤¬ ¤l>+ mr¤ ¤er¬r
¤r¤= erc, ¬çr ¤r¬t ar; ¤·¤r
+t ¤;¤l;’r += +;? nç l¤-nr
a-ç ;rn-lo¬ =nrnt ;çnt ªrtl
+nr +; ar; +nr ¬ +;?
e+ ¤r; ¤ç mlmnr m ‘rrm +
=mn =s+ ¤; cçe ;ç ªr, ¤s
+ ¬t¤ ¤o, e+ =ªrr¬tn n¸¤+ ¬
a-ç ¤¸ernrl a=¬ m¸=o¤ = ¬r
+çr ¤ç a-ç ¤ç¸n l¤l¤> emrl
n¸¤+ ¬ +çr, l+ =¤¬ m ar+;
¤r¤r ~t mmrq¬rªr ¬t a= +çn
ç l+ n;t çrce ¤; ¬r ¤r¤¸¬t arn
ç n¸ a=+r +ç l+ ¤ ¬rm=; ¬re,
a¬+r ¬r ¤;’rr¬t çr ;çt ç a=+r
nçt +r;¤r çl ¬¤ m¸=o¤ ¬ n¸¤+
= +çr l+ ¤r¤r a¤ ¬tl¤n ¬çt
ç , q=len a= ¤r¤r + = lme
=+n ç? nr n¸¤+ ¬ +çr l+ ¤ç
= n a=+ =¤¤¬ m ar+; a=
aro’r on çl q= q’¤;tn ¤¸er¤r
=mq+; m¸=o¤ ¤r¤r +t =mrlrr
¤; mn nªrr ¤çr ¤rªr¬r +tl
lç-o¸ l¤¤r;rrr;r m e+ ¤m¸=r
l¬nm ç l+ arrmr am; çl ¬¤
e+ ·nl+n m¸¬; ¬rnr ç nr a=+r
‘r;t; m;nr ç arrmr ¬çt l nç
+rt l¤’¤r= l+nr ¬rnr ç l+ e+
arrnrlrm+ m¸ = nr e+ = n a¤¬r
¬’¤; ‘r;t; rnrm¬ + ¤ro +rt
a¤¬ l’r”nr +r l¬ol’rn +;¬r
¬r;t ;=rnr çl q=len q’¤;tn
ar’rt”rr + q;¬ + =¤ m e+ =n
+t =mrlrr ¤¸¬¬tn çrnt çl m¸=o¤
¬ ªrrs ar’¤n + =rªr mç=¸=
l+nr l+ ¤r¤r +t =mrlrr + o’r¬
+ ¤ro l¤-nr + +re ¤roe rrt;
rrt; ec ;ç ªrl
¤r¤r +r o¸=;t
o¸l¬nr = =-o’r.
¬=-¬= a¬+r rnr¬ ¤¤e
ç¸ar, m¸=o¤ ¬ ¤r¤r = ar-nl;+
=o’r ¤r¤n +;¬ ar;++r +; lonl
l¤¬r l+=t ‘r +r + m¸ =o ¤ +r
¬rot çt =¤”c çr mnr l+ ¤r¤r
~t mmrq¬rªr ¬t çt ¤ç m¸= ªr
l¬¬+t a-ç ner’r ªrtl m¸=o¤ ¬
nç +rt mr¬r l+ ¬’¤; ‘r;t; er s¬
+ ¤r¤¬¸o, l¤¬r l+=t ¤rrrr +,
¤ ¤e ‘rl+n + =rªr ¤r¤r a-ç
arrnrlrm+ mrm lo=rer ;ç ªrl
ar-nl;+ =o’r ¤r¤n +;¬
+r n;t+r a= a¬¸+r¤ = l+r-¬
ªrr, l¬== m¸=o¤ a-n ·nl+n =
=+¤+ +;¬ + len l+nr +;n ªr l
l+-çt ‘r-or +r aror¬ ¤ or¬ ¬çt
çrnr ªrr ¬= ¤r;rl¤r+ +çrl¬nr
nr l¤rmr m q’¤;tn =+¤+ +r
¬nr + +rr”r¤r + =¤ m ¤ol’rn
l+nr ¬rnr çl
e+ l¤r+¸ e =¤”c l¤¤r; l¤¬r
l+=t ¤nr= nr ar+r¢rr + =rr
rr;¤r n;t+ = m¸ =o ¤ + lomrm
=, =¸=¤”c =¤ = a-ç nç ¤nrn
ç¸ e m¸ ¬;nr l+ a-ç =mq¬ +
len +nr ar¤’n+ ç? nr a¬
¤l;l=ªrlnnr m +nr +;¬r ç? nç
¤ +r’r +t e+ l+;¤r +t n;ç ªrr ¬r
mç; ¤r¬t m = e+ erct eç; +t
n;ç = =nç +t ar ; ¤c n ç¸ e arm
+r mrm ¤+rl’rn +;nt çl
¤r¤r ¬ ‘rtrr çt m¸=o¤ +r
nç eç=r= +;r lonr l+ ¤ç ¤¸¤
l¬rrrl;n =r=rl;+ ¬t¤¬ ·nntn
+;¬ + len ¬çt çl mç; rnr¬
+ or;r¬ a==n a¤=;r ¤; a-ç
+rr¬ çr mnr l+ m¸=o¤ +r =+¤¸¤
r mr¬¤nr + =¤r-n;¤r + len r
rrlm + +rl-n +t am¸ arq +;¬ +t
·n¤=ªrr +;¬t çl m¸=o¤ +r =¤n
+r ¬r =¤r-n;¤r çr ;çr ªrr a=+r
al+r¤ rn ¤r=n¤ m a-ç arm ar¬
¤re o¸·=rrn +rn + len nnr;
+;¬r ªrrl
za ¤t ‘rnr-ot + +rr;n +
mçr¬nm rrrlm+ m¸=ar m = e+
~t a;l¤-o +t l’r¢rrar gr;r
¤”rr ¤ro m¸=o¤ +r =t=r¬r ªrr
l+ e+ ·nl+n m lo·n =¤r-n;¤r
a-nn· =m=n mr¬¤nr m lo·n
=¤r-n;¤r +r aogrrr”r+ çrmr,
+nr l+ ¤ç qr¬ ¤ r¤n ·nl+n
o¸=;r +r mrm lo=reremrl m¸=o¤
+r =¤”c ‘r-or m ¤ner lonr mnr
ªrr l+ ¤ç çt e+ mr> q= lm’r¬
+ len ¤¸¬ mn çl nol¤ a¬+t
=¤n +t ¤n¬r +t =;enr nªrr
¤l;l=ªrln¬-n ¤nr= ¬r a-çr¬
=¤n + a-o; ¤rn, a-çr¬ q=
q’¤;tn +rl¤”nr¤r¤rt ¤; l¤’¤r=
+;¬r a¬+ len alrr+ +lo¬
¤¬r lonr ªrrl
¤m+¤; = =+¤l-rrn o¸’n....
23
23
27
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+r e+ a’r lo=rernr mnr
l¬-ç ¤ =oç + =rªr ¬r¬ =+
l+ ¤ç l+=t ¤l¤> ¤¸=n+ +r çr
=+nr ªrr, e+ a¬¸+¸e +çr¤n
+ ‘r-or + =rªr
' ' n¸ ¤çt ç , n¸ ¤çt
ç ''(nr¤ml=¸l amet =¸ ¤ç
m¸=o¤ ¬ a= aqrn o¸’n + ¤r;
m l¤=nr; = =r¤r nªrr nç ¬r¬¬
+r ¤nr= l+nr l+ a-çr¬ ¬r +¸e
=¤¤¬ m o =rr ªrr, +nr ¤ç o¸ ’n ªrr
nr l=¤ e+ aqrn =¤¤¬l
m¸=o¤ +r =¤¤¬ m =¸¬rq ¤s
¤¤¬r ¤; l¤n¬ +;n ;ç el+¬
¤ a¬ ‘r-or +r aªr =mq =+,
+nr l+ ''n¸ ¤çt ç '' ¬r ¤çe
a-çr¬ ++rt ¬çt =¸¬r ªrrl +nrl+
¤¸=n+ +r ¤ç a’r lç-ot m ªrr,
m¸ =o ¤ a= a ’r + +¸ e çt ‘r-or +r
¤r¤= nro +; =+ el+¬ a¬+
len q=+r +rq aªr ¬çt ªrrl
+¸e lo¬r + ¤º¤rng m¸=o¤
+ erc ¤¸> ;r¬-q ¬¤ l¤oren =
rr; ar ;ç ªr nr =s+ + l+¬r;
e+ mr ¤t +t o¸ +r¬ ¤; a-çr ¬
e+ ¤ct ¤¸ ;r¬t ¤¸ =n+, l¬=+
+r¬ m¸s ç¸e ªr, n¸ çt ¤st o=rt nr
a-ç a= ¤¸=n+ +r e¬ +t aqrn
ar+r¢rr mç=¸= ç¸q ar; ¤ç a=
e arn , l¬= ¤ro m a-çr ¬ m¸ =o ¤
+r o lonrl l¤¬r l+=t =rr= =l¤
+ ¬= çt m¸=o¤ ¬ a= ¤¸=n+ +
¤-¬r +r ¤ecr, ¤ç e+ qc+ =
=r¤rrr¬ çr me, ¬¤ a-çr¬ a=+
e+ ¤¸ ”o ¤; ¤ç a ’r o =rr, ¬r
a-ç =¤¤¬ m lo=rrnr mnr ªrrl
a-çr¬ ¤ç ¤¸=n+ ¤ct, +¸e
lo¬r ¤ro l=¤ qn¬r =mq =+
l+ ¤ç ¤¸=n+ ¤·¤r + len ªrt,
l¬=m =rrrr;¤r ‘r-or m l¤>r gr;r
q=rq rrm +r =mqrnr mnr ªrrl
=¤n ¤ç¸n ¤nror rrrlm+ ¬ çr¬
+ +r;¤r m¸=o¤ lç-o¸ ¤or + ¤r;
m +rt ¤nror ¬çt ¬r¬n ªrl a-n
rrmr + o’r¬ + ¤r; m nr ar; +rt
+m ¬r¬+r;t ;=rn ªrl
nol¤ ¤ç =¤¤¬ a¬+ lee
¤çet ¤¬r ;çrl m¸=o¤ ¬ mç=¸=
l+nr l+ e+ ¬n n;ç +t ‘rrl-n
ar¬t ar;++r çr mq çl ¤ç ¤er¬r
= ¤t+r¬; erc, ¬çr ¤; ¤ mr¬.
l=+ g-g + or ;r¬ ‘r;¤r e ¤¸ + ªr l
¤r¤= +rm ¤; erc nªrr +rnren
m =rmr-n n;t+ = +rn +;¬
eml ar’¤n¬¬+ =¤ =, l+=t
¬ +rt a¬+ a¬lrr+¸ n =¤ = e+¤
=mn n+ +rn = a¬¸ ¤l=ªrn ;ç¬
¤; +rt +rq m++rt; ar¤lrr ¬çt
+t, ¬r =rmr-nn· a-çr¬ a¤¬r
+rn ++rt ersr çt ¬çt ªrrl or
¤”r ¤ro a-çr¬ ¤çet ¤r; m¸= ~t
m mrq ¬rªr ¬t +t =mrlrr ¤; ¬r+;
¤rªr¬r +tl
e+ ¤r; l¤; ¤t+r¬ ; m m¸ =o ¤
¬ ar=¤r= + =rmrl¬+ ermr =
¤¸er l+ +nr q=rq rrm m +rq
¤l¤> m-ªr çrnr ç ¬= lç-o¸ar
m +rm¤ogmtnr çrnt ç? n¤ a-ç
¤rq¤e + ¤r; m ¤nr ¤erl
a-ç ¤nernr mnr l+ l+nr¤
+ ¬r a’r a-çr¬ o¸’n m o=r ªr
¤ç ¤l¤> ¤¸=n+ ç nªrr ¤ç a’r
=-c ¬rç¬ gr;r lel=rn ¤rq¤e
m q=r m=tç + =¸=mr¤r; +r e+
lç==r ç ar; =¤¤¬ m ¬r a-çr¬
o =rr ªrr, ¤ç arnrn t:·zc-z:
nªrr tc·:-t: ªrl ¤ro m e+ lm>
¬, l¬=¬ ¤l¤> ¤¸=n+ ¤rq¤e
+ ¤r; m =¤n ¤l;¤n ¤r¤n +;¬
çn¸ e+ err¸ +r= l+nr ªrr, a=¬
m¸=o¤ +r erct l+nr¤ + ar+r;
+r e+ lç-ot ==+;¤r +rc l+nrl
a= er ct ¤¸ =n+ +r ¤c ¬ = m¸ =o ¤
¬ =r¤r l+ ¤rq¤e +r ar; arm
a¬¸ =;¤r +;¬r a= mn ç ar ; a=
l¤”rn m =l¤ =mr¤n +; otl
¤¸ ¬· ¬¤t¬ arm ç + =rªr
ar-nl;+ =o’r ¤ ar¤r¬ ‘rtrr çt
¤r¤= erct, m¸=o¤ = m¸e am¬t
m ¤rq¤e +r ¤c¬ +t ¤r; ¤r;
mr m ç¸ q l e+ lm> ¬r =ªrr¬tn
er +re¬ m ·nr=nrnr ªrr, a==
¤rq¤e +t e+ ¤ ln arrr; etl
a m ¬t +t ¤rq¤e ¤c¬r +r q mo.
omr; =rl¤n ¬çt ç¸ar, ¤¸=n+ +r
¤ç a’r ¬r a-çr¬ =¤¤¬ m o=rr
ªrr, l+nr¤ m ¬çt lmerl an·
m¸=o¤ ¬ l+nr¤ ¤r¤= ercr ot
nªrr q= l¤”rn +r nç =r¤n ç¸e
e+ ¤r; l¤; ers lonr l+ +rnr¤ç
+ªrr +r nç a-n ªrr, el+¬ ¤ç
¬çt çr¬r ªrrl ar-nl;+ armç
a¤ ar; alrr+ nt¤nr + =rªr
ercrl e+ ¤r; ¤¸¬· ¤¸enre +;¬
¤; ¬r ¬r¬+r;t lmet a== ¤ç
ar’¤n¤l+n ç¸el q=rqnn ¤ç¸n
= +rrmr m ¤ct ç¸q ªrt, a¬m = or
m¸=n +ªrrle+ nªrr ¤rc=c-c ç,
¬¤l+ ¬r ¤rq¤e a-çr¬ ¤çe
¤ct ªrt ¤ç +ªrrle+ +t ªrt nªrr
¤rc=c-c gr;r ¬r a¤¬rq mq ç
¤ç = -c ¬r ç¬ gr;r lel=rn ç
nªrr ¬r a’r a-çr¬ =¤¤¬ m o=r
ªr, ¤ç a= ¤¸=n+ + ªrl
¤r¤r + ar’rt¤ro =, m¸=o¤
¬ ¤ r c =c -c ¤rq¤e +t e+ ¤ ln +r
¤ ¤-rr +; lenr nªrr q =rm=tç +
=¸=mr¤r;r m = a-çr¬ a= +rrm
+r ¤cr, l¬=+ lee emrnr; a-ç
¤l;n l+nr ¬r ;çr ªrrl q=rm=tç
23
23
28
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m¸ rn¸ = l=¤ ¤¤ror;r +t
;¢rr +; mr, ar ; ‘r ”r mr¬¤nr
+r zt ¤t ‘rnr-ot m a+re nªrr
n¸ç = ar¤-¬ ar¤or m q’¤;tn
+rnr¬+ ¤ln+r; +r =rm¬r +;¬r
çr mrl m¸ =o ¤ +r ¤ro m mre¸ m ç¸ ar
l+ ¤rq¤e + ¤ªrm +rrm arrs
c=crmc ( ¤¸;r¬r ¤=tnn¬rmr¸
l¬= nç¸ot erm a¤¬rn ç, a=m
+rl¤”n¤+nr mer+t gr;r ar¬.
-omn mçr¤¤¸¤r ·nl+n l¬= ¤ç
eleªnrç +çn ç , + armm¬
¤r¤ng e+ e=t çt +rl¤”nr¤rt +t
mq çl
q=rq nªrr nç¸ot or¬r gr;r
a¤¬rq ¬r¬ ¤ret ¤l¤> ¤¸=n+
+t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +r ¤c¬ + ¤ro
m¸=o¤ ¬ mr¬r l+ q=rqnn nªrr
¬¸srq¤m (nç¸ot rrm¸ or¬r =
ç¬r;r ¤”r ¤¸ ¤ +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸ ”¤r g
r;r mtnr m lon mn aro’rr = ¤ç
l+=t ¬ l+=t ¤+r; ¬¸st çl
l=çm¸= +r ¤o mç¤r +;¬r
++ ¤r c ; ( a¤ n r ; ¸
+r +nr +;¬r ç ? q= ¤r; m
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +r arm ¤cn ç¸e
m¸ =o ¤ =çmn ç¸ e l+ l+=t +rt
n;ç q¬ +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +r ame
m er¬ çn¸ a-ç ar-nl;+ nrm
(l¬= ¤ç ¬¤;rl> +t =rrr¬r +
¤ro ¤ret rrc¬r = mç; rnr¬ +
or;r¬ =t=r ;ç ªr¸ gr;r ¤rc aor
+;¬r ªrrl
¬¤ = ¤t +r ¬ ; er c+;
+rnr en +r +rn ‘r¸ = l+nr,
mç; rnr¬ + or ;r¬ m¸ =o ¤ ¬
¤r¤r = aro ’r ¤ r¤n l+n l+
a-ç ¬r+;t ers o¬t ¤rlçe nªrr
a-ç a¤¬ ar¤+r ¤¸¤r =¤ = a=
arrnrlrm+ lm’r¬ +r =ml¤ n +;
o¬r ¤rlçe ¬r a-ç =¸¤¸o l+nr
mnr çl an· ¤r¤r + armç ¤;
m¸ =o ¤ ¬ = ¤rl¬¤¸ lrr +t am =
em+rm =rc eç ¤”r ¤¸¤ el·e+
=¤rl¬¤¸lrr e etl m¸=o¤ ¬ ¤ro
m lc¤¤¤rt +t ''m ¤çe ;rr¤ +t
¬r+;t +;nr ªrr, a¤ m a¤¬ m¸=
+t ¬r+;t +;nr ç¸ nç ¬t¤¬+r;
+t ¬r+;t ç, l¬= m ++rt ¬çt
ers =+nrl m¬ a¤¬ ¤l;¤r; +t
+rrln+ ar¤’n+nrar +t l¤-nr
¤¸¤r =¤ = a¬ ¤; ers ot çl m
a¤¬ m¸= +r ¤¤ror; ¬r+; ç¸,
¬r +¸e +rt çr, m q= lm’r¬ m
¤ r¤n += aªr¤r =rr a , ¤ç a¬+t
q·er¬¸=r; çt çrmrl''
¤r¤r ¬ a-ç m¸ =¤o ¤ or¬
l+nr nªrr a¤¬ l’r”n + =¤
m a-n er mr +r l=çnr m +t
ot¢rr o¬ + lee a-ç l¬o’r lonl
m¸=o¤ ¬ ar;++r m ¬rrr¤¸; m nªrr
;r¬=ªrr¬ + +¸e a-n ‘rç;r m
ot¢rr +rn+mr + gr;r ermr +r
l=çnr m +t ot¢rr o ¬t ar;++r
+tl ¬r m¸=o¤ + ¤r= arn ar;
a¬+ l’r”n ¤¬ mn , a-çr ¬
a¤¬ ¬t¤¬ m e+ ar’¤n¬¬+
rr¬rrm+ ¤l;¤n¬ mç=¸= l+nr,
a¬+t ¤tmrl;nr] ¤¸;r¬t ·nrlrrnr
ot+ çr mq nªrr q¬ +rn+mr m
m¸=o¤ + gr;r lon mn q’¤;tn
m> + ¬r¤ nªrr rnr¬ = a-çr¬
arrnrlrm+ ¬rm=+nr mç=¸ =
+tl
m¸=o¤ + algntn l=çnrm
nªrr ar;r·n+; ‘rl+nnr +t ¤rn
¤r;r ar ; n ¬t = ¤ etl m¸ =o ¤
+r a-n ‘rç;r nªrr +=¤r m
ot¢rr +rn+m =+¤-¬ +;¬ çn¸
arm l>n l+nr mnrl m¸ =o ¤ +
ar’rt¤ro ¤r¤n +;¬ m ermr +
=rªr ¬rln, ;m, lem ¤ rrm arlo
23
23
29

''a·¤n; nr¤ +r a¤n;¤r =+r¤ ç, ar; a¤n;¤r çmr; arrnrlrm+
arrm=¤=¤ +r +¤e ¬mng = ¤rç; e ¬r+; çt m¸+n ¬çt +;mr,
¤lr+ q= ¬mng + 'a-o;' +rt m¸+n +;mr, m¬ + aqr¬ nr q=+
arn-n =tlmn qr¬ + =ªrr¬ ¤; alnmr¬l=+ ¤n¬r +r =ªrrl¤n +;mr,
¬r ar-nl;+ arrmr +r ot+ n> çrmt, ar; q=t +t =çrnnr = m¬¸”n
a-nm¸=rt ar; l+nr’rte, or¬r +rr¤r m a¤¬ ar¤+r ¤r¤n +;mr ar;
a¤¬t ¤’r¸nr = +r;t m¬¸”nnr = l¬+e+; e+ lo·n-¬rln m ¤l;l¤rn
mr¬¤ +r lo·n =¤ m =¤r-n;¤r
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m m; ¤r;l++r+ ¬t¤¬ m, ¤¸¤r
=¤ = l¬;t’¤;¤rot ·nl+n ;çr ç¸ l
q’¤; ¬rm +t l+=t ‘rl+n m m¸q
+r q l¤’¤r= ¬çt ªrrl m , mr¬¤ +t
e+ mr> =rrr m çt l¤’¤r=
;=rnr ªrr, +nrl+ ¤r;++r =
çt m ¬r +;t m m¬o¸ ; = mo¬
m +rm +;¬ ¤re ·nl+nnr
+ =+¤+ m ar mnr ªrrl
an· m ;r q¸ +r¤ ;r.
¬¬tln +t n;¤ alrr+
çr nr mnrl ''m ;r m¸ e =¤
= nç =¤+rr¤ ;çr ç l+ m
a¤¬t mr-nnrar ¤; çm’rr
alsm ;çnr ç¸l'' q= ¤+r;
a¤¬ ¤ªr ¤; ¤e+; +m
= +m =mn m ç; +rm +r
¤¸;r +;+ a=+ ¤l;¤rrm +t
a¤¢rr +;nr ç¸l m e= l+=t
+rm m l¤’¤r= ¬çt ;=rnr
ç¸, ¬r e+¤ =mn n+ +rq
¤l;¤rrm ¬ ol
m ;t mr -nnr ç l +
l¬= ¤ +r; l+=t =rro ¤orªr
+r m¸=r m sren çt a=+ =¤ro
+t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln çr ¬ emnt
ç, a=t ¤+r; ç; +rm + ¤r; m
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln çr¬t ¤rlçel ¤l;¤
rrm + a+rr¤ m +r q +rt +rm
+;¬r ·nªr =mqnr ç¸ l ar¬
+t ''¤lçm¸ =rt'' arrnrlrm+
ar;rrr¬r = +rq ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
''m; arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ +r ¤r;+.
¬çt çrnt ç, +¤e arrl¤’¤r= +
=çr; m¬¸”n ¤¸; ¬t¤¬, +m+r¤s
m aeqr ;çnr ç, ¤;-n¸ l¤; +rt
a= +¸e ¬çt lmenrl
q= n¸m + ¤n¸; rrm m¸=ar
¬ ¤ç¸n ¤n¸;rq = mr-nnre ar;
l=çr-n ¤¬r ;=r çl ç; +rm +r
(rrrlm+¸ ¤l;¤rrm ame ¬-m m
lmemr, an· ~çr ar; l¤’¤r= +
=rªr ¬t¤¬ +r; n et + ¤ e +t n;ç
m¬¸ ”n +r ¤ern ;çn ç l q= ¤ +r;
= =r; + a= =n m¬¸ ”nr +r ¬t¤¬
l¬;ªr+ ¤¬r ;=rr çl nçt +r;¤r
ªrr l+ m, rrt;-rrt; ¤¸¤r ¬rl=n+
¤¬ mnrl +nrl+ m;r nç =¤+rr¤
ç l+ m ¬=r =r¤nr ç¸, ¤çt +çnr
ç¸ ar ; ¬r +çnr ç¸ ¤çt +;nr +rt ç¸ l
erm mr> +ç¬ +r ¬rl=n+
ç, ªrrsr +”c arn çt ¬rl=.
n+nr +r¤¸ ; çr ¬rnt ç l ==
¬= o’r ¬ +rt o¸=; l¤’¤ n¸ç
m =+rt rrmr + ¤rªr¬r =ªre
¤¸¬· =rre loe ªrl
¤;-n¸ m +retor= +t
n;ç a¤¬ ço ¤; asr çt
;çrl q= ¤ +r; ¤nr çt nç
aln a¤¬t ¤;m =tmr +r
aln+m¤r +;¬ emt, +rr;t
l¤=¤rc çr mnrl ¬=t l=ªrln
çt;rl’rmr ¤rl=nr +t ç¸q , m
ot+ ¤=t çt l=ªrln m ¤ç¸¤
mnrl e =t l¤l¤> +rnr¤ç
mr¬l=+ l=ªrln çr mq l+
+¸ e +rt =mq m ¬çt ar
;çr ªrrl =r; +rrln+ a¤¤r;
a=¤e çr mel l=ªrln e=t
+rn+; çr ¤¸+t ªrt l+ m =¤n nç
=r¤¬ emr l+ a¤ al-nm =mn
alrr+ o¸; ¬çt çl e=t l=ªrln m
m; e+ lm> ~t;rm o¸¤ ¬ mrn>t
m> +r ¬¤ +;¬ +t =erç otl m
l¬= =rrr m +¸e +rt l¤’¤r= ¬çt
;=rnr ªrr, m¸ rn¸ +rn + +r;¤r =ç”r
¬ =r ¤nrnr, ¤ =r +;¬ +r n nr; çr
mnrl a= =mn +t m;t mr¬l=+
23
23
30
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
;çr ªrrl e =t l=ªrln m
''e+rmnr'' ar; ''+=¤r ¤¸+r;''
+=t çrmt? ar=r¬t = =mqt ¬r
=+nt çl l¤lrr¤ng =¤r er=r ¬¤
+;¬ +r e¢n ªrr ar; q= ¤+r;
+;t¤ =rc nt¬ mçt¬ +r =mn
q= +rn m emrl
qn¬ e+¤ =mn n+ +rt
e+rm nr ar ; +=¤r ¤¸ +r; +t
l=ªrln l¬;-n; e+ ¬=t çt ¤¬t
;çtl ¤rn· ¤r; ¤¬ ao +;, =¤r
=rn ¤¬ n+ ar; ‘rrm +r =rn =
¬r ¤¬ n+ nç ¬¤ +r +rn+m
a¤rrr mln = ¤enr ;çnr ªrrl
l¬= lo¬ =¤r er=r ¬¤ ¤¸ ; çr
me, a=+ ame lo¬ ¬¤ ¤-o
+; lonrl ¤;-n¸ aron ¤’r ¤ rn· çt
ot+ ¤r; ¤¬ ¬t o =r¸ e mq l +nr l+
¬¤ +;¬r ¬çt ªrr, ar=r ¤o l+n
l¤=n; ¤; çt ecr ;çrl
=¬g tscs +t =ot m ¤r;++r
çr¬ ¤ret ¬¤;r>r = ¬¤ ¤r;++r
l+nr ªrrl an· +r¤t =ot ¤s ;çt
ªrtl m ;¬rq arc ar=r ¤o l+e
ecr ç¸ar ªrr l+ +nr o=rnr ç¸ l+
''m; a-o; ¬rl+r = e+; +¤o
n+ e+ a¬t¤ ¤ +r; +t =¤ o
;r ’r¬t çt ;r ’r¬t lo=rrq otl''
;r’r¬t + aer¤r ‘r;t; +r +rq
am ¬= et¤;, lnret, ¤¤s ,
çrc arlo +¸ e +rt lo=rrq ¬çt
lonrl m¸q nç o=r+; a¤++rr çr
;çr ªrr l+ ;r’r¬t ar=rr = lment
ç , l¤; nç a-o; + =t ;r ’r¬t
ç? q=+ alnl;+n e=t +rn+;
=¤o ;r’r¬t m +rt +rq am +nr
lo=rrq ¬çt onr çl? m ¤nr çt
arr; alrr+ e+rm ç¸ar nr m¸q
+r¤; + m¸¬¬ +t ar¤r¬ =¸¬rq ot
¬r l+ ¬rl+r m = ar ;çt ªrtl m¬
=r¤r ¤c m +r¤; +t ar¤r¬ +=
ar ;çt ç?
¤nr-¤nr m,a= ar¤r¬ +t
n;¤ e+rm çrnr mnr, m¸q =¤”c
=¸ ¬rq o ¬ emr l+ mrn>t m >
a¤¬ ar¤ çt a-o; ¬¤r ¬r ;çr
ç, a=+r ¬¤¬ ¤rer +rq ¬¬; çt
¬çt arnr l¤; +rt ¤ç a¤rrr mln
= l¬;-n; ¤enr ;çrl +;t¤ ta-t:
lm-rcr n+ nç =¤ o=rnr, =¸¬nr
;çr ar; a¤¬ m¬ m =r¤nr ;çr
l+ +=t l¤l¤> ¤rn ç l+ ;r’r¬t
ar=r = arnt ç ar; ar¤r¬ +¤o
= ¤;-n¸ nç =¤ a¬ amr = ¤ç¸n
¬t¤ çt += =¸¬r ar; o=rr ¬r ;çr
ç ? +;t¤ ¤r ¤ ¤¬ =-rr¬ rr; m ¬e
+r ¤r¬t ¬r; = ¤’r ¤; lm;r nr
rnr¬ +rm çr mnrl ¤·¤r ¬ ‘rrm
+r ¬e =r¸er ers lonr ªrrl
q=+ ¤ro ao+; l¬rn+m =
l¬¤¸n çr +; a¤¬ +rn ¤; ¤er
mnrl =r¤r, qn¬ e+¤ =mn n+
e+ çt +rn +m ¤e¬ ar ; l¬;-n;
rnr¬ arr; çt ;ç¬ + +r;¤r e=r
=nre ;ç mnr çrmrl ¤;-n¸ q=+
¤ro e+ e =r ¤l;¤n ¬ ar mnr
l+ m ¤r¬, l=m;c, ¤rn arlo +r
¤nrm +;¬ m ¤¸¤r =¤ = a=mªr
çr mnrl q¬+ q=nmre +r =nre
arn çt ¤ç¸n +rn+; rr¤;rçc l¤;
çr ¬ emnt ªrtl q= ¤ +r; ¤rçn ç¸ e
+rt q¬ ¤=n¸ ar +r q=n mre +;¬r
a=++r¤ çr mnrl l+=t + =rªr
=rr¬r =rrn ar ; ¬t¤¬ + l+=t +rt
¢r> m m¸q ªrrsr =r +rt q¸o ¤ren
ç¸e +rt +rr;t rr¤;rçc çrnt ªrtl
+nrl+ ¬¤ ¤¸¤r =¤ = ¤-o
+; ¤¸+r ªrrl an· rrt;-rrt; nç
l=ªrln ‘rr-n çr mq ar ; e+
=rrrr;¤r ·nl¬ +t n;ç, m l¤;
¬t¤¬ ·nntn +;¬ emrl ¤;-n¸
e+ l¤l¤>nr ‘r;t; m ar mq l+
¬t¤¬ + l+=t ac’n ¤; am;
m ;r loe-lomrm alrr+ e+rm
çr +; =r ¤¬ emnr nr a=+r
=¤”c ¤l;¤rrm cetl¤¬¬ +t n;ç
¤ç¸n ¤çe =¤”c ¬¬; ar ¬rnr
ar; arm ¤e+; ¤ç rrc¬r ot+
¤= çt rrcnt ¬=t m¸q lo=rt ªrtl
q= ¤+r; +;t¤ =re +r; n+ m¸q
a==n ¤mr¤r l¬;-n; lmen çt
me ar; =+rt +rrln+ ¬mng m
ot+ ¤ = çt rrlcn çr n ¤e mn ¬ =
m¸q lo=r ªrl
''‘r-or + e+ ¤¸ ¬ m e =t
l¤l¤> =rmªn ar; ’rl¬ çrnt ç,
a=+t m¸q +r¤¬r +rt ¬çt ªrtl''
an· l¬qr=r¤’r m ¬ l¤;
ar;rrr¬r +;¬ +t =r¤tl l¤¤r;
arnr a= ¤st ‘rl¬ +t ar;rrr¬r
+;¬ +r l¬¤rn e+;, ar;rrr¬r
¤ r;++r +; otl +rm¤r¬ ~t +¸ ”¤r +t
n=¤t; mrn>t +t n;ç =rm¬ ;=r
+; +¸”¤r + e+ ¤t¬ m> +r ¬¤
¤r;++r +; lonrl q=+t ¬ nr +rq
l¬l’¤n = =nr nn +t ar; ¬ +rq
l¤’r”r ac’nl q=t l¬qr=r = l+
o=r +¤ +nr çrnr ç? a=t +m =
=¸¤ç-’rrm +;t¤ crq nt¬ =rer
n+ ¬¤ ¤enr ;çrl e+ lo¬ l¤¤r;
l+nr l+ mrn>t m> = nr +rq =r
m¸¤rr = +rt alrr+ ==nr çr ¤¸+t
çrmt l¤; a+rt n+ ¤=t çt +rq
a¬¸+r¸ln nr ¬çt ç¸q, e=r =r¤¬r
23
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31
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
lo=rnrl =r¤r ar=rr +t +rq
¤tmr;t çr mq ç, sr+c;r + ¤r=
mnr, ¤;-n¸ e =t +r q ¤tmr;t
¬çt l¬+etl ¤ç +m ar ; ¬¤
¤enr ;çrl e+ lo¬ l¤¤r; arnr
l+ a¤¬ +r q= l¤or +r +rq
qr¬ nr ç ¬çt, +çt ·nªr +”cr
m ¤= ¬rem, m> ¬¤ ¤-o +;
lonr, ¤;-n¸ ¤;erq lo=r¬t ¤-o
¬çt ç¸ql =r¤r q= +¸e ¬¸+=r¬
nr ¬çt çr ;çr ç, lo=rnt ç nr
lo=r¬ orl
q= ¤+r; ¬¤ ¤-o l+n +¸e
çt =mn ¤tnr çrmr, e+ ;rl> +r
m a¤¬ mr¤ m =r ;çr ªrrl +;t¤
¤r¤ ¤¬ ¤rn· e+ ar¤r¬ =¸¬rq
ot ar; a=¬ =¤”c +çr l+ ''¤cr
a¤ +¤e '+¸”¤r' +r ¬¤ +;l''
nç ar¤r¬ =¤”c or ¤r; =¸ ¬rq otl
a¤r¬+ m;t ar=r =r¸e mq, ¤;
l+=¬ ar¤r¬ ot, +¸e =mq ¬çt
=+rl ¤;-n¸ l¤; +rt m¬ ¬¤ ¤-o
;=rrl ¤¤rr +t aron ªrt, l¤¬r ¬¤
+ +¸e ac¤cr =r emr ;çr ªrrl
e+ lo¬ l¤¤r; arnr ''¤cr''
‘r-o = =+¤rlrrn +;+ ar¤r¬
ot ç, an· ¬r +rt +rer ¤¸;r çrmr,
a=+t l¬+m¤r;t ar¤r¬ o¬ ¤re
+t çt çrmtl m q=+ or”r +r +rrmt
+nr ¤¬¸mr? q=t l¤¤r; + =rªr
=+rt ¤¤r¤ çcr+; +¤e '+¸”¤r'
+r ¬¤ ¤r;++r +; lonrl ercr =r
‘r-o ar; l¤; mln ¤+s ¬ ¤;
¤çe ¤re = o= m¸¤rr = +rt n¬
mln = ¤e¬ emrl +;t¤ =re +r;
ç¸ar çrmr l+ e+ ¤ç¸n çt l¤l¤>
rrc¬r rrc mq l e+ lo¬ ¤ rn· +;t¤
¤r; ¤¬ + ar=¤r= arr ¬rmn
a¤=ªrr m +nr o=rnr ç¸ l+ ''
m e+ +m; m ¤ or ç¸ l e+
¤=r çt o¸=;r +m;r ç, a=+ ar;
m; +m; + ¤t¤ m, e+ o;¤r¬r ç
l¬=m ¤ç¸n çt =r¸¤ =¸;n m¸er¤t
m=rme +r ¤or ot+ ¬t¤ n+
ec+ ;çr ç l ¤nr çt m ¬ a= ¤o +t
n;¤ o=rr nr ¤ç m¸q e= lçen
ç¸e lo=rq lonr mr¬r ç¤r + qr+
= lçer çrl qn¬ m o¸=; +m; m
= ar¤r¬ arq l+ o=rl q= lçer
mn, nç aem çr ¬remrl m ¬
¬¤r¤ lonr l+ am; ¬r; +r, ç¤r
+r qr+r arnr nr aem çr+;
l¤; nªrrl=ªrln m ar ¬remrl arr;
= ar¤r¬ arq q=+ çc¬ +r aªr
=mqn çr +nr?
m¬ ¬¤r¤ lonr l+ m¬ a+rt
¬r aªr ¤nrnr +nr a== +rt l+.
r-¬ +rq çrnr çl? arr; = ar¤r¬
arq çr l q=+ çc¬ +r +nr
aªr çrnr ç o=rl qn¬r +ç¬ +
=rªr ¤ç ¤o ¤rer o¸’n nr mrn¤
çr mnr ar; +nr o=rnr ç¸, e+
m¬¸”n l¬=+r ¤or çc ¤¸+r ç,
l>+reo’rt çr mnr çl q= ¤+r;
a=+r mrç ¤¸¤r =¤ = +rm çr ¤¸+r
çl a=+r a¤¬-¤;rn +r +ro ¤¸¤r
=¤ = =rrm çr ¤¸+r çl ==r; +
=+rt ¤rl¤rnr +r ¤ç e+ çt ¬¬;
= o=rnr ç, ¬ a=+r l+=t = mrç
ç ar; ¬ çt g”rl q=+ nr+re
¤ro l¤; ¤çt m¸er¤t ¤or lo=r¬
emnr ç ar; l¤; arr; = ar¤r¬
arnt ç l+ o=rr nç çrnr ç q=
¤o + çc¬ +r aªrl m¬ +çr nç
nr ¤ç¸n çt a·et ¤rn ç, q=t +
lee nr nç =¤ +; ;çr ç¸l arr;
= ar¤r¬ arnt ç l+ nç =¤
ot+ nr ç, ¤;-n¸ e+ ''nrm+r”c''
‘r-o çrnr çl ¤ç +nr çrnr ç?
+nr a=+ ¤r; m ¬r¬n çr? m¬
+çr ar;rrr¬r + or;r¬ +rq ¤¸;r
+rm çr ¬rnr ç, a== ar;rrr¬r
+r ¤n¬ çr ¬rnr ç, o¸=;t n;¤
= ar¤r¬ arnt ç l+ çr nr nr
+¸e e=r çt ç, ¤;-n¸ q=+t =çt
¤l;+rr”rr nç ¬çt çl
n¸ +çr; er c -er c ¤·¤ ç ,
¤r¬t ç, mr ç, ¤ =+rt ¤¸¤r =¤ =
n¸m ¤; arl~n çl nç ot+ ç l+
am; n¸m¬ q= ¤o +r çcr lonr
nr n¸+çr;t l=ªrln nr ot+ ¤=t çt
çr ¬rnmt, ¬=t a+rt n¸m¬ o=rt
ç, ¤;-n¸ q¬ ¤rl¤rnr +r q=+r
qr¬, ªrr s r çt ç l ¬¤ n¸ m q=
¬¤r¬t m q¬+r ers +; ¤e orm
nr q¬+t arr+rr +t +=¤r ¤¸+r;
ar; +-o¬ n¸m+r e s¸¤mtl ar;
q= ¤+r; ''nrm+r”c'' çr ¬r¬ +
+r;¤r n¸ +çr;r l¤; ¤n¬ çr ¬rnmrl
a¤ arm ¬ =r n¸ m ot+ =mqr
¤=r +;rl''
nç ¤rn =¸¬+; m ¤ç¸n çt
o¸l¤rrr m ¤= mnrl ¤¸er ar;rrr¬r
+r +rt e =r +r n+; ¤l;¤rrm çr
=+nr ç , m ¬ ++rt +r¤¬r +rt
¬çt +t ªrtl o¸=;t n;¤ = ar¤r¬
arnt ç, +mmln ¤ç¸n çt mç¬ ç,
q=+r +rq ¬çt ¬r¬ =+nrl +¸e
o; l¤¤r; + ¤ro ¬¤ m¸q +¸e +rt
=mq m ¬çt arnr l+ a¤ arm
+nr +;¬r ¤rlçe
23
23
32
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
nr m¬ a=t ao¸’n ar¤r¬
= ¤¸er, m nr +¸e +rt ¬çt =mq
¤r ;çr ç¸ l+ a¤ m¸q +nr +;¬r
¤rlçel an· +¸ ¤nr m ;r ¤ªr ¤ o’r ¬
+;, m ¤=r çt +;¬ +r nnr; ç¸l
q= ¤+r; m; ¤rªr¬r +;¬
¤; o¸=; +m; m = a¤r¬ arnt ç
l+ ¬¤ nç lçe ¤¸+r ç nr a¤¬
l¬l’¤n =mn ¤; a¤¬ ar¤ çc
¬remrl a¤ q= lçer¬r ¤-o +;+
+m ¢r> m l¤¤;¤r +;n ç¸e a¤¬
+rr·n +r ¤re¬ +;rl
q¬ ‘r-or + =rªr çt =rªr
o¸ ’n mrn¤ çr mnr ar ; m ;t
ar=r =r¸e mql +rr; çr ¤¸+t ªrt,
an· l¬rn+m = l¬¤¸n çr +;,
+rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r +t n=¤t; +r
'mrer' ¤ç¬r +; e¸cct e etl nç
+;t¤ =¬g ts:¡ + al-nm =mn
+t ¤rn çl
q=+ ¤ro tss: n+ m¬o¸;
= mo¬r ar ; ;r¬=ªrr¬ l+=r¬
n¸l¬n¬ + l¤l+r-¬ ¤or ¤; =l+n
çr +; +rn +;nr ;çrl ¤;-n¸ l¬=
¤+r; = ¤¸¤r ar=ªrr arrnrlrm+
¬mng + ¤mr+r;r = çr ¤¸+t ªrt,
rnr¬ a= ¤; l¬;n; çt emr ;çnr
ªrrl +rrln+ ¬mng + alrr+n;
+rm arrnrlrm+ ‘rl¬ nr + ¤ªr
¤o’r¬ = +;¬ +r e+ ¤+r; =
arlo çr mnr ªrrl nçt +r;¤r ;çr
l+ ¤ç¸ n +m a=¤enr lmetl
l¬= +rm m çrªr srer, =¤e
ç¸arl =¬g tssz m e+ ¤+r; =
=¤”c aro’r lme ¤¸+r ªrr l+ a¤
m¬o¸; =mo¬ = aem çr ¬rarl
¤;-n¸ m ¬ a=+t n;¤ alrr+
rnr¬ ¬çt lonrl q= ¤+r; aro’r
+r ¬ mr¬¬ + +r;¤r m¸q +rrln+
¬t¤¬ m +rr;t a=¤enar ar;
l¬;r’rr +r =rm¬r +;¬r ¤s rl
¬¤l+ ¤çe m l¬= +rm m çrªr
srenr ªrr, m ;r ç; +rn =¤e
çrnr ªrrl
=r +rr·n = tss: + mr¤ -a¤ e
m = n =ogm¸ =o ¤ (¤r¤r ~t
mmrq¬rªr ¬t nrmt¸ + ¤;¤r ;¬
mrªr ¤; emr¬ +r =r+rr·n lmerl
q== ¬t¤¬ m e+ ¤+r; = ¬q
¤ n¬r ¤ or çr +; ¬t¤¬ alrr+
ar¬-omnt çr mnrl ¤;-n¸ m ;
¬t¤¬ m =¸=r +r =mn ¤ç¸n çt
+m ;çr çl
¬¸ ¬-¬¸ erq tss: m +rr;t mr¬.
l=+ alg·¬nr +r =rm¬r +;¬r
¤srl ¬rm=; ¬r¬ + arrnrlrm+
=+n l¬;-n; çrn ;ç, ¤;-n¸ m
q-ç o¸+rr·n¤’r =mq ¬çt =+rl
q= ¤+r; z: am=n tss: +r m;
+rn = a+r;¤r çt aem çr mnrl
a+r;¤r çt rr; ¤; ¤or ;çr, ¤;-n¸
m¸=o¤ +t ‘r;¤r m l¤; +rt ¬çt
¬r =+rl
o¸+rr·n = :t.tz.tss: +t +re
;rl> m ¤ç (¤r¤r¬t¸ +rrln+ =¤
= , = =r; +r er s +; ¤e mn l
¤ªrm +r¤sr; +t ·n¤=ªrr + lee
=¸¬r¬o=; l¬¤r=t ¤r¤r ;rm ¬rªr
¬t ¬rm=; ¬rn =mn ¤t+r¬ ;
=c’r¬ + =rm¬ lmel a¬= ¤r¤r
¬t + =¤m¤r= +t =r¤; =¸¬+; nr
¬mt¬ çt ¤;r + ¬t¤ = l=r=+nt
¬¬; arql ¤r¤r ;rm ¬rªr ¬t ¬
+r¤sr; m ¤e¬ + lee +r¤t
armç l+nr, ¤;-n¸ +rr;t m¬ =
a¬= ¢rmr mr m +;, m mr‘rç; ¤er
mnrl m; +rrln+ l¤nr +r =çr;r
+rt nt¬ ¤”r +t ar¤ arn¸ m çt
et¬ lenr mnrl ar; arrnrlrm+
l¤nr +rt q=t ¤ +r; ¤-o lo¬r m çt
q’¤; + =çr; ers +; ¤e mnl
q= ¤+r; +rrln+ ¬t¤¬ +t n;ç
arm +r arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ +rt
m¸q =rr”rr m çt l¤nr¬ +r m¬¤¸;
+; lonr mnrl
+rrln+ ¬t¤¬ +r =+¤-rr nr
+ ¤e ¬tl¤+r ¤r¬ ¬ n+ +r çt
¤ç¸n =tlmn orn; +r ªrr, a=m
+rt +rn+; =+cr = m¸¬;¬r ¤srl
=¸=r ¬rm +t ¤=n¸ +r ar+rr= n+
++rt ¬çt ç¸arl
q= arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ +r
¢r > nr =r; l¤’¤ +r m or¬ ç l
+rr ln+ ¬t¤¬ +t n;ç çt q=
¬t¤¬ m +rt l¤¤;tn ¤l;l=ªrlnnr
= =rr”r +;¬r çt ¤sr, nç =¤”c
¬¬; ar ;çr çl ''+¤e q’¤; +
=çr; l¬nr-n a+e q= ¤¸; =.
=r; + mor¬ m l¤e+¸e l¤¤;tn
ar; l¤”rm ¤l;l=ªrlnnr = =rr”r
+;¬ + lee qr+ lonr mnr ç¸l''
a¬¸¬ +t n;ç =+rt ;r=n a¤=ç
+; lon mn çl mr> e+ çt =rr”r
+r ;r=nr =r¸er ersr mnr ç, m¸q
a+e çt ==r; +r; +t q= ar=¸;t
¤¸lrrnr = ¬¸q¬r ¤smr, nç o=r
+; ++rt-++rt +rr;t l¬;r’rr +r
a¬¸+r¤ +;nr ç¸l ¤;-n¸ ¬¤ ¤te +
¬t¤¬ ¤; ¬¬; srenr ç¸ l+ l+=
¤+r; l¬nr-n a+er çt l¤¤;tn
l¤”rm ¤l;l=ªrlnnr +r ¤;r=n
+;nr ç¸ar nçr n+ ar ¤ç¸¤r ç¸
nr +¸e lç+mn ¤-rrnt çl
q=+ aer¤r o¸ =;r =çr;r
23
23
33
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤; m;r ¤ªr ¤o’r¬ +; ;çt çl
''m¸q ¤mr¤r =lçn nç ¤nr lonr
mnr ç l+ ¬r +¸e +;¬r ç ¤ç ¤¸¤
l¬rrrl;n ·n¤=ªrr ç, a=m ;lrr
+r; +t ç;r ¤;t +rt =++r¤ ¬çtl''
m¸q l¤”rm ¤l;l=ªrlnnr m qr+
+; arrnrlrm+ ar;rrr¬re +;¤r
+;, l+n¬t ‘rl¬ al¬n +;¤r
ot, a=+r +rt m lç=r¤ emr¬ m
a=mªr ªrr l+ m¸ =o ¤ a¬rnr= çt
qn¬t a¤r; arrnrlrm+ =+¤ln
l¤;r=n m o mn, a=+r a¬¸mr¬
emr¬r çt m; lee =+r¤ ¬çtl
m =¤”c =¤ = ¤rn¢r mç.
=¸= +; ;çr ç¸ l+ m nr mr> e+
+o¤¸ net ç¸ , l¬= a=tm =rrr
a¤¬t q·er + a¬¸=r; ¬¤r ;çt
ç l ''m¸ q =¤”c ¤nr lonr mnr ç l+
m q= +r¤ =rm; + arl=r;t l+¬r;
¤ç¸ ¤ ¤¸ +r ç¸ l'' a= onre¸ =¤ ‘rl¬
mr¬ ¬ q¸+ +; m;r orlç¬r çrªr
a¤¬ orlç¬ çrªr m m¬¤¸nt =
ªrrm lenr çl e=t l=ªrln m ªrrsr
=r ¤nr= +;¬ ¤; çt, m, q= +r¤
=rm; = ¤rç; l¬+e ¬ramrl m¸q
=¤”c =mqr lonr mnr ç l+ q=+
lee m;r ¤nr= l¬nr-n ar¤’n+
ç , a=+ l¤¬r +rn ¤¸ ;r çr ¬r
=++r¤ ¬çt çl +¸e q=t ¤+r; +
lo’rr-l¬o ’rr ar ; aro ’rr + =çr;
a+er çt ¤e ¤sr ç¸l
m¸ q =¤”c ¤nr lonr mnr ç l+
''l+¬ rrrlcnr , oor ar ; +r n+; =
+rn+; ¬mer ar; ;lm=ªrr¬r +r
¤r; +;nr ç¸ar +=, m a= =¤=
a·¤ l’r=r; ¤; ¤ç¸ ¤ ¸ mr?'' = =r; +
er m q= =mn a= ¤¸ ¤r =rrr + ¤r;
m ¤ç¸n ªrrsr qr¬ ;=rn ç, ¤;-n¸
l¤ee +¸e =mn = q¬ ¤nr=r
m a+r¸n¤¸¤ n¬t arq çl nç q=
¤rn +r =¤”c ¤ mr¤r ç l+ a= ¤;m
=rrr +r a¤n;¤r çr ¤¸+r ç ar;
nn +lm+ l¤+r= + =rªr a¤¬r
¤+r’r n¬t = ==r; m ¤er ;çt
çl ¬= =¸nron +r =mn ¬¬ot+
arnr ¬rnr ç , nr;r +r ¤ +r’r ¢rt¤r
çrnr ¬rnr çl nr; a¤¬t =rrr +t
q= lm;nt ç¸q l=ªrln +r l¤e+¸e
¤=-o ¬çt +;nç, ¤;-n¸ a=+
¤r¤¬¸o q¬ =+rt nr;r + l¤;rrr
+, =¸nron +r =mn ¬çt rrcnrl
q= ¤+r; ¤nr çt ¤ç aon çrnr
ç, =+rt nr;r +t =rrr a¬+ nªr.
rl=ªrln ¤¬ ;ç¬ ¤; çt er¤ çr
¬rnt ç, ==r; +t ar¬ ot+ ¤çt
l=ªrln çl
l¤l+r-¬ mn-mnr-n;r ar;
rrmr + rrm m¸=ar +r nç l=ªrln
=¤t+rn ¬çt ç , ¤;-n¸ nr;r +t n;ç
a¬+r +rt +rq ¤’r ¬çt ¤emrl
=+rt ¤¸ ¤r a=çrn çr +; nr+n
;ç ¬reml mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬ q=
=¤”c o=r lenr ªrrl an· a-çr¬
a= ‘rl¬ + a¤n;¤r +t =¤”c
rrr”r¤rr +; ot ªrtl m =¤”c mç=¸=
+; ;çr ç¸, ¬¤ m ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
ar; =r¢rrr+r; +t ¤rn +;nr ç¸
nr = =r; + er m al¤’¤r= +
=rªr ¤’¬ ¤r¤+ o¸l”c = m;t n;¤
o=r¬ emn çl a-ç m;t ¤rn +r
l¤e+¸e l¤’¤r= ¬çt çrnrl
¬¤ m '¬rm =r¸ mr;t' ar ;
'¬rm ame' +t ¤rn +;nr ç¸ nr
a¬+r l¤e+¸ e çt l¤’¤r= ¬çt çr.
nrl ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r;
+t ¤rn çmr; =+rt >l”r +ç mn
ç , l¬= l¤eet =ot m =¤rmt
l¤¤+r¬-o ¬t ¬ ==r; + =rm¬
orç;rnr çl ¬rm =r¸mr;t ar; ¬rm
ame + ¤r; m =¤”c =¤ = =n
=ogm¸= ¬r¬+ o¤ ¬t nªrr +¤t;
=rç¤ =r¸er=r +; mn çl ¤;-n¸
nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +r e+ e>
=rm r¤n çr ¬ + +r;¤r, q= n¸ m +r
mr¬¤ q= =mq¬ m a=mªr çl
q=m q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ or”rt ¬çt
ç, nç nr q= n¸m +r m¸¤rrrm çl
am; ==r; +t e=t l=ªrln
¬çt çr nt nr a= ¤;m =rrr +r
a¤n;¤r =++r¤ ¬çt çrnrl ¬¤ m
=¸¢m ‘r;t; ar; +r;¤r ‘r;t; nªrr
arrmr +t ¤rn +;nr ç¸ ar ; a=+t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r; +r
=++r¤ ¤nrnr ç¸ nr q= n¸ m + er m
çn¤+r m;t n;¤ nr+¬ emn çl
q= ¤ +r; m o =rnr ç¸ l+
am; m mrnr + er+r + ¤; +
=ng er +, ae=r er + ar ;
amm er+ +t ¤rn +;¬t ¤r;++r
+; ot nr q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ ¤¸¤r
=¤ = l¤qrç +; omrl ¬¤ mrnr
+ ¢r > m ;çn ç¸ e çr ¬ ¤ret
a¬¸+r¸lnnr +r q= n¸m + mr¬¤
+r qr¬ çr ¬r a=++r¤ emnr ç nr
mrnrntn er +r +t nr ¤rn ¤¸ ¤r =¤
= +rr¤l¬+ ar; a=rn mr¬mrl
m¸q a¤n¸¬ arrnrlrm+ ¬mng
+ l¤+r-¬ er+r +t ¬r¬+r;t ar;
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln +r¤t =mn = çr
;çt çl
q= ¤ +r; +t =+rt a¬¸ +r¸ lnnr
+rr ln+ ¬mng m +rt =rnrl¤n
çrnt ;çt çl ¤;-n¸ m o¸=;r +r nç
a¬¸+r¸ln +;¤r¬ +t l=ªrln m ¬çt
23
23
34
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
emrl +nrl+ m lç-o¸ rrm +
or’rl¬+ ¤¢r =, ¤çe = ¤¸¤r =¤
= a¬l+rq ªrr, q= lee m q=
l¤e+¸e ¬çt =mq =+rl
o’r ¬ ‘rr=> + +q er mr
= =+¤+ +;¬ ¤; ¤nr emr l+
¬¤ =·¤r arrnrlrm+ =n a¤¬
al-nm =mn + l¬+c ¤ç¸¤ ¬rnr
ç nr a= lo·n o¸l”c ¤r¤n çr ¬r¬
+ +r;¤r ¤ç l>+re o’rt çr ¬rnr
çl q= ¤+r; ‘rl¬ ¤rn gr;r =+rt
arrnrlrm+ ‘rl¬ nr l+= ·nl¬
+r =r¤ +; ¬r¬r ç, q=+r ¤¸¤r
qr¬ a=+r çr ¬rnr çl an· ¤ç
a¤¬t arrnrlrm+ ‘rl¬ + ¤e
¤; a= a¤¬ ¤r= ¤¸er +; =m¤¤r
+;¤rnr ç, ar; q= ¤+r; =m¤¤r
+ =mn ‘rl¬ ¤rn + l=çr-n gr;r
a¤¬t =r;t ‘rl¬ nr a= ·nl¬ m
¤l¤”c +; onr çl
¤;-n¸ ¬¤ n+ ¤ç =n +rrln+
=¤ = q= ==r; m mr¬¸o ;çnr ç,
=r;t ‘rl¬ nr m¸e =¤ = a=t +
arrt¬ +rn +;nt çl ¤nr çt ¤ç
‘r;t; rnrm +;nr ç, =r;t ‘rl¬ nr
a= ·nl¬ m ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = ¤ l¤”c +;
¬rnt ç, l¬=m a= =n ¬ ‘rl¬
¤rn l+nr ªrrl q= ¤ +r; a= ·nl¬
+ gr;r a¬ ‘rl¬ nr +r ¤mr+r;
+rr ln+ =¤ = ¬¤ ¤ +c çr ¬ emnr
ç nr rrt;-rrt; =r;t l=ªrln a=+
=mq m arnt ¬rnt çl
q= ¤+r; ''m; m¸=o¤'' ¬
a¬rnr= çt +¸¤r +;+ l¤;r=n m
m¸q qn¬r a¤r; ''arrnrlrm+
rr¬'' o lonr ç, l¬=+r ¤¸¤r qr¬
m¸ q ar¬ +t l=ªrln m nr ¬çt
çl ~t a;l¤-o ¬ =¤”c +çr ç,
==r; +r +rq +rt +rn +mr¤’r
''arnrrm ‘rl¬'' = ¤l;¤¸¤r çl
q= n¸ m + nªr r +l ªr n
arnrrm¤rlonr ¬ +rrln+ ¬mng
ar ; arrnrlrm+ ¬mng +r or
+rrmr m l¤+r¬ +;+ ¤t¤ m ¬r
+¸l>m e¢m¤r ;=rr =rt¤ ot ç,
¤çt arrnrlrm+ qr¬ + er¤ çr¬
+r m¸=n +r;¤r çl ~t a;l¤-o ¬
=¤”c +çr ç, ''¬¤ +rrln+ =rrr,
arrnrlrm+ =rrr +t arrt¬nr
=¤t+r; +;+ a=+ aro’rr +r
¤re¬ ¤r;++r +; omt, a=t lo¬
rr;r ¤; =¤m an; aremrl''
e+ =re + +r;r¤r= + +re
m ~t a;l¤-o +r ¬r a¬¸+r¸lnnr
ç¸q, a¬+r ¤¤r¬ +;n ç¸e a-çr¬
le=rr ç l+ ''+rm¤r¬g ¬ m¸ q
=¤”c ¤nr lonr ç l+ ¬r er m
ar¬rot + lee =rr”r +; ;ç ç,
a¬m m;t ‘rl¬ +rm +; ;çt ç
ar; ¬r erm l¤;rrr +; ;ç ç, ¤ +rt
m;t ‘rl¬ + aro’r = çt +rn;n
çl q= ¤+r; =r;r ==r; m;t çt
‘rl¬ + +r;¤r l+nr’rte çl m;t
q·er + l¤¬r ¤rrr +rt ¬çt lçe
=+nrl''
q= ¤ +r; çm o =rn ç l+
==r; + =+rt ¤r¤rt +o¤¸net mr>
ç ¬=-¬= ¤;m =rrr ¬¤rnt ç,
¬r¤¬r ¤snr çl q= ¤+r; m¸q
a·et n;ç =mqr lonr mnr çl
¬r +¸e çr¬r ç ¤ç ¤¸¤ l¬nrl¬n
ç, a-çt a¬¸+r¸lnnr + arrrr; ¤;,
m ç; ¢r> m +rrln+ =rrr¬ +t
+¸e +rt ¤;¤rç l+n l¤¬r l¬+e
¤snr ç¸l
ar¬ n+ +t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr
¬ m¸q ¤¸¤r =¤ = arº¤=n +;
lonr çl +rrln+ =rrr¬r + a+rr¤
m +rq +rt +rn t =+ =+nrl
¤r;++r = e+; ar¬ n+ +t m;t
¤=n¸ l=ªrln ¤;, ¬¤ m e+ =rªr
¬¬; srenr ç¸ nr ¤rnr ç¸ l+ m;
mrrnm = ¬r =rrr a¤¬t ‘rl¬
+r ¤o’r¬ +; ;çt ç, a=m m;t
¤¸lç ar; m;t l+=t +rt ‘rl¬ +
=çnrm +r ;lrr +r; +rt nrmor¬
¬çt ;çr çl
m; ¬ ¤rçn ç¸e +rt ¤ç ¤;m
=rrr m¸ q a¤¬t m¬t = ¬¤r ;çt ç l
q=t +r;¤r ¬r +¸e +rt m; mrrnm
= +;¤rnr ¬r ;çr ç , q= lee
m; a-o; +nr +rr¤ l¤r+¸e ¬çt
çl q= =+¤-rr m, m ¤¸¤r =¤ =
ar’¤=n ç¸l m¸q l+=t ¤+r; +r
¤çm (+rm¸ ¬çt çl
m ¬ m¸ =o ¤-q ’¤; = =¤”c
‘r-or m ¤rªr¬r +; ;=rt ç l+ m
ç; ¤+r; = ¬r¤¬ +r nnr; ç¸,
¤;-n¸ a=m rrrcr ¬¤r ar¤+r
çt çrmrl m nr mr> m¬o¸;t +r çt
alrr+r;t ç¸l
m¸q = =+¤l-rrn erm ~ç
r ¤’r ¬¤ m¸q l+=t +rn +r ~n
on ç nr m a-ç =¤”c =¤ = +ç
onr ç¸ l+ +rrq ¬r +¸e çr ;çr ç,
¤ç q’¤; + aro’r ar; m¸= +¸¤r
+ +r;¤r çr ;çr çl
m nr mr> ar¤ er mr +t
n;ç =rrrr;¤r ¤ r¤rt ç¸ , ¬r +¸ e
çr ;çr ç , a=+r ~ n e ¬ +r
m¸q +rq alrr+r; ¬çt çl m;t
mçr¤r+r¢rre nr m¸q +¸e ar;
23
23
35

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
36
m¸ =o ¤ ¤r rn+r e = çt
arlªr+ nmt = m¸¬; ;ç ªrl el+¬
a¤ m¸=o¤ + arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬
m +rt +q =m=nre ar¬ emtl
a¬+r rnr¬ m +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r
+t ar;rrr¬r +;¬ +r aro ’r
lmerl a=+ ¤ro m¸ =o ¤ ¬ ~t
+¸”¤r +t ar;rrr¬r ‘r¸= +tl
m¸=o¤ ¤ç¸n çt m;t¤t + or;
= m¸¬; ;ç ªrl l¤nr¬t, a¬+r crq
=re +t am m çt ers, =¤m l=rr.
r; mn l = n l’r;r m¤rt ‘rl+nmnt mr
¬ mç¬n-m¬o¸;t +;+ m¸=o¤ +r
¤crnr le=rrnrl m¸=o¤ ;e¤ m
+l¬”o lel¤+ + ¤o ¤; +rn ;n
ªrl el+¬ arlªr+ nmt ¤nr +t
rnr ¤¬t ç¸q ªrtl m¸=o¤ ¬ +rrln+
=m=nrar = e¸c+r;r ¤r¬ + lee
~t+¸”¤r = ¤rªr¬r +tl
+¸ e =mn ¤ro a¬+r ¤qt¬r.
ªr ¬r¬ +t q·er ç¸ q l ¤qtrrrm
¬r+; m¸=o¤ ¬ +rm¤r¬g = ¤rªr.
¬r +t nr rnr¬r¤=ªrr m ¤qt¬rªr
¬t ¬ +çr l+ m; ¤r= ¬r +¸e ç,
¤ç, nr m mrç¬ere (~t +¸”¤
r¸ = ernr ç¸l an· ar¤ ¤¸-or¤¬
nr mªr¸ ;r ¬rar l m¸ =o ¤ ¬ ¬¤
¤¸-or¤¬ ¬r+; +=¤r ¤rªr¬r +t
nr +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r ¬ +çr l+
nçr nr m '·¤rer' ªrr, ar¤ g
rl;+r ¬rar, ¤çr ¤; m ;r¬r (g
rl;+rrrt’r¸ ªrrl ¤çr = ¬r ar¤
mrmrm ¤çt lme ¬remrl m¸=o¤
tss¡ m ~t +¸”¤r +t l=lç
¬ nm ar+; +çrl l+ ''o¬r ç nr
o o, ¤ren¸ + ¤çr¬ +nr ¤¬rnr
ç''
q=+ ¤ro
m¸=o¤ ¬ o=rr l+ ~t+¸”¤r
¤’rt ¤¬rn ç¸e ¤r= m ar me nªrr
m¸=o¤ = +çr l+ ar¤ +rt ¤’rt
¤¬rar l m¸=o¤ ¬ +çr l+ m¸q
¤ ’rt ¤¬r¬t ¬çt arnt ç l q= ¤;
~t+¸ ”¤r ¬ +çr l+ m ar¤+r ¤ ’rt
¤¬r¬t l==rr o¸ mr, e = +çn ç¸ e
¤ ’rt m¸ =o ¤ + çrªr m ;=r ot nªrr
+rm¤r¬g ~t +¸ ”¤r ao¸ ’n çr mel
q=+ ¤ro m¸=o¤ +q ¤r; g
rl;+r ¬r+; arel nr>r + ¤rn+
or; m +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r, o’r¬
on nªrr +çn l+ n;t ar;rrr¬r +
¤¸¤r çr¬ ¤; ¬r n¸ mrmmr, ¤çt n¸q
lmemrl =¬g tss¡ m grl;+r +t
alnm nr>r ¤; ~t+¸”¤r ¬ m¸=o¤
+r o’r¬ lon nªrr +çr l+ ar¬
m;t =r;t lo·n ‘rl+n, m ar¤+r
onr ç¸l a¤ nçr m; ¤r= ¤r¤=
ar¬ +t ¤ m; = mrm¬ +t ¬=;n
¬çt ç nªrr ¬¤ ar¤+t +¸sle¬t
+ n¸er ;rl’r +r ¤-qmr a·¤ ;rl’r
m aremr, n¤ m ar¤+r rr¬ ar;
=r; +rrln+ =¸=rr = er+r =¤n· çt
o o¸ mrl m¸ =o ¤ +çn ç l+ ~t +¸ ”¤r
+ o’r ¬ + ¤ro m¸ q ~t +¸ ”¤r +t
l=lç çr mql
e+ lo¬ rnr¬ m lo=rr l+
m¸=o¤ e+ aog+r¸n =rm; +
l+¬r; ¤ç¸¤ me çl ¤¸;r¤rr m
=¸m= ¤¤n +r ¤¤r¬ arnr
ç , ¤ =r çt ¤çrs e+ ¬r¤ + ¤r=
lo=rrq lonrl m¸=o¤ ¬ o=rr l+
e+ ¬r¤, =¸m= ¤¤n =, sr;t =
¤ rrt ç¸ q , ¤r= arnt ç¸ q lo=rrq otl
a= ¬r¤ + ao; e+ ¬¤-o= mr=
+r aln =¸o; ¤re+ =rnr ç¸ar
lo=rrq lonrl a¬+r ¤ç;r qn¬r
=¸o;, aog+r¸n ar; ¤+r’rm¬ ªrr
l+ ar=r +rt ¤+;r mql
¬¤ m¸=o¤ ¬ rnr¬ = o=rr
nr ¤re+ =¤r m ~t +¸”¤r =rn ç¸e
lo=rrq lonl ¤re+ =¤t ~t+¸”¤r
¬ m¸ =o ¤ + ¤r= ar+; +cr¢r =¤r
m +çr l+ m ¤¸ ª¤ter + ¤; ~t +¸ ”¤r
=¤r m ;çnr ç¸ ¤;-n¸ lo·n-er+ m
, m q=t ¤re+ =¤r m ;çnr ç¸l
+rm¤r¬g ¬ +çr l+ m ; o’r ¬
+ ¤ro ar¤+r l=çnrm +r =+¤¸¤

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
37
m ¤r;++r m çt =¤”c +; ¤¸+r
ç¸ l+ m¬ ++rt l+=t rrrlm+ m-ªr
+r arnn¬ ¬çt l+nrl m¸ q ¬r +¸ e
+rt ¤r¤n ç¸ar, a=m l+=t ¤+r; +r
mr¬¤tn ¤nr= nr ¤¸lç +r e’rmr>
+rt =çnrm ¬çt ;çrl a¬rnr= =¤
+¸e lmenr çt mnrl
q= n¸ m +r mr¬¤ a·r++rr
+;nr ç l+ l¤¬r ¤nr= ar; l¤¬r
q·er + e=r += =++r¤ ç? ¤;-n¸
nç e+ =·¤rq çl l¤l+r-r ¤+r; +t
‘rl¬ nr ar; l=lçnr arnt mq,
¤;-n¸ m¸q l+=t ao¸’n ’rl¬ ¬
nl¬+ +rt a¬+t n;¤ ar+l”r n
¬çt çr¬ lonrl
q=t or;r¬ l>m¸¤r mnt mrnr
(¤ gr, l¤”¤r¸ , mç ’r¸ = =r¢rrr+r;
ç¸arl ¤ªrm ·nl¬ arm =trrr ¤e
;çr ªrr, ¤ç a¤+rrl¤n =trrr ¤enr
ç¸ar m; =rm¬ = m¸¬; mnrl a=+
¤r; m m¸q l¤’¤+mr +t a¬¸+r¸ln
+;¤rq mql o¸=; ¬+¤; ¤; ¤e¬
¤rer ·nl¬ ¤ç¸n ¤¤e ªrrl a=+r
ç; am l¬;-n; mlnmr¬ ªrrl ¢r¤r
+r; m ¤ç =¤ lo’rrar m o=r enr
ªrrl a=+ ¤r; m m¸q ¬r;rn¤r +t
a¬¸ +r¸ ln +;¤rq mq l qn¬ m nt=;r
·nl¬ nç +çnr ç¸ ar +rrmnr arnr
l+ ''=¤ +r mr; arnrl''
a= =mn ¤ nt¬r ot+ m ;
=rm¬ = m¸ ¬; ;ç ªr l ¤t¤ ¤re
·nl¬ ¬ +çr m ¤nra a= mr;
=+n çr +nr? a=¬ +çr çrl q=
¤; a=¬ m;t n;¤ q’rr;r +; lonrl
¤ nt¬r ol¢r¤r = arr; +t n;¤ ¬r
;ç ªr ar; m ¤rq n;¤ (¤l’¤m¸
¤¸ ¤ +t n;¤ m¸ ç l+n ;r=n + l+¬r;
‘rm, =+r¤ ar; çorrm.
tnr +t arl=r; ¬çt ¤e =+tl
ªrrst o¸;t ¤; =rsr ªrrl nt=;r ·nl¬
m ;t n;¤ o =r l¤¬r çt m ;t n;¤ ¤e
lonrl or ¤r; +om arm ¤c +; ¤nr
çt a=¬ m;t n;¤ o=rr, =+r¤¤’r
‘rlm-or çr +; loo+ +; =rsr çr
mnr ar; o¸=; ¬+¤; ¤re ·nl¬ =
¤rer, ''q¬+t nr m ¤ç¸n q¤¬n
+;nr ç¸, q-ç += mr; =+nr ç¸l''
a=¬ ¬r +¸e +çr a=+r e=r çt
+¸e +rr¤ ªrrl q= ¤; o¸=; ·nl¬ ¬
a= m¬r+ + =¤ m ‘rlm-or l+nr
ar; nt¬r ¤e mel
q= ¤+r; 'amm er+' n+
+t =+rt ‘rl+nnr = =r¢rrr+r;
ar; ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr l¬;-n; çr.
nt çt ¤et mq l e+ = n mn +r
mr¬¬ ¤rer ¤¸cgcr ·nl¬ , ¬çr
m +rm +;nr ªrr, m;t =tc + ¤r=
ar+; ¤o ¬rnr ar; q= ¤+r; +t
a¬¸+r¸lnnr ¤st loe¤=¤t = ¤¸enr
;çnr ªrrl
e+ ¤r; ar;rrr¬r + or ;r¬
l+=t ·nl¬ ¬ +ç lonr l+ mtnr
+r ç; ‘er+ =¤n l=ç m> çl a=
l=ç +;¬ +t ¬=;n ¬çtl a=+r
¬¤ nr+re ¤mr+r; lo=rrnr çl
q= ¤; m ¬ mtnr + tt¤ arnrn
+r :s,:s,¡a ¤ ‘er+r (nt¬r +r¸
¬¤ ¤r;++r +; lonrl +¸e çt lo¬r
m e+ ç”c ¤¸”c ¬r ¬¤r¬ m; =rm¬
¤ rn· : ¤¬ , ¬¤ m aç ¬rm n
a¤=ªrr m, ar=r ¤-o l+n ecr
ç¸ar ªrr nr çrªr ¬rs +; =rsr çr
mnrl m a= ¬r¬nr ¬çt ªrr q=lee
¤¸er n¸m +r¬ çr? a=¬ +çr '=r.
açmgg', m¸q =¸¬rq lonr =rç¬l
+nrl+ m =mqr q=+r ¬rm =rç¬
ç, an· a¤¬r ¬rm ¤nrnr çl m¬
+çr +rrq m nr n¸+ç ¬çt ¬r¬nr,
+nr arn çr? a=¬ +çr ar¤¬
¤¸ernr çl m¬ a= +çr n¸+ç l+=t
¬ men +ç lonr ç, m n¸+ç ¬r¬nr
çt ¬çt , m ;r n¸ m= +rm +nr çr
=+nr ç? n¸m ¤e ¬rarl q= ¤;
¤ç ¤er mnrl
arm ¤e +; m¸q =raçm +
¤r; m ¤nrnr mnr nr m =mqr l+
¤ç +r q =r ç¬ ¬çt ªrr, q= =+¤-rr
m a= = n mn + ¤¸ ¬¸ m ·nl¬ = m ¬
¬¤ ¤¸;t ¬r¬+r;t et nr m¸q ¤ç¸n
çt ar’¤n ç¸arl m mç; l¤¤r; m
+q lo¬ s¸ ¤r ;çr l+ l’r¤ ¤ r¤rt mr>
+r =çr; +;nr ç l¤; m¸q+r +nr
¬çt mr; =+nr ç? arl=r; m +nr
ç¸, +r¬ ç¸?
e+ ¤r; +q lo¬r + lee, m
mr¤ mnr ç¸ar ªrrl nç l¤¤r; a=
=mn ¤ç¸n mç;rq n+ ¤ç¸¤ mnrl
e+ lo¬ m ;r er cr ¤¸ > 'n¸ ç-¬r'
¬rm+ er ct ¤¸ =n+ +çt = aor
ernrl +rq +rm ¬ çr¬ = a= ¤c¬
em mnrl a= q=rqnr +t ¤¸=n+ m
¤ç¸n ar¬-o arnrl m ¬çt =mq
=+r, q=m e=t +nr ¤rn ç? ¬r
m¸q qn¬r ¤+rrl¤n +; ;çt ç ¤;-n¸
m¸q m; ¤’¬ +r arr; lme mnrl
¤¸=n+ +r ¤ç a’r ¬r m;r arr; ªrr
a=+ ¬t¤ m¬ erq¬ =rt¤ otl
m q= arr; = +rr;t a¤++r m
¤s mnrl ‘rm ar; =+r¤ + +r;¤r
m¬ ar¬ n+ q= ¤rn +r l+=t +r
+çr ¬çtl
q=+ ¤çe +rt m¸ q l¤o ’rt
er mr = =+¤+ + o¸ ’n lo=rrn
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤¸=n+ +r ¤ç a’r ¬r m; ¤’¬
+r arr; ªrr q= ¤+r; ç ·-
''l¤nr +t ar; = m n¸+çr; ¤r=
e+ =çrn+ +r¬¸mr, =rn +r arrmr,
l¬=+r aogmm l¤nr = çl ¬¤ ¤ç
=çrn+ ar ¬rnmr n¤ ¤ç m; l¤”rn
m m¤rçt omrl ar; n¸m +rt m; l¤”rn
m m¤rçt orm +nrl+ n¸m ar;++r =
m; =rªr çrl''
''m n¸+ç =·¤rq ¤nrnr ç¸- nç
n¸+çr; lee er+rorn+ ç l+ m n¸+ç
ers +; ¬r ;çr ç¸l nlo m ¬ ¬ra nr
¤ç =çrn+ n¸+çr; ¤r= ¬çt aremrl
¤; nlo m ¬ra nr a= n¸+çr; ¤r=
+r¬ o¸mrl ¬¤ ¤ç ar ¬rnmr nr ¤ç
==r; +r ¤r¤, rrrlm+nr ar; -nrn
+ l¤”rn m or”rt oç;remrl ¤r¤ +
l¤”rn m q=lee l+ q= ==r; +
ermr ¬ m¸q ¤; l¤’¤r= ¬çt l+nrl
rrrlm+nr + l¤”rn m q=lee l+ m
l¤nr + ¤r= ¬r ;çr ç¸ ar; n¸m m¸q
l¤; ¬ o =rr m l -nrn + l¤”rn m
q=lee l+ q= = =r; +r ‘rr=+ or ”rt
oç;rnr mnr çl''
''m¸q n¸m = ar; +rt ¤ç¸n ¤rn
+ç¬t ç , ¤; a+rt n¸ m a-ç =ç¬ ¬çt
+; =+rml ¬¤ ¤ç =rn +r arrmr,
aremr n¤ ¤ç =+¤¸¤r =rn m n¸+çr;r
mrm o’r¬ +;mrl ¤ç a¤¬t ar; =
+¸e ¬çt +çmrl ¬r ¤rn ¤ç =¸¬mr,
¤çt +çmrl ¤ç çr¬ ¤ret rrc¬rar
+ l¤”rn m n¸+ç ¤nremrl ¤ç m;t
mlçmr +;mr +nrl+ ¤ç m;t ¤rn
mç¤r +;mr ar; n¸+ç ¤nremrl
¬r l¤nr +r ç ¤ç m ;r ç , q=lee
m¬ +çr l+ arrmr m;t ¤rn mç¤r
+;mr ar; n¸+ç ¤nremrl'' q= ¤rn
+r =+r¤¤’r m ar¬ n+ ¬çt +;
=+r ar; nçt arnrrm ¬mng m
+rn +;¬r ar;++r +; lonrl ¤;-n¸
m¸ q ¤nrnr mnr ªrr l+ m¸ q nçr
=¤enr ¬çt lme mtl a=t er ct
¤¸=n+ n¸ç-¬r m q= =o+r m nt’r¸
¬ =¤n e+ ¤rn +çt ªrt, a=+t
n;¤ q lmn +;+ m¸ q =mqrnr mnrl
''nt’r¸ ¬ =¤n nç =r¢rt ot ªrt l+ e+
¬¤t +r aro; a=+t mrn¸ +r¸ lm m ¬çt
çrnrl'' ¤;-n¸ m¬ çorrmtnr = nçt
+rm ¤r;++r +; lonrl ¤¸; ¤nr= +
¤r¤¬¸o m =¤e ¬çt çr =+rl m¸q
a=¤enr +t ar’r+r ¤çe = ªrt,
ar; q= =o+r m ¤nr +rt lonr mnr
ªrr, ¤;-n¸ =+r¤¤’r m q= l+=t +
=rm¬ ¤+c ¬çt +; =+rl
=mn ¤ç¸ n ªrr sr ç ar ; +rn +rr;
¤ç¸n alrr+ =r¤r mnr çl nç =r¤.
+rrm +rn çl mr¬¤ mr> +r q==
=+¤-rr ç l + ¤e +rr;n çt q=+r
alrr+r;t ¬çt ç, m;r =r¤¬r men
ªrr, a=¤enr lme¬r men ¬çt
çl m nªrr m¸q= arrnrlrm+ o¸l”c
= ¬¸s erm l¬= ar¬-o +t a¬¸+.
r¸ln +;n ç, a=+ ¤r; m nt’r¸ +
l’r”n n¸ ç-¬r ¬ +çr ç ·- ''nç
e+ ar-nl;+ ar¬-o ç, ¬r =+rt
=·¤ l¤’¤rl=nr + pon m arnr
çl nç ar¬-o pon m ¤¬r ;çnr
ç, =r=rl;+ ar¬-o + =mr¬ nç
arnr ¬rnr ¬çt ç, a=+r ar¬-o
¤¸¤r ç, ¤ç çmr; ponr + +cr;r +r
ar¬-o = n¤ n+ +r;nr ç, ¬¤ n+
ams ¬ ¬rnl''
a¤n¸ ¬ nªn m¸ q ¤ç¸ n ¤ +rrl¤n
+; ;ç çl +rrln+ ¬mng m q= e+
;r=n + aer¤r =+rt ;r=n ¤-o +;
lon çl an· a¤ m¬ =+r¤ ar; ‘rm
+r er s+; = =r; + =rm¬ =¤”c =¤
= ¤+c çr¬ +r ¤=er +; lenr çl
¤ç ¤;m =rrr ¤rçnt ç nr m a= +=
;r+ =+nr ç¸? m;t çorrmtnr ¤emt
¬çt l an· m ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = =ml¤n çr +;
ç; aro’r +r ¤re¬ +;¬ +r nnr;
çr mnr ç¸l a¤ nªrr ‘rtrr ¤l’¤mt
¬mng + o ’rr = =+¤+ +;¬ +
¤nr= +=mrl
m¸ q =mqrnr ¬r ;çr ç l+
==r; + erm ¤st çt ar=¸+nr =
q-n¬r; +; ;ç çl mr> =o’r ¤ç¸¤¬
+t o; çl q=+r ar+rr= nr ermr +r
¤ç¸n ¤çe = çr¬ emr ªrrl ==r;
+ +q =n q= =o+r m +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt +; ¤¸+ çl
==r; + =rªr-=rªr m ¤rçnr ç¸
l+ q=+r ¤ ¤r;-¤ =r; +rr;n m +rt çr l
+nrl+ m;r ‘r;t; q=t ¤l¤> lmcgct
= ¤¬r çl m¸q mçl”r a;l¤-o +t nç
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt ¤ç¸n alrr+ ¤+rrl¤n
+; ;çt ç ''+m l¤+r= m amer
+om ¬r m¬¸”n +r e+ a·¤n; ar;
l¤’rren; ¤n¬r m aor e ¬rnmr
ar; a¬ =m=nrar +r çe +;¬r
¤r;++r +; omr, l¬¬ =m=nrar ¬
m¬¸”n +r n+rt = ç;r¬ ar; ¤;’rr¬
+; ;=rr ç, ¬¤ = a=¬ ¤nl+n+
¤¸¤rnr ar; ¤¸¤r =mr¬ + l¤”rn m
=r¤¬r l¤¤r;¬r ‘r¸= l+nr ªrrl
q=+r ¤ r;++r +rr;n çt +; =+nr
ç ar; nol¤ q=+r ¢r>¤e =r¤+.
rrm çrmrl nªrrl¤ +-qtn ar-ore¬
+rr;n çt +;mrl'' q=+ alnl;¬ ~t
a;l¤-o +t nç +rl¤”n¤r¤rt l¤r+¸ e
=rn çl ·-
''z¡ ¬¤+¤; tszc +r ~t+¸ ”¤r +r
¤¸ª¤t ¤; a¤n;¤r ç¸ar ªrrl ~t+¸”¤r
alnmr¬l=+ ¤+r’r ¬çt çl ~t+¸”¤r
+ a¤n;¤r +r aªr ç alrrmr¬.
l=+ o¤ +r a¤n;¤r ¬r ¬mng +r
alnmr¬= ar ; ar¬-o + lee n nr;
+;nr çl ~t+¸”¤r ar¬-omn çl ¤
alnmr¬= +r a¤¬ ar¬-o +t ar;
aog¤¸ ç +;+ l¤+r= +r =mªr ¬
ar; =¤re¬ +;n çl''
mtnr + a¢rn ar¬-o +r =nr
¬ '¬rm =r¸mr;t' ar; '¬rm ame'
+t =qr ot çl ''m; m¸=o¤ ¬ a=
''a¢rn ar¬-o'' +r ¤¸ ª¤t ¤;
23
23
38

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
47
m =+r¤¤’r ==r; + =rm¬
¤+c çr¬ m +¸e lqq+ ;çr ªrrl
¤;-n¸ a= ¤;m=rrr ¬ +rrln+ ar;
arrnrlrm+ o¸l”c = m¸q a¤¬t
q·er¬¸=r; ¤er¬ + lee m¬¤¸;
+; lonrl =r; ;r=n ¤-o +;+ e+
çt ;r=nr =r¸er ;=rr l¬= ¤; m¸q
¤er¬r ¤rçnt çl
m¬ ¤rªr¬r +t, ç ¤+r¸l ==r;
+ erm =¤rm ;¤ l¤¬r mr¬¬ ¤re
¬çt çl m m¸ç=ªrt ¬t¤¬ = a+rt
l¬¤¸n +rt ¬çt çr =+r ç¸l an·
=-nr= rrr;¤r +;¬ +t çren m
¬çt ç¸, ar; q= n¸m + erm =¤rm
+ l¤¬r m¸q =¤t+r; ¬çt +;ml
q= ¤; m¸ q =¤”c lo=rrnr
mnr l+ ''o=r m¬ n;r n¬ ar;
m¬ =r;r ; m lonr ç , ¤¬r¤ct
=¤rm +t n¸q ¬=;n ¬çt çl +nr
nr m ç¸ ¤;-n¸ mrrnm nr n¸q çt
¤¬¬r ¤s mrl'' m¬ n¸q ¤r;++r
= a-n n+ =¤ +e l==rr ar;
lo=rr lonr ç l¤; lqq+ +=t?
m¸q =¤”c aro’r ç l+ ¬r +¸e
çr¬r ç, =+rt ¤¸¤ l¬l’¤n çl =r;
mrrnm n¸ q =¤n l¬l’¤n =mn ¤;
l¬;-n; lmen ¬rnml q= ¤+r;
m¸q +rrln+ ==r; + =rm¬ =¤n
¤+c çr¬r çt ¤smrl
m¸ q =¤”c ¤nrnr mnr l+
arlo +re = l¬n¬t +rt ‘rl¬ nr
+rrln+ ==r; m a¤nl;n ç¸q ç,
=+rt ¬ a¤¬ ‘rl¬ +r =¤n çt
¤l;¤n lonr çl
m¸q ¤;m=rrr ¬ ==r; + =rm¬
¤¸¤r =¤ = ¤+c çr¬ +r m¬¤¸; +; lonr çl
==r; +r mr¬¤ q= l=ªrln
m ++rt ¬çt ;çr ç l+ a=¬ a¤¬
ar¤ a= ‘rl¬ +r ¤nr emrnr
çrl q=+ l¤¤;tn ==r; +t nrm.
l=+ ‘rl¬ ++rt ¬çt ¤rçmt l+
=rlr¤+ ‘rl¬ +r aon +rrln+
¬mng m çrl an· a¬+r l¤;rrr
+;¬r ¬=;t ç l l¤;r rr l¬n¬r ¤ ¤e
çrmr, ¤+r’r +rt an¬t çt n¬ mln
= ¤emrl
;rl> + o¤nr ++rt ¬çt ¤rçn
l+ =¸nron çr, ¤;-n¸ arlo +re
= lo¬ ar; ;rn +r +m ¤e ;çr
çl ¤+r’r ar; a-rr;r or¬r çt a=
¤;m=rrr +t o¬ çl
'a-rr ; + l¤¬r ¤ +r’r +r
qr¬ ¬çt çr nr ar ; ¤ +r’r +
l¤¬r a-rr; +rl' or¬r e+ o¸=;
+ l¤;rrrt lo=rn ç¸e +rt e+ o¸=;
+ ¤¸ ;+ ar ; =çnr mt ç l = =r; ¤+
arlo +re = a¤rrr mln = ¤enr
arnr çl nç l+=t = ¤+rrl¤n +rt
¬çt çrnrl
an· a¬rlo +re = =ngn¸ m,
>nr, gr¤; ar; +len¸m +r +m
¤enr arnr ç ar; a¬rlo +re
n+ ¤enr ;çr çl ç; n¸m +r e+
l¬l’¤n =mn çrnr çl q= +lm+
¤l;¤n¬ m +rq ‘rl¬ =+r¤c
¬çt sre =+nt ç, n =¤ ¤rn
m¸q ¤ç¸n a·et ¤+r; ¤nr ot mq
ar; =mqr ot mq çl m¸q ¬t¤¬
+ ¤ r;++r +re = çt n ¤rn lo=rrq
ar; =mqrq ¬rnt ;çt ç, ¤;-n¸ m
ar¬ n+ q= mr¬¤tn +r¤¬r nr
m¬ +r =re =mqnr ;çrl q¬m
+rt =·¤rq ç, m¸q ++rt l¤’¤r=
¬çt ç¸arl ¤;-n¸ n =r;t ¤rn ¬¤
+rr ln+ =¤ = =rn çr ¬ emt
nr m ¤ç¸ n ar’¤n ¤l+n ç¸ arl
a¬+ rrc¬rar +r +rrln+ =¤ =
=rnrl¤n +;+ m¸q =mqr lonr
mnr ç l+ ¬r +¸e ¤nrnr mnr ç,
¤¸¤r =rn ç ar; +rrln+ =¤ =
rrcmrl
+rr;n m çt +rn +;¬ +t m;t
+r¤¬r ¤; =¤rmt l¤¤ +r¬-o ¬t +
¤> ¤cr +; ¤r¬t ¤; lonrl =¤rmt
¬t ¬ ==ªrr + ermr +r aml;+r
ar; ¤l;= = ¬r ¤> le=r, a¬=
m;r mrç +rm çr mnrl =¤rmt ¬t ¬
le=rr ªrr·-
+rr;n m nr m¸q ;rct + e+
c¸+s + =rªr slenr +r;t mrlenr
lment çl m +çt +rt ¬ra l ¤+r¸
m; lee +rm +;¬ ¤rer +, oe
+ oe +r¬ on çl ¤ erm +rr;ntn
l’r”nr +t n;ç ¬çt çl a¤¬ m¸=
+ lee ¤r¤rr n+ +t ¤r¬t emr¬
+r ¤ =n¸ n ç l ¤r’¤rrn o ’rr m
¤+r¸ +nr +;¬r ¤rçn ç? nç n¸m
lç-o¸ar +r +¸e çt ¤”rr m o=r¬
+r lmemrl
n¸ m er m ¤ r¤t¬ +re +
nç¸ lonr ¬ = çr ar ; n¸ +çr;t l=ªrln
¬ro m ec ç¸e +¸rr +t n;ç ç,
¬r ¬ =r¸o =rre ar; ¬ o¸=;r +r
çt =rr¬ o¬r ¤rçnr çl n¸m ermr
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
48
çl
'' o¸=; ¤> m q=t ¤+r; +t
+rr”rr +r ¤nrm +;n ç¸e =¤rmt ¬t
¬ a-n m +ç srer '' +nr n¸m
nç +ç¬r ¤rçn çr l+ e= ¬rln
+ro ¬;¬l;n, +¸==+r; n¸¬ , onr
;lçn, +¤ct, ¬rl=n+, +rn;r m
= ¬r +¤e l’rl¢rn lç-o¸ar m çt
¤rn ¬r =+n ç, e+ ¤¬+; ¬t¬
+ lee m ¤or ç¸ar ç¸?
m +rn;nr +r rr¸¤rr +t o¸l”c
= o =rnr ç¸ l +rn; nªrr ;r¬¬tln+
m¸ =r nr¤¸ ¤r ¤+¤r=r + =rªr, m
a¤¬r =+¤-rr ¬çt ;=r¬r ¤r.
çnrl l+=t ¤+r; +t ;r¬¬tln m
l¤’¤r= ¬çt çl q’¤; nªrr =rn
çt ¬mng m e+ mr> ;r¬¬tln çl
¤r+t =¤ +¸ s +;+c ç l' =¤rmt ¬t
+ a¤n¸¬ ¤> lo=rr +; m;r mrç
+rm +; lonr mnrl
'm¬¸ ”n ‘r;t; çt =¤r rrm
mlo; çl' m¸q ¤+r’r¤o ‘r-o +
gr;r =¤ +¸e m; a-o; çt lmerl
m¸q ¤nrnr mnr l+ nt’r¸ +rt ‘r;t;
+r çt =¤rrrm mlo; mr¬nr ªrrl
nt’r¸ ¬ +çr ªrr ·- ''m m¬¸”nr +t
¤’r=r ¬çt ¤rçnrl m nç ¬r¬nr ç¸
l+ n¸mm ¤;m’¤; +r ¤m ¬çt çl
m a¤¬ l¤nr +r alrr+r; e+;
arnr, ¤; n¸m¬ m¸q mç¤r ¬çt
l+nrl o¸ =; +r q a¤¬ çt alrr+r;
= are nr n¸ m a= m ç¤r +;r m l e+
çt ¤;m’¤; çl n¸m a= ¤;m’¤; =
¤’r=r ¤r¤n +;¬ +t +rl’r’r ¬çt
+;n, ¤; e+ o¸=; +t ¤’r=r mç¤r
+;n çrl
n¸ m + = l¤’¤r= +; =+n
çr ? nç ¬ =r ¤r l+ m l¤nr +
=rm¬ n¸m ¤; or”r emramrl n¸m
¤; or ”r emr¬ ¤rer 'm¸ =r' ç , l¬=
¤; n¸m¬ ar’rr ;=rt çl nlo n¸m¬
m¸=r ¤; l¤’¤r= l+nr çrnr nr n¸m
m;r +rt l¤’¤r= +;n +nrl+ m¸=r
¬ m; l¤”rn m le=rr çl m¸=r ¬ ¬r
le=rr ç, a= ¤; ¬¤ n¸m l¤’¤r=
¬çt +;n nr m; =o’r ¤; +nr
l¤’¤r= +;r m ''l m;¬ = ¤çe nt’r¸
¬ l¬= =çrn+ +t ¤rn +çt ç
''l¤nr = l¤¬nt +=mr ar;
¤ç n¸+ç e+ ar; =çrn+ omr, l+
¤ç =¤ or n¸ +çr; =rªr ;ç l aªrr ng
=rn +r arrmr, l¬= ==r; mç¤r
¬çt +; =+nr, +nrl+ ¤ç ¬ a=
o=rnr ç ar; ¬ a= ¬r¬nr çl n¸m
a= ¬r¬n çr +nrl+ n¸+çr; =rªr
;çnr ç, ¤ç n¸mm çrmrl m n¸+ç
a¬rªr ¬çt ers¸mrl m n¸+çr; ¤r=
arnr ç¸ l ªrr st o ; ;ç mq ç l+ l¤;
==r; m¸q ¬ o=rmr, ¤;-n¸ n¸m
m¸q o=rrm, q= lee l+ m ¬tl¤n
ç¸ l ar ; n¸ m +rt ¬tl¤n ;çr m l''
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr m l¬=
am; ¬t¤rrmr +t ¤rn +çt ç ,
nt’r¸ +r q’rr;r a=t n;¤ çl ¤;-n¸
+re¤+ + ¤+rr¤ = rrt; rrt; =r;r
qr¬ e¸¤n çr mnr çl ¤m+¤; ar;
a¤nr; m nçt a-n; çrnr çl
¤m+¤; =o’r e+; arnr ç,
¤ç +¤e =n ¤¸=”rr +r ¤+rrl¤n
+;nr ç nªrr a¬+t ar=ªrr q’¤;
+ ¤ln o¸c +;nr ç, l¬== +¸e
+re + lee ‘rrl-n =ªrrl¤n çrnt
ç ¤;-n¸ ;r¢r= ¤¸ lrr + er m ¤m+¤;
+t ¤rn ¬çt mr¬nl nt’r¸ ar; m¸=r
+ =rªr nçt ç¸arl ¤;-n¸ a¤nr;
+r çr¬r n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +r =+n
ç l =ngn¸ m, > nr, gr¤; q=+
¤mr¤r çl +len¸m +t =mrl¤n +rt
a= ¤;m =rrr + ¤¸ª¤t ¤; a¤n;¤r
+ ¤ro çrmtl ''=nger+'' ar;
''ae=r er+'' +t ‘rl¬nr >nr
ar; gr¤; m a¤nl;n çr ¤¸+t çl
+len¸m +t =mrl¤n + lee a¤
''amm er+'' +t =¤r·¤ ‘rl¬
+r a¤nr; e¬r çrmrl
mçl”r a;l¤-o + a¬¸ =r; ¤ç
‘rl¬ z¡.tt.tszc +r q= ¤¸ª¤t ¤;
mr¬¤ =¤ m a¤nl;n çr ¤¸+t çl
a¤¬ +lm+ l¤+r= + =rªr ¤ç
‘rl¬ tss¡ + ¤r;++r m ==r; +
=rm¬ ¤+c çr ¬rnmtl q= ¤+r;
q= =ot + a-n n+ ¤¸; ==r; +
mr¬¤ a= ‘rl¬ + ar+”r¤r m
ar ¬rnml q= ¤+r; zt ¤t =ot +
¤r;++r m +rr;n l¤’¤ +r rrm m¸=
¤¬ ¬rnmrl +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬
mtnr + ts¤ arnrn + cc¤ ‘er+
m ¬r a¤o’r lonr ç-
= =r; ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = a=+r ¤re¬
¤r;++r +; omrl +rm¤r¬g ¬ +çr
ç ·-
=¤rrmr-¤l;rn¤n
mrm+ ‘r;¤r ¤¬l
aç r¤r =¤¤r¤+nr
mr¢rln”nrlm mr ‘r¸¤·ll ccll
q= ¤+r; +len¸m +r an
çr+; =ngn¸m ¤r;++r çr ¬rnmrl
q= ¤ +r; ~t a;l¤-o +t nç
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt =rn çr mt ·- ''el’rnr
¬mn-pon +t ‘rrl-n +r ;=r¤rer
ç, nr;r¤ +t ¤or +t ç¸q ¤tmrl;nr
+r ot+ +;¬ ¤rer ç l nr ;r ¤ ¬ +rr .
ln+ l¤qr¬, l¬nl>n ;r¬¬tln,
aor m, ·nr¤r; arlo m ¤ç¸ n ¤ mln
+; et çl a¤ +rr;n +r +rm ‘r¸=
çr nr ç l a= q¬ =¤ ¤t¬r +r
'arnrrm ‘rl+n' + arrt¬ +;+
rr;nt ¤; =¤m ¤=r¬r çl'' a¤n¸¬
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt =rn n+rt çrmt, ¬¤
+rr;n ¤l’¤m ¬mng +r a¤¬t
arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+n + gr;r ¤¸ ¤r =¤
= ar+l”rn +; emrl
t:.ac.tsss

=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
arrnrlrm+ ar;rrr¬r +r
=mn, m¬¸ ”n + ¬t¤¬ m n¸ ¤r
a¤=ªrr = ¤r;++r çrnr çl l¤orªrt
+ l¤orrnn¬ n+ + arl=r;t or
nt¬ =rer m l’r¢rr + =rªr-=rªr,
q= ¢r> +r qr¬ +rt ¤r¤n +;¬r
aln ar¤’n+ ç l q= am m
l¤orªrt a¤¬ +rr ln+ ¬t¤¬ m
¤¤’r +;¬ +t nnr;t m çrnr çl
+rrln+ qr¬ a=+ ¬tl¤+r.
¤r¬¬ m l¬l’¤n =¤ = =çnrmt
çrnr ç, ¤;-n¸ arnrrm qr¬ +
l¤¬r l+=t +rt m¬¸”n +r ¬t¤¬
¤¸ ¤r =rªr + ar ; =¤e ¬çt çr
=+nrl arrnrlrm+ qr¬ + l¤¬r
m¬¸”n +r ¬t¤¬ =;e, ‘rr-n ar;
ar¬-omn ¬çt ¤¬ =+nrl
+rr ln+ l¤qr¬ e+ l¬¬t ¤
ar; a¤n¬ ‘rl¬ çl arnrrm
l¤qr¬ +r =trrr =+¤-rr a= ¤;m
¤n¬ =rrr = ç l nç ¤rn ¤¸¤r =rn
ç l+ ''arnrrm l¤qr¬, +rrln+
l¤qr¬ +r ¬¬+ çl''
m¬¸”n + a-o; ¤ot '¤n¬
‘rl¬' çt rrt;-rrt; +lm+ l¤+r=
+ =rªr, +rrln+ l¤qr¬ +r ¤+c
+; ;çt ç l nç qr¬ a=t ¤ n¬
=rrr +t o ¬ ç l ''arrnrlrm+
=rrr + arrt¬ am; +rrln+ =rrr
+r a¤nr m = =r; m l+nr ¬rn
''arrnrlrm+ ar;rrr¬r''
+r =mn ar; ar¤’n+nrl
nr nç ==r; =¤m ¤¬ =+nr çl
arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r + l¤¬r +rrn+
qr¬, ¤-o; + çrªr m a=n;r o¬
+ =mr¬ çl'' nçt +r;¤r ç l+
¤l’¤mt ¬mng + er m +rr ln+
qr¬ +t '¤;m =tmr' ¤; ¤ç¸ ¤
+; +rt +rn +; a’rr-n ¬t¤¬
l¤nr ;ç çl m¬¸”n ¬t¤¬ m =¸=r
=¸ l¤rrr ¤ or¬ +;¬ ¤re =+rt
+rrln+ =rrr¬ a¬+r a¤e-rr ç,
¤;-n¸ l¤; +rt a¬+ ¬t¤¬ m rrr;
a’rrl-n ar; g-g ¤e ;çr çl
aml;+r q= o¸l”c = =¤=
a-¬n ar; rr-n o’r +çernr ç,
¤;-n¸ ¤çr a’rrl-n ar; g-g +t
nç l=ªrln ç l+ ¤ln o= ·nl¬ nr
+ ¤te e+ ·nl¬ =r¸¬t çl çmr;
o’r m +rn+; nrml=+nr + ;çn
ç¸e +rt ¤ln e+ ç¬r; ·nl¬ nr +
¤te +rt nç l=ªrln ¬çt ç l nç ¤rn
=çt ç l+ ¤nr -¤nr +rr ln+ l¤qr¬
a-¬ln +; ;çr ç, çmr; o’r m +rt
lç=r ar; +¸;nr ¤cnt ¬r ;çt çl
çmr; ¤o =¤”c ¤nrn ç l+
''e+ mr> +rr;n çt e =r +r¸ =r¤s ç ,
l¬=+ ¤rn¸ m¤se m arrnrlrm+
¤ n¬ ‘rl+nnr l¬;-n; +r m¤r
+;nt ç l'' nç ¤rn =rn ç l+
= =r; = arnrrm ¤ n¬r ¤ rn·
=mr¤n çr ¤¸+t ç, +¤e lo=rr¤r
mr> ¤r+t ¤¤r ç , ¤;-n¸ a= ¤ n¬r
+r al-nm ¤t¬ ar¬ +rt +rr;n
+t +r¸lm m çt le¤r ç¸ar çl nç
=rn ç l+ çmr; o’r m +rt ==r;
+ =rªr-=rªr, q= ¤n¬r +r +rr;t
çg;r= ç¸ar ç, ¤;-n¸ e+ l¤mr;t
ar¬ +rt mr ¬¸ o ç , l¬=+r ¤ ¤¤len
+;+ =r; = =r; +r ¤ +r’rmn
l+nr ¬r =+nr çl ==r; +r; +
+q =nr ¬ q= =+¤-rr m l¤l+.
r-¬ ¤+r; = +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +;
;=rt çl
mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o ¬ nr
=¤”c rrr”r¤rr +; ;=rt ç l+ a=
alrrmr¬l=+ o ¤ +r a¤n;¤r
z¡.tt.tszc +r +rr;n +t ¤¸¤n +r¸lm
¤; çr ¤¸+r çl a= lm’r¬ + l¤g
r¬r ¬ q= lnlªr +r ~t a;l¤-o
+ l=lç ¤r¤n +;¬ +t =qr ot ç,
¤;-n¸ ~t a;l¤-o ¬ =¤”c le=rr
ç l+ q= lo¬ a= ¤;m =rrr ¬
==r; + +rnr¤r çn¸, +rr;n +r¸lm
¤; a¤nr; e lenr çl l=lç ¤r¤n
+;¬ +t qe+, nl¬+ +rt a¬+t
+rr”rr m lo=rrq ¬çt ¤sntl
çmr ; o ’r m q= =mn
arrnrlrm+ ar;rrr¬r +r =¤=¤
¤sr çt l¤+¸n ¤¬r ;=rr çl +rrln+
¬t¤¬ ar ; arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬
+ ¤t¤ m , e+ e =t +rr¤l¬+
e¢m¤r ;=rr =rt¤ ;=rt ç l¬=+r
23
23
49
''arrnrlrm+ =rrr + arrt¬ am; +rr ln+ =rrr +r a¤nr m = =r; m l+nr ¬rn
nr nç ==r; =¤m ¤¬ =+nr çl arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r + l¤¬r +rrn+ qr¬, ¤-o;
+ çrªr m a=n;r o¬ + =mr¬ çl''
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤n¬ mr ¬r ¬r nr ç l
arrnrlrm+ er mr ar ; +rr ln+
¢r > m l¤¤;¤r +;¬ ¤rer +r
·nr¤çrl;+ =¤ = or +rrmr m l¤+.
r+n +; ;=rr ç l arrnrlrm+ er mr
+r ¬t¤¬ ¤¸¤r =¤ = l¬l”+n ar;
a+m¤n ¤¬r ;=rr çl
n nªrr+lªrn arnrrm¤rot
er m l¤l+r-¬ ¤ +r; + ¬’rr +
arlo çr ¬r¬ + +r;¤r, q¬+r
¬t¤¬ ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = are=n ar ;
a+m¤nnr = ¤l;¤¸¤r çr ¤¸+r çl
=mr¬ + lee q¬+t a¤nrlmnr
¤¸¤r =¤ = =mr¤n çr ¤¸+t çl n
=mr¬ + lee ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = ¤r q
¤¬ ¤¸+ çl
q= =+¤-rr m =mr¬ m
¤nr-¤nr ¤n¬r ar; =mq ¤c¬
emt ç, rnr-rnr q¬ nªrr+lªrn
arnrrm¤rlonr +r ¬t¤¬ =+c
m ¤s ;çr ç, q¬+t ar¬tl¤+r
¤e¬t +lo¬ çr nt ¬r ;çt ç ,
+nr l+ ar¬ =mr¬ q¬+r l¬;ªr +
+rr; =mq¬ emr çl
q= =mn e=t l=ªrln ar¤-¬
çr ¤¸+t ç l+ ¤rn· q= ¢r> +
ermr +r a¤¬r ¬t¤¬ l+r¢rr¤¸ln
+ =çr; l¤nr¬r ¤s ;çr çl q=
+m¬r;t +r le¤r¬ + lee a-çr¬
l+r¢rr +r a¤¬ lee rrrlm+ ¤nt+
+t = qr o +; q= a¤¬ lee
al¬¤rn rrrl”rn +; lonr çl q=
¤+r; q¬ ermr +r ¬t¤¬ ¤¸¤r =¤
= l+r¢rr¤¸ln ¤; ¤e¬r rrm +r çt
e+ am mr¬r ¬r¬ emr ç, ¤;-n¸
ar¬ +r ¤n¬ =mr¬ q=+r +rt
¬+r; ¤¸+r çl e=t l=ªrln m q¬
a+m ¤n er mr + q¸ ¤sr +r ¬t¤¬
o¸+r; çrnr ¬r ;çr çl
a¤ + ¤e ¤r ;t ar ; sr+ ¬¬t
+;¬r ¤r+t ;ç mnr çl e=t l=ªrln
+ arn çt q= ·n¤=ªrr +r an
çr ¬remrl q= ¤+r; aln+m¤r
çr¬ + +r;¤r ¬r alnmr¬l=+
¤n¬r +r =¤=¤ ¤+c çrmr, a=t
= = =r; +r +rnr¤r çr mrl ~t a;.
l¤-o +r q= l=ªrln +r ¤¸¤r+rr=
çr ¤¸+r ªrrl
q=tlee a-çr ¬ +çr ªrr-
''¤l;l=ªrlnnr e=t +;¤c emt,
q=+r m¸q ¤çe çt qr¬ çr ¤¸+r
ªrrl ¤;-n¸ am; =¤ +¸e ¬”c +r”c
çr ¬rn nr +rt q= l¤¬r’r + ¤;,
m¸q =¸¬¬ +r =¤”c =¤=¤ ¬¬;
ar ;çr çl''l
''=·¤ aªrr m arrnrlrm+
ar ; +rr ln+ ¬t¤¬ e+ o¸ =; =
l+r-¬ ar; l¤;rrrt ç çt ¬çtl or¬r
e+ o¸=; + ¤¸;+ çl arrnrlrm+
¤n¬r +t çt o¬ ç-+rrln+ l¤q.
r¬l q= ¤+r; ¬¤ +rrln+ ¤n¬r
a¤¬t ¬¬¬t arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r
+ aro ’r ¤; ¤e¬ em mt, a=
=mn rr;r ¤; =¤m an; ar¤mrl
e=t l=ªrln m çmr; arlo =¬rn¬
rrm +r '¤=¸rr¤ +¸c¸+¤+mg' +r
=¤¬r =r+r; çrmrl''
q= ¤+r; ¬¤ n+ nç +rr.
ln+ ar ; arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤r +
¤t¤ m l=r¤t, +¸l>m e¢m¤r ;=rr
+r a-n ¬çt çrmr, ==r; m ¬q
¤ n¬r ar¬t a=++r¤ ç l l¬=
¤ +r; al·¬ = rr¸ e +r aem
¬çt l+nr ¬r =+nr, a=t ¤+r;
arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r = aem ¬çt
l+nr ¬r =+nrl ¬¤ mr¬¤ =mr¬
e+ çt =rrr + or¬r =¤=¤r +r
l+r-¬ mr¬+; ¤e¬ emnr ç nr
a=+r ¬t¤¬ ¬r;+tn ¤¬ ¬rnr
çl =¸=r, ’rrl-n, ¤m, onr ar;
=ponnr +r =ªrr¬ lç =r, rr¸ ¤
rr, g”r, ¤ln’rrrr arlo nrml=+
‘rl¬ nr e ent çl ¬¤ nç l=ªrln
a¤¬t ¤;m =tmr ¤; ¤ç¸¤ ¬rnt ç
nr nç nrml=+nr ar¤= m c+;r
+; =mr¤n çr ¬rnt çl q= ¤+r;
¬n n¸m +r ~t m¤r’r çrnr çl
=>t ar; ¤¸=”r or¬r e+ o¸=;
+ ¤¸;+ çl e+ + l¤¬r o¸=; +r
+rq al=nr¤ ¬çt çl ar¬ mr¬¤
=mr¬ m e+ ¤¢rtn ·n¤=ªrr çl
l¤+¸ln + +r;¤rr m nç +rt e+
m¸ =n +r;¤r ç l +nr =>t +r 'mr ¢r'
+t ar¤’n+nr ¬çt? ar¬ +t rr.
rlm+ mr-nnrar + a¬¸=r; +q
rrrlm+ ar;rrr¬re e=t ç , l¬¬+r
+;¬ +t =>t ¬rln ¤; ;r+ emr
;=rt çl +¸e ar;rrr¬re e=t ¤¬r
;=rt ç l+ ¤r+¸ln+ cm = =>t a=
+;¬ m =¢rm ¬çt çl q= ¤+r;
rrrlm+ ¢r> = ¬r;t +r e+ ¤+r;
= ¤lç”+¸n +; ;=rr çl
q= ¤+r; ¬t¤¬ +t mrst e+
¤++ = ¤e¬t =+r¤ ¬çtl m¬¸”n
¬t¤¬ m t:-za ¤”r n+ +r =mn
a”rr+re +r çl q= =mn mr¬¤
¤¤¤¬ = l¬+e +; nr ¤¬ a¤=ªrr
m ¤¤’r +;nr çl ‘r;t; + =r; am
¤¸¤r =¤=ªr ar; =r¸¬ m ¤¸;r ¬r’r
çrnr çl e=t l=ªrln m mr¬¤ +¸e
+; m¸¬;¬ +t l=ªrln m çrnr çl
an· nçt a¤n¸ +n l¤or
arnn¬ +r =mn ç l +rr ln+
l¤or + =rªr-=rªr arrnrlrm+
¬mng +r qr¬ +rt ¤r¤n +;¬ +r
nçt a¤n¸+n (=çt¸ =mn çrnr
çl arrnrlrm+ qr¬, +rq e=t
23
23
50
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
mr¬¬ +t +nr ar¤’n+nr
ç ?' a=+ l¤¬r +nr +rm ¤e ¬çt
=+nrl ¤;-n¸ =·¤rq nç ç l+ ¤ç
‘rl+n m¬¸”n + +rrln+ ¬t¤¬ +
ç; ¢r> m ¤m-¤m ¤; ¤rn¢r =¤
m a=+r ¤ªr ¤o’r¬ +;nt çl'
m ·nr¤çrl;+ ¬t¤¬ m q=+r
¤;t¢r¤r +;+ o=r ¤¸+r ç¸l q=+
alnl;+n m¸=o¤ (¤r¤r ~t mmrq
¬rªr ¬t nr mt¸ + =¤m ¤r= +
¤ro m¸q= ¬¸s¬ ¤re ermr +r
+rt arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+nnr, +rrln+
¬mng m ¤m-¤m ¤; ¤ªr ¤o’r¬
+; ;çt çl
¤;t¢r¤r + nr; ¤; m¬ ¤rnr
l+ n¸ ¤r er m q= ‘rl+n +r ¤;or’n
+;¬ m alrr+ =¢rm çr n ç l
alrr+ am + m¬¸ ”nr +t ç; ‘rl+n
+r çg;r= çr ¬r¬ + +r;¤r, ¤ q=
‘rl+n +r ¤;or’n ¬çt +; ¤rn
ç, ar; +rn+rtn çr +; m¸q= o¸;
+rrm¬ +r ¤nr= +;n çl
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o ¬t ¬ e+
=ªrr¬ ¤; +çr ç l+ ''arrnrlrm+
ar;rrr¬r +;¬ ¤re er mr +r
‘rr;tl;+ ar; mr¬l=+ o¸l”c =
=¤=ªr çr ¬r ¬=;t ç l ‘rr;tl;+
ar ; mr¬l=+ o¸ l”c = +m¬r ;
·nl+n q=m alrr+ =¤enr ¤ r¤n
t +; =+nrl'' arrnrlrm+
‘rl+nnr qn¬t ‘rl+n’rret çrnt
ç l+ =¤’r mr> = ¤ç +rn+rtn çr
¬rnr çl
ar¬+e + arrnrlrm+
m¸ =ar ¬ ar;rrr¬r +r =mn ¤¸ cr¤
+r l¬l’¤n +; ;=rr çl ¤¸cr¤ m
ç; ¤+r; +t ‘rl+nnr +r çg;r=
çr ¬r¬ + +r;¤r, +q ¤+r; +t
¤tmrl;nr m¬¸”n +r rr; ent çl
e=t l=lªrln m m¬¸”n q¬ +”cr
= ¬¸q¬ m çt a¤¬t ¤¤t =r¸¤t
‘rl+n emre ;=rnr çl
ar;rrr¬r + lee ¬ a=+ ¤r=
=mn ;çnr ç ar; ¬ ‘rl+nl q=
n¸m m ar;rrr¬r +r =¤=¤ ¤¸¤r=¤
= ¤lçm¸=rt çl an· +m+r¤s,
¤o’r¬, ‘r-o¬re, n+’rr=> ar;
arrl¤’¤r= + =çr; arnrrm +t
l’r¢rr on çl nç ;r=nr ¤¸¤r=¤ =
arnrrm ¬mng = l¤¤;tn lo’rr
m e ¬rnr çl an· ¤l;¤rrm o¬ +r
¤’¬ çt ¤or ¬çt çrnrl n¸¤r’rl+n
¬n-¬n qr¬ +r mç¤r +;¬ +t
l¬qr=r ;=rnt çl ¬r qr¬ +rq
¤l;¤rrm ¬çt onr, n¸¤r’rl+n a=
mr¬¬ +r ++rt nnr; ¬çt çrntl
çmr; =+rt >l”r +ç me ç l+
a-nm¸=rt ç¸e l¤¬r arrnrlrm+
‘rl+nnr = =+¤+ ar ; a=+t
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln a= +r¤ ç l l¬=
·nl+n + a-o; ¤ç ‘rl+n ¤n¬
çr ¤¸+t çrnt ç, mr> ¤çt ar;r +r
¤n¬ +;¬ +t l=ªrln m çrnr çl
l¬¬t¤ ar; a¤n¬ = mr¬¤
+r +¸e +rt +rer ¬çt çr =+nrl
~t a;l¤-o ¬ +çr ªrr l+ am;
¤ç ‘rl+n m; a-o; ¤n¬ ¬çt
çrmt nr l¤; ar;r m +rt ¬çt çrmtl
¤ªrm m¬¸”n +t ¬rm¸ln çt +lo¬
ç, a=+ ¤ro nr ot¤+ = ot¤+
¬er¬r ar=r¬ +rm çl q= ¤+r;
a= ¤;m =rrr + ¤n¬ çr¬ + ¤ro
=r; ==r; = arr+r; +r o¸; +;¬r
ar=r¬ +rm çl
an· mr¬¤ ‘rl+n + a”rr+re
m çt am; nç ¤nrln ¬e =+ nr
¤ç = =r; +r +rnr¤r +;¬ m
alrr+ =çnrmt l=ç çrmtl q=m
=>t-¤¸=”r +r +rq +ro ¬çt çrnrl
q= ¤+r; mrst + or¬r ¤++r +
=rªr-=rªr ¤n¬ çr+; ¤e¬ =
=+¤¸ ¤r ¤ n¬r ‘rl+n a¤¬ ¤ m
+ =rªr, ==r; +r nm= +rmr¬
m a¤¬t =l+n +r¸ lm+r l¬+rr
=+nt çl
am; o¸·=rr = ¬;¬l;n m¸rn¸
+rn = +rn+rtn ¤¸c ·nl+n m nç
¤n¬r ¬rmn çr ¬re nr +¸e er+r
¬çt çrmrl ¤ç ‘rl+nçt¬ ¤o lo¬r
+r m çmr¬ = =r; +r +nr +rer +;
'm¸=' çt rrm-l¤¤r=¸ +t ar=r =rre¬ ¤re çrn çl an· m¸= +
=rªr çmr;r = ¤ rr ot+ ¤ =r çt ç , ¬ =r ¤¸ ¤ ¬ + =rªr a=+ ¤ ’r¬ +rl
m¸= + ¤ln ~çr, ¬mnr, l¤¬n ar; aro; + l¤¬r çmm rrm-+rr¤
¤¬¤ çt ¬çt =+nrl
23
23
51
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o
¤rrn¸m-¡ ¤¸”o-z¡
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
çm o=r ;ç ç l+ ==r; +t
ç; ¤=n¸ ¬r’r¤r¬ çl çmr; =+rt
=n +ç mn ç- ¤ç a¬; am; çl
a=+t ¤rl¤n + l¤¬r ¤;m ‘rrl-n
a=++r¤ çl +¤e q’¤; ¤rl¤n =
çt ¤;m ‘rrl-n ar; ¤;mr¬-o +t
¤ rl¤n =++r¤ ç , q=+ l¤¬r ¬t¤ +
¤-rr¬ +c¬ +r +r q a¤rn ¬çt ç l
çmr; =+rt =n +ç mn ç, m¬¸”n
¬t¤¬ çt mr> mr¢r ¤r¤n +;¬ +r
=mn ç l am; ¬t¤¬ +mr +t mç¬
mln + +r;¤r, m¬¸”n ¬-m ¤r+;
+rt a¤¬ a= =çt m-n·n +t n;¤
nr>r ¤r;++r ¬çt +;nr ç nr q==
¤st o¸+rr·n +t ¤rn +rq ar; çr
çt ¬çt =+ntl q= ==r; + ¤r; m
=nr ¬ =¤”c +çr ç l+ nç mr>
q ’¤; +r çt l¤’·r =¤=¤ ç l m¬¸ ”n
nr l¬, q ’¤; +t a·¤rrm l=ªrln +r
çt ¬rm çl
q=t lee çm =nr ¬ =¤”c
+çr ç l+ ¤¸¤r ¤gr¤s =lçn =+rt
er+, m¬¸”n ‘r;t; + a-o; çl
m¬¸”n ‘r;t; çt a=et ml-o; ç,
l¬=m ¤¤’r +;¬ ¤; çt q’¤; +t
¤rl¤n =++r¤ çl a= ¤;m =rrr n+
¤ç¸¤¬ +r nçt e+ mr> ;r=nr çl
q=+ l¤¬r a= ¤;m =rrr = ¬¸s¬
+r +rq a¤rn ¬çt çl q= =mn
= =r; m l¬n¬t +rt ar;rrr¬re
¤¤len ç, ¤rn· =+rt +r n;t+r
¤lçm¸=rt çl +¸e ¤-o a-nm¸=rt
çr¬ +t ¤rn ¤nrn ç, ¤;-n¸ ¤ç
=¤ mrnr + ¢r> m ¤¤’r +;¬
mr¢r +nr ç?
a=+r ¤r¤n +;¬r +nr ¬=;t
mr> +r a¤rn çl +¸e erm =¤r=
+t l+nr l¤’r”r + gr;r a= ¤;m
=rrr = ¬¸s¬ +t ¤rn nr +;n ç,
¤;-n¸ l+=t +r +rt a=+r ¤¸ ¤r qr¬
¬çt çl nç ar;rrr¬r q= n¸m +t
¬ çr¬ + +r;¤r, a¤ çr¬t a=+.
+r¤ çl ¤rn¬le arlo çmr; +q
>l”rnr ¬ q=+ lee nm, l¬nm,
=rr¬-¤r¬ nªrr ;ç¬ =ç¬ + ¬r
l=çr-n ¤nrn ç, a¬+r ¤re¬
q= n¸m m nr ¤¸¤r =¤ = a=++r¤
çl
am; +;r s r m e+ m¬¸ ”n
+¸e arl’r+ =¤enr +rt ¤r enr
ç nr a== +nr er+r? q= ¢r > +t
+mrq mr> a=t + +rm arnt ç,
¬r +mrnr çl q=+ aer¤r q’¤;
¬ l=>nr +t ¤+¸ln çt e=t ¤¬rq
ç l+ a¬+ lee nr nç ar;rrr¬r
=+r¤ çt ¬çt çl +nr l=>nr +r
mr ¢r +r alrr+r; ¬çt ç ? q ’¤;tn
·n¤=ªrr + a¬¸ =r; =>t-¤¸ =”r
or¬r +r q= ==r; m ¬t¤¬ nr¤¬
+;n ç¸e mr¢r ¤rl¤n +r e+ ¤;r¤;
alrr+r; çl q= ¤+r; l¤ee n¸mr
+t ar;rrr¬re, q= n¸m m =++r¤
¬çt çl
+re ¤+ a¤rrr mln = ¤enr
;çnr çl an· ==r; +t ç; ¤=n¸
m ¤l;¤n¬ a¤’n=+rr¤t çl q=
;r+¬ +t l+=t m +rt ¢rmnr ¬çt
ç l çm o =r ;ç ç , +rr ln+ ¬mng m
l¤qr¬ ¬ l+n¬t n;++t +; et ç l
nç ¤rn nªrrªr ar; =çt çl ¤;-n¸
a+rt n+ arrnrlrm+ ¬mng m,
q= =+¤-rr m l¤e+¸ e ¤ n¬r ¬çt
arq çl
e+ l¬¬t ¤ ¤orªr +t n;ç nç
¬mng ¤¸¤r =¤ m a¤n¬ a¤=ªrr
m ¤sr çl l¤qr¬ + =+rt l=çr-n
¤nrm ‘rrerar m +q ¤r; =çt
¤ mrl¤rn çr ¬ + ¤ro lel¤¤ç l+n
¬rn çl l¤; +rt a¬ ¤¸=n+r +r ¤c
+; +rq +rt l¤orªrt, sr+c; nr
q l¬¬tn; ¬çt ¤¬ =+nr, ¬¤ n+
¤ç a¬ l=çr-nr +r ¤nrm’rrer
m =¤n l=ç +;+ ¬çt o=r enrl
q= ¤+r; l¤qr¬ + l¤orlªrnr +r
am; ¤nrm ‘rrer +r m¸ç çt ¬çt
o=r¬ lonr ¬rn ar; +¤e q=
qr¬ +t ¤¸ =n+ ¤c r+; sr +c;
ar ; q l¬l¬n; ¤¬r¬ + ¤ nr=
l+n ¬rn nr ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = a=¤enr
çt çrªr emmtl +rrln+ l¤qr¬ +
¢r > m l¬;-n; ¤ nr m’rrere ¤ mln
+;nt ;çt ç ar; ¬q-¬q =rr¬,
‘rrrr +rnr gr;r çrnt mq ar; ¬q
=rr ¬ + l=çr-nr +r lel¤¤ç
l+nr ¬rnr ;çrl
nçt +r;¤r ç l+ +rr ln+
l¤qr¬ ar¬ a¤¬t ¤;m =tmr
n+ ¤ç¸¤¬ ¤rer çl q=+ ot+
l¤¤;tn arnrrm l¤qr¬ +t ¤rn·
=r;t +t =r;t ¤nrm’rrere, =mn
ar ; +re¤+ + =rªr =m-¤n
¬çt ;=r ¤r¬ + +r;¤r ¤¸¤r =¤
= ¬”c çr mql q= =mn ==r;
+ =+rt rrmr¤rnr + ¤r= ¤¸;r¬
23
23
52
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+;¬ m =mªr çr çt ¬çt
=+n l an· ¬¤ n+ ¤ nr mr +
gr;r ‘rrrr +;+ q= l¤qr¬ +r
¤cr¤r ¬çt lonr ¬rnmr, n¤ n+
nrn +t n;ç m-ªrr +r ;c¬ = +¸e
+rt er+r ¬çt çrmrl +nrl+ =+rt
¤ +r; + qr¬-l¤qr¬ +r =r¬r¬r,
m¬¸”n ‘r;t; + a-o; çt le¤r çl
ar¬ n+ +t +rrln+ l¤qr¬ +t
a-¬ln +r +r;¤r m¬¸”n + a-n;
+t ¤;¤rr ar; ¤”crar +r çt ¤e
çl an· arnrrm l¤qr¬ +t =rr¬
+rt m¬¸”n +r a-nm¸=rt çr +; çt
+;¬t ¤smtl +rrln+ l¤qr¬ nr
m¬¸”n +r +rrln+ =¸=r çt ¤or¬
+; =+nr çl n =¸=r a=ªrrq ar;
¢l¤r+ çrn çl q¬= =ªrrq =¸=r
‘rrl-n =++r¤ ¬çt ç l an· ¬¤ n+
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ + ¤;r¤; arnrrm
l¤qr¬ a-¬ln ¬çt +; enr, n¤
n+ mçl”r a;l¤-o +t, ''rr;r ¤;
=¤m an; ar¬'' +t +rl¤”n¤r¤rt
=rn ¬çt çr =+mtl
+rr ln+ l¤qr¬ ¤lçm¸ =rt
¤n¬r +r ¤l;¤rrm ç, q=+ ot+
l¤¤;tn arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+nnr +r
=r¢rrr+r; a-nm¸ =rt ar;rrr¬r +
gr;r çt =++r¤ çl +rrln+ l¤qr¬
q-çt arrnrlrm+ ‘rl¬ nr +t o ¬
çl an· ¬¤ n+ nç ‘rl¬ a¤¬t
¤or +t ç¸q ¤qrl¬+ ‘rl¬ +r
=trrr a¤¬ arrt¬ +;+ q=+r
= ¤re¬ +;¬r ¤ r;++r ¬çt +;nt ç
n¤ n+, ~t a;l¤-o +t +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt =rn ¬çt çrmtl +rrln+ l¤qr¬
+t q= l¤¬r’r eter ¤; nr a+¸’r
emr¬ m l=¤ arrnrlrm+ ‘rl¬
çt =¢rm ç, ar; =+rt a¤rn ¤¸¤r
=¤ = l¬;ªr+ çl mr¬¤ a¤¬t
¤l¸ ç + +r ’re = q= l¤¬r’r eter
+r ;r+ ¤r¬ m a=mªr çl q= n¸m
+ rrmm¸= ¬r +¸l>m ‘rrl-n lm’r¬
¤er ;ç ç, a== +¸e +rt a=;
çr¬ ¤rer ¬çt çl +rrln+ l¤qr¬
e+ =·¤rq çl nç l+=t q¸o +r
aro’r ++rt ¬çt mr¬mrl ¬¤ n+
q=+r ¬-m ornr =¤n ¤ +c çr +;
¤mr¤r =lçn q= ‘rl¬ +r =-n¸”c
¬çt +;mr, nç l+=t +r aro’r
¬çt mr¬mtl
an· ¬¤ n+ ==r; +r mr¬¤
a-nm¸=rt çr+; a= ¤;m=rrr +
rrrm +r ¬r¬ ¤re ;r=n = ¤e+;
a=+r =r¢rrr+r; ¬çt +; e ,
‘rrl-n =++r¤ ¬çtl q= ¤+r; ¤nr
çt ==r; +r mr¬¤ a= ¤;m =rrr
= ¬¸s r l+ n +rrln+ ‘rl¬ nr,
mr¬¤ + =rm¬ çrªr ¬r s +; =rst
çr ¬rnmt, ar; ¤;t ¤¬+; ¤rl¤r
mr> +t =¤r m em ¬rnmtl +rr;n
¬mng pon +r ;=r¤rer çl an·
q= +r¸ +rrm ¤; ¤ or çr ¬ ¤re m¬¸ ”n
+ mrrnm = çt ¤ç ¤;m ‘rl¬
a¤¬t =rrr +r ¤rrr =r; ==r; +r
+;r+; ‘rrl-n =ªrrl¤rr +;mtl
çmr; =nr ¬ a=+ rnn n+
¤ç¸ ¤¬ + ;r=n +r =¤”c ¤¤r ¬
l+nr çl =-nr= mrm ar; +rl¬
mrm gr;r ¤ç¸¤¬r =++r¤ çl mtnr
m =¤”c le=rr ç, =-nr= mrm
+r ;r=nr ¤ç¸ n +lo¬ ç , ¤;-n¸
l¬”+rm +m nrm + l=çr-n ¤;
¤e +; +rl¬ +;nr ç¸ ar, ¤ m mrmt
¬t¤ l¬l’¤n =¤ = l¬l¤r¬ a=
¤; =rrr = ¬¸s ¬rnrl çmr; ‘r;t;
m eç ¤+r +r ¤¤r ¬ arnr ç l nr mt
m¸errrr; = ¤e¬r ¤r;++r +;nr çl
q= ¤+r; eor ¤+ +ro¬ ¤; ¤ç
mrnr + ¢r> +r ¤r; +; =+nr çl
q= ¤+ +r arqr¤+ +rt +çn
çl +nrl+ ¬t¤ + mrnr + ¬mng
+t =r;t ‘rl+nnr arqr¤+ +
a¤; +t ‘rl¬ + aro’r = +rn
+;nt ç, q=tlee q= arqr¤+
+çr mnr ç eo ¤+ n+ +t =+rt
mrnr¤t ‘rl+nnr qn¬t ¤ ¤e ç l+
+rq +rt a¤¬t =tmr = ¤rç;, ¬t¤
+r l¬+e¬ çt ¬çt ontl
an· q= mrm = ¤ç¸¤¬r, q=
n¸m m +lo¬ çt ¬çt, a=++r¤
=r emnr çl ¤;-n¸ l¬”+rm +m
nrm + l=çr-n ¤; ¤e+; ¬t¤
¤m ¤¸¤+ q’¤; +rl¬ +;nr ç¸ar
l¬l¤r¬ ar=r¬t = a¤¬ e¢n
n+ ¤ç¸¤ ¬rnr çl an· mtnr m
q=t mrm +r ~”o ¤nrn ç¸e, q=t
¤; ¤e¬ +r l¬o’r lonr mnr çl
q= n¸m + rrm m¸=ar ¬ qr¬ +
a+rr¤ m, q= ¤ªr ¤; ¤e¬ +t
·nr=nr +;n ç¸e, e=t aeq¬
¤ or +; ot l+ ¤ rl¤r, l¤l+r-¬
+rrl-nnr m aeq +; ;ç ¬rnr çl
¤r¤, ¤¸¤n, or¬, rnrm, n¤=nr,
rrm arlo +t e=t men ·nr=nre
+; sret l+ ¬t¤ +rm¬re m ¤=
+; ;ç ¬rnr çl
+m +r¤s, ¤ o’r ¬, ‘r-o ¬re,
n+ ‘rr=> ar; a-rr l¤’¤r= +
=çr; arnrrm +r =¤ e=r =çt
;r=nr a= lo=rrq çt ¬çt onrl
nçt +r;¤r ç l+ qn¬r ar=r¬
+rm çt a=++r¤ ¤¬ mnr ar ; q=
¤+r; ermr +r rrm ¤; = l¤’¤r=
çt =rrm çr mnrl ¤l;¤rrm + a+rr¤
m ç; +rn +t nçt l=ªrln çrnt çl
l¬;ªr+ +rn +rq +nr +;mr?
an· ar¬ ==r; m rrm + ¤ln
23
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53
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=tmr errr mnr nr ermr ¬
l¤qrç +; lonrl rrm +t q= çren
+r o=r +; +rn+; o¸·=r çrnr çl
qn¬r çr¬ ¤; +rt rrm m¸=ar +r
onr ¬çt ar ;çt çl ar¬ +rt ¬n
¬n çªr+¤s a¤¬r +; e¸ c m em
ç¸ e ç l am; =·¤r arrnrlrm+ m¸ =
lme ¬rn nr ¢r¤r +r; m a-rr+r;
+rm ¬rnr çl =·¤ m¸= +t ·nr=nr,
m ¤çe +; çt ¤¸+r ç¸l +nrl+ =n
=ngm¸= +t mrnr, antn =rrr =
=trrr =+¤+ ;=rnt ç, q= lee
==r; +t mrnr a¬+ =rm¬ ¤;t
¤¬+;, çrªr ¬rs =rst ;çnt çl
q= ¤+r; e= m¸= = ¬¸s¬ ¤rer
¬t¤ a¬rnr= çt mrnr + ¤+rr¤
= m¸¬ çr ¬rnr çl
q= ¤ +r; m¸ = +¸ ¤r = ¤ç
=trrr arqr¤+ +ro +;, a¤¬t
nr>r ¤r;++r +;nr çl +nrl+ m¸=
+¸ ¤r = a¬rnr= çt ¬t¤ mrnr
+ ¤+ = m¸+n çr+;, a= ¤;m
=rrr +t ar+”r¤r =tmr m ¤¤’r
+; ¬rnr ç l q= ¤ +r; arm +
mrm m +¤e =çnrmt ‘rl¬ nr
çt a= lment ;çnt çl q= ¤+r;
¤nr -¤nr arm ¤c nr ¬rnr ç ,
ar+”r¤r ¤cnr ¬rnr ç ar; ¤e¬
+t mln n ¬ çr nt ¬rnt ç l q¬
arrnrlrm+ er+r m =mn +t o¸;t
¬t¤ +r ¤+rrl¤n ¬çt +; =+ntl
an· a= ¤;m =rrr = ¬¸s¬ m a=
+rq o; ¬çt emntl l¤r¬ ¤rrrre
nr arqr¤+ n+ çt çrnt çl
q= ¤ +r; = n =ngm¸ = =
¬¸sn çt ¤ =+rt a¬rnr= çt =m.
r¤n çr ¬rnt çl q= ¤+r; ¬t¤ a=
¤;m =rrr = ¬¸s +; ¬-m m;¤r
+ ¤++; = e¸c+r;r ¤r ¬rnr çl
arqr ¤+ = a¤; mrc nr; ¤;
nt¬ er+ çl =ng er+, ae=r
er+ ar; amm er+l amm er+
m ¤ç¸¤ +; ¬t¤ a= ¤;m=rrr m
et¬ çr ¬rnr çl nçr ¤;mr¬-o
ar ; l¤;=ªrrq l>m¸ ¤rmnt mrnr
gr;r ;¤r mnr, ¬mng çt lo=rrq
o nr ç l +nr l+ = =r;, ¬¤ q=
mrnr gr;r =¤rlen ç, an· a=
+rt o=r¬ m =¢rm ¬çt ç, +¤e
a-n; o¸ l”c çt a-ç o =r¬ m =¢m
çl ¤nr-¤nr ¬t¤ a¤; ¤cnr ¬rnr
ç, ¬t¤ + er+ ar; a=+t ‘rl¬
nr =¤”c lo=rrq ont çl m¬¸”n +r
‘r;t; nt¬ +rrmr m l¤+r¬ ç - =ªr¸ e
‘r;t;, =¸ ¢m ‘r;t;, ar ; +r;¤r
‘r;t; m q= ¬t¤¬ + ¤r;++r =
a-n n+ +r ¤¸;r lç=r¤ çrnr çl
m¬¸”n a¤¬ ¬t¤¬ +t arm çr¬
¤ret rrc¬r +r qr¬, q= ‘r;t; m
¤¤’r +;¬ ¤; cetl¤¬¬ + o¸’n
+t n;ç ¬r¬r ¬rnr çl
n nt¬r ‘r;t; l>m¸ ¤rmnt mrnr
+t ço m çl a¬+ a-o; çrnt ç
arrmrl ¤;mrrmr, +;rsr =¸n =
+rt n¬ ‘rl¬ +r ¤¸¬ çl a=+t e+
l+;¤r +r ¬rm arrmr çl +nrl+
nç a= ¤¸¤r =rrr +r çt a’r çl
an· arrmr ar; ¤;mrrmr m +rq
+ro ¬çt çrnrl q== ¬t¤ +r ¬¤
=r¢rrr+r; çr ¬rnr ç nr q=t rrr;
+ =çr; ¬t¤ a=+ aogmm =ªrr¬
nr¬t ¤;mrrmr n+ ¤ç¸¤ ¬rnr çl
mrnr + ¢r> m q== =r¢rrr+r;
=++r¤ ¬çt çl
an· arqr ¤+ +r +r o¬ l+n
l¤¬r nç +rn a=++r¤ ç , =ªr¸ e,
=¸ ¢m ar ; +r;¤r ‘r;t; nªrr arrmr
ar; ¤;mrrmr q= ¤+r; = le¤n
ç l+ q¬+r aem-aem +;+
o=r¬r a=++r¤ çl aorç;¤r +
nr; ¤; e+ m-¬ + a¤; a-o;
or lç== çr n ç l a-o; + +rrm m
;= le¤r ;çnr ç l o =r¬ = + ¤e
a¤; +r ‘r=n +rrm çt lo=rrq
o nr ç l q= ¤ +r; o¤r¬ = a=m
;= l¬+enr çl ;= +r o=r +;
çm a=+r =¤ro ¬çt ¬r¬ =+n l
¤ç nr ¤=r¬ ¤; çt mre¸m çrnr
ç l+ ¤ç mtor çl a= ;= m ¬r
mtor¤¬ ç a=+r ¤ or +;¬ ¤ret
=rrr çt q ’¤; ç l q= ¤ +r; ;= n+
+ nt¬ =¤ ‘r;t; + =¤r +t n;ç
ç l q= + a-o; ¬r mtor¤¬ ç ¤ç
arrmr ar ; l¬= =rrr + +r;¤r nç
mtor¤¬ ¤ or ç¸ ar ¤ç ¤;mrrmr ç l
m-¬ +r o =r¬ = çm a=m l¬lçn
q¬ =+rt ¤=n¸ ar +r qr¬ ¬çt çr
=+nrl nç aorç;¤r mr> mr c
nr; ¤; =mqr¬ +r ¤nr= mr> çl
a=lenn nr ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar;
=r¢rrr+r; +r l¤”rn ç l a=+r
qr¬ nr arrnrlrm+ qr¬ +t
¤nrm’rrer m ¤;t¢r¤r +;¬ ¤; çt
¤r¤n çr =+nr çl
¬¤ ==r; m rrm +r er¤ çr
¬rnr ç ar; arrm +r ¤rer ¤rer
çr +; nm= or= ¤¬ +; ==r; m
¬m ¬rnr ç, a= =mn l¬= ¬t¤
+ mrrnm = ¤;m =rrr a¤¬r
=rlr¤+ ¤ +r’r ¤ ernt ç , ¤çt
=·¤r m¸= çrnr çl e+ çt =·¤r
= n =ngm¸ = =+¤¸ ¤r = =r; +r
a-rr+r; +rmr¬ m =¢m çrnr çl
q== =mqr ¬r =+nr ç l+ m¸=
+nr çrnr ç? q=tlee lç-o¸ rrm
+ =+rt m-ªrr m m¸= +t mlçmr +r
¤¤r¬ +;¬ = ¤; ¤nrnr çl
23
23
54
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+ ¤++; m m¬¸ ”n ¬t¤¬ ·nªr
çt m ¤r lonrl ~t ;r¬mr ¤rer¤rn ¬
a¤¬ al-nm =mn m q¬ =¸=rr
+t ¬r ·nr=nr +t ç ¤ç ¤¸¤r =r¤
çl =·¤r =¸=r l¤; =ªrrq e+ ¬=r
çt ;çnr çl ¤ç =¸=r +¤e ¤;m
=rrr = ¬¸s¬ ¤; çt lme =+nr
ç l an· m¬¸ ”n +r =·¤rq +t
=rr¬ m ¤nr¬ ‘rte ;ç¬r ¤rlçel
¤;mrrmr ç; =mn, q¸++; a=+r
çrªr ªrrm¬ +r nnr; ;çnr çl e=t
l=ªrln m ¤ç¸¤¬ ¤; ªrrs = ¤nr=
= çt +r¤=rm; +r ¤r; +;+, a=
¤;m =rrr m et¬ ç¸ar ¬r =+nr
ç l q= ¤ +r; lme¬ ¤rer ¤;m =¸ =r
ar ; ¤;m ‘rrl-n l¤; =ªrrq çr nt ç l
e+ ¤r; lme ¬rn nr a¬-n+re
n+ ¬t¤ e=t l=ªrln m ;çnr ç
ar; ¬-m m;¤r + ¤++; = e¸c
¬rnr çl e=t l=ªrln +r çt ¬rm
mr¢r çl
23
23
55
e+ mç;t =rrr¬r ç -a¬¤=rol
q=+r ‘r-orªr ç-çmr’r ¬ çr¬r,
l¬;r’r ¬ çr¬r, aªrrng l¤rr +t
¤=-¬nrl aor= ;ç¬r +orl¤ rrm
¬çt ç, ¤rç ¤ç ar; +¸e +re çt
çr l ¤ ¤¸ re-l¤rr nªrr ç =m¸ =r ;ç¬
= n¸ m q ’¤; + =mt¤ ¤ç¸ ¤ ¬rar m l
¤ rªr ¬r +t a¤ ¢rr ¤ =-¬nr + gr;r
çm q’¤; + alrr+ l¬+c ¤ç¸¤
=+n ç l ·erl¬¤¸ ¤r nr aor= m¬ =
¤m += çr =+nr ç? nlo e= m¬
¤re ¤m +t ¤rn +; nr ¤ç lmªnr
çl ¤ nr o¸=;r +r +”c o¬r ¤rçn
ç l rrmr -rrr nr +cgc;¤l-ªrnr +t
çt ¤rn =rl¤nl e= erm m¸=rm¸qr
nr ¤st m++rt; ¤¬rn ç, ¤; a¬+r
=r;r rrm ¤r¤rt ar ; +rnr gr;r
o¸=;r + =rªr esrq-qmsr +;n
;ç¬r çt çr nr ç l a¬+ +rnr
+r l¤eer qlnçr= ol=rn ar;
''aor= ;ç¬r +orl¤ rrm ¬çt
=rl¤n l+ nlo a-ç =¤n->nr o
ot ¬rn nr a+rt ¤ +nr +; sreml
=r; ==r; +r nlo =r¸¬ +t ¬ot
m s¸¤r o¬ = a-ç +rq alrr+r;
¤r¤n çrnr çr nr ¤ +e çt e=r
+; srem, +nrl+ lnlm;r·e-¬
a¤=ro çt a¬+r q’¤; çl
e=t +rt”r¤rnr +t ar;rrr¬r
+;¬ ar; m++rt; m¸=rm¸qr ¤¬rn
;ç¬ + +r;¤r a¬+ ç¸ on m ¤ m +r
¬rmr l¬’rr¬ n+ ¬çt ;ç ¤rnr ar ;
a-ç l+=t ¤; onr ¬çt arntl an·
¬r m¬¸ ”n =or a¤¬ +r o¸ ·=rt
mr¬nr ç , a= q ’¤; +t ¤ rl¤n
¬çt çr =+ntl 'm l+n¬r o¸·=rt
ç¸, e=r =r¤n ;ç¬r ar=¸;t +rr¤¬r
ç , rrm ¬çt l ç; + m¬¸ ”n +r a¤¬r
¤rq cr¬r çl nlo n¸m o¸·=rt çr nr
=¸=rt ¤¬¬ +r ¤nr¬ +;r, a¤¬
o¸·=rr ¤; l¤¬n ¤r¤n +;rl o¸¤er
+r q ’¤; +t ¤ rl¤n ¬çt çr ntl an·
o¸¤e +orl¤ ¬ ¤¬rl n¸+çr; a-o;
a=tm ‘rl+n ç, n¸+ç ‘rl+n’rret
¤¬¬r ¤rlçel a-nªrr n¸m l+=t
+rt ¤=n¸ ¤; l¤¬n += ¤r¤n +;r.
m? ¤; =rªr çt aln’rn ç”r aªr.
rng ç”rrq+ nr aç”r = +rt ¤¤n
;çrl arn-n ç”r +t a¤=ªrr m
+rt m¬ ‘rrn ¬çt ;ç ¤rnr, m¬ m
¤¤enr ar ¬rnt çl aln ç”r +
¤ro =or o¸·=r çt arnr çl ç=t
ar ; ar =¸ +r rrl¬”o = ¤ rr ç l
m¬¸”n ¤ç¸rrr e+ aln;+ = o¸=;
aln; + +t ar ; or s ¤snr ç l l¤rr
=or ¤=-¬ ;ç, ¤; ‘rrn ;çrl a=
aln’rnnr +t ar; +orl¤ +rrm¬
¬çt o¬r ¤rlçe, +nrl+ ¤rn+
aln’rnnr +r ¤l;¤rrm aecr çr nr
çl an· ç; mr¬¤ ¤r¤rt +r mrnm
t¡ ¤;¤;t tsss
a¬-n rrc¬r ¤¤rç m al¬¤rnnnr al¤;rm =¤ = am=; çr¬¤ret, l=ªr; ;ç¬ m a=mªr,
erct-erct almnr + alnl;+n çm ar; +nr ç? l+-n¸ m ar; n¸m +¤e ¢r¸q ¤=n¸e, ¤¸e¤¸e mr> çl
l¤’¤ ·nr¤r; + mçr=rm; m +¸e l¤’rre n;m ;çnt çt çl m; ar; n¸+çr; ¬= ¢r¸q ¬¬r m ¬rln + antn
¬t¤¬ +r arnr¤ a’r çt ·n+n çrnr çl l+-n¸ e= ‘rl+n=+¤-¬ mçr¤¸=”r +rt çrn ç, ¬r ¤rn· =+¤¸¤
r antn + =r+r; =¤ çrn ç, ar; mr¬r a¤¬t otrr ¤=rl;n ¤rç¸ar = =¸o¸; +rl¤”n +t =tmrar +r +rt
=¤’r +;n ;çn çl n mçr¤¸=”r mr¬¤ ¬rln + a-¬ln-¤ªr ¤; n>-n> =ªrrl¤n mrm-o’r¬ =n++rr
+ =mr¬ çl ¤ =¤m¸¤ qn¬ mçr¬g ç l+ a¬+t ernr mr¬r =m=n ¤¸ª¤t +r ar·e-¬ +; ent ç, ¤
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
56
o l=rn , l¬= +rm + len
ar¤ er m ¤rrr; ç , m ªrr st, a=+t
or’rl¬+ ·nr=nr +; o¸l çm erm
¤ or-nt ç l ¤ or-n (¤e= plus)
nrm, ¤¸¤r o’r¬ çl a¤ ;rm lmc
;ç ç, +=;, esg= lmc ;ç ç,
l¤qr¬ ¤; ’rr¬ ç l m ¤l’¤m m
mnr, U.S.A. m mnr nt¬ o¤,
¤çr +rt ‘rr;tl;+ +=;n +;¤r ;ç
ç , (Physical Exercise). m
¬r¬nr ç¸ arªrr¤ls+ =¬¬ a==
+çt ¤nror a·et +;¤r =+n
çl ¤;-n¸ l=çnrm m +¸¤sle¬t
¬rmn çr+; nrm +;¤rnt çl
nç ¤¸ ; l¤’¤ + len e+
a¤++rr çl m e+ m¸ç=ªrt aromt
ç¸, ar¤ ermr +t n;çl ¤r¤r ~t
mmrq ¬rªr ¬t +r m¸= ¤¬r lenrl
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o ¬ +çr l+ m¸=
+ l¤¬r arm ¬çt ¤cr ¬r =+nr
nr m¸= ¤¬r lenrl m ¬çt ¬r¬nr
ªrr, m¸ = +nr +;nr ç ? ¤r ¤ get¬
ç¸e, aro’r o lonr, arm +r +rm
n; +r +;¬r çl
m ; rr¤ m ç s +e+ ªrrl tt.
a¡.ts:: = :a.ac.tssc n+ ¬r +;t
+tl m¸ =o ¤ + aro ’r = :-s =re
¤çe ¤ tm ·nr ; l;crn;m -c e +;,
nç +rm ‘r¸ = l+nrl tssa = m
nç +rn+m l¬;n; ¤er ;çr ç¸l
nt¬ o¤ aml;+r mnr, e+ o¤
:a ¬¸erq zaas + ‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr +rn+m +r =trrr ¤=r;¤r
(=¤n =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm +t ¤r¤rt m ¤¤¤¬¸
q¬;rqe mnrl q¬;rqe m m ;
ç¬r;r l’r”n ç , ¬r + ¤e m ;t n=¤t;
= rnr¬ +;n ç l
aml;+r m +rt ç¬r;r ar;n,
Students (l¤orªrt ¸ rnr¬ +;n
ç ar; a¬+r nrm çrnr çl ;rm
lmc ;ç ç- +=;, esg= arlol
+¸¤sle¬t nrm +;¤rnt ç-q==
¤ç¸n ¤;’rr¬ ç ¤l’¤m ¤re ar;
çmr; o’r + erm +rtl m¸=o¤ +t
açn¸ +t ¿¤r + +r;¤r =, m; +r
nç =rmªn ¤r¤n çr mql mtssa
=, emrnr; nç +rm +; ;çr ç¸l
¤çe, m ¤t+r¬; m ªrr, l¤; nçr
=¸n¬m;t m ar mnrl nç ot¢rr o¸,
a== ¤çe ar¤+r ¤nra l+ nç
o’r ¬ +nr ç ? +¸ ¤sle¬t +nr
ç? =r¤;t m¸qr +nr ç? m¸¬;rn
m mnr, ¤çr + erm m¸q +ç¬
em, ¬t, e+ a¤++rr ç l+ +¤e
ar¤+t n=¤t; = nrm çr ;çr çl
m e+ m¸ ç=ªrt aromt ç¸ l
¤tmr; nr =+rt çrn ç, m +rt e+
lo¬ ¤tmr; ç¸arl sr+c;r ¬ +çr
l+ +rq ;rm ¬çt çl m; e+ lm>
ªr -~t ;rm o¸ ¤ -(n¸ . ¤t. + ¸,
a-çr ¬ +çr l+ ar¤+r mr+ ’r
+t o’rr ç , mr+ ’r +t o’rrl m
¬çt ¬r¬nr ªrr, mr+’r +nr çrnr
ç? a-çr¬ ¤nrnr l+ m¸rn¸ +rn
çrnr ç nr m¬ +çr o¸¤ ¬t, nç nr
=+rt +r arnmrl nr ¤ +ç¬ em,
¤¤¬ + a¤rn +rt çmr; o’r¬ m
çl mçrm¸rn¸-¬n +r ¬r¤ +;rl
¤r, m; ¤= +t ¤rn ¬çt ªrtl m¬
+çr o¸ ¤ ¬t, a¤¬ = nç ¬çt
çrmr, ar¬ or mr+’rl l¤; a-ç.
r¬ +çr l+ mrn>t ¬¤ = +rt çr
=+nr çl nr m¬ l+nrl ¤r+rnor,
nqr¤¤tn rrr;¤r +;+l =¤r er=r
¬¤ l+nr, ¤çe ¬çt ¬r¬nr ªrr,
mrn>t +r aªr +nr çrnr ç- a=
lo·n ¤ +r’r +r a¤¬ a-o; rrr;¤r
+;¬ +t +=¤r ¤rªr¬r çl =¸¤ç
¬rot aron ¤’r ar=r =r¸e mql
=ot +t ¬¤;r>t = ‘r¸= l+nr ªrrl
t ¬¬¤;t, (tscs¸ +r +nr o=rnr
ç¸ l+ m ;r ‘r;t; ¬r ç (Physi-
cal body) Divine form m
Transform çr mq (lo·n =¤
m =¤r-nl;n¸ mne¤ e+ o¸lrrnr
¤ +r’r, ao ; çt ao ; lo=r ;çr ªrr,
ar=r ¤o ªrtl l¤; a= ¤+r’r ¤;
rnr¬ lonr nr mrn>t m> ¬¤r ¬r
;çr ç- ¬rl+r =l m¬ nr +o = ¬¤r
ªrr- =¤r er=rl ¤r ¬rl+r = ¬¤r
¬r ;çr ç ar; et¤;, çrc, -es
=+¸e’r¬ =r; Divine form m
Transform çr mn l e+ m ; l’r”n
ç oe¤n l=ç lo¬+;, a¬+r +rt
e=t çt a¬¸+r¸ln ç¸ql
e+ l¤l¤> n;ç + ¤+r’r =
¬rrr¤¸; ar~m m
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m¸ = ¤¬r lenrl ¤t+r¬ ; =
arr; +t n;¤ z: l+.mt. ¤; a¬+r
ar~m çl nr q= ¤+r; m¸q nç
l¬m¸¤r l¬;r+r; +t l=lç çr mq
Innocent way (=¤r+rrl¤+
=¤ =¸ ml m ¬çt ¤rçnr ªrr l+
e=r çrmrl l¤; l¬qr=r ç¸q, l¤;
m¸=o¤ = ¿”¤r +t ot¢rr e etl
tss¡ m, a¬+r +rt =r¢rrr+r; çr
mnrl q= ¤+r; l¬m¸¤r l¬;r+r;
ar; =m¸¤r =r+r; or¬r ‘rl+nnr
+r m¸q =r¢rrr+r; çr mnr, l=lç
¤r¤n çr mql
çmr; +len¸ m + arlom¸ =
mr=n-o ¬rªr ¬t ç, a-çr¬ +çr
ç nç nrm, ¬r ç ¤o=¤t +r¤n=
+r am;¤e çl q== =rrr+ +
l>l¤rr nr¤ ‘rr n çr n ç - arlo
o lç+, arlo +rr ln+, arlo o l¤+l
ar¤+t am¬t +rr”rr m Physi-
cal Disease, Mental Dis-
ease and Spiritual Disease.
Physical ar; Mental +r sr.
+c; ot+ +;n ç, el+¬ Spiri-
tual + mrme m ¤te çc ¬rn çl
=¬rn¸m¤se +r Touch (=¤ºr¸
+;nr ç¸ar sr+c; rr¤;rnr ç, ¬¤
+¸¤sle¬t ¬rmn çr ¬rnt ç nr
a¤; ao¬r ‘r¸= +; ont çl m;t
+rt aot ç, ¬r m¬ a¬¸+r¸n l+nr,
¤ç ar¤+r +;¤r =+nr ç¸ l
m¸= + ¤r; m +çr ç-
m¸=¤gr m¸=l¤”¤r¸,
m¸=o¤r mç’¤;·l
m¸= =r¢rrng ¤;¤g,
n=m ~t m¸=¤ ¬m·ll
nr q= ¤+r; m¸= mmrq ¬rªr ¬t ¬
nç e=t nr+n o ot l¬== l¤’¤
a¤++rr +; ;çr ç nr q= ¤+r;
m; +r or¬r l=lçnr çr mq, =m¸¤r
ar ; l¬m¸ ¤r +tl aem- aem
l=lç nr ç¸q ç mrn>t +t +rt ç¸q ç
ermr +r, ¤r ar¤mm¬ +;n ç¸e
nçr (=ç=r;¸ ¤ç¸¤ ç, ¿”¤r +t
+rt ç¸q çl mlo; m ¬rn ç, n¸e=t
¤;¤rrm¸n en ç, =rlr¤+ ¬t¤¬
¬t¬ +r ¤nr= +;n ç ar; a¬m
Chemically ¤oer¤ arnr ç
ar ; ¤r ar¤ mm¬ +;n ç¸ e =ç=r r;
m ¤ç¸¤ ¬rn çl mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬
+çr ç l+ n or¬r l=lçnr, am;
e+ çt ¬t¤¬ m, e+ çt aromt m
çr ¬rn nr mr¬¤ mr> +r +rnr¤r
çr ¬rn mrl q= ¤ +r; or ¬r l=lçnr
çr¬ + +r;¤r = m;t n=¤t; = nrm
çr¬r ‘r¸= çr mnrl nç a·r++rr
ar¬ n+ ¬çt ç¸arl
+rr;n m +q N.G.O. (=¤n
= ¤t = =ªrre ¸ ç ¬r esg= +
Awarenes (¬rm=+nr¸ +
lee ¤ ¤r; +;n ç ar ; a;¤r
sre; ar ;ç ç-o’r ml =rl¬nr
mrrrt +r le=rr, m¬ =;or; ¬t
+r le=rr-m¬mrç¬ l=ç ¬t +r,
ace ¬t +r le=rr ªrr, =¸”rmr
=¤;r¬ +r le=rr ªrr, ¤; l+=t
¬ rnr¬ ¬çt lonrl nç e= =rr.
rere¸¤ erm ç, l¬¬+r +¤e rr¬
= mne¤ çl a¤ =rl¬nr mrrrt
l¤¤r;t +nr ¬r¬ çmr; o’r¬ +
¤r; ml
q= ¤+r; n or¬r l=lçnr çr
mq nr m;t n=¤t; = nrm çr¬ em
mnrl +rr;n =;+r; =r¤nt çrmt,
sz =re +r ¤¸ cgcr ç , +e m;
¬rnmr, q=len m; l=rer¤ +rq
¤ren ¬çt çl +qnr +r ¬rlc=
(Notice) lon, m¸q ¬rlc= ¬çt
lonr l +.e¬. mrl¤-or¤rn m;r
¤ er ç , +r ;r l= ç ‘r =rr¤n m ; l’r”n
ç, mm; ¤rer +rq ¬çtl a¬+r
+¤e rr¬ ¤rlçe ,rrm = a¬+r
+rq e¬r o¬r ¬çt çl
q= ¤+r; m ar¤+r ot¢rr
o¸mr, ;rrrr ar; +¸”¤r + m> +t
ot¢rr o¸mr ar; a+rt nrm ‘r¸= çr
¬rnmrl ¤ç¸n m¸= +çn ç l+ za
=re ¬¤r nr ar¤+t +¸¤sle¬t
¬rm n çr ¬rn mtl m ¬rm e ¬r
¬çt ¤rçnr, mm; l¬n¬ +rt m¸=
ç, a¬+r +rq m¸= ¬çt ç, nç
m¸q a·et n;ç = mre¸m çl +¤e
Physical Exercise (ºrr;tl;+
+=;n¸ +;¤rn ç, ¤r nr arªrr¤.
ls+ =¬¬ a¬= a·et +;¤rnr
çl nr ¬rm ¬¤ = ¤l;¤n¬ arnr
ç l m ¤l’¤m m mnr, a-çr ¬
+çr, ¬t Science is God.
m¬ +çr men ¤re ;ç çrl God
is Science ¤rerl +rm¤r¬g ¬
m¬¸”n +r ¤or l+nr Science nr
ar¤¬ ¤ro m =t=rtl ar; n¸+çr;r
God (Science) ¬r ç e+ +rt
HIV+(Positive) çr¬ + ¤ro
m ¬çt ¤¤r =+rl a¤ ¤çr ¤;
+¤e m;t n=¤t; = nrm çr ;çr
ç, nr ¤l’¤m ¤;’rr¬ ç l+ am;
q= Planet (mç¸ ¤; ¤¤r; çr
¬rn l+ q=+t (=¤n +t ar ;
q’rr;r¸ n=¤t; = nrm çr ;çr ç
ar; esg= ar; +=; lmc ¬rnmr
n¤ l¤; çm¬ ¬r a+¤r; emr len
o¤rqnr + , a=+r +nr çr mr?
l¤e mcg= +r +rt m¬ m¸+¤q =
Message lonr ªrr, m ¬ +çr,
am; ¤r=n¤ m ar¤ er m ¤rçn çr ,
mr¬¤nr = esg= =rrm çr, +¤e
+rr;n = ¬çt nr çmr;t ¤¤=rqc
(website :
www.the-comforter.org)
23
23
57
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
arrt ç¸q çl nr q= ¤+r; e+ e=r
¤ ¤r; çr ;çr ç l am; ¤ ¤r; çr
¬rn l+ m;t n=¤t; = nrm çr ;çr
ç, esg= lmc ;çr ç nr ¤r’¤rrn
= =+¸ ln +t çren on¬tn çr
¬rnmtl
a¤ m ¤r ot¢rr o¸mr, l¬==
ar¤+t +¸ ¤sle¬t ¬rm n çr
¬rnmtl ¤ç ºrl+n, ar¤+r ‘r;t;,
¤ r¤r, m¬ ¤ ¤¸ lç a¤¬ Con-
trol (l¬n>¤r) m +; emt ar;
Automatically (=¤n·¸ nrm
çrmrl ar¤ ¤rçrm nr ¬çt çrmr,
l¬= am m +¸e ms¤s çl a=+r
Tone up +; mt +¸ ¤sle¬t,
Stimulate (¤rr=rlçn +;¬r¸
+;mt ar; ¬¤ n+ ¤ç ot+ ¬çt
çr ¬rn, nrm çrnr ;çmrl
¤rn¬le nrm o’r¬ m aro
a mr +r a¬¸ ”or¬ ç - nm, l¬nm,
ar=¬, ¤ r¤rrnrm, ¤ rnrçr;, rrr;¤
rr, rnr¬ ar; =mrlrrl ;rrrr ar;
+¸”¤r + m-> +t ot¢rr = ¤r¤r
+rm nr Automatically çr
¬rn m l rrr;¤rr, rnr¬ ar ; =mrlrr,
a=m Time emmrl
n ¤n¬ =mrlrr ç, ¬¤ n+
ar¤ =ç=rr; m ¬çt ¤ç¸¤rm, n¤
n+ ar¤+r ¤rç; +t ar¤r¬ =¸ ¬rq
omtl q= ¤+r; ¬r nrm çrmr, nrm
m mne¤ ¤r¤ ¤+r; +t ¤rn¸ çrnt
ç - ¤ r¤r, a¤r¬, =mr¬ ,aor¬ ar ;
·nr¬l ¤r¤r ¤rn¸ ¬= =¤rmt ;rmo¤
Exercise (a+nr=¸+;¤rnr ç,
+¤re+rrln, ¤nr ¬çt +nr-+nr
+;¤rnr ç?
q=m +rt çrmr, mm; ar¤+r
l¬n¬t ¬=;n ç, an¬r çt çrmrl
¤r ¬r +;¤r ;çr ç mne¤ ç; ;rm
m e+ çt l+nr +;¤r ;çr çl ¤r¤
rrnrm, ar¤+r = +s r ¤ +r; +
çrm, mm; Automatically çrml
a¤r¬ ¤rn¸ ¬rl+r + ¬t¤-¬t¤ +
Discharges (momt) +r ¤rç;
¤+nt çl
ar ; l¬= ar¤ o ¤t, ;rrrr,
=tnr, ¤r¤nt + ¬rm = ¤¸¬n çrl
çmr; nrlmnr ¬ a= +¸¤sle¬t
+ç lonrl ¤r Sacrum (+m;
+ ¤te +t ln+r ¬t çsgst nr
;tc +t çsgst +r alnm l=;r¸
m =rc nt¬ ar c (¤ ; ¸ emr
+;, a¤¬ o¸m(¤¸e¸ +r m¸ç m
o¤rn ç¸e Dormant position
(=¸ ¤r¸ ¤n-a¤=ªrr¸ m ;çnt ç l
=¸”r¸l¤n m ;çnt çl am; Proper
(=mªr,=çt¸ m¸= ç nr çt ¬rmnt
çl çonrm = am; a= esers
+;r m nr ar¤+r ¤rme +rt +;
=+nt ç, m¸rn¸ +rt çr =+nt çl
nr q= ¤+r; ar¤+r +¤e ¬rm
¬¤¬r ç ar; rnr¬ +;¬r ç ar;
m¸ q nçr (arqr¤+ +t ar ;
q’rr;r¸ o=r¬r çl m> e+ çt m¸=
+r ¤emr, ar¤+ professional
(·nr¤=rln+¸ m¸= ç nr ¤r a=+
=rªr ¬çt ¤emr ar; rnr¬ m;r
+;¬r ¤smr, a=+ ¤ro ar¤+t
e¸çtl am; m¸qm m¸¬rq’r ç nr
+rm a+rt ‘r¸ = çr ¬rn mr, za
=re ¬çt emml ar; m ar¤+r
+¸e ¬çt o¸mr, e+ ¤rn rnr¬ =
=¸¬ erl
m ar¤+r a¤¬ ar¤= ,
=r¸o = Introduction (¤l;¤n)
+;ra mr- ar¤ +nr çr ? ar¤
‘r;t; ¬çt çr , nç arrmr ç , arrmr
a¬;-am; çl m ar¤+r a¤¬
ar¤ = =r¢rrr+r; +;¤r o ¸ mr, +¸ e
o¸mr ¬çtl m nr +çnr ç¸, ¬r m¸q
m ¤l;¤n¬ arnr ç, ¤r ar¤ =¤ m
ar =+nr çl Subject to, ar¤
Surrender (=m¤¤r) +;r, m¸=
+ ¤ln =og+rr¤ = ¬m=+r; +;rl
a¬¸¬ ¬ +¸”¤r = +çr l+ mçr;r¬
+rq nrmt am; nrm +r”c çr ¬rn
nr +nr ¤ç ¬”c +r”c çr ¬rnmr
nr a-çr¬ +çr, ¬çt, ¤r ame
¬-m m e= ¤l;¤r; m ¬-m emr,
¬çr = ersr ç, ¤çt = a= ¬n¬
(ºr¸ =¸ +;¬r ¤s mr l nr q= ¤ +r;
ar¤ a¤¬ ¤¸¤ ¬-m + ==+r; +
a¬¸=r; l¤ee ¬-m m ¬çr n+
¤ç¸¤ çr, a== arm ¤crml nç
rr¬ e=r ç, nç ¤cnr çt ¤cnr çl
=r¤¬ = ¬çt =r¸cnr çl
mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬ +çr ç l+
q= o’r +r açr; or m-> +;ml
¤çer ¤-o mrn;mg, ar¬ çm+r
¤r ¤-o mrn;mg ¬çt ¤re¬ lonr
¬r ;çr ç, o¸=; +r a-çr¬ +çr
¤r =¬t¤¬t m-> çl ¤l’¤m m
nr =¬t¤¬t ¤ret ¤st lo++n
ç, ar¤ nr =mqn çr l+ e¢m¤r
+r ¤r¤r emr ªrr ar; 笸mr¬ ¬t
=¬t¤¬t ¤¸ct ern ªrl çr’r m ar
mnr, m; ¬rnr nr çr ’r m ¬çt
arnrl
q= n;ç ar¤ erm l¬n¬ ¤o
çr, a=+r ¬rm ¬¤ +;rm nr a+rt
= nrm, ’r¸= çr ¬rnmrl ;or= ¬t
+ m¸ = ¬ +çr l+ ¤ cr nç ¬rm ¬¤r
nr a-çr¬ ¬¤¬r ‘r¸= +; lonrl
a¤ ¤r ¤-o ¬çt çr¤ nr ;or= ¬t
¬ +çr 'a¤ += e¸c, ¬rm ;c er.
lml' a¤ += e¸c, ¬rm ;c erlml
nr ar¤ ¤rç l+=t ;r m = ¤tmr; çr ,
esg= çr , + =; çr , ç ¤ crqlc= ¤t
çr, -es +=; ¬rm ¬¤ ar; rnr¬
= ot+ çr ¬rarml
23
23
58
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m ar¤+r ;r¬r ¬¬+ +r
aorç;¤r o ¸ , ;r¬r ¬¬+ +r
nr¤qr¬ ¤ r¤n +;¬ +t =¬+
=¤r; ç¸ql a-çr¬ ¤ç¸n = m¸=ar
+r ¤¸e¤r lenr el+¬ a¬= ¤r;
¬çt ¤s tl l¤; arr; = a”cr¤+ ¬t
ar mn, a”cr¤+ ¬t +r o=r+;,
o¸=; m¸= ç= lonl (a¬+ ºr;t;
m aro ¤ +r; + ¤e ªr l¸ ¬¤
¬¬+ ¬ ¤¸er mçr;r¬ nç =m=nr
ç nr a=¬ +çr, ;r¬r nç nr +rq
=m=nr ¬çt ç l n¸ ;r¬r ç , ¬¬+ ç ,
nlo nç aç+r; ç m¬ m nr nç
qr¬ ¬çt lmemrl n¸q q¸+ +; çt
mrm¬r ¤smrl
l¤; a-çr¬ ¬¤r¤ lonr l+
n nr =rre + ·nr¤r;t ç ;r¬¬l
q¬+r q=+r qr¬ çt ¬çt çl nr
+çn ç, a”cr¤+ ¬t ¬ ¬¬+
= +çr- rrrs +t e+ ;+r¤ m ¤;
;=r, o¸ =; m ¬çt ;=r =+ mr, ¤’rn
n¸ q¸+ +; mrm el aorç;¤r nç
ç l+ ;r¬r ¬¬+ ¬ rrrs +t e+
;+r¤ m ¤; ;=rr, o¸=; m ¬çt ;=r
=+ ar; =mrlrr em mq ar; nt¬
lo¬ n+ =rs ;çl mne¤ ar¤+r
q= qr¬ ¤rl¤n m crqm (=mn¸
t emmrl
nç e=r lo·n qr¬ ç ¬r q=
+rr;n +t ¤¸¤n +r¸lm m çt çm’rr
ç¸ ar ç l mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬ +çr
ç- Man is a transitional
being, he is not fnal, but
he will be. =¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o
¬t aml;+r m ¤¤¤¬ +; ;ç ªr nr
l+=t aml;+¬ ¬ =rs çr+; ¤¸e
lenr, mçr;r¬ e+¤; qrs ;ç çr
¤s e+¤ ¤rs, ar¤ + o’r m nr
‘rr+rçr;t-mr=rçr;t or¬r çt ç
ar; çm =¤ mtc ‘r;r¤ =rr¬-¤t¬
¤re erm çl
nr =¤rmt ¬t ¬ ¤en Speech
m +ç lonr-You need not to
give up the things, the
things will give you up
=¤rmt ¬t ¬ Speech (¤¤¤¬¸
o n -o n l+nr¤t qr¬ nr ame
lonr, a¤ ar¬ +nr ¤rem, e=r
l¤¤r; +;n ç¸ e Stage (m ¤¸
¤; ¤e mn l¤¤r; l ¤r e¬ em ,
¬t¤ an; nr +ç¬ em, ar¬ m¸q
¬çt mre¸m m¬ +nr ¤rer? mm;
nrlenr =¤= ¤nror ¤¬tl
l+n¬ çt m¸= ermr +r +çn
ç a¤tm mn =rrar, ‘r;r¤ mn
¤tar , nç ¬ç;tet ¬rlm¬ ç , +nr
+rq =¸¬nr ç? m;t +nr =¸¬mr?
m +çnr ç¸ Challenge (¤¸ ¬r nt¸
+ =rªr l+ ¬rm ¬¤ +;n ;çr ,
¬’rr ¤sr=t + ¬çt ;çmrl ar¬
çt ¤ =er çr ¬rn mr,ºr;r¤ + leel
a¤tm + len ªrrsr =mn emmrl
¤r+t =r;t ¤tmrl;nr ot+ çr ;çt ç l
¤rn ¬le nr m o’r ¬ m -nr m + aro
amr +r a¬¸”or¬ ç-nm, l¬nm,
ar=¬, ¤ r¤rrnrm, ¤ rnrçr;, rrr;¤
rr, rnr¬ ar ; =mrlrrl rrr;¤rr rnr¬
ar; =mrlrr nr =¸¢m am ç, q=m
ªrrsr ¤nr= +;¬r ¤smrl
nm, l¬nm, ar=¬, ¤ r¤
rrnrm ¤ ¤ rnrçr;, n nr +¸ ¤sle¬t
+ ¬rmn çrn çt a¤¬ ar¤ l=ç
çr ¬rn m l nç ¤ n¬ =mrlrr ç l
¬s =mrlrr ¬çt ç l ar¬-omn
+r’r n+ nr çmr; q= ¤l¤> o’r
m 'nrq¤r+n' ¬rm + >l”r ç¸e
ªr l a-çr ¬ ar¬-omn +r ’r n+ nr
¤n¬ +; lenr, mm; 'l¤ng' ar;
'=ng' ar¬ n+ Untouched
(a=¤ºr ¸ ç l mçl”r a;l¤ o ¬
=r¤ rrr ”r¤rr +t ç - 'armrmt
mr¬¤ ¬rln lo·n ‘r;t; rrr;¤r
+;mtl'
e+ =r¤;t m¸qr ar; çrnt çl
m¸¬;rn m ¤sr ar’¤n +; ;ç ç
erml = r¤;t m¸or m ¬t+r a¤¬
ar¤ ¤te l=r¤nt ç ar; nre¸ m
rr=+; a¤; e+ ¤rq-c çrnr ç
a=+r Pinch (o¤r¤¸ +;nt çl
¤çr = e+ ;= c¤+nr ç, a=+r
mr;=r¬rªr ¬t ¬ ''am¸n'' +çr
ç-
mm¬ mse m arrr +¸ar,
nçr am¸n +r ¤r=rl
=m¸;r çrn =r +rl; +rl; ¤t¤,
l¬m¸;r ¬rn l¤nr=rll
nr q= ¤ +r; ¤r am¸ n ç ,
am¸n ç nr l¤; o¸=;r ¬-m +nr
çrmr? +¤t; ¬ e+ aorç;¤r lonr
ç-
¬e l¤¤ +¸+r,
+¸+r l¤¤ ¬e ç,
¤rç; +rtn; ¤r¬t,
l¤rrcr +¸+r ¬e ¬e çt =mr¬r,
nç mln l¤;e ¬rl¬ll
lmcgct +r rrsr ç, a=+
a-o; ¤r¬t ç , ¤rç; +rt ¤r¬t ç ,
l¤; ¤r +çnr ç l+ l¤rrcr +¸ +r, ¬e
¬e çt =mr¬r, aªrr ng ¤rç; ¤rer
¤r¬t ¤ a-o; ¤rer ¤r¬t e+, nç
mln l¤;e ¬ ¬r¬tl nç m¸ ¸ = +t ¿¤r
= çt çr nr ç nr +rrq nç ¬r len ¤ o
çr ¬, nç ar¬ ¬çt nr +e me¬r
çt me¬r ç , ar ; nç o¸ ¤r;r ¬çt
¤¬ nr l¤; ¬rm ¬¤r l
+len¸m +¤e ¬rm arrrr;r,
=¸ml;-=¸ml; ¬; an;lç ¤r;rl
¬r¬+ o¤ ¬t mçr;r¬ ¬ +çr ç-
+rrm rrn¸;r ¬r¬+r,
23
23
59
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
nr q= ¤+r; ¬r m ar¤+r
m> o¸mr, a=+r ¬’rr ar ¬rnmrl
Intoxication without drug
(l¤¬r l¤n çt ¬ºrr ar¬r¸ sr+c;
¤ç¸n ç;r¬ çl q¬tl¬n; nr ¤ç¸n
ªr, a+rt ªrrs =mn = sr+c; +rt
ar¬ em mn çl a-çr¬ +çr ç
l+ m¸= ¬t nç ¤l;¤n¬ ar¬ n+
¬çt arnrl m¬ +çr nç ¤rn =rn
ç +nrl+ m; +r or¬r l=lçnr çr
mql q=len m;t n=¤t; + rnr¬ =
¤l;¤n¬ ar ;çr çl
a+rt ¬r m¸ =nm >t ¤¬t ç
loret +t (’rter otl¢rn¸, a=+
¤r= m; l’r”n mn nr a-çr¬ +çr,
¤cr, =;+r; ar¤+t moo ¬çt +;
=+nt, +nrl+ a;¤r sre; ar ;ç
çl ar¤ nç +rn +;n ;çrl
nr q= ¤ +r; e+ e =r ¤l.
;¤n¬ ar ;çr ç q= o’r ml nç
a¤nr;r +t rr;nt ç, a¤nr;r +t
rr;ntl ;rm ar; ¿”¤r ¬= a¤nr;
¤or ç¸e ç q=m, ¤r+t =¤ ¤m+¤;
¤rot erm çl q=r ¬ l+nr, m¸=r ¬
l+nr, nç l+nrl e+ çmr;r o’r¬
ç ¬r rnr¬ ar; =mrlrr +t l=ªrln
m Unlimited Past, Future
(al¬lº¤n +re +r +r¸n-+rl¤¤n¸
+r o=r¬-=¸¬¬ +t ¤rn +;nr çl
¤rn¬le nrm o’r¬ + l¤+r¸ln¤ro
+ :: ar; :c =¸> m q=+r ¤¤r¬
ç l rnr¬ ar ; =mrlrr +t l=ªrln
m =rrr+ +r Unlimited Past
ar; Future lo=r ¬rnmr nr l¤;
l+= +rm m ¤rnor ç , l+=m
rrrcr ç, nç nr ar¤+r mre¸m çr
¬rnmr nr l¤; failure ¬çt çr¤r.
ml ·nr¤çrl;+ ¬mng m Failure
(a=¤e¸ ¬çt çr¤rm ar; Past
nr ¤r ¤tn ¤¸+r nr ¤tn ¤¸+rl
m¬ English m e+ l+nr¤
le=rt ç Religious Revolution
in the world a=m m¬ +çr ç
l+- ar¤+r q=r,tz =re +t am
m n==e m = l¬+e mnr ar ;
ts =re n+ ¤ç +rc+nr ;çr ar;
:a =re +t am m arnrl a¬+r :
=re m, ar¤¬ mr; lonr, : =re m
a=+r Crucify (=¸ et ¤; ¤c r¬r¸
+; lonrl nlo nç =¤ ¬r¬¬r ¤r.
çn çr nr m; ¤r= arar, q=r +çr
¬-mr ar ; +çr m;r ar ; ts =re n+
+çr ;çr, rnr¬ ar; =mrlrr l=ªrln
m =¤ +¸e ar¤+r lo=r ¬rnmrl
a¤ ¤çr ISM (q¤m) ¤ro arnr çl
q =r ¬çt +; =+r, m¸ ç+mo ¬çt +;
=+r, m¸=r ¬çt +; =+rl nt¬ mªr
ç a¬+ n ;rn, el-¬r= ar ; +¸ ;r¬l
ar; nt¬r q= ¤rn = ¤;’rr¬ ç l+
nç e+ lç-o¸ ç, çm ¬çt +; =+,
¤ç +rm, nç += +; ;çr ç?
nç e+ e =r l¤qr¬ ç ¬r
ar¬ n+ ¤+c ¬çt ç¸arl ar; m;t
n=¤t; = rnr¬ çr ;çr ç, ar¤ erm
q= o’r m çt ¬çt, o¸l¬nr m +çr
l+ q= ·nl+n +t n=¤t; +r rnr¬
+;¬ = esg= ar; +=; =lçn
=+rt ;rm ot+ çr ¬rnml a¤ nç
lives (=trrr ¤=r;¤r¸ ¬r çr ;çr
ç nç nr National (;r¤c¸ tn¸ ar ;
International (a-n;r ¤c¸ tn¸ ¤;
çr ;çr çl m;t ar¤r¬ nr ar+r’r m
¤et mql a¤ q=+r +rq ;r+ ¬çt
=+mr ar; q=+t (=¤n +t ar;
q’rr;r +;+¸ n=¤t; ¬çt m;mt,
q=+t n=¤t; ¬çt m;mtl m; ¤r=
n e a¤t¤ (q¬;rne +t ;r¬r
rr¬t¸ =, ;r¬t ¬r; arnt ªrtl a=¬
+çr ar¤ nr q=r + a¤nr; çr nçr
+nr ¤o çr?
m ;rrrr ar; +¸¤¤r + ¬rm +t
ot¢rr onr ç¸l ;rrrr + l¤¬r ¿”¤r
arrrrl l’r¤ = 'q' +t mr>r çcr
er nr '‘r¤' ;ç ¬rnr çl q= ¤+r;
+rq +rt m> l¤¬r ‘rl+n + +rm
¬çt +;nrl a¤ mmrq ¬rªr ¬t +r
aro’r çl l¤¤+r¬-o ¬t ¬ +çr
l+ m ¬çt ¤re ;çr ç¸ nr m +rt ¬çt
¤re ;çr ç¸, m nr mmrq ¬rªr ¬t +r
mrq+ ç¸l ;e¤ m l;crn;m-c nr
çrnr ªrr, nç l;crn;m-c +rt ¬çt
omrl q-çr¬ açn¸ +t ¿¤r +tl m
nr a¤¬ ar¤+r q= ern+ ¬çt
=mqnr ªrrl mçl”r a;l¤o ¬ +çr
ç l+ ¬r m¸= ot¢rr onr ç a¤¬
l’r”n +r , ¤ or +t o nr ç , a¤l¬”ror
+t o nr ç , +rm¤r¬g + ¬rm +t o nr
ç nr a=+t ar¤r¬ m ¤r Weight
(¤¬¬, =rmªn ¸ çr nr ç l m ;t
ar¤r¬ =rªr ;=rrl ar¤r¬ + l¤¬r
Effect (¤+rr¤¸ ¬çt çrmrl
a·er a¤ rnr¬ +;r t: lm¬cl
nçr (arqr¤+ +t ar; q’rr;r¸
m¸q o=rr ar; ¬rm ¬¤ ¤re¸ ;=rr
l +rq ¤+r; +t nrlm+ l+nre çr
= =r; m ;r mt, ¤¸ ç, l¤=n; ¤; ¤s ¤”rr elsnr ;msn ;çn ç , ¬¤+t +q p”c-¤¸ ”c ¬¤n¸ ¤+,
=m-=¤lrrnr +r ;rnr ers+;, mrn +t ¬to =r ¬rn çl mrn +r +¸e +r;r=r ¬çt l+ +¤ +çr
o¤r¤ e, q=lee nç m¸rn¤r¬ ¬t¤¬ ·nªr ¬”c ¬ çr ¬rn, q= ¤rn +r rnr¬ ;=r¬rl
- =¤rmt lºr¤rm nt.
23
23
60

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
tsa: m ers +¬¬ ¬ ¤m-+rm +t rrr”r¤rr +;+ +rr;n m =¸emnt ;r”c¸tnnr +t rrtmt-rrtmt
ar¤ m rrt sre lonrl =r;r ¤mre e+om = l¤qrçt ¤¬+; ao =rsr ç¸arl ¤l+m¤q ¤c¬t +
a¤-nr= ''ar¬o-mo'' +r e+ mtn '¤o mrn;mg' ¬¤ ¬rm;¤r +r m> ¤¬ mnrl ~t a;l¤-o
¬ a¤¬ +rr”r¤r m a= +¤e +rr;n +r çt ¬çt, =m=n el’rnr + ¬rm;¤r +r m> ¤nernr ªrrl
am¬ =;+r; '¤o mrn;mg' ¬= =¸mrr¸;, +rme ‘r-or = çt ¤r=rer aont ªrtl ‘rrno ¤l+m ¬
=¤¤¬ m +rt +r¤¬r ¬ +t çrmt l+ a¬+r nç mtn qn¬r mçr¬g arçg¤r¬g m> ¤¬ ¬remrl
mtn nr ¤sr ç ¤; a=+ +¸e a’r çt len me çl
¤;n> +rr;n m q= m> ¬ ¤¸; el’rnr m e+ ¬q ¬r¬ ¤¸+ otl ¬¤ ç¬r;r n¸¤r ar; ¤¸¬¸m
e+ =rªr pon +t mmq +;ne r¤¬t + ¬n+r; ¤ren ªr nr m¸or m +rt ¬r¬ ar ¬rnt ªrt, e=t
m¸¬r; aont ªrtl arl=r; am¬r +r çr;+; +rr;n ers¬r ¤srl nç ªrt ¤rç; +t ar¬rot l¬=
çm¬ ts¡: m ¤r¤n +;et el+¬ a=et ar¬rot ¬r çm +rtn; = ¤r¤n +;¬t ç ¤r a+rt ¤r+t
ç ar; ¤ç ar¬rot nr m¸=o¤ gr;r lon =¬t¤¬t m> + =rr¬ ¬¤ = çt =+r¤ çl q= =¤rr m
mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o ¬ +çr ç l+ -
''¬¤ e+ mçr¬g ¬¬ =m¸orn rr¸e m = ao =rsr çrnr ç nr +r¬=r m> ç aªr¤r a=
¤¸¬¬tl¤n +;¬ ¤ret +r¬=t ‘rl+n ç? +rr;n m or mçrm> ç, e+ nr ''¤-o mrn;mg'' +r m>
ç, ¬r mrn¸+r¸lm + ¤ln ¬¬nr + ¬rmn ¤m +t =r¤+rrm ¤¸+r; çl ar; o¸=;r alrr+ m¸¤n ar;
;ç=n¤¸¤r ç ¬r a+rt aogrrrlcn ¬çt ç¸ar çl''
¤ç m> a¤ aogrrrlcn çr ¤¸+r ç ar; ¤ç ç-=ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm gr;r
lonr ¬r¬ ¤rer =¬t¤¬t m>, ¬r m¸= ¤r¤rt m, =¸¬¬ = çt ¤l;¤rrm onr çl er=rr ermr m ¤sr
¤o mrn;mg
61
=¸¬ermg =¸¤ermg men¬ ‘rtnermg ‘r=n’nrmermg
mrn;mgll
‘r¸+r ¤nrr=¬r ¤¸el+n nrlm¬tmg
¤¸re +¸=¸lmn q¸moe ‘rr+r¬tmg
=¸çrl=¬tmg =¸mrr¸; +rrl”r¤rtmg, =¸=rormg ¤;ormg
mrn;mgll
l>’r +rlc +o,+e-+e l¬¬ro +;re
lgl>’r +rlc +r¸¬rr¸n =r;+;¤re
a¤er +¬r mr enr ¤rel
¤ç¸¤e rrrl;¤rtmg, ¬mrlm nrl;¤rtmg
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q= n¸m m arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ +t ·nr=nr ¤s l¤l¤> cm = +t mq çl q¬ m¬
rrs-n ar; +¸l>m ¬t¤¬ mr-nnrar + +r;¤r çt q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ arnrrm¤ro +r
l¬;ªr+ ar; +r;r crm mr¬nr çl nçt +r;¤r ç l+ q= n¸m m rrm +r alrr+ çg;r=
ç¸ar çl l+=t +rt +rn + +;¬ = a=+r or= ¤l;¤rrm l¬+e¬r ¤rlçel ¤;-n¸ q=
n¸m m ar;rrr¬r +r ¬r l¬¬t¤ =¤=¤ ¤¤r ç, ¤ç ¤rn¢r nr a¤rn¢r l+=t =¤ m
+rq ¤l;¤rrm ¬çt onr çl çm +¤e +rr¤l¬+ =¤ = +r;r l¤’¤r= +;¬ +t arqr
ot ¬rnt çl
çmr; =+rt =nr ¬ rrm +t ·nr=nr +;n ç¸e +çr ç l+ 'rrm' ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar;
=r¢rrr+r; +r l¤”rn çl +¤e l¤’¤r= +r ¬rm rrm ¬çt çl ¬t¤¬ + ç; +rn m
q’¤;tn ‘rl+n +rm +;nt çl e=r +rq +rn ¬çt ç, l¬=m q’¤;tn ‘rl+n +rm ¬
+;nt çrl rrm +r =¤rr ¤rç;t ¤o’r¬r = l¤e+¸e ¬çt çl +r; +m+r¤s, ‘r-o ¬re
ar; n+ ‘rr=> = a= ¤;m =rrr = ++rt +rt =r¢rrr+r; =+r¤ ¬çtl q= n¸m m l¬¬t¤
¤=n¸ar = =¬t¤ ¤r¤rt +r a= ¤;m ¤n¬ =rrr = ¬rs¬ +r l¬;ªr+ ¤nr= +;¤rnr
¬r ;çr çl rnrm, ¤;r·n, n¤, or¬, rrm, qr¬, ¤r¤, ¤¸¤n arlo + +rr¤l¬+ l¤>
lo=rr+; mr¬¤ +r m¸m;rç ar; +rlmn +;¬ + aer¤r ar¬ +¸e +rt ¬çt çr ;çr çl
e=t l=ªrln m mr¬¤ +r rrm = l¤qrçt çr¬r -nrn =mn çl q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ a¤
arr; m +rc+¬ +r nnr; ¬çt çl
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr m ¬r a¤o’r lonr ar; a== a¬¸¬ +r ¬r qr¬ lmer,
¤çt =·¤r qr¬ çl a¬¸¬ ¬ a¤o’r + ¤ro ¬r +rn l+nr ¬r ;r=rrr a¤¬rnr, ¤çt =çt
mrm çl +rrln+ l¤qr¬, arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+n +t o¬ çl an· l¤qr¬ ar; arnrrm
m +ro +;¬r +r¸e çl l¬= =mn arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+n +r =çt qr¬ +rrln+ l¤qr¬ +
¤qrl¬+r +r çr ¬remr, nr+re =m=nr +r =mrrrr¬ çr ¬remrl ¬¤ ¤qrl¬+r +r
arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ +r mne¤
+rrln+ ==r; = l¤;l+n ¬çt
62
z:.z.tsss
- =mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤ lo+ rrm aªrr ng lç-o¸ -rrm
m 'm¸ = +r ¤o', q ’¤; = +rt
mçr¬g mr¬r mnr çl q= =¤rr m
m¸=mtnr m +çr ç·-
m¸=¤gr m¸=l¤”¤r¸
m¸=o¤r mç’¤;·l
m¸=;¤ =r¢rng ¤;¤g
n=m· ~tm¸;¤ ¬m·ll
m ¬rªrmn +r a¬¸nrq ç¸l m;
m¸l+nornr ¤;m~çn =ogm¸=o¤
¤r¤r ~t m mrq ¬rªr ¬t nr mt
arq ¤ ªrt ¬rªr ªr l +len¸ m m
¬rªr mn + arlom¸= nrm-q ~t
mr=n-q¬rªr ¬t mçr;r¬ mr¬ me
çl m a-çt + aro’r = ¤l’¤mt
¬mng m qr¬+rl-n +r ¬n¸r¤
m¸= +r ¤o q’¤; = +rt
+=mrl
+rr;n, q= =mn rrr; nrml=.
+nr m s¸¤r ç¸ar çl +rr;n + ar.
ªrr¬ + lee =¤ ¤ªrm '';¬rm¸¤r''
+ l¤+r= +t ar¤’n+nr ç l
·nr¤çrl;+ +rr”rr m +rr;ntnr +t
¤ªrm ar¤’n+nr ';rct' +t ç,
';rm' +r =ªrr¬ lgntn =ªrr¬ ¤;
çl
¤l’¤mt ¬mng, +rrln+ =¸.
l¤rrre +rr mn -+rr mn ¤ç¸ n çt
o¸ ·=rt çr ¤¸ +r ç l ar¬ l¬n¬r
a’rrn '¤l’¤mt ¬mn'g ç, an¬r
a’rrn ==r; +r +rq o’r ¬çtl
ar¬ a-ç mr> ‘rrln +t çt +r¸=r
¤r+t ¤¤t çl ar; ‘rrln +¤e ;rm
aªrrng q’¤; nr¤ çt o =+nr çl
+nrl+ nç +rm +¤e ¤lo+-rrm
aªrr ng lç-o¸ -rrm + m¸ e+r¸ n l=ç
r-nr + a¬¸=r; ¬t¤¬ ¬t¬ = çt
= +r¤ ç l an· m¸ q +len¸ m +
arlom¸= = aro’r lmer ç l+ m;r
+rn l¤’r”r =¤ = ¤l’¤mt ¬mng
+r ¤n¬ +;¬ +r çl a=t aro’r
+ +r;¤r a¤ m ¤ rªrlm+ =¤
= ¤l’¤mt ¬mng m +rn +;¬r
¤rçnr ç¸l
zt¤t =ot, mr¬¤ ¬rln +
23
23
63
ar¬ +rr;n m l¬n¬t nrml=+nr ç, an¬t l+=t n¸m m ¬çt ;çtl ar¬ o’r m l¬n¬r
al¤’¤r= ç, an¬r ¤çe ++rt ¬çt ;çrl ar¬ o’r +r ç; ·nl+n e+-o¸=; +r om¬ +r
¤nr= +; ;çr çl
+rq =mq ¬çt ¤r ;çr ç, o’r l+= lo’rr m arm ¤c ;çr çl q’¤; ¤; =çt aªrr
m l+=t +r l¤’¤r= ;çr çt ¬çtl ç; ·nl+n +rl¤”n + ¤r; m =¤rlrr+ l¤l-nn çl =+rt
erm er+r, ere¤ + ¤’rt+r¸n çr+; n¬+¬ ¤+;¤r¬ rr¬ =mç m em çl e= ermr +t
==nr o’r m ¤ç¸n n¬t = ¤c ;çt çl o’r +r arrr = ¤nror rr¬, q= ¤¸lrr + ermr + ¤r=
a¬lrr+¸n =¤ = +re rr¬ + =¤ m ¬mr l+nr ç¸ar ¤sr çl e+ n;¤ ermr +r =rr¬-¤t¬
+t m¸e+r¸n ¬=;n ¤¸;t +;¬ + lee rr¬ ¬çt lme ;çr ç, o¸=;t n;¤ =r¤ +;¬ +r +rq
¬mç ¬çt çl ¬¤ n+ =;+r; m ¤o erm rrrlm+ ar; ¤l;>¤r¬g ¬çt çrm, o’r +r ar.
ªrr¬ a=+r¤ çl
m o=r ;çr ç¸, e=t ¤¸lrr + ermr +r ¤n¬ ¤r;++r çr ¤¸+r ç, =¤= =r¸’rt +t ¤rn nr
nç ç l+ q= ¤r; nç +rn a¤; = ¤r;++r ç¸ar ç, an· ¬t¤ n+ ¤e¬ m alrr+ o; ¬çt
emmtl l+=t ço n+ nç ¤l;¤n¬ ¬t¤ n+ ¤ç¸¤ ¤¸+r ç, nç ¤ç¸n çt ‘r¸+r e¢r¤r çl
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
ts.s.tss:, ¬rrr¤¸;
+rr;n +t l=ªrln


=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
64
¬ ¬t q·erar +r l¬;r rr
'¤lçm¸ =rt +m +r¤s' = +;¬r
¤rçn ç, ¬r l+ a=+r¤ +rn çl
nç +rn arnl;+ ‘rl+n + ¤n¬
çr¬ = çt =+r¤ çl arnl;+ ‘rl+n
+ ¤n¬ +;¬ +t l+nrrm+ l¤lrr
+¤e ¤or-nt aªrrng lç-o¸ çt
¬r¬n ç, ==r; +r +rq rrm ar;
o’r ¬ mr¬¤ + ¤¸ ¤r l¤+r= +t
l+nrrm+ l¤lrr ¬çt ¬r¬nrl
¬¬ rrm + ntªr+; ~t mç.
r¤t; + a¬¸=r;- alç=r, =nm
ar ; n¤ nç rrm +t l>¤ ¤rt ç ,
l>¤ªrmr çl lç-o¸rrm + a¬¸=r;
çm ¬¬ rrm +r arnn¬ +; nr
çm e =r em mr l+ q= rrm +r
mr¬¬ ¤re ermr +r l¤+r= a+rt
n+ gn+rr¤ n+ çt ç¸ar çl a+rt
a-ç ag n m ¤ç¸ ¤¬r ç l ¤ lo+ rrm
aªrrng lç-o¸rrm çt agn¤ro +r
¬¬+ çl
''¬¬ rrm m 'n¤' +r mçr¤''
(t¸ alç=r aªrrng '¤g'
(z¸ =nm +r aªr l¤”¤r¸ (:¸ n¤
+r aªr '=q'l q¬ nt¬r + ¬¬+
''¤;mnr¤'' +t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ;
=r¢rrr+r; +t ¤rn + ¤e lç-o¸
rrm çt +çnr çl m m; ·nr¤çrl;+
¬t¤¬ m o=r ;çr ç¸ l+ l¬¬ n¸¤r
¬¬r ¬ m¸q= ot¢rr et ç, a¬+r
l¤+r= l¬n¬r n ¬t = ç¸ ar ç ,
an¬r n¬t = ar; rrm + ermr +r
¬çt ç¸arl
m l+=t rrm + ·nl+n +r rrm
¤l;¤n¬ +t =erç ¬çt onr ç¸l m;
l=çr-n + a¬¸=r; m¬¸”n l+=t
+rt rrm m ;çn ç¸e, a¤¬ a·¤nm
l¤+r= +r ¤r¤n +; =+nr çl m;
er=rr l’r”n ç, a¬m =+rt rrm +
erm ç, ar; =+rt m e+ çt l¤lrr
= ¤l;¤n¬ ar ;çr çl
m m ; ·nr¤çrl;+ ¬t¤¬ m
a¬¸+r¤ +; ;çr ç¸ l+ ar¬ =+rt
rrm mr¬¤ l¤+r= +t ¤rn nr +;n
ç , ¤;-n¸ l+nrrm+ l¤lrr ¬çt
¤nrnl ar; am; +rq l+nrrm+
l¤lrr ¤nr¬r ¤rçnr ç nr a= ¤;
l¤’¤r= ¬çt +;nl 'rrm' m e=r
al¤’¤r= ¤çe ++rt ¬çt ç¸arl
m ; l ’ r ” nr m n¸ ¤r
es+-esl+nr +t ==nr =¤=
alrr+ çl l¤qr¬ +t a·¤ l’r¢rr
¤ r¤n q l¬¬tn;, sr +c; ar ; a-n
¤qrl¬+r +t ==nr ç¬r;r m çl
q¬m =+rt ¬rln ar; rrm + n¸¤r
=l+mlen çl m a¬¸+r¤ +; ;çr ç¸
l+ a¬ =+rt + a·¤nm rrmr¤rn
+¸e ¤¤¬t a¬¸+r¤ +; ;ç çl a¬
n¸¤rar m ¬r l¤+r= çr ;çr ç,
a¬+ ;r=n m ;r s r ac+r¬ +
¤nr= +rt l+e ¬r ;ç çl
a¤ m¬ ¤=er +; lenr ç
l+ m +rl¤”n m rrm ¤¤r; +r +rn
¤l’¤mt ¬mng m +=mrl ''+rr;n
''+rr;n +r çt '=¤n a¤¬ ¤r= = ' = =r; +r +rr¤t-rrm +r ¬¬r çr mr, e =r =¬rn¬ rrm ¬r =+rt
rrmr, l¤qr¬r ar; o’r¬r m =rm¬=n +;+ =+¤¸¤r mr¬¤ ¬rln +r e+ arrmr ¤¬r omrl
''=¸l”c +r qlnçr= q=+r =r¢rt ç l+ ¤rlªr¤ ¬t¤¬ eter +r alrr+ ¤¸¤r ar; ar¬-omn
¤¬r¬ m +rr;n +r e+ l¤l’r”c +rn+rr;, e+ l¤e¢r¤r ;re lonr mnr ç, l¬= o¸=;r +rq ;r”c¸
=+¤-¬ ¬çt +; =+nrl''
nrm-=rrr¬r +r ac’n +¤e ¤nl+n+ ¤¸¤rnr ¬çt ç, ¤;¬g l¤’¤ arªrr¬ çl nrm +r
ac’n ç, =m=n mr¬¤nr, =m=n l¤’¤ +r o¤lr¤+;¤r aªrrng =r¤+rrm m¸l+nl'' mr¬¤ ¬¤
alnmr¬¤r¤ ¤ r¤n +; mr nr alnmr¬l=+ =¤r-n; gr;r a=+r m¬, ¤ r¤r ar ; ‘r;t; lo·n =¤=¤
m =¤r-nl;n çr ¬r¤mrl q=t +r ¬rm ''¤rlªr¤-am;r¤'' (Terrestrial Immoratality)
+rr;n çt l¤’¤ +r =¬rn¬ rrm +t l’r¢rr
- mçl¤r ~t a;l¤-o
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
t. melnnr ¡·¡ m +çr mnr
ç - ''¤;-n¸ ¬¤ =mn ¤¸ ;r ç¸ ar
nr ¤;m’¤; ¬ a¤¬ ¤¸> +r +r¬r,
''¬r =>t = ¬-mr'' ar; ·n¤=ªrr
+ arrt¬ ar¤-¬ ç¸arl nªrr
z. mrrt (m ªn¸ ¸ z¡·z: m +çr
mnr ç- ''+nrl+ ¬= l¤¬et ¤¸¤
= l¬+e+; ¤l’¤m n+ ¤m+nt
¬rnt ç ¤= çt ''m¬¸”n + ¤¸>''
+r +rt ar¬r çrmrl''
a¤n¸+n m ''=>t +r ¤¸>''
ar; ''¤¸=”r +r ¤¸>'' or ¤ç¸n çt
;ç=nmnt ‘r-or +r ¤nrm l+nr
mnr çl ¤rq¤e l¤nr ar; ¤¸> or
¤;mnr¤r + ‘rl+n +r l¤=nr; çl
q= ¤+r; =>t nr¤ + =¤ m ¤¸>
¬-mr ar; l¤nr, '¤¸=”r' nr¤ +
=¤ m ¬-mmrl
nç ¤rn ¤ç¸n çt ;ç=n¤¸¤r
çl lç-o¸rrm a¤nr;¤ro m l¤’¤r=
''a¤nr;¤ro'',
lç-o¸ e¤ q=rq o’r¬ + a¬¸=r;
nt’r¸ '=>t' +r ¤¸> ªrr ar; ¤¸¬;rmm¬, '¤¸=”r' + ¤¸> + =¤
+;nr çl lç-o¸ o’r¬ + a¬¸=r;
'o= a¤nr;' çr n ç l o=¤ a¤n;¤r
+ =rªr çt mr¬¤¬rln r¤l;n +lm+
l¤+r= + =rªr ¤¸¤rnr +t ar; n¬t
= l¤+l=n çr¬ emmtl
lç-o¸ o’r¬ + a¬¸=r; ¬r
a¤nr;r +r a¤n;¤r çr ¤¸ +r
çl (t¸ mr=nr¤nr; (z¸ +·e¤
a¤nr; (:¸ ¤r;rç a¤nr; (¡¸
¬;l= ç a¤nr; (:¸ m¬¸ (c¸
¤rm¬ (:¸ ¤;’r¸;rm (s¸ ~t;rm
(s¸ ~t+¸ ”¤r l q= ¤ +r; a¤
al-nm a¤nr; + a¤n;¤r +
=rªr çt mr¬¤ +r al-nm l¤+r=
aªrrng lo·n =¤ m =¤r-nl;n
çr¬ +r +lm+ l¤+r= ¤r;++r çr
¬remrl
¤rq¤e +rt mr¬¤ + q= lo·n
=¤r-n;¤r + =¤rr m +çnt ç-
t. ¬t l n¤¤¬ ¡·t s ¤;-n¸
rrlmnr +t ¤re a= ¤m+nt ç¸q
¤nrln + =mr¬ ç, l¬¬+r ¤+r’r
''or ¤ç; n+'' alrr+-alrr+
¤cnr ;çnr çl
z. orl¬n e tz·: ''n¤''
l==rr¬ ¤rer +t ¤m+ ar+r’rm¤
se +t =t çrmt, ar; ¬r ¤ç¸nr +r
rrmt ¤¬rn ç, ¤ =¤or nr;r +t
¬rq ¤+r’rmr¬ ;çml
:. a= =mn rrmt a¤¬
''l¤nr + ;r¤n'' m =¸n +t ¬rq
¤m+m, l¬=+ +r¬ çr ¤ç =¸¬
el
¡. z+¸ l;l-ªrnr :·ts- ¤;-n¸
¬¤ çm =¤+ arrrs ¤ç; = ¤+r¸
+r ¤nr¤ q= ¤+r; ¤+c çrnr ç,
l¬= ¤+r; o¤¤r m nr ¤+r¸ + gr;r
¬r arrmr ç, çm a=t n¬=¤t =¤
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
23
65
ar¬ l¤’¤ + rrrlm+ ¬mng m l¬n¬r arr+r; ç, ¤çe ++rt ¬çt o=r¬ m
arnrl m¸l=em ar; q=rq rrm + ¤+rr¤ + +r;¤r +rr;n m +rt rrr; arr+r; çl
==r; +r; + =+rt rrm, ¬r alç=r m l¤’¤r= ;=rn ç ¤ç¸n çt on¬tn l=ªrln
m ç l em+rm =+¤¸ ¤r l¤’¤ m lç =r m l¤’¤r= ;=r¬ ¤re rrmr +r e+ e> =rm r¤n
çl alç=r¤;mrrrm· + l=çr-n m l¤’¤r= ;=r¬ ¤rer +rr;n, rrrlm+ o¸l”c =
em+rm ¤+rr¤çt¬ çr ¤¸+r çl ¬¤ n+ +rr;ntn rrm aªrrng 'lç-o¸ o’r¬' +r
¤¸¬;rrªrr¬ ¬çt çrmr, l¤’¤ ‘rrln mr> m¸mml;l¤+r çt ;çmrl ar¤rl¤+ a=>r
+r +rn lo=rr+; ++rt ‘rrln =ªrrl¤n ¬çt çr =+mtl +rnlml~n ‘rrln +r a-n

l¤’¤ m rrrlm+nr
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
66
''rr¬ e+ ¤ +r¤-’rl+n +r
¤ rn¢r 'l¤çg¬' ç l nç ‘rl+n
rr;nt ¤; ¤+c çr+; '¤r¤r' ar;
'¬s' ¤; +rn +;nt ç ar; '¤r.
ç;t ¬t¤¬' +t ¤¸ ¤r nr + lee
nç al¬¤rn çl a¤¬ m¸e ar;
¤r=nl¤+ +m +t o¸ l”c = nç
'+rm¤r¬g' +t ‘rl+n ç l ¤;-n¸
+rm¤r¬g +t a-n ‘rl+nnr +t
+rr ln nç ‘rl+n +rt nçr ar ;r
+r =r¤ ot mq ç, ar; l¬+¬n;
¤ +¸ ln + aqr¬ m q=+r a¤ç;¤r
'aç+r;' + 'a¤nrm' + lee çr
=+nr ç nr ar=¸ ;t ¤ +rr¤r +t
¤+s m ar+; ''a¬+ '' ac ’nr +
lee l¤+¸n +t ¬r =+nt çl
¤r =n¤ m nç a¬ nt ¬
‘rl+nnr -=rrr, rr¬, +rm-¤r=¬r
m = e+ ç , l¬¬+ lee mr¬¤
aç +r; ar ; a=¸ ;r +r =¤=
alrr+ ar+”r¤r çrnr ç ar; l¬¬
ermr + ¤r= n ç, ¤ alrr+n;
q¬+ a¬lrr+r;t ç ar; q¬+r
o¸=¤nrm çt +;n çl
rr¬ +r =rr¬¬ ¤re nr ;=r¬
¤re a=+ =¤rmt ¬çt , or= çt
çr n ç l ¤ç¸ ¸ n +m çt er m a=
l¤+¸ln+r;+ ¤+rr¤ = ¤¸;t n;ç ¤¤
¤rn ç, l¬¬+t er¤ e+¤ =mn
= a=¸ ;r + çrªrr m ;ç¬ ar ;
a¬+ gr;r q=+r o¸=¤nrm çr¬
= q= ¤; em mq çl q=t +r;¤r
''rr¬-’rl+n''
alrr+r’r arrnrlrm+ =rrr¬rm.
rm, arrm=nm ar; a¬r=l+n
¤; nªrr rr¬ + =r; ¤-rr¬r ar;
a= ¤r¬ +t =r;t ·nl+nmn ar;
aç+r; n¸+n al+rer”rr + rnrm
¤; ¤e on çl nçr n+ l+ +¸e nr
rr¬ ar; ¤+r¤ ¤; ¤ln¤-rr emr
on ç ar; ¬t¤¬ +t ol;qnr nªrr
l;+nnr +r çt e+mr> arrnrlrm+
a¤=ªrr rrrl”rn +; on çl
l+-n¸ nç e+ +r¸ e ç , ¬r
‘rl+n +r l¤;rrrt =rrrar + çrªrr
m ers on çl nç +rm¤r¬g +t ç
ar; +rm¤r¬g + lee ¤¸¬· ¬tn¬r
ar; +rrm¤n ¬t¤¬ + lee, +r.
rm¤n +rr¤ = a=+r a¤nrm +;¬r
ç, nçt =rrr+ + lee ''alnmr¬.
l=+ mrm'' çl =r;r rr¬ +rm¤r¬g
+r çl
¤ç l¬¬ ermr + çrªr m ç, ¤
a=+ mrle+ ¬çt -nr=t nr c¸=ct
çl ar¬ ¤ç a¬ ermr + ¤r= ç,
+e +çt ar ; çr =+nr ç l =¤ +¸ e
a= ¤; l¬+r; ç l+ ¬¤ n+ rr¬
a=+ ¤r= ç, ¤ a¤¬t rr;rç; +r
l+= ¤+r; ;=rn ç, a=+r l+=
+rr¤ = , l+= ¤ n¬r = , l+= ac ’n
+ lee a¤nrm +;n çl l+=t +r
a=+ rr¬ + +r;¤r a ¤r ¬ =mqr ,
ar; ¬ a=+ ars+¤;, ’rl+n nr
¤+rr¤ +r a¤¬ a¤; a=; çr¬
orl mr + lee ¬¤ l+=t = mrmr
nr nç a¬¸+r¤ +;r l+ n¸+çr; g
r;r mr +t a= ¤=n¸ +r e+ ercr
=r a’rmr> çt mr mrm ;çt çl ¬r
a¬+t ç ar; n¸m l¬= ·nl+n =
mrmn çr, a=+t ¬r¤ a=+ arr;
= çrmtl
nlo n¸m rr¬ + or”r = m¸+n
çr- el+¬ l¤¬r ¤;rlmnr +t =t
l¤;l+n = nr n¸+ç +rm¤r¬g +
+rm + lee rr¬ ¤; alrr+r; +;¬
+t alrr+ ¢rmnr ¤r¤n çrmtl m¬
+t =mnr, mrm +r a+rr¤ ar; ¬r
+¸ e n¸ +çr; ¤r= ç ar ; n¸ +ç lmenr
ç, ¬r +¸e n¸+çr;t a¤r¬¬ ‘rl+n
ç, a= =¤+r +rm¤nt ‘rl+n +
¤;¤rr m ar; a=t + +rn m ¤¸;r
a¤¤r, n q= m¸l+n + e¢r¤r çl
rr¬ + = ¤ rr m nr a=+
a¤nr m m l+=t ¤ +r; +t ¤ ¤enr,
alrr+r; +rr¤¬r nr al¬·er +r
çr¬r l+=t ¬ l+=t a¤¸¤rnr nr
¤-rr¬ +r l¬l’¤n l¤çg¬ çl
¤¸ l+ ar¬+e rr¬ ‘rl+n
l¤;r rrt ‘rl+nnr + çrªr m ç , an·
=¤r+rrl¤+ =¤ = çm a¬+ =rªr
'es¬r' ¤smrl ¤ ¬¤ ++rt o=rmt
l+ n¸ m a-ç l¬+re ¤rç; +;¬ +t
+rl’r’r m çr, ¤ n¸+çr; ¤nr¬r +r
a=¤e +;¬ +t +rl’r’r +;mt,
n¸+ç ¬t¤r lo=rr¬ + lee a¬=
¤nror 'a ¤t ‘rl+n' +r nçr
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
=r;r rr¬ +rm¤r¬g +r çl ¤ç l¬¬ ermr + çrªr m ç, ¤ a=+ mrle+ ¬çt -nr=t nr c¸=ct
çl ar¬ ¤ç a¬ ermr + ¤r= ç, +e +çt ar; çr =+nr çl =¤ +¸e a= ¤; l¬+r; ç l+ ¬¤ n+
rr¬ a=+ ¤r= ç, ¤ a¤¬t rr;rç; +r l+= ¤+r; ;=rn ç, a=+r l+= +rr¤ =, l+= ¤n¬r =,
l+= ac’n + lee a¤nrm +;n çl l+=t +r a=+ rr¬ + +r;¤r a¤r ¬ =mqr, ar; ¬ a=+
ars+¤;, ’rl+n nr ¤+rr¤ +r a¤¬ a¤; a=; çr¬ orl

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q= =mn 'rrm ,' =+¤¸ ¤r l¤’¤
= er¤ çr ¤¸+r çl l¤’¤ + =+rt
rrmr + rrmr¤rn ¤t=r-¤t=r +;
+ç ;ç ç- çmr; rrm m lç=r +r
+rq =ªrr¬ ¬çt çl l¤; l¤’¤ m ¬r
¬;=çr; çr ;çr ç, a=+r =¤re¬
+çr =, +nr ar; += nªrr l+=+
lee çr ;çr ç? ar¬ =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤
m ¬rlnnr l¬-or ç, rrm l¬-or
¬çt çl
çmr; rrm ¤ rrr¬ +ç ¬r¬ ¤re
o’r m +rt ¬rlnnr aem-aem
=mlon çr +; ''ecgomg ‘r;¤
rmg m·erlm'' çr ;çt ç l +nr ? e+
çt ¬r;r lonr ¬rnr ç, rrm ;¢rr çn¸
nr ç; ¬rln aem-ame a=>r
+r ¤nrm, e+ o¸=; + l=rer¤
+nr +; çt ç ? ¬¤l+ ¤ =+rt
¬rlnnr e+ çt rrm + a¬¸ nrq çr ¬
+r o++r +r; ;çt çl ecgo, ssr,
l>’r¸ e, ne¤r;, ‘r =r, m ¬t;r,
rrcr, l¤mcr, mlo;, ml=¬o arlol
=+rt e+ rrm + a¬¸nrq çr¬ +t
stm çr+ ;ç ç ar; nçt ¬çt =+rt
¬rlnnr e+ =rªr e+ çt ¬r;r emr
;çt ç - alç =r¤;mr rrm ·l l¤;
m¸ =r¤r+”r ¤r +r -n¸ c¬ ¬ '’rl+n', arq-=crq¬ ¬ '¬s nr' +t al+r·nl+n +çr
çl q=+ +r;¤r =+rt +rrln+ ¤orªr +rr;n¸+n çr ¬rn çl ¤;-n¸ l=ç ¤¸=”r +r +rr; +
m¸¤rrrm ¤ol’rn +;¬ + lee 'l¤¤’r' +; =+¬ m m¸=r¤r+”r¤r ‘rl+n a=mªr çl
¬r a¤¬ +r =¤·nr¤t arrmr nr ¤gnr¤ + =¤ m ¤ç¤r¬nr ç, ¤ç +re ar; o’r
+t =tmr m ar¤ç ¬çt ;çnr çl '=raçmg' +t ‘rl+n + =m¢r a¬+ =r; ¤rr¬
c¸c ¬rn çl
rrm =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ = er¤ ¤rn· çr ¤¸+r ç
ecgomg ‘r;¤rmg +nr?
lml;¬rrr; ar; ml=¬o m e+
çt q ’¤; +t ar;rrr¬r +t ¬r ;çt ç l
a==n aem-aem lml;¬rrr;
ç-e+ çt rrm + a¬¸nrqnr +l
=+rt e+ o¸=; + l¤=ç l¤l+r-¬
¤ +r; rrrn+, nçt ¬çt = çr;+
a=>r +r ¤ nr m +rt +; ;ç ç l
+mr¤’r e=t çt l=ªrln l¤l+r-¬
ml=¬or m e+ çt =r¸or +t q¤ron
+;¬ ¤rer +t çl
l¤; ar¤l¤r+, ;r=rnl¬+
e¤ ¬ l¤+ a=>r +r e+ o¸ =;
+ l¤=ç ¤nrm l+= 'q’¤;' +
aro’r e¤ ar’rt¤ro = +; ;ç çl
q’¤; nr =¤+r e+ çt çl
ar¬ =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ m +rrln+
l·rqr¬ +t +rr”rr m +q ¤+r; +
+rnr¬+ ¤ r¤rrrrn+ ¤rn;= =l+n
çr me çl mrn¤¸¤ + ¤rn;= ¬ tt
l=n+¤; +r am l;+r ¤; ¬r +rt”r¤r
¤ r¤rrrrn+ ¤ çr; l+nr, a== l¤’¤
+r =¤= ‘rl+n’rret o’r a¤¬r
=n¸e¬ =rr ¤orl arrrrn a¤r¬+
qn¬r mç;r emr l+ =+¤¸¤r am.
l;+r m¸rn¸ +rn = +r¤ aorl mr¬¤
+t q= l=ªrln +r +rr ln+ l¤qr¬ ¬
'¤rl¤nr' ;rm +t =qr ot çl a+rt
n+ +rrln+ l¤qr¬ + ¤r= q=+r
+rq a¤¤r; ¬çt çl
a+rt-a+rt 縤rr ¬ e+ e=
¤rn;= +r arl¤”+r; l+nr ç, ¬r
m¬¸”nr +r om rrrc +; mr; onr
ç , a+rt n+ a=+r +rt +r q qer¬
¬çt c¸cr ¬r =+r çl nç ¤rn;=
a¤¬ ¬-m =ªrr¬ = ¤l’¤mrrr;
+t n;¤ n¬t = ¤c ;çr çl nç
¤rn;= ç¤r + ==r + =rªr ¤enr
çl an· q=+r ¤er¤ ar; l¤=nr;
m¬¸”n + çrªr m ¬ çr+; q’¤; +
çrªr m çl
n =+rt ¤+r; + ¤rn;= +rr;n
+r +rt +rn+; +”c o ;ç çl nç
¤rn a+rt n+ qrn ¬çt çr =+t ç
l+ +rr;n ¬ l+= ¤+r; + ¤rn;=
+r arl¤”+r; l+nr ç l +nr l+
+rr;n ''alç=r¤;mrrrm'' + l=ç
r-n m l¤’¤r= +;nr ç , an·
a=+r ¤rn;= a’rrl-n ¬çt , ‘rr ln
23
23
67
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
c.:.zaa: m¸+¤q
m¸=r¤r+”r¤r
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
nç e+ e=r ;rm ç, l¬=+r
a¤¤r; +rrln+ l¤qr¬ a+rt n+
l¤r+¸e ¬çt c¸c =+r çl q=+
+r;¤r m¬¸ ”n +r a+r;¤r +rn
emnr çl m; e+ l’r”n +r nç
;rm çr mnr ªrrl z:-zc =re + e+
es+ +r ¤t+r¬; m nç ;rm :-s
=re = ¤;’rr¬ +; ;çr ªrrl m; e+
l’r”n + rr; ¤; a=¬ +¤e m;t
n=¤t; +r, a¤¬ arqr¤+ ¤;
rnr¬ l+nrl z-: lo¬ m ¤ç a=
+rn+; a=rrn ;rm = ¤¸¤r=¤ =
m¸+n çr mnrl
q=t n;ç ~t mo¬ mre·er
¬rm n;r¤ªrt ¬¬t +rt ¬rrr¤¸; m
m¸q= = ot¢rr e¬ + ¤ro ¤¸¤r=¤
= m¸+n çr mnrl nç ;r¬=ªrr¬ +
¤rsm; l¬e +r ç ar; açmo.
r¤ro m ;stms mr;m-c ¤¬rnr çl
¬n¤¸; n¸l¬¤l=ct + e+ ¤r¤=;
m ; ¤r= are ar ; +çr l+ m ;t ;rl’r
m mr+’r +t o’rr em mq ç, ¤er
lo¬ m; ¬remrl
¤rl¤nr +r ¤rq;= ar; a=+r a¤¤r;
aml;+r +r ¤rl¤nr çr mnr?
m¬ +çr e+ mçt¬ ¤ro n+
+ ¬t¤¬ +t mr ;ct +r ¬ o nr ç l q=
¤rn +r e+ =re çr mnr, a+rt +rt
¤ç l¬-or çl
esg= ¬ = a=rrn ;r m = +rt
m ;t n=¤t; +r arqr¤+ ¤; rnr¬
+;¬ = ¤ç¸ n =¸ rrr; ar ;çr ç l ¤¸ ¤r
=¤=ªr nr a+rt n+ ot¢rr e ¬ + ¤ro
çt ç¸ e ç l
am; mr¬¤-¬rln m + ¤e
m ;t n=¤t; +r rnr¬ +;¬ =
esg= ¬ = ;r m = mr¬¤ ¬rln
¤¸¤r=¤ = m¸+n çr ¬rnt ç nr q=
;r m +r ¤rn;= =+¤¸ ¤r l¤’¤ m
=rrm çr ¬remrl
l+=t ¬rln, rrm nr o’r ¤;
a¤r¬+ e+ e=r +”c ar ¤s,
l¬== ¤ç ¬rln, rrm nr o’r =ç¬
¬çt +; =+ nr a=+r =-n¸e¬
¤¸ ¤r =¤ = l¤ms ¬rnr ç l q=
¤qrl¬+ +rr”rr m ¤rn;= ls¬t¬
+çr ¬rnr çl q== a= o’r, rrm
ar; ¬rln + ermr +r a+r;¤r
m¸rn¸ +rn em¬ emnr çl nç +rn
a-ç z¡ rr¤c emrnr; ¤¬r ;çnr
çl l¬=+ +r;¤r ¤ç mr¬l=+ ¤
‘rr;tl;+ ;rmr = ¤¸;t n;ç m=n çr
¬rnr çl
mrn¤¸ ¤ m ¤ or ç¸ e ¤rn;=
= am l ;+r ¬ =r l ¤’¤ +r
=¤ ’rl+nmr¬ o ’r +rt ªr;-ªr;
+r¤ ;çr ç nªrr a¤¬r =-n¸e¬
=rr ¤ or ç l l¤’¤ ‘rr ln + lee
aml;+r +r m¸rn¸ +rn = ‘rtrr ¤¸¤r
m¸l+n loer¬r ¬=;t çl
'alç =r¤;mr rrm ·' + l=ç
r-n ¤; arrrrl;n ¤ lo+ rrm çt
nç +rn +; =+nr çl an· a¤
¤orl-nnr +r nç ¤ªrm +n·n ç
l+ aml;+r +r ‘rtrrrln’rtrr, q=
+rn = m¸ +n +;r¤ l n+rt l¤’¤
m ¤¸¤r’rrln =+r¤ çrmtl +rr;n m
¤rl¤nr + ¤rn;= ¤; +r¤¸ +;¬
¤rer ¤rn;= =l+n çr ¤¸+r çl
m¸=-l’r”n ¤;+¤;r m m¸= + =rl¬rn m ¤o+; rnr¬ +;¬ = ''=ç= m¸¤rr'' er+r ¤r¤n çrnr çl
=rl¬rn ar; =rlm¤n m ªrrsr +ro çl =rl¬rn = mr> arrnrlrm+ er+r çt lmenr çl
+rrln+ =n; ¤; =rrr¬r +t ¤l;¤¸¤rnr + lee +rrln+ =rlm¤n al¬¤rn çl ¤;-n¸ ac’n ¤rl¤n + lee
or¬r +r e+ o¸=; + ¤ln ¤¸¤r =m¤¤r +rt al¬¤rn çl q=+ l¤¬r +rn l=lç ¬çt çrmtl
=rlm¤n + a-n;m ¢r¤rr m or¬r ¤¢r e+ o¸=; m q= ¤+r; en çr ¬r¬ ¤rlçe l+ +rrln+ ar;
arrnrlrm+ o¸l”c = ¤n¬ ·nl+nnr +r or¬r al=nr¤ e+ çt lo=rrq omrl +rrln+ =¤ = çt a¬+ ‘r;t;
aem-aem lo=rrq oml q= ¤+r; or¬r + =rlm¤n + l¤¬r, a= lo·n a¬r +r +rrln+ ¬mng m er+r
¬çt lenr ¬r =+nrl
¡.:.zaa:, m¸+¤q
23
23
68
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
=rl¬rn ar; =rlm¤n
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
69
+rr;n =lonr n+ m¸erm ;çr,
q=lee q= ¤l¤> +r¸ lm ¤; a rr+r;
or= ¤¬+; ¬m mnr çl ¤orl-nnr
+r ers+; =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ + rrmr
+ a¬¸nrqnr +r l¤+r= a+rt g
n +rr¤ n+ çt ç¸ar çl ar¬ +rr;n
m +rt gn¤rlonr +r çt ¤re¤rer
çl o’r¬ + lç=r¤ = +rr;n ag
n¤ro n+ =lonr ¤çe l¤+l=n çr
¤¸+r ªrrl nç =rn çmr; or’rl¬+
m-ªrr = ¤¸¤r =rn ¤mrl¤rn çrnr
çl ¤+¸ln +r e+ ace l=gr-n
ç arªrr¬-¤n¬l ¤n¬ +t +rt e+
=tmr çrnt çl +rr;n a= =tmr n+
¤ç¸¤ ¤¸+r çl
q= =¤rr m mçl”r ~t a;.
l¤-o ¬ +çr ç·-
''+rr;n +t l¬nln +r =¸ n
aon çr ¤¸+r çl a¤ ¤¤rç a¤;
+t ar; çl ¤n¬ +r +re =mr¤n
çr mnr çl a¤ ¤+rrn l¬+c ç,
ar; am; e+ ¤r; ¤+r’r a¤¬r
o’r¬ o o nr ;rl> l¤; ++rt ¬çt
+rr;n +r +rl¤”n
çr =+ntl a”rr +re ‘rtrr çt ¤¸;r
çr ¬remr, ar; =¸n l¢rln¬ ¤;
alon çrmrl +rr;n +t l¬nln +r
=¸n alon çrmr, ar; =m=n +rr;n
+r a¤¬t ¤nrln = +r; omrl ar;
+ ¤e +rr;n +r çt ¬çt el’rnr ar ;
¬mng +r; +r ¤erl¤n +; omrl
ç; rrst, ç; ¤e a-ç lo¤= +t
+rl-n ar; otl¤n + l¬+c ern
ç'' l¬=+t =¤t+¸ln +rm¤r¬g ¬
ot çl
¤n¬ +r +re =mr¤n çr mnr
çl ¬nr +rr;n ao ;çr ç =¤n¬ çr
;çr ç, ar; ;r”c¸r +t l¤;ro;t m
a¤¬r al¤n =ªrr¬ e¬ +t nnr;t
+; ;çr çl
mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o ¬ +rr;n
nªrr =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ +r a-no¸l”c
= l¬n¬r l¬+c = o=rr ç, an¬r
+m çt ermr ¬ o=rr çl ~t a;.
l¤-o ¬ +rl¤”n¤r¤rt +t ç l+
''armrmt mr¬¤-¬rln lo·n ‘r;t;
rrr;¤r +;mt''l q=+r =¤”c aªr
ç mr¬¤-¬rln çmr; agn¤ro +
l=çr-n + a¬¸=r; +lm+ l¤+r=
+ l=çr-n + m¸ nrl¤+ ¤¸ ¤r nr ¤ r¤n
+; emtl
m¬ ¤l;l=ªrlnnr ¤’r =¬g
tscs m , =lo nr m ar;++r çr ¬
¤ret ¬¤;rl> ¤¤ =, mrn>t m>
+r a¬¸”or¬ ¤r;++r l+nrl =¤r
er=r m>r +r ¬¤, 礬 +¸¤s m
¤rn+ m> + ¤ro =¤rçr + =rªr
arç¸ln on ç¸e l+nrl tscs + ¤.
r;++r m m¸q mrn>t m> +t l=lç
çr mql
m¸ qm ç¸ e q= ¤l;¤n ¬ +
+r;¤r çt m; mrrnm = mr¬¤nr
m nç lo·n ¤l;¤n¬ ar ;çr çl
+rl¤”n m mr¬¤nr m çr ¬ ¤re
q= ¤l;¤n¬ +r o=r +; çt ~t
a;l¤-o ¬ +rl¤”n¤r¤rt +t ç l+
''armrmt mr¬¤ ¬rln lo·n ‘r;t;
rrr;¤r +;mtl''l
+nrl+ nç l¤+r= =r¤+rrm
e+ l’r”n ¬ ~t a;l¤-o = ¤’¬ l+nr- +çr ¬rnr ç l+ ;rm+¸”¤r ¤;mç= +r +=; a¤¬ l’r”nr
+ ¤r¤ + +r;¤r ç¸ar?
~t a;l¤-o- çr nç ¤rn a-çr¬ =¤n +çt ªrt, ar; a¬+t ¤rn ot+ çr¬t çt ¤rlçel n¸+ç ¤nr ç,
a-çr¬ q= ¤rn + ¤¢r ar; l¤¤¢r m n¸l+nnr ot ªrt l+ m¸= +r l’r”nr +t ¤ç¸n =t ¤t¬ a¤¬ a¤; e¬t
¤snt çl
e+ ¤l=ç nrmt ¬ a¤¬ l’r”n =, ¬¤ ¤ç m¸= ¤¬¬ emr n¤ +çr ªrr, ''a¤ n¸m a¤¬t +lo¬rqnr
+ alnl;+n ar;r +t +lo¬rqnr +rt a¤¬ a¤; e ;çr çrl''
çr, am; m¸= ¤rç nr l’r”nr = a¤¬r =¤rr +rc =+nr ç, n¤ (m¸= +r¸ e=t +rq +lo¬rq ¬çt
aremt, el+¬ =rªr çt a=+r mne¤ çrmr l+ +rm arm ¬çt ¤cmr ar; =rrr+ a¤¬t l+=mn ¤; l¤¬r
l+=t =çr; + ers loe ¬reml
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
m¸+¤q

~t;rm+¸”¤r ¤;mç= +r +=; +nr?
~t a;l¤-o
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
a¤; = çr¬ ¤re a¤n;¤r
nªrr a= l+nrl-¤n +;¬ +t q=
¤ l+nr m =¤= ¤ rrr¬ ¤rn ç ,
=¤n a¤¬ a¤; ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = l¬+r ;
¬ +;¬r, ¤lr+ ¤ªr¤ o’r ¬ ¤;
l¬+r ; +;¬r ar ; ¬r +¸ e rrlcn çr
a= ¤; l¤¤r; +;¬ , mn o ¬ ar ;
l¬¤r n +;¬ + lee a-ç ¤ner¬r
(nç +rn m¸= + =rªr arnl;+
¤ªr ¤o’r¬ = l+nr ¬r =+nr ç
¸l +nrl+ ¤rn· e=r çt çrnr ç
l+ 'a¤n;¤r + +r;¤r l¬+¬n;
¤ +¸ ln +t ‘rl+nnr ¬rm n ar ;
arrl¬n çr ¬rnt ç (+nrl+ a-ç
a¬+r alrr+r; ¢r> le¬nr ¬¬;
arnr ç ¸ ar ; a=+ =rªr lme
‘rl+n + a¤n;¤r + =rn;r =
''m¸='' ;¢rr +;nr ç
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
¬r¬r nªrr a= a¤¬ lee a¤nrmt
¤¬r¬r ¤rçnt çl' ¤rn· çt e=r
çrnr ç l+ =¤+rr¤n· alo·n +rq
‘rl+n nr +q ‘rl+nnr '¤;m’¤;'
nr +rm¤nt mrnr + =¤ m =rm¬
¤+c çrnt ç ar; çmr;t =rrr =
=¤r ar; =m¤¤r +t mrm +;nt
çl am; q-ç =¤t+r; l+nr ¬re
nr q=+r arn-n =¤¬r’rt ¤l;¤
rrm çrmrl
a¤’n çt, nlo =rrr+ +¤e
'+rrm¤n' l+nr +t a¤=ªrr n+
a¤; aor ç¸ar çr ar; a=t ¤ªr
¤o’r+ + ¤ln a=¬ 'arrmor¬'
ar; =m¤¤r' l+nr çr nr =¤ +rn
ar=r¬t = ¤e =+nr çl =rrr+
+r nç ar;r ç¤r nªrr =m=n
aç+r; ¤¸¤r ‘rl+nnr nr aç+r;
+r a·et em¬ ¤ret ‘rl+nnr +r
rnrm ¤¸;t =rrr¬r + +rtn; çmr;t
;¢rr +;nr çl ¤;-n¸ ¤+¸ln + ;r=n
¬rer = +r; ç,
'aç +r ;' + eogm¤ ’r
a==n ç, a-rr+r; +t ‘rl+nnr
+t mrnr- ;r¢r=t mrnr-a=rrrr;¤r
¤rn¸ ;t = +r;t ç , çmr;t ¤¸ lç
anr·n ¤ªr ¤o’r+ ç, ar; ¤rn·
çt l¤’¤r=rrrn +;nt ç, ¤r¤rmn
+rm¬r =or çmr; =rªr ;ç+; çm
l+=t ar+”r + ¤¸ +r; +r a¬¸ =;¤r
23
23
70
+len¸m + m¸¤rrrm + +r;¤r =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ = =·¤rq em+rm er¤ çr ¤¸+t çl q=rq
rrm +rt q== ae¸nr ¬çt ;ç =+rl a=m +rt +rn+; l¤;rrrr+rr= nªrr +rrl-nnr rr; +;
¤¸+t çl a= mçr¬g arrmr nt’r¸ +r a+r;¤r mr;+; a¤ a= q’¤; +r ¤¸> mr¬+; ¤¸¬
;ç çl am; a-ç +rq =·¤rq = =r¢rrr+r; +;¬ +t l¤lrr ¤nr¬r ¤rçnr ç nr =¸¬¬r
nr o¸; nr+re a= m;¤r lonr ¬rnr çl
¤r¤ +t mct + aro’r = a¤¬ çt rrm + a==n =n ¤¸=”rr +t çrnr çr ¤¸+t çl
a¬+t q= +¸; ¤¸ln +r ¬”c +;¬ + lee ¤+r¸ ¬ a¬= +rt +¸; ¤¸lrr + ¤r¤rt ¤or +; loel
a¬+r ¤mr+r; q=rqnr +r tt l=n+¤; zaat +r aml;+r m o=r¬ +r lmerl q==
aml;+r + erm arnlrr+ +rn+rtn çr mel
• ''=·¤ aªrr m arrnrlrm+ ar; +rrln+ ¬t¤¬ e+ o¸=; = l+r-¬ ar; l¤;rrrt ç
çt ¬çtl or¬r e+ o¸=; + ¤¸;+ çl arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r +t çt o¬ ç-+rrln+ l¤qr¬l q=
¤+r; ¬¤ +rrln+ ¤n¬r a¤¬t ¬¬¬t arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r + aro’r ¤; ¤e¬ emmt,
a= =mn rr;r ¤; =¤m an; ar¤mrl e=t l=ªrln m çmr; arlo =¬rn¬ rrm +r '¤=¸rr¤
+¸c¸+¤+mg' +r =¤¬r =r+r; çrmrl''
=·¤rq +r er¤ çr¬r
m¸+¤q c.:.zaa:
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

~t a;l¤-o mr¤, tszs

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
71
¤rq¤e e+ +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr
+r m-ªr çl q=m =¸l”c ar¤lrr =
e+; m¬¸”n + ¤¸¤r l¤+r= n+ +t
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr ç l ¤rq¤e +t =+rt
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr ¤ç¸n çt ar’¤n
¤¸¤r cm = +rrln+ ¬mng m ¤¸¤r
=rn ¤ mrl¤rn çr ;çt ç l ¤;-n¸
¤rq¤e a¬¸mç + n¸m + =¤rr m
+¸e ¬çt ¬r¬ntl
l¬= =çrn+ +r ¤¸er¬ +t
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt nçr¤r ¬ ¤¸;r¬ l¬nm
m +çt ç, a= çt nt’r¸ nªrr ¤r.
q¤e + l¤l+r-¬ =nr ¬ orç;rnr
çl a¬¸mç + n¸m m =+¤¸¤r mr¬¤
¬rln +r açr; çr mr, l¬=+r ¤¤r ¬
¤rq¤e m ¤l;nr + +rn z·tc =
ts, t +¸ ;l-ªrnr tz·t:, melnnr
:·zs nªrr +¸e¸l=nr :·tt m =¤”c
‘r-or m l+nr mnr çl q= =¤rr
m ¤rq¤e +çnt ç l+ qn¬r ¤sr
açr; ¤çe l+=t n¸m m a¤e-rr
¬çt ªrr, ar; ¬ çt q=+ ¤ro ++rt
¤rq¤e
a¤e-rr çrmrl
¤rq¤e +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr
+ a¬¸ =r; nt’r¸ + ¤¸ ¬;rmm¬
n+ +r n¸m ·n¤=ªrr +r n¸m ªrrl
l¬= nt=;t ‘rl+n + ¤+c çr¬
+t +rl¤”n¤r¤rt ¤rq¤e +;nt
ç, ¬¤ ¤ç ¤+c çr+; ¤l¤>rrmr
= ¤¤ln=mr(ot¢rr¸ o¬ emmr,
l¬=+r ¤¤r¬ ¤l;nr + +rn t·¡
¤ : m l+nr ç, n¤ ·n¤=ªrr +r
n¸m =mr¤n çr+;, a¬¸mç +r n¸m
¤r;++r çr ¬r¤mrl
q= a¬¸mç + +r;¤r =+¤¸¤r
mr¬¤-¬rln +r ¬r açr; çr mr, a=
¤rq¤e + =n ar; +rl¤”n¤+nr
l¤e+¸ e ¬çt =mq =+ l q¤ rl¬nr
tt·t: , rn¸ + ta·ts = z: n+ +
a¬¸=r; q= ¤s açr; +r =nr
ar ; +rl¤”n¤+nrar ¬ o =r¬r
=mq¬r ¤rçr, ¤;-n¸ ¤ q= ¬ o=r
=+ ar; ¬ çt =mq =+l a-çr¬
o¸; = o=r+; q= ¤s açr; + ¤r;
m +rl¤”n¤r¤rt +t ªrtl a¬ ¤; q=
açr; +r +ro ¤+c ¬çt l+nr mnr
ªrrl ql¤l=nr :·t= tc, t ¤tc; t·ta
= tz l ¤rq¤e + a¬¸=r; =¤m +
o¤nr +rt a= ¤s açr; + ¤r; m
+¸e +rt ¬çt =mq =+l q=lee
¤ +rt q= o=r¬ +t ere=r ;=rn
çl
nçt +r;¤r ç l+ q =rq
¬mng + ¤lsn ¤rq¤e + l¤l.
+r-¬ a’rr +r e+ =rªr lmer+;
a¤¬t-a¤¬t ¤¸ lç + a¬¸ =r;
aªr l¬+re ;ç çl ¤;-n¸ m¬¸”n
er=rr ¤r lç+ ¤ nr= = +rt =rn +r
¤+c çr¬ = ¬çt ;r+ =+mrl
ar¬ = =r; m em+rm l¤’¤r=
+r a+rr¤ çr ¤er çl e=t l=ªrln
l¤’¤ +t ¤çe ++rt ¬çt ç¸ql ar¬
=+¤¸ ¤r l¤’¤ m nrml=+ ¤¸ lrrnr +r
=rmr¤n çl l¤’¤ +t nç l=ªrln
=¤”c +;nt ç l+ a¤ l¤’¤ m
‘rrln +¤e rrrlm+ +rl-n = çt
m¬¸ ”n ‘r;t;-=¤t n > +r
=mq¬ ar ; a=m çr ¬ ¤ret
l¤+¸lnnr +r ot+ +;¬ + lee,
+rr ln+ l¤qr¬ ç; = +r¤ ¤ nr=
+; ;çr çl ¤;-n¸ l¤qr¬, q= n>
+r =mq¬ m a+rt n+ ¤¸¤r =¤e
¬çt çr =+r çl nçt +r;¤r ç ,
mr¬¤ ¬rln a==n a=rrn ;rmr
= +rn +; +”c =ç¬ +; ;çt ç l e =
a¬+ ¤r¤rrrrn+ ;rm ç, l¬¬+r
l¬or¬ +rr ln+ l¤qr¬ l¤e+¸ e
¬çt +; ¤r ;çr çl 'esg=' ¬=
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ +r
=rn;¬r+ ;r m = ar¬ =+¤¸ ¤r l¤’¤
++¤rnmr¬ çl
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ q= l¤+l=n
l=ªrln m +rt =n¸”c ¬çt çl a¤
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ + ‘rrrr+nrar +r
nç l¤’¤r= ¤++r çr mnr ç l+
q=+ alnl;+n ar; +rt ¤ªr ç,
l¬= ¤; ¤e+; m¬¸”n ¤¸¤r ‘rrl-n
¤r¤n +; =+nr çl an· ¤l’¤mt
o ’rr + ¤¸ lç¬tl¤nr +r q¸ +r¤
n¬t = +rr;ntn ==+¸ln +t n;¤
çr ;çr çl
+rr;ntn nr mo’r ¬ l¤’¤ m
e+ mr> o’r¬ ç, ¬r m¬¸”n + ¤¸¤r
l¤+r= +t l+nrrm+ l¤lrr ¤nrnr
çl ¤¸¤rnr ¤r¤n +;¬ + ¤ro m¬¸”n
=+rt ¤+r; + ¤rr¬r = m¸+n çr
¬rnr çl m¬¸”n + l>l¤rr nr¤ ‘rrn
çr ¬rn çl q= =¤rr m mçrnrmt
mr;=r¬rªr ¬t ¬ +çr ç-
''nç nrm ¤o=¤t +r¤n=
+r am; ¤e ç'', l¬== =rrr+
+ l>l¤rr nr¤- arlo o lç+, arlo
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤rq¤e + a¬¸ =r; ¬r =çrn+
¤ +c çr +; ‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr
(Baptized with holy ghost¸
o mr, ¤ç =+¤¸ ¤r l¤’¤ +t =+rt
¬rlnnr +r omrl q= ¤s açr;
+r er+r =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ +r lmemrl
q= =¤rr m ¤rq¤e + ¤l;nr +
+rn z·tc = ts +¸;l-ªrnr + tz·t:,
melnnr + :·zs nªrr +¸lel=nr
+ :·tt m =¤”c le=rr çl ¤rq¤e
+çnt ç l+ qn¬r ¤sr açr; ¤çe
l+=t n¸m m a¤e-rr ¬çt ªrr, ar;
¬çt ¤ro m ++rt a¤e-rr çrmrl
(¤lo+ o’r¬ + a¬¸=r; q=
n¸m m =+¤¸¤r mr¬¤¬rln ¤¸¤rnr
¤r¤n +;mt¸
¤rq¤e +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +
a¬¸ =r; nt’r¸ + ¤¸ ¬;rmm¬ n+ +r
=mn ·n¤=ªrr +r =mn ªrrl l¬=
=çrn+ +r +r¬¬ +t +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt nt’r¸ ¬ =c ¬rç¬ + t:·zc e¤
a¬¸mç +r
tc·: = t: m +t ç, ¬¤ ¤ç ar+;
‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr (Baptized
with the holy ghost¸ o ¬ em.
mr, l¬=+r ¤¤r ¬ ¤ l;nr + +rn t·¡
e¤ : m l+nr mnr ç, n¤ ·n¤=ªrr
+r n¸m =mr¤n çr+; a¬¸mç +r
n¸m ar;++r çr ¬r¤mrl
q= a¬¸mç =¤t ‘rl+n¤rn
ot¢rr = (Baptized with the
holy ghost¸ l¤’¤ +r ¬r mçr¬g
açr; çrmr, a= ¤rq¤e + =+rt
= n ar ; +rl¤”n¤+nr l¤e+¸ e
çt ¬çt =mq =+ l ¤rq¤e m
¤l¤rn q¤rl¬nr tt·t:, =c rn¸+
ta·tz = z: + a¬¸=r; q= ¤s aç
r; +r =nr ar; +rl¤”n¤+nrar
¬ o=r¬r =mq¬r ¤rçr, ¤;-n¸ ¤
q= ¬ o=r ar; ¬ çt =mq =+l
a-çr¬ o¸; = çt o=r +; q= ¤s
açr; + ¤r; m +rl¤”n¤r¤rt +t ªrtl
a¬ ¤; q= açr; +r +ro ¤+c çt
¬çt l+nr mnr ªrrl ql¤l=nr :·t
= tc, t ¤tc; t·ta = tz, ¤rq¤e +
a¬¸=r; =¤m + o¤nr +rt a= ¤s
açr; + ¤r; m +¸e +rt ¬çt =mq
=+l q=lee ¤ +rt q= o=r¬ +t
ere=r ;=rn çl
¤;m ’¤; + ;r¤n aªrr ng
a¬¸ m ç + n¸ m +t ¤ç¤r¬ +
¤r; m ¤rq¤e +çnt ç, m¬¸”nr
+r ;r mr = m¸ l+n loer¬r ar ;
o¸”c arrmrar +r l¬+re¬ +t
=rmªnl
= c rn¸ + tt·za ¤;-n¸ nlo
m ¤;m ’¤; +t =rmªn = o¸ ”c
arrmrar +r l¬+renr ç¸ , nr
¤;m’¤; +r ;r¤n n¸+çr; ¤r= ar
¤ç¸¤r çl
=c rn¸+ ta·s ¤çr + ¤tmr;r
+r ¤mr +;r ar; a¬= +çr l+
¤;m’¤; +r ;r¤n n¸+çr; l¬+c
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
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72
m; lee m¸q ¬r +rm +;¬r ªrr, a=m nç ¬=;t ‘rn ªrtl am; m¸q =¤n a¤¬r =¤r-n; +;¬r
çrnr nr e+ ¬nr nrm ‘r¸= +;¬r çrnr nr a¬ +¸e ermr +r ¬r m; =+¤+ m arn, e+ ¬nr aro’r
o¬r çrnr nr m nç =¤ l¤¬r l+=t '’rl+n' + çt +; enrl el+¬ m¸q ¬r +rm +;¬r ªrr a=+ len
¬=;t ªrr l+ or¬r ¤¢r e+ =rªr arnl m; ar; mrnr¬t + e+ =rªr çr¬ = +¸e e=t ¤l;l=ªrlnnr ¤or
çr mq, l¬¬+ +r;¤r n¸+çr; lee =¤r-n; ¤r¤n +;¬r ¤nror ar=r¬ çr mnrl n¸m a¬ ¤l;l=ªrlnnr +r
er+r aor =+n çrl el+¬ nç ¬=;t ¬çt ç l+ ''ç; e+ + ¤r= ‘rl+n çr'' ermr +r =rmr-n l¬nm
¤¬r¬ +t ¤tmr;t çrnt çl
q== ¤çe l+ n¸+çr; ¤r= ''’rl+n'' çr, n¸+ç ''’rl+n +r'' alrr+r;t çr¬r ¤rlçel =¤= ¤çet
‘rn nç ç l+ n¸+ç +rm ¤; ¤+r¸r¤ çr¬r ¤rlçel e+ ¤rn nç ç l+ or¬r +r l¬+c er¬r ¤rlçe ar;
¤n¬r + ¤rn+ =n; ¤; ¤¸¤r e+n çr¬r ¤rlçel ç; =n; ¤; l+r-¬-l+r-¬ ·nl+nr¤ çrn ç, ar; ¤¸=”r
ar; ‘rl+n + ¤r; m, a-ç ¤rn+ =n; ¤; me =rr¬r ¤rlçel qn¬r ¤¸¤r e+n =rlrrn çr¬ = ¤çe n¸+ç
e+¤t +or; n¤=nr +;¬t çrmtl
~t a;l¤-o
‘rl+n + l¤¬r =¤r-n;¤r a=+r¤

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ar¬ l¤’¤ m ¬r +rt”r¤r ¬;= ç.
r; çr ;çr çl a=+r arrnrlrm+
+r;¤r ç , ¤rlªr ¤ ¤ n¬r m a=
¤;mnr¤ +r a¤nl;n çr ¬r¬rl
+len¸ m + m¸ ¤rrrm + +r;¤r =+¤¸ ¤
r l¤’¤ nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr + ¤m¸e
m ¬+sr ç¸ar çl er=rr-+;rsr
l¬or”r =>t-¤¸=”r ar; ¤·¤r +r
¤ç;mt = ns¤r-ns¤r +; mr;r
¬r ;çr çl ar¬ n+ l¬n¬ erm
m; , a¬m =¤r lrr+ = =nr nç¸ lonr
+t çl =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ m q¬ ¤; ¤ç¸n
e+¤ =mn = +ç; ¤;¤rnr ¬r
;çr çl
m ¤ç¸ n =mn = q =rq ¬mng
+r q= +rt”r¤r ¬;=çr; + =¤rr
m l¬;-n; =o’r +r¬ ;çr ç¸ l+
nç or rrmr +t esrq ç, q=+r
=mrrrr¬ +rt nç¸ lonr ar ; q =rqnr
+ rrmr¤rnr +r e+ =rªr ¤o+;
+rt”r¤r ¬;=çr; +r arrnrlrm+ +r;¤r
çt +;¬r çr mrl ¤ m+¤;¤ro +
l=çr-n + a¬¸=r; q=rq ¬mng
=+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ + =rm¬ nt=; ar;
al-nm ¤m+¤; +r ¬rm rrrl”rn
+;mr, n+rt q= +rt”r¤r ¬;=çr;
+r an çrmrl
m; l¬;-n; ¤nr= + +r;¤r
m; =o’r +r ¬¤ m; ¤¤ =rqc
¤; er=rr q=rqnr ¬ o=rr ar;
¤cr nr a¬+ a-n;m¬ m çe¤e
¤ or çr mq l q=t + +r;¤r n e
a¤t¤ = ;r¬t ¬rm +t :¡ ¤”rtn
e+ nç¸ot mlçer m¸q m¸= ¤¬r¬,
¬¬¤;t zaa: m +rr;n arql a=¬
tc ¬¬¤;t,zaa: +r m¸q= ot¢rr
e+; l’r”nr¤ mç¤r l+nrl
q= ¤ +r; tc.at.zaa: +r
¤¸çl=n¤r; or¬r nr¤r +r e+ çr
¬r¬ + =¤ m nro ;=rr ¬remrl
nç ar+r’r nr¤ ar; ¤¸ª¤t nr¤
+r ¤¸ ¤r lme¬ ç , e =r lme¬
l¬=+r ++rt a-n ¬çt çrmrl nç
or lo·n ‘rl+nnr +r lme¬ çl
q=m ar+r’rnr¤ ¬t¤ an; +;
¤¸ª¤t nr¤ m q= ¤+r; lme mnr
l+ a¤ a= ++rt +rt l+=t ¤+r;
+rt e+ o¸=; = aem ¬çt l+nr
¬r =+mrl
m +rr;n + +rl¤”n +r ¤ç¸n
a¤¤¤e o =r ;çr ç¸ l +rr ln+ l¤qr¬
+r l¬n¬r mr¬¤tn ¤n¬r m l¤+.
l=n çr¬r ªrr, çr ¤¸+r çl ¤;-n¸
l¤’¤ m a’rrl-n l¬;-n; ¤c ;çt
çl
+rr;n m tsc: + ¤ro = rr.
rlm+ ¤n¬r l¬;-n; ¤c ;çt çl
nç ¤n¬r tscs n+ ¬t¤ an; +;
¤rlªr¤ ¤n¬r m ¤¸¤r =¤ = en
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73
m l¬= lo·n l¤qr¬ + ¤=r;-¤¤r; + lee l¬+er ç¸, l¤’¤ a= a+rt
¤¸¤-¤l’¤m + me +t =qr o ;çr çl +nrl+ mr¬¤ ¬rln +r l¤+r= q=t =n;
n+ ç¸ar çl ¤;-n¸ +rr;ntn o’r¬ ar+r’r ar; ¤¸ª¤t + lme¬ +t ¤rn +;nr çl
¤l’¤mt ==+¸ln +r q= lo·n qr¬ +t ¬r¬+r;t l¤e+¸e +rt ¬çt çl
+rr;ntn nrmo’r¬ +r m¸e ac’n mr¢r çl ¤;-n¸ ar¬, =+¤¸¤r ==r; m nrm
+r ac’n mr> ;rm m¸l+n ;ç mnr çl ;rm l¬rn ¬n-¬n ¤or çr ;ç çl +nrl+
+rr;ntn ==+¸ln nrm ¤; e+rlrr+r; mrmnt ç ar; ;=rnt +rt çl ¤;-n¸ mr¬¤nr
m a= m¸n=¤ ¬çt o ¤r ;çt çl +¤e ‘rr;tl;+ +=;n +r çt nrm +t =qr o ;ç
çl q=+ l¤;rrr +r, ¤l’¤m +t =rl¬ºr +ç +; a¤¬r ¤¤r¤ +;¬ +r ¤nr= +;
;ç çl a¤¬r ¤¤r¤ +; ¤rem, =+r¤ ¬çt emnrl
t¡.c.zaac, e.¤t.e=.+.¬rrr¤¸;
z.:.zaa:, m¸+¤q
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m ¤n¬r + =¤r·¤ l’r=r; =, aªrrng
a=tm a¤rq = ¬t¤ +t n;¤ lec+rl e+
aro-¬r mrç + ¤re+ + =¤ m a¤; +t
n;¤ m¸ ç l+e ç¸ e ¤ç¸ n e+¤ =mn n+ ¬t¤ +t
n;¤ ¤enr ;çrl l¬;-n; e+ +rn em ;çr ªrr
l+ ¬mt¬ ¤; lm;n çt, çsgst-¤=et ¤¸ ;-¤¸ ;
çr ¬remtl q=lee or¬r çrªr-¤;r +r l=+rs
+; om =rrr mr n + ¢r¤r +r q n¬r; +;nr ;çrl
a¤r¬+ ¤rnr l+ m m¸er¤t ¤¸er + a¤; ¬r
lm;rl e=r emr l+ a=tm ¤m + =rªr ¬t¤
arn-arn ¤m rrt;-rrt; ‘rrn çr mnr ar; m
a¤; +t n;¤ m¸ç l+e ç¸e çt m¸er¤t ¤¸er ¤;
arr; = ec mnr l n¤ ‘r;t; +r cter ers+;
¤¬ +t =r= etl
a+rt-a+rt ªrr s =mn = a¬¸ +r¤ +;
;çr ç¸ l+ m q= ¤rlªr¤ ¤n¬r m l¤e+¸e
¬nr ar; a¬t¤ ¤r¤rt ç¸l m¬ +rt a;l¤-o +
lo·n =¤r-n;¤r +r ¤cr nr =mq m arnr
l+ ;ç=n +nr ç? ~t a;l¤-o ¬ q= =¤rr
m +çr ç·-
“God”- spirit meets “God-matter”
Divine transformation- No more
¬t¤¬ +r ;ç=n
stomatch, no more heart, no more
blood circulation, no more lungs, all
this will disappear and be replaced by
a play of vibrations representing what
these organs symblols of the centers of
energy, they are not the essential reality
they simply give it a form or support in
certain given circumstance.
=¬g tscs-cs m m¬ =¤r er=r mrn>t
m>r +r a¬¸”or¬ +;, ç; m> + =rªr =·rrçr
+ =rªr 礬 +¸s m arç¸lonr o o +; l+nr
ªrrl q=+ ¤ro m¸q rnr¬ + or;r¬ m; ‘r;t; m
o¸ lrrnr ; m +r =¤ o lo·n ¤ +r’r lo=rrq lonrl
q= ¤+r’r m m¸q a=tm ‘rrln +r a¬¸+r¤
ç¸arl
a= =mn m¸ q +rt l¤¤r; arnr ªrr l+
m; a-o; nç ¤+r’r +=r? et¤;, lnret,
¤¤s, çrc arlo +rq +rt am lo=rrq ¬çt o
;çr çl ¬¤ m¬ q¬ amr +r o=r¬ +r ¤nr=
l+nr nr a= ¤+r’r m m¸q +r¤; + m¸¬¬ +t
r¤l¬ =¸¬rq otl ¬¤ m ar¤r¬ + +-q l¤-o¸
n+ ¤ç¸¤r nr ¤rnr l+ ¤ç nr mrn>t m> +t
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
23
74
çmr; çt ¬çt l¤’¤ + =+rt q’¤;¤rot rrmr + rrmr¤rn e+ çt =¤; = nçt
+ç ;ç ç- ''a¤¬ +r a= a¬-n m en +;¬ +r ¤nr¬ +;, ¬çr ++rt o¸·=r
+r e’r ¬çt''l ¤;-n¸ ‘r¤ l=çr-n +çnr ç, ''¤ç a¬n ar¤+ ao; çt l=ªrn
ç l a=m en çr¬ ar; +çt ¬r¬ +t ¬=;n ¬çt çl'' m¬¸”n +rrln+ ‘r;t; m,
q= m¸rn¸ er+ m ;çn ç¸e +rt =+rt +e’rr +r a-n +;+ ¤¸¤r ‘rrln ¤r¤n +;
=+nr ç, aªrrng ¬t¤¬ m¸+n çr =+nr çl
çmr; ‘r¤ o’r¬ +r nç =o’r mr¬¤nr m m¸n=¤ e¬ em mnr çl mr> ¤lo+
o’r¬ +r nçt l+nrrm+ nrm, =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ m ‘rrln =ªrrl¤n +; =+nr çl ar;
nç +rn +;¬r a=¬ ¤r;++r +; lonr çl ¬¬tnr =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ + =rm¬ ‘rtrr
ar¬r ¤rçnr çl
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
qlnçr= =r¢rt ç ,q= +r¸m¤
se ¤; or ¬rlnnr - lç-o¸ ar ;
nç¸ ot ¤; l¤ee e+¤ =mn =
rrr; arnr¤r; çr ;ç çl m; l¤¤r;
= ¤;tl¢rn + ‘rr=¬ +re + ¤ro
= nç +¸+¸rn l¬;-n; ¤e ;çr çl
l+n¬ ar’¤n +t ¤rn ç, qn¬
e+¤ =mn n+ a=ç¬tn +”cr +r
+rrm ;çt ¬rlnnr ¬ a¤¬ m¸e+r¸n
''alç =r¤;mr rrm ·'' + l=çr-n +r
¬çt er s r ç l l¤’¤ +t =+rt ¬rlnnr
ar; rrmr ¬ a¬+ ¤r; a-ç q=
+r¸ m¤se = ¬s = a=rrs ¬ +t
+r l’r’r +t, ¤;-n¸ a=¤e ;ç l
+nrl+ n or¬r ¬rlnnr l¬= rrm
¤; l¬-or ç, ¤ç q’¤;tn aro’r
ç,an· ¤ç am; ç
aml;+r +r nç +ç¬r ç l+
“Islam is a very evil and
a wicked religion” l¤’¤ +r
=rn ¬çt em ;çr çl +nr ¬m¬t
m o¸ =; l¤’¤ n¸ ç + or ;r¬ e+
er=r = +rt alrr+ nç¸lonr +t
çrnr q=erm rrm + mr¬¬ ¤re
ermr ¬ +t ªrtl =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ =r¢rt
ç, nç +¸+¸rn e+ q=rq rrm +r
mr¬¬ ¤re +¸; ar; l¬ont ·nl+n
‘rrln +r =çr;+ n¸m
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
¬ l+nr ªrrl nt’r¸ +r mr;¬ ¤ret
nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr, nt’r¸ +t m¸rn¸
= e+; ar¬ n+ q= rr¸l¤rn +rn
m ¬¸ct ç¸q çl ¤;-n¸ n or¬r onre¸
¬rlnnr, =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ m ar¬ +rt
l¬-or çl +rr;n ¬ çm’rr nç¸lonr
+r ‘r;¤r ot ç, qlnçr= =r¢rt çl
tc.t.zaa: +r nç¸ot ¬rln ¬
l¤’¤ +t =+rt +¸ ; ‘rl+nnr = ¤¤¬
+ lee lç-o¸ ¬rln +t ‘r;¤r e etl
nç n e a¤t¤ = ot¢rr e ¬ arq :¡
¤”rtn nç¸ot mlçer +r ¤’¬ ¬çt
çl ¤rq¤e + l=çr-n + a¬¸=r;
ar+r’r nr¤ ¤¸ª¤t ¤; an; arnrl
or¬r e+ o¸=; m en çr mel q=
¤+r; l¤’¤ +t +rq ‘rl+n q¬
or¬r +r ++rt +rt l+=t +rt n;ç =
++rt aem t +; =+mtl +rr;n
+r l=çr-n ‘r;¤rrmn + ¤oe
a¤¬ ¤r¤rr +t ¤le o¬r çl
tc.t.tsst +r ar;++r ç¸ ar +rn
a¤¬ a-n +t n;¤ n¬t = ¤c
;çr ç l l¬l’¤n =mn =tmr ¤nr+;
¤+¸ln + +rn m ¤rrrr sre¬r ¤r¤
çl l¤’¤ m n¸mr +t ·n¤=ªrr çl q=
¤+r; ar¬ mr¬¤ n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +
=lrr+re m ¬t ;çr çl çmr; o’r¬
+ a¬¸=r; n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ + =mn
=+¤¸ ¤r nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr +r
+rrln+ ¬mng m a-n çr ¬rnr
çl gr¤; n¸m +r an mçr+rr;n +t
esrq = ç¸arl
=mn-=mn ¤; l¤’¤ +t
nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr q= onre¸ ¬rln
+r +rrln+ ¬mng = =m¸e ¬”c
+;¬ +r l¬;-n; ¤ nr= +;nt ¤et
ar ;çt ç , ¤;-n¸ nç ¬rln ar¬ +rt
m¤ = ¬t ;çt çl
nçt çre ¤¤r;t nç¸ot ¬rln
+r ç l tc.t.zaa: +r q¬ or ¬r
¬rlnnr + lme¬ + +r;¤r =+¤¸¤
r nrml=+ ¤¸lrrnr, m¸rn¸ +rn =
ªr;-ªr; +r¤ ;çt çl =+rt e+ o¸=;
+r or”r o+; ar¤= m çt m; +c
;çt ç l lç =r +r a-n lç =r = çt çr
=+nr çl ¤çt çr +rt ;çr çl
m o=r ;çr ç¸, ¬rot çt or¬r
lme +; e+ ç¸q ¬rln +r =+¤¸¤
r l¤’¤ ¤; e+ e> ;r¬ çrmrl m
= n¸ ”c ç¸ l+ m¸ rn¸ +rn ªr;-ªr;
+r¤¬ ¤ret ¤¸lrrnr +r m;t ¤rn
¤; l¤r+¸e çt l¤’¤r= ¬çt çr.
mrl n +¤e l¤’¤r= +;r, l¤’¤r=
+;r +ç¬r ¬r¬nt ç, +;¬r ¬çt
23
23
75
+rr;n =;+r; +r ''=¤ rrm =m+rr¤'' m >ren aem =rr e +; +rr;ntn o’r ¬ +t =+¤¸ ¤
r ¬r¬+r;t o¬ çn¸ =;+r; =rrr¬ a¤e-rr +;r¤l =;+r; m q= m>ren +r e+ =+mrl¬n
=n; çr¬r ¤rlçel q= ¤+r; +rr;n +t +r¸lm ¤; mr¬¤nr m ¤ç lo·n ¤+r’r a¤nl;n çr
¤¸+r ç, l¬=+r ¤¤r¬ mrn>t m> m lonr mnr çl nç m> ¤or +r =¤rrrm m> ç, q=
¤omrnr +çr ¬rnr çl mr> q=t = çt l¤’¤ ‘rrln =+r¤ çl
¤l’¤m ;rm ¬tln +t +rr”rr ¬çt =mqnr, a= +¤e ;r¬¬tln +t +rr”rr çt =mq m
arnt çl an· q= m>ren +r a=t +rr”rr m, a-ç ;rm¬tln +r ;ç=n =mqr¬r ¤smr,
l¬= ¤l’¤mt ==+¸ln =mqnt çl
¡.:.zaa:, m¸+¤q
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
76
n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +r =¤rr =+¤¸¤r
mr¬¤ ¬rln + ¤¸ ¤r l¤+r= = ç l ¤ l.
o+ o’r¬ + a¬¸=r; o=¤ a¤nr;
+ a¤nl;n çr+; a-nrrr¬ çr¬
+ =rªr çt +len¸m +r an çr+;
=rnn¸m ¤r;++r çr ¬remrl
a¤nr;¤ro +r l=çr-n + ¤e
¤ lo+ o’r ¬ aªrr ng lç-o¸ -o’r ¬
+t o ¬ ç l ¤ lo+ o’r ¬ + a¬¸ =r;
a¤nr;¤ro +r = ¤ rr mr¬¤ ¬rln
+ +lm+ l¤+r= = ç l ¤ rn +
a¤nr; + =rªr mr¬¤, +lm+ =¤
= l¤+l=n çr nr ç l q= ¤ +r; o’r¤
a¤nr; + a¤n;¤r + +r;¤r =+¤¸ ¤
r mr¬¤-¬rln ¤¸ ¤r nr +r ¤ r¤n +;
e nt ç l
lç-o¸ o’rr¤nr;r +t ºr¸=rer
a¤¬ ar¤ m mr¬r +lm+ l¤+r=
+r =¤+ çl
t. =¤ ¤ ªrm mr=nr¤nr; ç¸ ar
ç, l¬=+ mrrnm = ¬e m ¬t¤r
+t =¸l”c ç¸q
z. l ¤; ¤ ¸ ª ¤ t ¤ ¬e
=ªr e-¬e¤; ''+·e¤'' +r
a¤n;¤r ç¸arl
n¸m ¤l;¤n.
:. n¸ ntn a¤nr; ''¤r;rç''
+ =rªr ¤¸ª¤t ¤; ¤’r¸-¤l¢rnr +t
=¸l”c ç¸ql
¡. ¤rªrr ''¬;l=ç'' a¤nr;
¤’r¸ ar ¤ m¬¸ ”nr + mrn +t l=ªrln
+r =¤”c +;nr çl
q=+ ¤ro ''m¬¸ '', ''¤rm¬'',
''¤;’r¸;rm'', '';rm'', ar; +¸”¤r
arlo a¤nl;n ç¸e, ¬r l¬;-n;
¤ r¤rmn-;r¬l=+ = =rlr¤+
-mr¬l=+, mr¬= ar ; alrrmr¬=
n+ e ¬r¬ + mrrnm ¤¬l q=
¤+r; ~t+¸”¤r n+ ¬r a¤nr;r +r
a¤n;¤r çr ¤¸+r çl
mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o +t rrr”r¤
rr + a¬¸=r; o’r¤r a¤nr; +rr;n
+t ¤¸ ¤n +r¸ lm ¤; z¡.tt.tszc +r
a¤nl;n çr ¤¸+r çl a= ·nl+n
¬ ¡z ¤”r +t am m aªrrng tscs
m arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r +r +rn+m
¤ r;++r +; lonr nªrr ame :a ¤”rr
n+ =+¤¸ ¤r l¤’¤ m qr¬+rl-n
er omrl q= ¤+r; =¬g zats =
=rnn¸m ar;++r çr ¬remrl
n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ m¸e l=çr-n ç,
nrml=+ ¤¸ lrrnr +r = çr;l qlnçr=
q=+r =r¢rt ç, nrml=+ ‘rl+n
m¸rn¸ =¤t+r; +; ent ç, ¤;-n¸
¤l;¤n¬ +r =¤t+r; ¬çt +;ntl
an· n¸ m ¤l;¤n ¬ +r =¤”c aªr ç ,
rrr; ¬;=çr;l a== ¤¤¬r a=+r¤
çl q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ a= +rn+;
l¤¬r’r = ¤¤¬ + l¬n¬ çt ¤rlç
+ ¤nr= +; ;çr ç, ¤ç an¬r çt
n¬t = a= l¤¬r’r +t n;¤ ¤c
;çr ç, l¤; +rt +¸e ¬çt =mq ¤r
;çr çl
zt¤t =ot +r ¤ ªrm o’r+
l¤’¤ + mçrl¤¬r’r +r =mn çl
q= +re m mr¬¤¬rln +r l¬n¬r
=çr; çrmr, an¬r =¸l”c + ¤r;++r
+re = e+; ar¬ n+ ¬çt ç¸ar
ar; ¬ ++rt çrmrl q= mçrl¤¬r’r
+ =rªr çt n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ çr ¬r¤.
mrl
=¬g zaza m nr +¤e ¤¸¤r
mr¬¤ çt = =r; m ‘r ”r ;ç mrl
¤;-n¸ ¤+r¸ +t mrnr +r =re o=rr,
mr¬¤ +r +¸e +rt ar+rr= ¬çt çr
;çr ç l mr¬¤nr +t lm;r¤c +t
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
q=r +t mr
q=rq mr-nnr + a¬¸=r; nt’r¸ +t mr 'm;t' ¬ +¸¤r;t +-nr
+ =¤ m a¢rnnrl¬ çr+; nt’r¸ +r ¬-m lonrl ¤;-n¸ ;rm¬
qlnçr=+r; =r== ¬ le=rr ç l+ 'm;t' ¬ nr +¸¤r;t ªrt ar;
¬ çt a¢rn nrl¬ l
nt’r¸ ¤-ªr; ¬rm+ ·nl+n +r ¤¸> ªrrl ¤-ªr; ¬==em +
lm;¬rrr; +r gr;¤re ªrr a; m;t a=t lm;¬rrr; + ¤=>ren m
e+ +m¤r;t + =¤ m +rn;n ªrtl a=+r =¤+ q= ;¢r+ = çr
mnrl
l¬=+r ¤¸;r ¬rm ¬¸len= a-¤e ¤-ªr; ªrrl q= m¸¤n =¤rr
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr +
ts¤ arnrn m =¤”c +çr ç ·-
=¤+mr¤nl¤ =or
+¸¤r¤rr mgn¤r~n·l
mrªr=roro¤r¤¬rln
‘rr’¤n ¤om·nnmgll :cll
m; ¤;rn¤r ç¸ar l¬”+rm +m
nrmt =+¤¸¤r +mr +r =or +;nr ç¸ar
+rt, m;t +¸¤r = =¬rn¬ al¤¬r’rt
¤;m¤o +r ¤r¤n çr ¬rnr çl
¤n=r =¤+mrl¤r
mln =-n=n mr¤;·l
¤¸lçnrmm¸¤rl~rn
ml·¤rr· =nn +r¤ll ::ll
=¤ +mr +r m¬ = m; m a¤¤r
+;+, m; ¤;rn¤r ç¸ar =mr¤¤¸lç
=¤ l¬”+rm +mnrm +r a¤e+¤¬
+;+ l¬;-n; m; m l¤rr¤rer çrl
ml·¤n· =¤o¸mrl¤r
mr¤=rorrrl;”nl=l
aªr ¤r¤mç+r;r-¬
~r”nl= l¤¬sg.¢nl=ll :sll
n¸ m; m l¬;-n; m¬¤rer ç¸ar,
m ;t +¸ ¤r = ¬-m-m¸ rn¸ arlo =¤
‘r +rar = n; ¬rn mr ar ; nlo
aç+r; + +r;¤r ¬çt =¸¬mr (nr ¸
¬”c çr ¬rnmrl
noç+r;ml¤rn ¬
nrr=n qln m-n =l
lmªn”r ·n¤=rn=n
¤+¸ln=r¤r l¬nr¢nlnll :sll
¬r (n¸¸ aç+r; +r a¤e+¤¬
+;+ e = mr¬nr ç (l+¸ m n¸ ç ¬çt
+=mr (nr¸ nç n;r l¬’¤n lmªnr
çl +nrl+ ¢rl>n¤¬ +r =¤+rr¤ n;
+r ¬¤;o=nt n¸ç m emr omrl
=¤+rr¤¬¬ +r-nn
l¬”+rm +m nrmt ==r; +
=+¤¸¤r +mr +r +;nr ç¸ar ¬çt ¤rrnr
l¬¤ç· =¤¬ +m¤rrl
+n¸¬·el¤n n-mrçrng
dfj”;L;o’kks•fi rr~AA 60AA
ç a¬¸¬ l¬= +m +r (n¸¸ mrç
= ¬çt +;¬r ¤rçnr ç, a=+r +rt
a¤¬ =¤r+rrl¤+ +m = ¤rrr ç¸ar,
¤;¤’r çr +; +;mrl
q’¤;· =¤+r¸nr¬r
âí’ks•tqZu fr”BfrA
+rrmn-=¤+r¸nrl¬
n->r=crl¬ mrnnrll ctll
ç a¬¸ ¬l ‘r;t; =¤ n->
m ar=c ç¸ e = ¤¸ ¤r ¤ rl¤rnr +r
a-nnrmt ¤;m’¤; a¤¬t mrnr =
+r mrnr ç¸ ar, =¤ +r¸ n ¤ rl¤rnr +
pon m l=ªrn çl
nm¤ ‘r;¤r m·e
=¤+rr¤¬ +rr;nl
nr¤=rorr¤;r ‘rrl-n =ªrr¬
¤r¤=nl= ‘rr’¤nmll czll
ç +rr;nl =¤ ¤ +r; = a=
¤;m’¤; +t çt ‘r;¤r +r ¤r¤n çr,
a= ¤;mrrmr +t +¸¤r = ¤;m ‘rrl-n
+r (ar; ¸ =¬rn¬ ¤;m rrrm +r
¤ r¤n çr , a= ¤;mrrmr +t +¸ ¤r = ¤;m
‘rrl-n +r (ar; ¸ =¬rn¬ ¤;mrrrm
+r ¤r¤n çrmrl
+rm¤r¬ ¬ a¤n¸¬ ºer+r =
=¤”c +; lonr ç l+ q’¤; =¤+r¸n
¤rl¤rnr + ‘r;t; =¤t n-> m ar=c
çr+;, =¤ +r +rmrnr ç¸ar, a¤¬t
q·er = ¤er ;çr çl q= ¤; +rt ¬t¤
mrnr + ¤’rt+r¸n ç¸ar, a¤¬ ar¤ +r
+nr mr¬+; ·nªr m ¬-m m;¤r +
¤++; m ¤= +; o¸·=r +rrm ;çr çl
==r; +r +rq +rt m¬¸”n mrnr
= +rlmn ç¸ar a¤¬t l=ªrln = =n¸”c
¬çt çl ¤ç a¤¬t ¤¸lç +t ¤n¸;rq =
¤ç¸ n +¸ e ¤ r¤n +;¬ +t ¤ ”cr l¬;-n;
+;nr ;çnr çl ¤;-n¸ ¬t¤ ,¬t¤¬ +r;
+t ¤ ”crar + ¤ro +rt =-n¸ ”c ¬çt çr
¤rnr ç , ar ; a=+r m¬ a-n =mn m
+rt =r =rl;+ er +r +t n;¤ ar+l”r n
;çnr çl q= ¤+r; ¬t¤ l¬;-n; ¬-m
m;¤r + ¤++; m ¤= +; +rr;t +”cr
m ¤=r ç¸ar çl
q= n¸ m m mrnr qn¬t ¤ ¤e
çr ¤et ç l+ ==r; m ¤¸¤r a-rr+r;
ernr ç¸ ar ç l ¬¤ n+ ¬t¤ m =rlr¤+
¤n¬r ¬ ar ¬rn, a=+r +nr +rr¤
=rrm çt ¬çt çr =+nrl ¬¤ n+
¤r¤rt q= q¸o açmg, +nr¤¬ +
+rr¤ = m¸¬ ¬çt çr ¬rnr, a=+r
l¬”+rm+m nrm +t ¤rn =mq m çt
t ar =+ntl
e =t l=ªrln m q= mrnr =
e¸c+r;r ¤r¬r ¤ç¸n çt +lo¬ çl e+
mr> lç-o¸ rrm çt ç, l¬=+ =nmn
m q= mrnr = e¸ c+r;r ¤r¬ +r a¤rn
¤nrnr mnr çl =+rt =nr ¬ e+ mn
= nçt +çr ç l+ a= ¤;m =rrr =
lme¬ +r ;r=nr +¤e =n =ogm¸=
çt ¤nr =+n çl q= =+¤-rr m =n
+¤t; ¬ +çr ç·-
''+¤t;r rrr;r amm +t,
=ogm¸= oq e=rrnl
aec nrlç ¤lcn =or,
=¤rmt =m emrnl l
mt;r ¤rq +çnt ç ·-
''m¸= mrl¤-o or¬r =rs,
l+=+ erm¸ ¤r¤l
¤leçr;t m¸= o¤ +t ,
mrl¤-o lonr lmernll''
23
23
77
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
mtnr + : ¤ arnrn m a¬¸¬ ¬
+rm¤r¬g = ¤¸er ·-
=-nr= +m¤rr +¸”¤r
¤¸¬nrm ¤ ‘r=l=l
n·egn ennr;+
n-m ¤¸lç =¸l¬l’¤nmll
ç +¸ ”¤rl +mr = = -nr= +t ar ;
l¤; l¬”+rm +m nr m +t ¤ ’r =r +;n
çr, q¬ or¬r m e+ ¬r l¬’¤n l+nr
ç¸ar +rnr¤r+r;+ (çr¤¸, a=+r
m; lee +lçel
=-nr=· +mnrm’¤
l¬·~n=+;rn¸+rrl
nnr=n¸ +m=-nr=r
r+mnrmr l¤l’r”nnll
(ç a¬¸ ¬¸ +mr +r = -nr=
ar; l¬”+rm +mnrm nç or¬r çt
¤;m +rnr¤r +;¬ ¤re ç, ¤;-n¸ a¬
or¬r m +mr + =-nr= = l¬”+rm
+m nrm ~”o çl
~n· = l¬rn=-nr=t
nr ¬ gl”c ¬ +r·s.lnl
l¬g-gr lç mçr¤rçr
=¸=r ¤-rrrr¤m¸·nnll
ç a¬¸¬l ¬r ¤¸=”r ¬ (l+=t
=¸ g”r +;nr ç, ¬ ar+r¢rr +;nr
ç, ¤ç =mq¬ nr·n ç +nrl+ ;rm
g”rrlo g-gr = ;lçn ç¸ar ¤¸=”r =¸=r
¤¸¤+ ==r; =¤ ¤-rr¬ = m¸¬ çr
¬rnr çl
=r=nnrmr ¤¸ªr·¤rer·
¤¤ol-n ¬ ¤l¤snr·l
e+m¤nrl=ªrn·
=+nm¸+rnrl¤-on ¤emgll
=-nr= ar; l¬”+rm +mnrm
+r m¸ =r er m aem aem +çn ç , ¬
l+ ¤l¤sn¬¬l e+ m +rt a·et ¤ +r;
=-nr= ar; l¬”+rm
+mnrm m +r¬ ~”o ç?
l=ªr; ç¸ar or¬r + ¤e=¤ ¤;mrrmr
+r ¤r¤n çrnr çl
nr=r=n· ¤r¤nn
=ªrr¬ norm;l¤ m+nnl
e+ =r=n ¤ nrm
¤ n· ¤’nln = ¤’nlnll
qr¬nrlmnr gr;r ¬r ¤;mrrrm
¤ r¤n l+nr ¬rnr ç , l¬”+rm +m
nrlmnr gr;r +rt ¤çt ¤r¤n l+nr ¬rnr
ç, ¬r ¤¸=”r qr¬ nrm ar; l¬”+rm
+m nr m +r , e+ o =rnr ç ¤çt
(nªrrªr¸ o=rnr çl
=-nr==n¸ mçr¤rçr
o¸·=rmr¤n¸mnrmn·l
nrmn¸¬ r m¸l¬¤g
¬l¤;¤rrlrrm·elnll
¤;-n¸ ç a¬¸ ¬l l¬”+rm +m nr m
+ l¤¬r =-nr= ¤r¤n çr¬r +lo¬ çl
+rm¤ng =¤=¤ +r m¬¬ +;¬ ¤rer
l¬”+rm +mnrmt, ¤;¤g ¤;mrrmr
+r ‘rtrr çt ¤r¤n çr ¬rnr çl
nrmn¸¬ r l¤’r¸çrrmr
l¤l¬nrrmr l¬nl-qn·l
=¤+r¸nrrm+r¸nrrmr
+¸¤-¬l¤ ¬ le¤nnll
¤’r m l+nr ç¸ ar ç ‘r;t;
l¬=+ , e =r l¬n l-qn l¤’r¸ ç
a-n·+;¤r ¤rer =+¤¸¤r ¤rl¤rnr +
arrm=¤ ¤;mrrmr m e+t+rr¤ ç¸ar
l¬”+rm +mnrmt +m +;nr ç¸ar çt
le¤rnmr¬ ¬çt çrnrl
¤”r l+l¤r+;rmtln
n¸¬ r m-nn nr¤l¤ngl
¤’n-~¸¤¤-=¤¸’rl->
rr-¬~¸¬r·e¬=¤¤-’¤¤¬gll
¤e¤l-¤=¸¬¬¸rµ-¬¸
l-m”rl-¬lm”r-¬l¤l
;l-qnr¤rtl-qnrªr”r¸
¤n-n qln rrr;n¬gll
nr¤ +r ¬r¬¬ ¤rer =r =n
nrmt ¤r o=rnr ç¸ar, =¸¬nr ç¸ar,
=¤’r +;nr ç¸ar, =¸rrnr ç¸ar, +rr¬¬
+;nr ç¸ar, mm¬ +;nr ç¸ar, =rnr
ç¸ar, ‘¤r= enr ç¸ar, ¤renr ç¸ar,
rnrmnr ç¸ ar, m ç¤r +;nr ç¸ ar,
ar=rr +r =rrenr-mt¤nr ç¸ar, +rt
=¤ ql-qnr a¤¬ -a¤¬ aªrr m ¤n
;çt ç, q= ¤+r; =mqnr ç¸ar, e=
mr¬ l+ (m¸ +¸e +rt ¬çt +;nr ç¸l
¤g¤nrrrrn +mrl¤r
=m rn+r¤r +;rln n·l
le¤nn ¬ = ¤r¤¬
¤ogm¤>lm¤r++=rll
¬r ¤¸=”r =¤ +mr +r ¤;mrr+rr
m a¤ ¤r +;+ , ar=l¬ +r rnrm +;
+m +;nr ç, ¤ç ¤¸=”r ¬e = +me
+ ¤rr +t =o¸’r ¤r¤ = le¤rnmr¬
¬çt çrnrl
n¸¬ · +m¤e rn+r¤r
‘rrl-nm¤rln ¬l”o+tmgl
an¸¬ · +rm+r;¤r
¤e =¬ r l¬¤rnnll
l¬”+rm +mnrmt +mr + ¤e
+r ¤;m’¤; + a¤¤r +;+, +rm¤ng
¤rl¤n=¤ ‘rrl-n +r ¤r¤n çrnr çl
=+rmt ¤¸=”r ¤e m ar=¬ ç¸ar
+rm¬r + gr;r ¤rrnr çl
+rm¤r¬g ¬ =¤”c +; lonr l+
+nr +rr¤ + ¤++; m ¤ =+; çt ¬t¤,
mrnr + arrt¬ ç¸ar ¬-m-m;¤r +
¤++; m ¤= +;, o¸·=r +rrm ;çr
çl
mtnr a¤o’r =¸¬¬ + ¤ro +rt
er mr +r +r m o¸ ; ¬çt çr ;çr ç l q=+r
23
23
78
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
= =r; m ç; +rn +r ¤e
lmenr çl çm +rq +rt +rn +;,
a=+r ¤l;¤rrm a¤’n çrmrl ¤l;¤
rrm çmr;t q·er + a¬¸ =r; lme¬r
+rq ¬=;t ¬çt, ¤;-n¸ +rq +rt
+rn l¬;ªr+ ¬çt çrnrl çm ¬r
+¸ e +rt +;n ç l o¸ =;t n;¤ =
¤rn¸rr; a¤’n lmenr ç, ¤ç =+.
r;rrm+ nr ¬+r;rrm+ çr =+nr
ç, ¤;-n¸ l¬=n; ¬çt ;çnrl ¤;-n¸
çm o =rn ç arrnrlrm+ ar;rrr¬r
+r çm +rq arr; ¬çt lme ;çr
çl çm +rr¤l¬+ l¤’¤r= = ¤rç
a¤¬ ar¤ +¸e +rt mr¬ e, ¤;-n¸
¤rn¸rr; ¬=t ¤rn ¬çt çrntl
+rr ln+ ¬mng m çm l+=t +t
= ¤r +;n ç nr a=+ ¤oe çm +¸ e
¬ +¸e lmenr çl ¬r +¸e lmenr ç
a=+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln çrnt ç ar;
o¬ ¤re +t +rt ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar;
=r¢rrr+r; çrnr çl ¬r +¸e +rt çm
=rrn ¤tn ç, a= ¤=n¸ + m¸¤r rrm
+ a¬¸=r; çm =¤ro ar; ar¬-o
lmenr ç ar ; ¤ç ¤=n¸ a¤¬r
¤rn¢r ¤+rr¤ +rt lo=rrnt çl ¤;-n¸
arrnrlrm+ ¬mng m nç l=çr-n
¤¸¤r =¤ = a=¤e +nr çr ;çr ç ?
q= q+n;¤r +rn +r +;n-+;n
==r; + erm l¬;r’r çr ¤¸+ çl
rrm m¸= al’rl¢rn ar; +rre
+rre ermr +r n+ + arrrr; ¤;
l¬=n; +;+ a-rrl¤’¤r= + =ç.
r; ¤e¬ +r m¬¤¸ ; +; o n ç l ¤;-n¸
¤¸lç¬t¤t ar; n¸¤r¤m l¤¬r ¤l;¤
rrm + a¬+ aro’r +r mr¬¬ +r
nnr; ¬çt çl çm q= ¤; l¬”¤¢r
çr+; l¤¤r; +;¬r çt ¤smrrl nç
ar;rrr¬r +r ¬¤r¤ +nr ¬çt lmenr?
mr¬¤ =mr¬ m e+ e=t +rn+;
¤tmr;t ¤e ¤¸+t ç, l¬=¬ ==r;
+ ermr = =¸=r ‘rrl-n et¬ et
çl q= =mn ==r; m ¤+c ‘rl¬
+r am; ¤¸¤r =¤r = =¸¬¬ m emr
lonr ¬rn nr ¤¸ª¤t ¤; =¤m an;
=+nr çl çm o=rn ç ==r; +t
¤¸ ¤r ·n+n ‘rl¬ +r +;t¤ ::
¤ln’rn +rrm =çr; ar; l¤r¤= +
lee =r¤ l+nr ¬r ;çr ç l ç; ·nl¬
¤rer+t ar ; çr l’rnr;t + gr;r
ar;r +r ‘rr”r¤r ar; om¬ +;+
=¸=rt ¤¬¬ + ¤nr= + ¤r¤¬¸o
o¸·=rt ar; a’rr-n l¬;-n; çrnr
¬r ;çr çl
nçt l=ªrln = =r; + =+rt
;r”c¸r +t çl =r; ==r; m ar¬
l¬n¬r a-rr+r; ·nr¤n ç¸ ar ç
¤çe ++rt ¬çt ªrrl çm o=r ;ç ç
l+ q= =mn nr rrm +t ars m +rt
==r; + mr¬¤ +r +rr;t ‘rr”r¤r çr.
¬ emr çl ¤r¤-¤¸¤n, =¤m-¬;+
+r +rn lo=rr+; l¬n¬r ‘rr”r¤r
==r; + =+rt rrmr m q= =mn çr
;çr ç, ¤çe ++rt ¬çt ç¸arl ==r;
m q= =mn l¬n¬t +rt ar;rrr¬r
¤çlnnr ¤¤len ç, ¤ ¤rn· =+rt
¤lçm¸=rt çl q=+ aer¤r l¬¬t¤
¤=n¸ar + mrrnm = =+rt rrm m¸=
ar;rrr¬r +;¤r ;ç çl
+rq +rt +rrln+ l¬¬t¤ ¤=n¸
=¤n m¬¸”n +r +rer ¤¸;r +;¬ +t
l=ªrln m ¬çt çrntl e=t l=ªrln
m ¤rn¸rr; lme¬ +r ¤’¬ çt ¬çt
aonrl çmr; =+rt >l”r +ç mn
ç a= ¤;m =rrr +r l¬¤r= a¤¬
‘r;t; + +rtn; çt çl çmr; =+rt
rrrlm+ m-ªr +rt nçt ¤rn +çn
çl an· a-nm¸=rt ar;rrr¬r +
l¤¬r +rm ¤¬ ¬çt =+nrl nç
ar;rrr¬r +rt +rq ar=r¬ +rn
¬çt çl ¤ç ¤;m =rrr e= +rn+;
¤+·n¸ç +r ¤r; +;¬ ¤; lment ç
l¬= ¤r; +;¬r a+e ¬t¤ + lee
¤ç¸n +lo¬ çl q= ;r=n ¤; ¤e¬
+ lee l+=t +rot =n =ngm¸= +t
ar¤’n+nr çr nt ç l +rm¤r¬g ;rm
ar; +¸”¤r +r +rt m¸= rrr;¤r +;¬r
¤sr ªrrl q=+ aer¤r =+rt =n,
m¸= +t mlçmr +r m¸¤rmr¬ +; mn
çl amm er+ +r +ro ar; ;r=nr,
+ ¤e m¸ = +¸ ¤r = çt ¤ r¤n çr =+nr
ç ar; +rq ;r=nr ¬çtl
= n +¤t ; ¬ +çr ç · -
''+¤t;r rrr;r amm +t =ogm¸=
oq e=rrn, aec nrlç ¤lcn =or
=¤rmt = m emrnl'' (;rrrr+¸ ”¤
r¸ +¤t; ¬ nr nçr n+ +ç lonr
''m¸= mrl¤-o or¬r =rs l+=+
erm¸ ¤r¤, ¤leçr;t m¸=o¤ +t mr.
l¤-o lonr lmern''l =nr ¬ a=
¤;m =rrr +r =ªrr¬ =¤”c +;n ç¸e
+çr ç·-
t. ¤nr ¬¬¬ m ¤¸net,
rnr =rrle+ rrc mrlçl
m¸;=r erm ¬ ¬r¬çt,
¤rç; c¸c¬ ¬rlçll
z. ¤nr lne mrçt ne ç,
¤nr ¤+m+ m arml
n;r ¤tnm n¸q m,
¬rm =+ nr ¬rmll
:. ¤¸”¤ mrn ¤nr ¤r= ç,
·nr¤ ;çr =¤ mrlçl
=nr mrçt ¤rqn,
23
23
87
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ar; ‘rl¬ çrnt ç, ¤ç le¤t
¬çt ;ç =+ntl ¤çt ¤rn e+
+ªrr¤r¤+ nr a¤o’r+ ¤ç¸n çt
a·e cm = +ç =+nr ç ¤ç ¤ç¸n
+¤r l¤ n em mt, ¤;-n¸ a¤o ’r
=mr¤n çr¬ + ¤ro a=+r +¸e +rt
¤+rr¤ ar¤ ¤; ¬çt ¤¤mrl
a= ¤rn = , ar¤ m +r q
¤l;¤n¬ ¬çt aremrl ¤;-n¸ ¤çt
¤rn '¤n¬ m¸=' gr;r +çt ¬r¬ ¤;
qn¬t ¤+rr¤‘rret ar; mç;t ¤o
+; ¬rnt ç l+ ar¤ ¬t¤¬ +r; a=
+r¸e ¬çt =+n l ¤ç a¤+ ¬t¤¬
m ¬¤;o=n ¤l;¤n¬ +; omtl
e+ ¤r; l¬qr=¸ ¤¬+; e=t
=r=m m ¤e mn nr l¤; ¤r;-¤r;
¬r¬ +t q·er çr mt, l¬= ar¤
;r+ ¬çt =+ml q= ¤+r; ar¤+r
¬t¤¬ ¤l;¤ln n çr ¬rn mr, ar¤ lg
¬ ¤¬ ¬rnml ar; am; =rrrr;¤r
·nl¬ ¬r a·er +ªrr¤r¤+ nr
a¤o’r+ çr a=+r a¤o’r ¬t¤¬
+r; a==n ¤r; ar¤ =¸¬ nr +rt
ar¤+ ¬t¤¬ m +rq ¤l;¤n¬ ¬çt
ar¤mrl q= =+¤-rr m +¬rsr +
cr;-cr ¤¤ + ¤ro;t sr. ar. ¬.
l=mªr ¬ e+ ¬mç le=rr ç ·- ''¬¤
m¬¸”n ¤l¤> arrmr +t ‘rl¬ m =
çr+; arnr ç¸ar ¤¤¬ =¸¬nr ç nr
¤rnr¤;¤r m e+ l¤l¤> ;ç=n¤¸¤r
‘rl¬ , a¤l=ªrn ermr +r ¤+rrl¤n
+;nt çl ar; ¬¤ m¬¸”n ‘rr;tl;+
ar; lomrmt ‘rl¬ gr;r lonr ç¸ar
¤¤¬ =¸ ¬nr ç nr ¤ç ;ç=n¤¸ ¤
r l¤l¤> ¤rnr¤;¤r nªrr ¤ +rr¤
a¬¸ ¤l=ªrn ;çnr ç l nlo ar¤
¤r=n¤ m arlrm+ ¬¬ ç, nr q¬
or¬r + a-n; +r ¤ç¤r¬ =+n
ç''l rrt;-rrt; ¤nr-¤nr ar;rrr¬r
mç;t çrnt ¬rnmt, ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
ar; =r¢rrr+r; =¤”c çrn ¬rnml
q= ¤ +r; ¬t¤ +r l¤’¤r= l¬.
;-n; a¤¬t çt a¬¸ +r¸ lnnr +
+r;¤r ¤++r çrnr ¤er ¬rnmrl
e=t l=ªrln m m¬¸”n +r ¤rªrr¬r
+r =çt arr; lme¬r ¤ r;++r çr
¬rn mrl ¤nr -¤nr ;r=nr +cnr
¬rnmr ar;rrr¬r m ar¬-o ¤cnr
¬rn mrl q= ¤ +r; ¬t¤ e+ çt ¬-m
m ¤;mr¬-o +t l=ªrln m ¤ç¸ ¤
¬rnr çl +nrl+ nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr
e= ¬t¤ + ¤r= = çt ¬çt m¸¬;
=+nt ç, an· e= ¬t¤ = =+¤+
+;¬ ¤re ermr m +rt a= =rlr¤+
‘rl¬ +t eç; ors¬ emmtl
q= ¤+r; ¤ªrm arrm ¬rm¸ln
çt +lo¬ çl l¬= ¤+r; e+ ot¤+
+ ¤¤¤len çr¬ ¤; ot¤r = ot¤
¬er¬ m +rq o; ¬çt emntl q=t
¤+r; e+ ¬enr ot¤+ a==n
ot¤+ ¬er +; ==r; +r a-rr;r
=rrm +; =+nr çl e+ ¤n¬ m¸=
çt ==r; + lee ¤nr¤n çl
''=rn, a=tm, a¬rlo, a¬-n ar ; l¬;¤ ¢r
çl an· =rn +r =r¢rrr+r;, q== nrorr+n o’r
ar; +re +t ¤l;lrrnr m ¤rr, ql-qnr¬¸+r¤ nªrr
a¬+ =r ¤r + mrrnm = = ¤rlen ¤¸ lç gr;r +orl¤
=+r¤ ¬çt çl
an· o’r¬ mr¬¤ + ql-qnr¬¸+r¤ nªrr ¤¸lç
nr n+ +t =tmrar = m¸+n a=tm, ‘rr’¤n,
a¬rlo, l¬;¤ ¢r, =ng+l¤ng+ar¬-o +t ¤ rl¤n
+r arçg¤r¬ çl ¤;-n¸ q=+r aªr nç +orl¤
¬çt l+ o’r ¬ a¬¸ +r¤ e¤ ¤¸ lç +t a¤ç e¬r +;nr
ç, aªrrng ¤ç l¤qr¬ l¤;rrrt çl
l¤qr¬ mr¬¤tn ql-qnr¬¸+r¤ ar; ¤l¸ç +t
¤l;lrrnr + ¤t¤ nªrrªr +r arnn¬ +;nr ç l an·
q=+r qr¬ =tlmn =r¤¢r nªrr a¤¸¤r çl ¤;-n¸
l¤qr¬ ar; o’r¬
o’r¬ +r ac’n a=tm, l¬;¤¢r, =ng+ l¤ng+
ar¬-o =l·¤or¬-o +t ¤rl¤n çl l¤; +rt l¤qr¬
ar; o’r¬ l¤;rrrt ¬çt çl or’rl¬+ ac’n +t
¤rl¤n + lee l¤qr¬ a¤=; ¤or¬ +;nr çl
an· =¤”c ç l+ o’r ¬ m¬¸ ”n +r =¤=
nrorr+n +; =r¤+rrlm+ ¬t¤¬ ¬tn ç¸e, a=
¤;m=rrr +t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln +;rn ç¸e, l¤+r= +t
¤l+nr m =rrr+ ¤¬¬ +t ¤;¤rr onr çl q= ¤+r;
nr m ar ; rrm +r =mr¤ ’r o’r ¬ m çr nr ç l o’r ¬ +r
¬t¤¬ m ¤¤r@mr¬ çr¬r çt rrm çl o’r¬ =rrr¬r
+r lo’rr ¤or¬ +;nr ç ar; nrm +r ¬t¤¬ ·nr¤t
¤¸¤r =¤=¤ onr çl
nrm =rrr¬r +r ac’n ç =m=n mr¬¤nr
=m=n l¤’¤ +r o¤r¤t+;¤r aªrrng =r¤+rrlm+
m¸l+n ç, q=+r ac’n +¤e ¤nl+n+ ¤¸¤rnr

¡.¡.tsss
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere¬t l=nrm
23
23
88
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
çmr; =+rt rrrlm+ m-ªr ¤r.
;+¤r; +çn ç, a¤¬ ar¤+r ¤ç.
¤r¬rl m +r¬ ç¸, +çr = arnr ç¸,
nç ¬r¬ l¤¬r ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar;
=r¢rrr+r; a=++r¤ çl çmr; rrm
+r m¸e m> nr 'm' arrmr ç¸, nç
l¤’¤r= çr¬r ar; nq¸¤ ¤¬ ¬r¬r
çl e+ mr> çmr;r ¤lo+ rrm çt ç,
¬r ¤r;+¤r; +çnr ç , q ’¤; + o’r ¬
+;¬ çr m , a=+t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln
+;¬t çrmt, n+rt m¸l¬ =+r¤ çl
q=t = o+r m mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬
+rt +çr çl ''lç-o¸ rrm +r +ç¬r ç
l+ a¤¬ ‘r;t; +, a¤¬ +rtn; çt
¤ç ¤ªr ç, a= ¤; ¤e¬ + l¬nm
+rt lo=rr lon çl a¬ =¤ +r ¤re¬
+;¬r m¬ ar;++r +; lonr ç, e+
mr= + a-o; a¬¸+r¤ +; =+r ç¸
l+ lç-o¸ rrm +t ¤rn q¸ot ¬çt ç,
l¬¬-l¬¬ l¤µr +t ¤rn +çt mq
ç, m a¬ =¤ +t a¤el-rr +; ;çr
ç¸, çmr; rrm + ¤rn¬le arlo =+rt
>l”rnr ¬ +çr ç, amm er+ n+
=r;r ¤gr¤s çmr; a-o; çl
''a-nm¸=rt ar;rrr¬r + l¤¬r
a= ¤;m =rrr +r =r¢rrr+r; a=++.
r¤ ç l ¤;-n¸ a= ¤ªr ¤; ¤e¬ + lee
'¤n¬ ¤¸=”r' +r ¤ªr ¤o’r¬ ar;
=çr;r l¬nr-n ar¤’n+ ç l'' q=+
a+rr¤ m nç nr>r ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = a=+.
+r¤ çl + ¤e a¤o ’r +m +r¤s,
‘r-o ¬re, ¤o’r¬, n+’rr=>, ar;
a-rr l¤’¤r= nr a-rr; m +rc+r¬
m =çnrmt çl l+=t +rt =rn +t
=rr ¬ m nç ¤lçm¸ =rt ar;rrr¬r
¤¸¤r =¤ = a=¤e çl nçt +r;¤r
ç, ar¬ ==r; + arm ermr +r
l¤’¤r= rrm = ao mnr çl rrrlm+
c r m = alrr+ ¤; ’rr¬ çr +; er mr ¬
l¤qrçt =¤ n+ rrr;¤r +; lenr çl
¤;m =rrr n+ ¤ç¸¤¬ +r ;r=.
a= ¤;m =rrr +r ¤ +r’r ¤ ªrm ·nl¬
m çr¬r ¤ç¸n +lo¬ çl e+ ot¤+
+ ¬e¬ + ¤ro nr a== = =r;
+r; m a==n ot¤+ ¬er+; a=
¤;m =rrr + ¤+r’r = ¤¸; ==r; +r
¬m mmrnr ¬r =+nr çl ¤ç ¤ªrm
ªrme ¤r¤; çra= çt ¤re¸ +;¬r
+lo¬ ç l m q= +rn +r + ¤e
mr> mr¬¤tn ¤nr= = =++r¤ ¬çt
mr¬nrl q= +rn +r =+¤-¬ çr¬ m
¬-m ¬-mr-n;r + +m¤e, =trrt
q’¤; +¸¤r ar; ¤n¬ =n =ngm¸=
+r ar’rt¤ro ¬=;t çl o¸=; ‘r-or
m nç +rn q ’¤; +t =¤n +t ‘rl+n
= çt =+r¤ çl ar; l+=t +rt ¤+r;
nç +rn =+r¤ ¬çtl
ç; n¸ m m a=t ¤;m =rrr ¬ =¤n
a¤nl;n çr+; ==r; = a-rr+r;
+r +rmrnr çl mçl”r a;l¤-o +r +rt
aet¤¸; ¬e m =trrr aro’r o+;
¤ªr-¤o’r¬ l+nr ªrrl ~t a;l¤-o
¬ a= ¤;m =rrr + =r¢rrr+r; +
=+¤-rr m le=rr ç·-
''m a¤¬ l¬¬ + lee +¸e +rt
¬çt +; ;çr ç¸ +nrl+ m¸q a¤¬
len ¬ mr¢r +t ar¤’n+nr ç, ¬
alnmr¬l=+ l=lç +tl nçr m q=
l=lç + len ¬r nr¬ +; ;çr ç¸ , ¤ç
+¤e q= len l+ ¤rlªr¤ ¤n¬r m
q= +rm +r çr¬r ar¤’n+ ç ar;
nlo nç ¤çe m; a-o; ¬ ç¸ar nr
ar;r m +rt ¬ çr =+mrl
a¤n¸+n ¤rnr = =¤”c çrnr
ç l+ ¤ªrm ¤n¬r çt +lo¬ çl a=
¤;m =rrr +t ¤n¬r +r =trrr aªr
çrnr ç, a= ¤;m ‘rl¬ +r a¤n;¤
rl m ¤çe çt =¤”c +ç ¤¸+r ç¸ l+
m; a-o; ¬r ¤l;¤n¬ arnr ar;
ar¬ m; mrrnm = ¬r +¸e +;¤rnr
¬r ;çr ç, a=m m;r =¤n +r ;rrt
+r; +rt ¤nr= ¬çt ;çr çl q= ¤+r;
m o=r ;çr ç¸, m;t nl¬+ +rt q·er
¬çt ªrt, l¤; +rt a= ¤;m =rrr ¬
m¸q mrrnm ¤¬r+; a¤¬t m¬t =
¤er¬r ¤r;++r +; lonrl ¬r ªrrst
+mt ªrt, ¤ç +rn m; =n =ngm¸=
¬r l+ a= ¤;m =rrr + a¤nr; ªr,
+ ar’rt¤ro = ¤¸¤r +; lonrl q=
¤+r; m¸q =¤”c ¤nr lonr mnr ç
l+ m; mrrnm = ¬r ‘rl¬ ¤+c çr
;çt ç, ¤ç q’¤; +¸¤r ar; m; =n
=ngm¸= o¤ + ar’rt¤ro +r ¤e
çl ‘r¸ç qr¬ + ¢r> ¤ger+ ar;
=ç=roe+¤e n+ +r ar;rç¤r m;
a¬+ ¬-mr +t ar;rrr¬r +r ¤e
ç, ¤;-n¸ =ng er+, ae=r er+
ar; amm er+ +r ar;rç¤r m¸=
+¸¤r + l¤¬r a=++r¤ ªrrl
'¬rm ame' nr '¬rm =r¸mrl;'
+r ar¬-o amm er+ = arnr çl
an· m; mrrnm = ¬r =·¤t ‘rrl-n
ar; =·¤r ar¬-o, l¬= =nr ¬
¬rm =r¸mr;t nr ¬rm ame +t =qr
ot ç, ermr +r ¤r¤n çr ;çr ç, ¤ç
mr> q ’¤; +¸ ¤r ar ; m¸ =o ¤ +
ar’rt¤ro = çt =++r¤ çr =+rl
nç +rn mr¬¤tn ¤ nr= =
=++r¤ ¬çt ªrrl m¸ q m¸ errrr; =
=ç=roe+¤e n+ +t nr>r m +rq
l¤’r ”r +”c ¬çt ç¸ ar ar ; arm
+r a=++r¤ ar;rç¤r m¸= +¸¤r =
a¬rnr= çt çr mnrl q= ¤+r; m
o =rnr ç¸ l+ m ¬ q·er ‘rl¬ = ¤ l;n
çr +; q= ¬-m m +¸e ¬çt l+nrl
an· ¬r +¸e m ¤rc¬ l¬+er ç¸,
a=m m;r +¸e +rt ¬çt çl
23
23
89
m;t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln + a¬¸=r;
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m; m¸=o¤ + ar’rt¤ro ar;
q’¤; +¸¤r = ¬r =rlr¤+ rr¬ lmer
ç, ¤çt ¤rc¬ ==r; m l¬+e ¤sr
ç¸l q= =mn m¸q orç;t l¬+mor;t
l¬+rr¬t ¤s ;çt ç l m ; ¤l;¤r; + ¤ ln
a+rt +r¤t l¬+morl;nr çl ¤;mrªr
+ +rn + =rªr q¬ l¬+morl;nr
+r l¬+rr¬ +r +rt =¤”c aro’r çl
m¸q =¤”c ¤nr lonr mnr ç l+ ¬¤
n+ ¤l;¤r; +r +¬ ¤¸ ;r ¬ ¤¸ +r =+¸ ,
a¬= l¤m¸=r çr¬ +r aªr çrmr,
nrm +r”c çr¬rl çmr; ¤or m ¤l¤rn
a= ¤+r’r ¤o ‘r-o = çt nç ¤¸¤r
ar;rç¤r =++r¤ çr =+rl m o=r
;çr ç¸ ~t a;l¤-o ¬ l¬= ¤n¬r
+t ¤rn +çt ç , a=+t =¤enr m¸ q
¤or m ¤l¤rn '¤+r’r¤o ‘r-o' = çt
¤r¤n ç¸q çl
m o=r ;çr ç¸ m¸q= ¬¸s¬ ¤re
=+rt ermr +r ¤rn+ + +m¤e
+ a¬¸=r; m¸errrr; = e+; a=
¤;m =rrr n+ =+rt ‘rl¬ nr +t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r; çr
;çr çl q= n¸m m ¬¤ l+ ==r; +
arm ermr +r rrm ¤; = l¤’¤r=
¤rn· ao ¤¸+r ç, m; ¬= =rrrr;¤r
·nl¬ + mrrnm = e=r çr¬r e+
ar’¤n çl
¤r;++r m m¸q =r¸o +r q= ¤;
l¤’¤r= ¬çt ç¸ar, ¤;-n¸ a= ¤;m
=rrr + ¤m-¤m ¤; ¤ªr ¤o’r¬ =
m¸q =mq¬ ar; l¤’¤r= +;¬ m
alrr+ +lo¬rq ¬çt ç¸ql =ngn¸m
+r ers +; ¤r+t n¸mr m rrm l¬.
;-n; pr=r-m¸=r çt ;çrl a¤ a¤.
r¬+ nç ¤l;¤n ¬ çr ¬r =¤”c =¤ =
n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +r =+n çl
==r; m =rlr¤+ =rrr + ¤¸¤r
er¤ + =rªr-=rªr nrml=+ ‘rl¬
nr + m;¤rr=-¬ ¤ç¸¤¬ +t m¸q ¬r
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln +;¤rq mq, ¤ç +rt
q= ¤rn +r =¤”c =+n çl ¤¸¬· a=
¤;m =rrr + aon çr¬ ¤; ==r; m
¤¤t-=r¸¤t ‘rl¬ nr =mr¤n çr¬ m
+rq =mn t emmrl
m¸ q = =r; m çr ¬ ¤re q¬
¤l;n¤ ¬r +r +r¤t ¤çe = + n
lme ¤¸+r ªrr, ¤;-n¸ m a= =mq
¬çt =+rl ¤;-n¸ a= ¤;m =rrr ¬
¬¤ a¤¬r +rn ¤r;++r +; lonr nr
rrt; -rrt; m ; =rm¬ =r;t l=ªrln =¤”c
çrnt ¤et mql rrc¬r+m l¬= ¤+r;
+;¤c e ;çr ç, m o=r ;çr ç¸, m¸q
alrr+ =mn n+ +rr;n m ¬çt ;ç¬
lonr ¬rnmrl
¬t¤¬ +m ç ar; +rn alrr+l
nçt +r;¤r ç e· ¤”r ¤çe =¤rl¬¤¸n
çr ¬ +r m¬¤¸ ; +; lonrl = =r;
+ arm mr¬¤ +r nç =¤ =¸ ¬+;
l¤’¤r= ¬çt çr =+nr, ¤;-n¸ nç
e+ =·¤rq çl m +¸e lo¬ q= ¢r> m
¤¤’r +;n ç¸e +rt +rrmnr ;çr, ¤;-n¸
m¸ q ¬¤;o=nt rr+ e lonr mnrl
rrt; -rrt; lqq+ =rrm çr ;çt ç l
¬¤ m¬ o=r lenr l+ ¬r +¸e +;¬r
l¬l’¤n ç, a= nr +;¬r çt ¤smrl
¬r ¤ªr ¤çe çt lo=rr lonr mnr ªrr,
a= ¤; ¤e¬ m alrr+ +lo¬rq ¬çt
çr ;çt çl
¤çe +¸e a=++r¤ =r em ;çr
ªrr, ¤;-n¸ ¤¸ ¤ l¬lo ”c rrc¬re ar=¤=n
+; ;çt ç l+ men ¬çt ¤e ;çr ç¸l
m; aer¤r m; = =+¤l-rrn ermr
+r a-çt rrc¬rar +r ¤¸¬;r¤er+¬
q= ¤rn +r ar; =rnrl¤n +; ;çr
çl m ¬¤ l¤o’rt ermr = =+¤+ +t
¤rnr ¤; l¤¤r; +;nr ªrr, nr m¸q =¤
a=++r¤ ar; +rr¤l¬+ emnt ªrtl
¤;-n¸ rrc¬r+m + ¤l;¤n¬r ¬ e=t
=+rt a¬¸ +r¸ lnnr +r =çt çr ¬ +r
=¤”c =+n o lonr çl ==r; + erm
mçl”r a;l¤-o +t +rl¤”n¤r¤rt +r
¬¤ a¬+t +r¤¬r +çn ç nr m¸q
¤sr a¬t¤ =r emnr çl
a-ç ¬r =¤”c ¤nrnr ¬rnr ªrr,
¤ç ¤rn ~t a;l¤-o +çn ªrl +rl¤”n
+ ¤r; m a-çr ¬ =¤”c +çr ç ·-''am;
=¤ +¸e ¬”c +r”c çr ¬rn, nr +rt m
a= l¤¬r’r + ¤; ¬n =¸¬¬ +t ;rç
o=r¸mrl ar¬ ==r; m ¬r +¸e çr ;çr
ç a== m ¬;r +rt ¬çt rr¤;rnrl m
¬r¬nr ªrr l+ rrc¬re e=r =¤ emtl
;çt ¤rn ¤rlç+ aro’r¤rlonr +t,
m ¬ a¬+t ar’rrar +r ¬çt =¤t+r;r,
q=lee m l¬;r’r +rt ¬çt çrnrl''
m¸q ¬¤ =¤”c aro’r lmen ªr nr
¤sr a¤++rr çrnr ªrrl +¸e a=++r¤
ar; a¬t¤ =r emnr ªrrl ¤;-n¸ ¬¤
= ~t a;l¤-o +r ¤cr, m¸q ¤++r
l¤’¤r= çr mnr l+ m men ¬çt ç¸l
~t a;l¤-o +t q= ¤rn ¬ m¸q ¤ç¸n
¤+rrl¤n l+nr·-
''+rm¤r¬ +t q·er ç l+ +r.
r;n =¤m¸ ¤ +rr;n ¤¬ , nr ;r ¤ +t
+r¤¬ +r¤t ¬çtl n¸m a¤¬ a-o;
=m=n ‘rl¬ + =>rn =rr¬ l¬+.
rer , l¤; n¸ +çr;t =m=n ¢r >r m
l¤¬n-çt-l¤¬n çr mtl'' +rr ln+
l¤qr¬ ¬ qn¬t a-¬ln +; et ç l+
am; ¤¸ ;t ‘rl¬ +r =¸ ¬¬ m emr lonr
¬rn nr = =r; m l+=t ¤=n¸ +r a+rr¤
¬çt ;ç mrl ¤¸ ;r = =r; ¬¤ a= =rlr¤+
¤ n¬r = ¤ +rrl¤n çr ¬rn mrr nr l¤; g
”r, lç =r, rr¸ ¤rr, ar ; ¤ ;+rr¤ +r = =r;
= a-n çr ¬rnmrl q= ¤+r; ¤m,
onr, =og+rr¤ +r ¤rnr¤;¤r ¤¸ ; = =r;
m çr ¬rnmrl ¬r +¸e m¸q ¤nrnr
¬r ;çr ç, ¬¤ ¤ç ¤l;¤rrm ==r; +
23
23
90

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+re¤+ a¤rrr mln = l¬.
;-n; ¤enr çt ;çnr çl ==r; +t
ç; ¤=n¸ ¤l;¤n¬ ‘rte çl ‘rl¬
=n¸e¬ çt ‘rrl-n +r orn+ çl
a=n¸e¬ çt a’rrl-n ar; o¸·=rr
+r +r;¤r çl mr¬¤ ¬rln m ar¬
¬r a’rrl-n ¬¬; ar ;çt ç, ¤ç
a=n¸e¬ +r çt +r;¤r çl ar¬
nr l=ªrln nç ç l+ nrml=+nr +r
¤esr ¤ç¸n +rr;t çl
==r; +r; +t ;r¬ =rrr ¤;,
¤ç ‘rl¬ l¬;+¸’r çr+; e+ e>
‘rr=¬ +; ;çt çl çm o=r ;ç ç
l+ çmr; o’r + =rrrrrr;t ¤m q=t
¤ +r; + nr l>+r +r ar’rt¤r o
¤r¤n +;¬ +r +rc+n ;çn çl q=
¤+r; nrml=+nr + ¤+rr¤ m a-ç
¬r +;¬r ¤rlçe, ¤çt ¤ ¤ ¤r; +;¬
+r l¤¤’r çl
==r; m ¬¤ n+ nç ¤m =r.
lr¤+ =rrr + lo’rr l¬o’r = +rm
¬çt +;¬ emm n¤ n+ ‘rrln ¤¸¤r
=¤ = a=++r¤ çl nrml=+ ‘rl¬
nr ¤r; ‘rl¬ nr çl ¤ çm’rr ¬+et
=n +r +r”r ¤¬r+; rrr=rr ont çl
=r;t ms¤s q’¤; +t ars e+;
¤e ;çt ç l e+ =rrrr;¤r ·nl¬
+rt +¤r l¤’rr¤¬t +t l=lç +;+
==r; +r m¸=r ¤¬r+; e+ l=ç
¤¸=”r + =¤ m =nrln ¤r¤n +;+
¤¸¬r ¬r ;çr çl nrml=+nr +r e+
e> =rmr¤n çr¬ + +r;¤r ermr
+t ¤¸lç e=t +rlmn +; ;=rt ç l+
¤ +re ¤¸; +t ¤ç¤r¬ çt ¬çt +;
=+nl +nrl+ +¸e m çt +rrm ¤st
ç¸q çl an· l¬rr; o=rr a-çt +
q¸¤s ¬¬; arn çl a¤ e=t nrm.
n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ al¬¤rn
l=+ ‘rl¬ nr +r arnr¤r; a¤¬t
¤;m =tmr ¤; ¤ç¸¤ ¤¸+r çl m e=
+q =¤¬¬ ermr = lmer ç¸, ¬¤
¤ l+=t =n + ¤mr+r;r +t ¤ºr=r
+;+ a=+ m¸ ¤rr +r ¤=rr¬ +;n ç
nr m¸q a¬ =trr-=rrr ar; q’¤;
+ ¤ln l¬qr=¸ ermr ¤; ¤ç¸n n;=
arnr çl
m ¤¸ ¤¤r¤ =¸ ¬+; ç = o nr
ç¸l =+rt rrct ç¸q rrc¬r +r q=
¤+r; ¤nrn ç l+ ¤¤r; +rre +r.
re erm a¬+r a·er =n =mq
+; a·et +rc ¤¸¬r +;n çl +¤r
l¤’rr¤¬t a¤¬ =tlmn orn; +
a-o; =rrrr;¤r ·nl¬ + m¬ +t
¤rn ¬r¬ +; a= ·nl¬ +r ¤nr¬
m =¢rm çrnt ç l¬=+ arrt¬ ¤ç
+rn +;nt çl
a¤ ¤ç nªr r +l ªr n = n
l¬n¬r alrr+ ¤n¸; çrmr an¬r
çt +rrln+ er+r aorn ç¸e ¤o +
¤te a=lenn +r le¤rn ;=rmrl
arrnrlrm+nr + ¬rm ¤; ar¬
q=t ‘rl¬ +r ¤re¤rer çl a-rrr
m +r¤rr çt ;r¬r çrnr ç, ot+ ¤çt
çren ar¬ ==r; m arrnrlrm+
¢r > m =¤ > ·nr¤n ç l ''rrm
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln +r l¤”rn çl q=m
a¤o’r ar; a-n +rrln+ ¤mr+r;
çrn çt ¬çtl'' l¬= ¤+r; =¸n +
l¬+en çt a-rr+r; ¤¸¤r =¤ =
=mr¤n çr ¬rnr ç, ar; l+=t +r
+¸e +rt ¤=n¸ lo=rr¬ +t ¬=;n
¬çt çr nt, ç; ·nl¬ =¤n· çt =¤n
ç; ¤=n¸ +r o=r¬ m =¢m çr ¬rnr
çl a= ¤;m =rrr = ¬¸s ç¸e =n +
=rªr ¢r¤r+r; çt =r=m +;¬ =
m¬¸”n + a-o; e=t ;r’r¬t ¤+c
çr ¬rnt ç l+ a= ¤nr¬ +t +rq
ar¤’n+nr çt ¬çt çrntl a=+r
¤ªr¤o’r¬ =¤n =rlr¤+ ‘rl¬ nr
+;¬ emnt çl +nrl+ ¤+r’r çr¬
¤; arr;r +rm ¬rnr ç, ot+ ¤= çt
a= ·nl¬ m =rlr¤+ ‘rl+nnr +
¤n¬ çrn çt nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr
+r=r o¸; +rrm ¬rnt çl
e=t l=ªrln m ¬¤ a= =¤n
=¤ lo=r¬ emnr ç nr l¤; a¤o ’r
l+= +rm +rl a¤o’r nr mr> q¸ot
=r r¤¬r +r ¬rm ç l a¤o ’r nr
¢rl¤r+ er+r +r ¤er+r¬ mr> çl
m o=rnr ç¸, ==r; + a;¤r erm
a¤o ’r =¸ ¬ ¤¸ + ç l am; a== +¸ e
er+r çrnr nr ar¬ ==r; +t e=t
¤¸;t çren ++rt ¬çt çrntl
q= n¸m +t +rrln+ =rrr ¤;
¤¸¤r =¤ = nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +r
alrr+r; ç l nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr
a¤¬ m¸ ¤rrrm + çt a¬¸ =r; a=+r
a¤nrm +; ;çt çl nçt +r;¤r ç
l+ +rr ln+ l¤qr¬, ¤ rl¤rnr +
= çr; + lee +rm m lenr ¬r
;çr çl am; ==r; +t ;r¬ =rrr
¤; =rlr¤+ ‘rl¬ nr +r ¤+rr¤ çr
¬rn nr l=ªrln l¤e+¸e l¤¤;tn
çr ¬remtl
q= =mn nr ¤-o; + çrªr
m a=n;r ar¬ ¤ret l=ªrln ç l
nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr ¬ +rrln+ ar;
arrnrlrm+ ¬mng + ermr +
¤t¤ m e =t q¸ ot +rr¤l¬+ e¢m¤r
; =rr =rt ¤ ot ç l+ e+ o¸ =; + ¢r >
or +rrmr m ¤rc lonl
=-nr=t erm +çn ç l+ ;r¬
23
23
91
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr ¬ or ¬r ¤mr
+r a¤¬ ¤+rr¤ m e+;, qn¬r
+rn+; =rr”r ¤r;++r +;¤r lonr ç
l+ l+=t +r =mq¬ +r a¤=; çt
¬çt ont çl nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr ¬
q= ¤+r; ==r; + ¬t¤r +r +”c
o¬ m +rq +=; ¬çt erst çl
=r; ==r; m ¬r nr¤s¤ ¬¸rn
nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +;¬ emt ç
a=+r o=r¬ = e=r emnr ç l+
a¤ q¬+r a-n ¤ç¸n l¬+c ar
¤¸+r çl ç; +rn +t aln a=+t
arl=r;t =tmr çr nt ç l ~t a;l¤-o
¬ +çr ç ¬¤ ==r; +t +rrln+
=rrr ¤; arrnrlrm+ =rrr +r
‘rr=¬ ¬çt çrmr, ‘rrl-n a=++r¤
çl q= =mn ==r; + nªrr+lªrn
rrmr¤rnr ar; =nr ¬ nrml=+
‘rl¬ nr + ¤ +rr¤ + +r;¤r ¤ern¬
¤rot ==r a¤¬r ;=rr ç, ¤ç l¤r.
+¸e men çl =n ar; rrm m¸=
mr¬¤ mr> +r o¸·=r o¸; +;¬ +
lee +r ¬ ¬rn ç l = =r; = o¸ ; +rrm¬
+r aªr ç ¤ç nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr =
nr nr +rn+rtn ç, nr qn¬ a¬+
arrt¬ çr ¤¸ + l+ a¬+r ç; aro ’r
mr¬ +; ¤ e=r +; ;ç çl
=ngn¸m m ç; ¤r¤rt mr> +r
=trrr =+¤+ a= ¤;m =rrr = çrnr
ªrr, e=t l=ªrln m =+rt =n ªrl n¸m
+ ¤l;¤n ¬ + =rªr-=rªr ¤nr -¤nr
¬t¤ a= ¤;m =rrr = o¸ ; çcnr
mnr, =nr ¬ ¤+c çr +; ermr
+r ¤ªr ¤o’r¬ l+nr, >nr ar; g
r¤; m çm e= a==n aorç;¤r
lmen çl ¤;-n¸ rrt;-rrt; nrml=.
+nr +r l’r+¬r m¬¤¸n çrnr ¤er
mnr ar; ar¬ e=r =mn ar mnr
ç l+ e+ mr> a-çt ‘rl¬ nr +r
=rmr¤n çl
nrml=+nr +t aln çr ¤¸ +t ç l
nçt +r;¤r ç l+ q¬+r a-n çr¬
¤rer çl ==r; + +q arrnrlrm+
= n e =t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +; ¤¸ + ç l
l¤ee +¸ e =mn = nr çmr; o ’r +
=rrr ¤¢r + ermr ¬ +rt e=t ¤rn
+;¬t ¤ r;++r +; ot ç , l¬= =¸ ¬+;
a¤++rr çr nr ç l zt ¤t =ot + +rr;n
+t n=¤t; ¬¤ =rrr ¤¢r lo=rrnr
ç nr nrml=+ erm q=+r m¬r+
asrn çl m¸q nç o=r+; a¤++rr
çr ;çr ç l+ q= ¤;m =rrr ¬ +=
=rrr ¤¢r = =·¤rq ame¤r¬t
¤r;++r +; ot çl nç +c¸=rn ç
l+ ¤ç ‘rl¬ +r =¸n aon çr¬ çt
¤rer çl =¸nron +r ar+rr= +r¤t
¤çe çr¬ emnr çl m¬¸”n çt ¬çt
¤ rl¤rmr> + a-o; = are=n =m.
r¤n çr+; e+ ¬q ¤n¬r +r =¤r;
çr¬ emnr ç ar; =¸nron + =rªr
çt =+rt ¤r¤rt =¸¬¬ m ¬¸c ¬rn çl
=mn +t o¸;t +¤e +rrln+ ¬mng
+r ¤+rrl¤n +;nt çl
arnrrm ¬mng m ¤ç ¤¸¤r
=¤ = =mr¤n çr ¬rnt çl qn¬
e+¤ =mn m +rrln+ ¬mng m ¬r
a-¬ln ç¸q, arnrrm =rrr +r a=
a¤¬ arrt¬ +;¬ m +¸ e +rt =mn
¬çt emmrl ¬r =n a= ¤ç¸n ¤çe
o=r ¤¸+ ªrl ~t a;l¤-o ¬ q=t
+r;¤r z¡-tt-tszc +r +rm¤r¬ ~t
+¸”¤r + a¤n;¤r +t =¤”c rrr”r¤
rr +; otl a¤¬ +lm+ l¤+r= +
=rªr ‘rtrr çt ¤ç ¤;m =rrr = =r; m
nt=;r l¤’¤ n¸ç lç=+ ar; alç=+ ¤¸lrrnr +
¤t¤ esr ¬remrl l¤ee or¬r l¤’¤ n¸ç lç=+ ar;
alç=+ ¤¸lrrnr + ¤t¤ es me ªrl a= =mn +rt
lç=+ ¬rl¬nr +r ¤n¬ ç¸ar ªrrl l¤’¤ m or¬r l¤’¤
n¸ ç, l¤’¤ m ‘rr ln =ªrrl¤n +;¬ m ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = a=¤e
;çl lç=+ ¤¸lrrnr ¤¸¤r=¤ = ‘rrn ¬çt ç¸ql o¸=; l¤’¤
n¸ç + =mr¤n çr¬ + ªrrs =mn ¤ro çt nrml=+
¤¸lrrnr ¬ l¤; ar¤rn m¤r¬r ¤r;++r +; lonrl
¤;-n¸ nt=;r l¤’¤ n¸ç lç=+ ¤¸lrrnr +r =+¤¸¤
r l¤’¤ m em+rm =mr¤n +; omrl =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ +
+rl¤”nq”cr =nr +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr + a¬¸=r; zt¤t
=ot m em+rm =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ ¤lo+ rrm =¤t+r; +;
nt=;r l¤’¤ n¸ç
emr l¬= ar¬ +r l¤’¤ lç-o¸rrm + ¬rm = ¬r¬nr
çl
lç=r gr;r l¬= rrm +r ¬-m ç¸ar, ¤ç l¤’¤ m
‘rrln =ªrrl¤n +; çt ¬çt =+nrl an· ¬r ''alç=r¤.
;mrrrm·'' + l=çr-n m l¤’¤r= +;nr ç, ¤çt rrm
¤¸¬· l¤’¤ m ‘rrln =ªrrl¤n +;mrl
l¤’¤ + a¬+ =n ¤¸=”rr +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr
+ a¬¸=r; mr¬¤ ¬rln +r lo·n =¤ m =¤r-n;¤r,
+lm+ l¤+r= + l=çr-n + a¬¸=r; =¬g zats n+
em+rm ¤¸¤r çr ¬remrl
ta.¡.tsss, ¤t+r¬;
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
23
92


AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
= =r; + =+rt ¬t¤ rrrl;nr
m m¬¸”n nrl¬ =¤rrrm çl m¬¸”n
nr l¬ + gr;r çt ¬t¤ mr ¢r +t ¤ rl¤n
+; =+nr çl nç nrl¬ e+ e=r
=mm ç, ¬çr = am; ¬t¤ a·e
+m +;nr ç nr l¬;-n; a¤; aonr
ç¸ ar, l¬l’¤n =¤ = mr ¢r ¤ r¤n +;
e nr ç ar ; nlo q= = mm = m¬¸ ”n
¤¸; +mr gr;r ¤n¬ +t ar; ¤c¬r
¤r;++r +; onr ç nr l¤; a= ¤r.
;r=t er=r nrl¬nr + +rrm + ¤ro
l¤; m¬¸”n nrl¬ lment çl
q= ¤ +r; ¬t¤ m¬¸ ”n nr l¬ +r
am; ·nªr m l¤nr o nr ç nr =mqr
l+ a=+ +m ¤e ¤ç¸n ¤¸; çl +mr
+t mln mç¬ çl q’¤; + l=¤rn
q=+r =mq¬ +t ¢rmnr l+=t m
¬çt ç l +len¸ m m mr ¢r ¤ rl¤n + or
ar=r¬ ;r=n ç, (t¸ q’¤; + ¬rm
+r l¬;-n; ¬¤ +;¬r (z¸ or¬l
q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ ¤o’r¬ ar;
¤ ¤r; +;+ a¤¬ ar¤+r =·¤r
arnrrm¤rot =mq ;çr ç l ¬¤
l+ nç ;r=nr ¤o’r¬ +r ç çt ¬çtl
q ’¤; + ¬rm +t çmr; = nr ¬ ¤ç¸ n
mlçmr mrq ç l q= n¸ m m ¬rm m +r.
r;t ¤mr+r; çl =n +¤t;or= ¬t ¬
q=+t mlçmr +;n ç¸e +çr ç·-
''¬rm ame an; ¬ +rrql
ar; ame le¬-le¬ ¤lc an;,
¬rm ame lo¬ ¤c =¤rql''
= n =ngm¸ = ¬r¬+o ¤ ¬t
mçr;r¬ ¬ +rt q-çt ‘r-or m ¬rm
+t mlçmr mrq ç·-
+rrm rrn¸;r ¬r¬+r,
==r; +r ç; ¤r¤rt
q’¤; +¸¤r +r alrr+r;t
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
an; ¬rn ¤+rrnl
¬rm =r¸mr;t ¬r¬+r,
¤ct ;ç lo¬-;rnll
mr=¤rmt n¸e=t or= ¬t ¬ +rt +çr
ç·-
''+len¸m +¤e ¬rm arrrr;r,
=¸ml; =¸ml; ¬; an;lç ¤r;r''l
q= n¸ m +r mr¬¤ a¤n¸ ¬
''¬rm =r¸ mr;t'' ar ; ''¬rm ame''
+t ¤rn +r +¤e aln’rnrl¬ +t
= qr o +; a¤¬ ar¤ qr¬ ¤;
mr;¤rl-¤n çr ;çr çl çmr; rrm m
m¸ = +r =ªrr¬ ¤ç¸ n a ¤r mr¬r mnr
çl m¸= +t mlçmr +r ¤¤r¬ +;¬r
=++r¤ ¬çt ç l nç e¢n l¬+¬ or ç
= =¤”c çrnr ç·-
''m¸= mrl¤-o or¬r =rs,
l+=+ erm¸ ¤r¤l
¤leçr;t m¸= o¤ +t,
mrl¤-o lonr lmernll''
a¤n¸+n ¤r+n = m¸= ¤o +t
ml;mr =¤”c qe+nt çl mt;r¤rq
¬ +rt q= =+¤-rr m +çr ç l+
''am; m¸q m¸= mrl¤-o or¬r
m = e+ +r ¤¸¬¬ +r +çr ¬rn
nr m ¤ªrm m¸= +r ¤¸¬¸mtl +nrl+
m¸= m mrl¤-o = lmer¬ +t ‘rl¬
çl am; m¸= +r ers mrl¤-o +r
¤¸¬¸ ar; nlo o¤nrm = mrl¤-o =
l¤e¸s ¬ra nr l¤; a== lme¬r
=++r¤ ¬çtl'' =¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o
¬t ¬ +rt q= =o+r m +çr ç l+
''arrnrlrm+ ¬mng m m¸= +¸¤r
l¤¬r ¤e¬r a=++r¤ ç , ¤;-n¸
q= n¸m m =·¤r m¸= lme¬r ¤ç¸n
+lo¬ ç''l
=¬g tsc: = e+; tssz n+
m +rt nçt +çnr ªrr l+ m; ar;
q’¤; + ¤t¤ m m¸= +t oeret +t
+nr ar¤’n+nr ç? q¬ t: =rer
m m;t ln¬r;t arrnrlrm+ rr¬ =
o¸=-o¸= +; +r; ¤¸+t ªrt, ¤;-n¸
a=m = e+ ¤=r +rt l¬+re +;
=r·r +;¬ +t l=ªrln m ¬çt ªrrl
tss: m ¤nr çt =n =ogm¸=o¤ ~t
m mrq ¬rªr ¬t mçr;r¬ +r ¤;¤r ;¬
mrªr ¤; emr¬ +r =r+rr·n ¤r¤n
ç¸ar nr +rnr ¤ec mql m¸=o¤ ¬
+¸¤r +;+ a= arrnrlrm+ rr¬ =
+r;t ln¬r ;t +t ¤r¤t m¸ q a¬rnr=
çt =r¤ otl m q= l=ªrln = e=r
¤+r¤rrr çr mnr l+ =mq çt ¬çt
¤r ;çr ªrr l+ q= a¤r; rr¬ +r
+= =o¸¤nrm +=l
m a+rt = +re çt ¬çt ¤rnr ªrr
l+ :t.tz.tss: +t +¸; +re ;rl> ¬
a= mçr¬ arrmr +r +rrln+ =¤
= et¬ lenrl q=+ ¤ro +;t¤ or
=re (am=n tss:¸ n+ m a¤¬t
=¸rr-¤¸ç =rrn ¤rme +t n;ç =
+rc+nr ;çrl
z:-s-s: = c-s-s: n+ m
l¤¬r l+=t +rr ln+ +r;¤r + a¤¬t
¬r+;t = a¬¸¤l=ªrn ;çrl q=+
¤ro ¬r +;t ¤; a¤l=ªrn ç¸ arl
¬rm=; ¬r+; =mrlrr ¤; ¤¸ ¬r a¤.
¬r +t nr o¸=;t çt o¸l¬nr m ¤ç¸¤
mnrl rrt;-rrt; ¬¤ ‘rr-n ç¸ar nr
nç o =r +; ¤l+n ;ç mnr l+
m¸ =o ¤ a¬rnr= çt a¤¬t a= =n
23
23
93
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
rr¬ ç ar ; q=+r + = a¤nr m
+= l ¤;-n¸ e+ ¤rn = , m ar=¤=n
ç¸ l+ ar¬ +rt ¤m-¤m ¤; m¸ q
m¸=o¤ ¤ªr ¤ol’rn +;n çl
m¸ = +¸ ¤r = m ; =r ªr
arrnrlrm+ =+¤-rr ¬rs¬ ¤re
er mr +r ''¬rm =r¸ mr;t'' ar ;
''¬rm ame'' +r ar¬-o ar¬
emnr çl m¸qm +¸e +rt ‘rl¬ ¬çt
çl nç m¸=o¤ + ar’rt¤ro ar;
q’¤; +¸¤r = çr ;çr çl
m¸q q= =¤rr m +rq +rm
¬çt ç l m a·et ¤ +r; =mq ;çr ç¸
l+ nç ‘rl¬ a==n m¸=ar gr;r
=l¤n +t ç¸q ç, ¬r l+ a¬rnr=
çt m¸ q m¸ =o ¤ gr;r ¤=tnn m lme
mql m¸= +¸¤r +t mlçmr +;¬ +r
¬ m; ¤r= +rr¤ ç, ar; ¬ çt ‘r-ol
an· a=+r ¤¤r¬ +;¬r +m =
+m m; ¤’r +t nr ¤rn ¬çt çl
q= n¸m m o¸=;r mr¢r ¤rl¤n
+r ;r=nr or¬ ç l çmr; =nr ¬ +çr
ç ''+len¸m m or¬ çt e+ mr>
rrm çl n¤ ar; +lo¬ nrmr +t
=rrr¬r q= n¸m m ¬çt çrnt''l
or¬ +t ·nr=nr +;n =mn
çmr; =nr ¬ +çr ç l+ ''=¤ or¬r
m ~ ”o, rrm or¬ (arnrrm or¬¸
çl l¤; l¤or or¬ ar; q=+ ¤ro
¤ r¤r or¬l +rr ¬¬ ar ; ¤=> +r or¬
=¤= çr+r or¬ ç''l
q=t =o+r m ·nr= ¬t ¬ +rt
+çr ç l+ ''arrnrlrm+ qr¬
or¬ çt =¤rrrm or¬ çl'' a¤n¸+n
nªnr = ¤+rrl¤n çr+; m; m¸=ar
gr;r al¬ n l¤¤¸ e arrnrlrm+
qr¬ or¬ + lee ==r; m l¬+e
¤sr ç¸l m;r a¤¬r q= m +¸e ¬çt
çl ¬r +¸e +rt ¤rc¸mr a=+r ¤e
nr a-çt ¤¸¤nrrmrar +r lmemrl
m nr mr> a¬+r =¤+ ç¸l an· m
nr q= +rm +t m¬o¸;t mr> e¬
+r ç+or; ç¸l
q’¤; +r +rq o+or; ¬çt,
¤çt =¤ +r o+or; çl an· ==r;
m q= =mn ¬r ¤m, mr> a¤¬
ar¤+r q=+r alrr+r;t mr¬nr ç
¤ç = =r; + ¤ rl¤rnr +r m¸ m;rç +;
;çr ç l q= =+¤-rr m ¤rr=nrn¬ ¬
=¤”c +çr ç ·- ''l¬=¬ nªrrl¤lçn
rrm +t a¬¸+r¸ln +t ç, ¤ç +e·e
çr ¬ ¤; +rt >l”r çr =+nr ç l
q=t lee ¤r¤t¬ +re m ¤’nr ¤¸>
¤l’r”o, rrt¤; n¬mn (me¸ar;t
¤¸>¸ ·nr=, or=t =¸n ¬r;o arlo
¤+r¸ln >l”r +çern ªrl''
¤rlrm+t, ;or= ar; +¤t;
arlo a¬+ =nr ¬ nç ¤mrl¤rn
+; lonr ç l+ ''¬rln ¤rln ¤¸e ¬
+r q , çl; +r +r¬ =r çl; +r çr q l''
a¤ ¤ç =mn o¸; ¬çt ç ¬¤ nm
+ rrr; a-rr+r; +r ¤t;nr ç¸ar
rrm +r =¸n aon çrmr ar; ==r;
= nrml=+nr +r ¤¸¤r =¤ = ¬”c
+; omrl q= ¤+r; ~t a;l¤-o
+ ‘r-or m ''rr;r ¤; =¤m an;
ar¤mrl''
:.z.tsss
23
23
94
mrnr' ¤¸=n+ m a¤n¸+n ‘rl+n + ¤r; m
+çr ç·-
¤’¬·- ¬¤ a-ç a¤¬t ¤¸;t =rmªn + =rªr
+çt +rt o=re o¬ +r a¤=; lmenr ç n¤ ¤
''=¤ ¤rrrre'' ¬r =rrr+ +r ''¤m¸'' ¤¬r ont ç,
e+ ¢r¤r +r; m l¬·=r; ¤orªrr + =mr¬ ¬”c çr
¬rnt ç ar; ¤ =¤ '’r>¸' +rt m¸n¤rn· çr ¬rn ç
¬r =rrr+ ¤; 'ar+m¤r' l+nr +;n çl
arr;·- nç mr¬r l+=t l¢r¤, ar+l=m+,
=¸l¬l’¤n ar; al¬¤rn ¤=n¸ + =¤ m a¬¸+.
r¸n çrnr çl ¬¤ nç ç=n¢r¤ +;nr ç, n¤ q=+
¤te e+ ¤+r; +t ''+rrm¤n'' nr alnmr¬l=+
=¤t+¸ln çrnt ç ar; nç e+ 'al-nm arqr'
mçr+ret ‘rl+n
+ ¬=r çrnr çl l¬=+ l¤=ç +rq a¤te ¬çt
¤ent, ¬r +¸ e l+nr ¬r ¤¸ +r ç ¤ç ¬ nr aecr ¬r
=+nr ç ar; ¬ çt lmcrnr ¬r =+nr çl 'l¤;rrrt
‘rl+nnr +rl’r’r +; =+nt ç nçr n+ l+ 'e¸'
=+nt nr ¤crq +; =+nt ç ¤; 'rr¤;r+;' erc
¬rnt ç, ar; ¤nrçt ¤ ¤te çcnt ç, ¤¸;r¬r mor¬
¬=r +r n=r =¸;l¢rn lo=rrq ¤snr çl ar+m¤r
+ =mn +rt nç a¬¸+r¤ ;çnr çl ¤ '+lo¬rqnr'
+rt ¬r q== ¤çe ¤¤e ªrt, ¤ç q= l¬¤rn + e¸
o¬ = a¤¬t ‘rrln =rr ¤ont ç, a¬+t =++rr¤¬r
¬”c çr ¬rnt ç aªr¤r ¤ o¸¤e ernr =t ;ç ¬rnt
ç, ¬r +¤e lcmlcmr¬ ar; ¤¸q ¬r¬ + lee çt
arnt çl ~t a;l¤-o
:a.s.zaaa,m¸+¤q


AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+rr;n m ‘rr=+ ¤m ¬ ¬¤ n+ =nr + aro’r + a¬¸=r; ‘rr=¬ l+nr, a= =mn o’r ç;
¤+r; = =m¸lç’rret ;çrl ¤nr-¤nr =rrr ¤¢r ¬ =nr + aro’r +t a¤çe¬r +;¬t ¤r;++r +t,
a¬+t lm;r¤c ¤r;++r çr mql q=t ¤+r; o¸=;r =nr +r ¤¢r +rt a=-n¸len çr+; ¬t¤ +t n;¤
lm;¬ emrl a¤ =rrr ¤¢r ar; =nr +r ¤¢r, or¬r çt a¤¬t-a¤¬t lm;r¤c +t =tmr errr ¤¸+
çl
==r; +t q= a-rr+r; ¤¸¤r l=ªrln +r a¤¤r; mr-;¢r ¬rªr + a¬¸nrqnr + ¤r= çt çl
a¤ a-ç =mlon çr+; ==r; + a-rr+r; +r +rmr¬r çt çrmrl nç çmr;r qlnçr= ¤nrnr ç
l+ a¤nr; mr> q=t +r¸lm ¤; ç¸e ç, ¤r+t =+rt ¬mç ¤m+¤; çt ç¸e çl
m¸=emr¬ rrm +r mr¬¬r ç l+ mrç+mo ‘rrç¤ arl=r;t ¤m+¤; ªrl q=+ =rªr-=rªr ¤ nt’r¸
ar; m¸=r +r +rt a¤¬r ¤m+¤; mr¬n çl q= ¤+r; ¤+¸ln + l¬nm + a¬¸=r; +lm+ l¤+r=
+ a¬¸=r; a¤ arl=r;t ¤m+¤; + ¤ro a¤nr; +r ¬+¤; çl ar; +nrl+ a¤nr; +¤e +rr;n
+t +r¸lm ¤; çt ç¸e ç ,an· q= +r¸lm ¤; ¤ç =rrr ¤+c çr¬ ¤ret çl
¬¤ n+ +rr;n + =rrr¸-=n or= ¤¸lrr rnrm +; ¬rªr¤¸lrr rrr;¤r ¬çt +;m o’r +r +rnr¤r
a=++r¤ çl q= o’r m çm’rr e=r çt çrnr arnr çl
an· m m; =n =ogm¸= o¤ +rm¤r¬g ~t mmrq ¬rªr ¬t nrmt + aro’r = o’r + ¬rªr
=+¤orn + =rrr¸-=nr +r =o’r onr ç¸ l+ a¤¬t a=lenn +r ¤ç¤r¬r n¸m nr ==r; + q¬
a¬rªrr + ¬rªr çr l ¬rªr çt a¬rªrr +t ;¢rr +; =+nr ç l an· =+¤¸ ¤r l¤’¤ +r a-rr+; ¤¸ ¤r =¤
= =rrm çr¬ n+ ar;rm = mn ¤or, a¤ =r¤¬ +r =mn ¬çt çl
+rr;n + ¬rªr =+¤orn
+ =nr + ¬rm =o’rl
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
23
95
n¸+çr;t =rrr¬ +t mrst ¤c;t ¤; ¤e l¬+et ç, l+-n¸ e+ ¤rn +r l¤’r”r rnr¬ ;=r¬r, l+
a-n; +t ar¤r¬ =o¤ çt =ng +t ar¤r¬ ¬çt çrntl +q ¤r; ¤r=¬rmn m¬ +rt ¤st l¤¤+¤¸¤
r nªrr n¸l+n=mn ¤rnr = m¬¸”n +r ¤çer-¤¸=er +; +rm m sre onr ç nªrr +¸mrmmrmt
¤¬r onr çl ¬¤ +rq a-n; m =ng +t ar¤r¬ =¸¬¬ emnr ç nªrr ¤r=¬r e¤ a+n·n +t
a¤çe¬r +;nr ç nr ¤r=¬rrm+ m¬ +rt a-n; +t ar¤r¬ +r =¤ rrr;¤r +; ¬t¤ +r mrm
= +rc+r¬ +r ¤nr¬ +;¬ emnr çl m¬ =+rt ¤+r; + çªr+sr = a¤mn çl ¤ç l¤¤+ nªrr
n¸ l+n +r +rt, a¤¬t =¤rªr ¤¸ ln + lee a¤nr m +;¬ m =¢rm ç l ¬t¤ ¤r=¬rmn m¬ +t ar¤r¬
+r =ng =¤=¤ ‘rl+n +t ar¤r¬ =mq +; +rlmn çr ¬rnr ç nªrr rrm +r ¤ªr rnrm onr ç,
q=lee q= l¤”rn m ¤st =r¤rrr¬t +t ar¤’n+nr çl =ng e¤ a=ng m l¤¤+ ç; =rrr+
-=¤rmt
a-n; +t
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q’¤; +t ar;rrr¬r = ==r;
+r ç; =¸=r ¤r¤n çr =+nr ç nªrr
ç; ¤+r; + +”c = e¸c+r;r lme
=+nr ç l +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸ ”¤r ¬
mtnr + :¤ arnrn m q= =+¤-rr
m +çr ç·-
¤n¸l¤or +r¬-n
eka tuk% lqd`fruks•vtqZuA
arrrr l¬qr=¸;ªrrªrt
qr¬t ¤ +r;n”rmll tcll
ç +r;n¤l’rnr m ~”o a¬¸¬,
arrm +m¤re aªrrªrt, (rr¬ +t
q·er ¤re¸ arrr (=+c l¬¤r¤
rrªr¸ l¬qr=¸ ar; qr¬t ¤r; ¤+r;
+ +r¬ ¬¬ m; +r +r¬n çl
n”rr qr¬t l¬rn¸¬
e++rl¬ l¤l’r”nnl
l¤nr lç qrl¬¬r rnªrmç
= ¤ mm l¤n· ll t:ll
a¬m l¬rn m; m e+t+rr¤ =
l=ªrn ç¸ ar, a¬-n ¤ m +rl¬ ¤rer
qr¬t +r¬ aln arrm ç, +nr l+
qr¬t +r m arn-n l¤n ç¸ ar;
¤ç qr¬t m¸q+r l¤n çl
aor;r· =¤ e¤n qr¬t
r¤rrm¤ m mnmgl
arl=ªrn· = lç n¸¬ rrmr
mrm¤r¬¸rrmr mlnmgll tsll
nç =+rt (=¤ çt¸ aor;
ç (arrm ç ¸ ¤;-n¸ qr¬t m ;r
=¤=¤ çt çl (e=r¸ m;r mn ç,
+nrl+ ¤ç l=ªr; ¤¸lç aln arrm
mln=¤=¤ m; m çt a·et ¤+r;
l=ªrn çl
¤ç¸¬r ¬-m¬rm-n
qr¬¤r-mr ¤¤onl
¤r=¸o¤· =¤lmln
= mçrrmr =¸o¸e+r·ll tsll
q’¤; ar;rrr¬r = =¤ +¸e lmenr çl
23
23
96
¤ç¸n ¬-mr + a-n + ¬-m
m nr¤qr¬ +r ¤r¤n ç¸ar qr¬t
=¤ +¸e ¤r=¸o¤ çt ç, q= ¤+r;
m; +r +r¬nr ç ¤ç mçrrmr aln
o¸e+r çl
+rm=n=n pnqr¬r·
ize|Ur•U;nsork%A
n n l¬nmmr=ªrrn
¤+¸rnr l¬nnr· =¤nrll zall
a¤¬ =¤+rr¤ = ¤; ç¸ e
a¬-a¬ +rr mr +t +rm¬r gr;r
qr¬ = +r”c ç¸e a= a= l¬nm
+r rrr;¤r +;+ a-n o¤nrar +r
+r¬n çl
nr nr nr nr n¬¸
+r¬ · ~çnrl¤n¸lm·elnl
n=n n=nr¤er ~çr
nrm¤ l¤orrr+nçmgll ztll
¬r ¬r =+rmt +r¬ l¬=
l¬= o¤nr + =¤=¤ +r ~çr =
¤¸¬¬r ¤rçnr ç, a= +r+n +t m
a=t o¤nr + ¤ln ~çr +r l=ªr;
+;nr ç¸l
= nnr ~çnr
n¸+n=n=nr;rrr¬mtçnl
e+rn ¤ nn· +rmr-m
n¤ l¤lçnrl-ç nr¬gll zzll
¤ç ¤¸ =”r a= ~çr + n¸ ¬
ç¸ar a= o¤nr + ¤¸¬¬ +t ¤”cr
+;nr ç, ar; a= o¤nr = m; g
r;r çt l¤rrr¬ l+n ç¸ e, a¬ ql·en
+rrmr +r l¬·=-oç ¤r¤n çrnr çl
a-n¤rr¸ ¤e n”rr
nog¤rnr¤mrr=rmg
o¤r-o¤n¬r nrl-n
mç+nr nrl-n mrml¤ll z:ll
¤;-n¸ a¬ ar¤¤¸lç¤rer +r
¤ç ¤e ¬r’r¤r¬g çl o¤nrar
+r ¤¸¬¬ ¤re o¤nrar +r ¤r¤n
çrn ç, m;r +r¬ m¸q+r çt ¤r¤n
çrnr çl
mtnr m +rm¤r¬g ¬ nç =¤”c
+; lonr l+ ¬t¤ l¬= +rr¤ = ¤¸¬r
+;nr ç , ¤ç ¤çt ¤rnr ç l nç = =r;
e+ çt ¤;m=rrr +r l¤=nr; ç, q=
+rr¤ +r l¬=¬ nr¤ = ¬r¬ lenr,
a=+r +nr +rr¤ ¤¸¤r =¤ = ¬”c
çr ¬rnr ç l e =t l=ªrln m ¬t¤
==r; m l¤¤;¤r +;n ç¸e ¬r +rt
+m +;nr ç, ¤ç a¬ =+rt +mr +
¤-rr¬ = m¸¬ çt ;çnr çl
+rm¤r¬g ¬ q= =+¤-rr m
=r¤ +çr ç l+ ¤ç¸n ¬-mr + ¤ro
a-n + ¬-m m ¬t¤ nr¤ qr¬ =
q’¤; m ¬r¬¬ m nr·n çrnr çl
q=tlee +rm¤r¬g ¬ ts¤ arnrn
+ cc¤ ‘er + m =¤”c aro ’r lonr
ç ·-
=¤rrmr-¤l;rn¤n
mrm+ ‘r;¤r ¤¬l
aç r¤r =¤¤r¤+nr
mr¢rln”nrlm mr ‘r¸¤·ll ccll
=¤ rrmr +r rnrm +; +¤e
e+ m¸q ¤;mrrmr +t çt a¬-n
‘r;¤r +r ¤r¤n çr, m n; +r =+¤¸¤
r ¤r¤r = m¸¬ +; o¸mr, n¸ ‘rr+
mn +;ll
qn¬ =¤”c ar’¤r=¬ + ¤ro
+rt, q= =mn ==r; m qn¬r rrr;
a-rr+r; ·nr¤n ç l+ ¬t¤r +r
+¸e +rt lo=rrq ¬çt o ;çr çl
q== nç ¤rn ot+ emnt ç
l+ +rm¤r¬g ¬ ¤rªr arnrrn m
·- nor nor çt rrm=n ·erl¬+r.
¤ln+rr;nl ¤rer =mn a¤ alrr+
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
97
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ +t ¤nmr¬
¤mln ¬ nªrrªr¤ro e¤ ¤rn¢r¤ro
+r l¬n¬t n ¬t = a+=rnr ç ,
arrmr, ¤;mrrmr, ¤;er+, ¤¸¬¬.
-m e¤ +m ¤e ¬ = +rr;ntn o’r ¬
+r an¬r çt amr-n +rt l+nr çl
ar¬ çm +rr;ntnr m +rt a¤¬t
= =+¸ ln, rrm e¤ arrnrlrm+
mr-nnrar m ar=ªrr ¬çt ;çtl
a=+r +r;¤r +rt l¤qr¬ +t
nç nt¤ ¤ mln çt ç l +rr ln+ l¤qr¬
ar ; arrnrlrm+ l¤qr¬ e+
o¸ =; + =çnr mt ç l ¤ mln +t
q= ors m +rrln+ l¤qr¬ a¤¬
¬¬+ arrnrlrm+ l¤qr¬ = ¤ç¸ n
arm l¬+e mnrl arrnrlrm+
rrm m¸ =ar +r q= nªn +r =¤t+r;
+;+ a¤¬t +m¬r;t +r o¸; +;¬
+ ¤nr= +;¬ ¤rlçe ªr, ¤;-n¸
a-çr¬ nç lç+mn ¬çt lo=rrql
q=+ l¤¤;tn =+rt rrmr +
rrmm¸= ¤ern¬ ¤rot çr mn, ar;
or¬r ¢r>r +r +¸l>m e¢m¤r ;=rr
= or +rrmr m l¤+r¬ +; lonrl
a¤¬t +m¬r;t +r le¤r¬ + lee
e+ + ¤ro e+ q¸o ¤ren çt ¤e
mel q= ¤ +r; q¸ o +r a+¤r; emr
lonrl e+ n;¤ q¸ o +r a+¤r;
o¸ =;t n;¤ =·¤rq +r a+¤r;, e =t
l=ªrln m =çnr m +t +r¤¬r +;¬r
çt a=++r¤ çl
=·¤rq + =rm¬ q¸ o oç;
çt ¬çt =+nr, nçt +r;¤r ç l+
ar¬ ==r; +r; + =+rt rrm ¤ç¸n
=¬rn¬ rrm + mnr¬¸=r;
==r; +t ar¤lrr +r ¤mrl¤rn +;¬r =++r¤
çt on¬tn l=ªrln m ¤ç¤ mn çl
¬¤ n+ q= =·¤rq +r =¤t+r;
+;+, a= ¢r> +r ‘r¸lç+;¤r ¬çt
+; lenr ¬rnr ç, ;rm +r a¤¤r;
a=++r¤ ç l +rr ln+ l¤qr¬ +
¢r> + erm qn¬ =·¤rq l¤n ç
l+ ¤nr çt arrnrlrm+ ¬mng
¬ =·¤rq + ;r=n ¤; ¤e+;
¤mr¤r o¬r ¤r;++r l+nr a-çr¬
a¬+r a¬¸ =;¤r +;¬r ¤ r;++r
l+nrl +rrln+ l¤qr¬ ¬mng +
erm ¤ç¸n ¤n¬ ç, ç; =·¤rq +r
=¤t+r; +;¬ m l¤r+¸e çt ¬çt
lç¤l+¤rn l ==r; m ¬r ¬;=çr;
ar; a’rrl-n ¤e ;çt ç, ¤ç q=t
a=-n¸ len ·n¤=ªrr +t o ¬ ç l +rr .
ln+ l¤qr¬ +t ¬¬+ arrnrlrm+
‘rl¬ ¤nr çt a¤¬ a=et =¤=¤
m ¤+c ç¸q l+ +rrln+ =rrr a=+
=rm¬ ¬n m=n+ ç¸ql ¤nr çt =n
+t nç l=ªrln ç¸q, mçl”r a;l¤-o
+t +rl¤”n¤r¤rt =rn çr ¬rnmtl
==r; m l¬n¬ +rrln+ =rrr¬
¤+c l+n ¬r ¤¸+ ç, a¬ =¤ +r
a¤nrm am; +¤e =¸¬¬ + =¤
m çt l+nr ¬rn nr ==r; m rrt
o¸rr +t ¬lonr ¤ç¬ m +rq o;
¬çt em mtl q= ¤ +r; ~t a;.
l¤-o +t +rl¤”n¤r¤rt =rn çr¬
m o ; ¬çt em mtl ~t a;l¤-o
¬ +çr ªrr·-''el’rnr ¬mng
pon +t ‘rrl-n +r ;=r¤rer ç,
nr;r¤ +t ¤or +t ç¸q ¤tmrl;nr
+r ot+ +;¬ ¤rer ç l nr ;r ¤
¬ +rr ln+ l¤qr¬, l¬n l>n ;r.
¬¬tln, aorm, ·nr¤r; arlo m
¤ç¸n ¤mln +; et çl a¤ +rr;n
+r +rm ‘r¸= çrnr çl a= q¬ =¤
¤t¬r +r arnrrm ‘rl¬ + arrt¬
+;+ rr;nt ¤; =¤m ¤=r¬r çl''
m;t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr + a¬¸=r;
arrnrlrm+ ¬mng +t a¬ +
=m=nre +rrln+ l¤qr¬ +t n;ç
¤ mr¤r =lçn =¸ eqrq ¬r =+nt ç l
m o=r ;çr ç¸, arrnrlrm+ o¸l”c
= ¬r erm m¸q = ¬¸s ;ç ç, a-ç
=¸¢m ‘r;t;, +r;¤r ‘r;t; arlo +t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr çr ;çt çl lç-o¸
rrm +r l=çr-n, l¬= ~t a;l¤-o
¬ =çt ¤ mrl¤rn l+nr ç , a=t
;r=n = ¤e¬ ¤; a¬+ ¤+r; +t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr çr ;çt ç ~t a;.
l¤-o ¬ +çr ªrr ·- ''q’¤; nlo ç
nr a¬+ al=nr¤ +r a¬¸ +r¤ +;¬
+r, a¬+r =r¢rrng o’r¬ ¤r¤n
+;¬ +r +rq ¬ +rq ¤ªr çrmr,
¤ç ¤ªr ¤rç l+n¬r çt o¸mm +nr
¬ çr, a= ¤ªr = ¬r¬ +r m¬ o¸c
=+r¤ +; lenr çl lç-o¸ rrm +r
+ç¬r ç l+ a¤¬ ‘r;t; +, a¤¬
+rtn; çt ¤ç ¤ªr ç , a= ¤; ¤e¬ +
l¬nm +rt lo=rr lon çl a¬ =¤+r
¤re¬ +;¬r m¬ ar;++r +; lonr
çl e+ mr= + a-o; çt a¬+r¤
+; =+r ç¸ l+ lç-o¸ rrm +t ¤rn
q¸ot ¬çt ç, l¬¬-l¬¬ l¤çg¬r
+t ¤rn +çt mq ç, m a¬ =¤ +t
a¤el-rr +; ;çr ç¸l''
l¤r+¸ e ot+ q=t ¤ªr =
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤e+; m; = =+¤+ +;¬ ¤re
er mr +r q=t ¤ +r; +t a¬ +
a¤el-rrnr çr ;çt çl m¸errrr; =
amm er m n+ +t =+rt a¬¸ +r¸ lnnr
m¸q m¸=o¤ + ;çn çr ¤¸+t ªrt,
¤;-n¸ a= =mn m¸q = ¬¸s¬ ¤re
l+=t +r e=t a¬¸+r¸ln ¬çt çrnt
ªrtl :t.tz. s: +r m¸=o¤ +r =¤m.
¤r= çr¬ + ¤ro m; a-o; e+
l¤l¤> ¤+r; +r ¤l;¤n¬ ar mnrl
q=+ ¤ro m¸q= ¬¸s¬ ¤re =+rt
ermr +r ¤ a¬¸+r¸lnnr a¬rnr=
çr¬ emnt ç ¬r m¸q ¤ç¸n ¤çe
çr ¤¸+t çl
q= l¤l¤> l=ªrln +r ¬¤ m¬
a-nm¸=rt çr+; ¤nr emrnr nr
mre¸m ç¸ar l+ nç =r;r ¤mr+r;
m¸=o¤ + ‘rl¬ ¤rn + +r;¤r çr
;çr çl ¬=r l+ m¸q ¤nrnr mnr,
+rq ‘rl¬ ==r; + +rnr¤r +
lee m; mrrnm = ¤+c çr ;çt
çl
~t a;l¤-o ¬ +çr ªrr ·- ''
n¸+ç ao¬r ç nrl+ n¸m o¸l¬nr +r
aor =+rl ¤ç qr¬ l¬= >l”rnr
¬ ¤rnr ªrr, l¤; = ar ;çr ç, a=
=r; ==r; +r o¬r çrmrl q= ¤rn
+r alrr+ =¤”c +;n ç¸e +rt a;.
l¤-o ¬ +çr ç·- ''+m-l¤+r=
m amer +om ¬r m¬¸”n +r e+
a·¤n; ar; l¤’rren; ¤n¬r m
aor e ¬rn, ar; a¬ =m=nrar
+r çe +;¬r ¤ r;++r +; o mr, l¬¬
=m=nrar ¬ m¬¸”n +r n+rt =
ç;r¬ ar; ¤;’rr¬ +; ;=rr ç, ¬¤
= a=¬ ¤nl+n+ ¤¸¤rnr ar; ¤¸¤r
=mr¬ + l¤”rn m =r¤¬r l¤¤r;¬r
‘r¸= l+nr ªrrl
q=+r ¤ r;++r +rr;n çt +;
=+nr ç, ar; nol¤ q=+r ¢r>
=r¤ +rr m çr mrl nªrrl¤ + -qtn
ar-ore¬ +rr;n çt +;mrl'' q=
¤ +r; +t a¬¸ +r¸ lnnr ar ; ¤ªr
¤ o’r ¬ l¬;-n; çr ;çr ç l m¸ q
a= ¤;m=rrr ¬ ¤ç¸ n = ¤ mr¤r
o+;, a·et ¤+r; =mqr lonr
ç l+ ''==r; + ç; ¤l;¤n¬ ar;
mrrnm +t ·n¤=ªrr ¤¸¤ l¬l’¤n
ç, a=m ;rrt +r; +r +rt ¤l;¤n¬
a=++r¤ çl''
¤l’¤mt ¬mng ¬ ¬r +rr .
ln+ ¤ mln +t ç , a= ¬¤ n+
arrnrlrm+ =rrr + arrt t
+; lenr ¬rnr ç, ==r; m ‘rrl-n
a=++r¤ çl ~t a;l¤-o ¬ =¤”c
+çr ç ·- ''çm o’rr ar; ¬rlnnr
+ ¤¸ªr+g ·nl+nr¤ +r lmcr¬r
¬çt ¤rçn, ¤lr+ a¬+ ¤t¤ =
rr¸¤rr, g”r ar; men¤çlmnr +t
¤rrrrar +r çcr¬r ¤rçn ç l''
m¸q ==r; +r; + o’rr m alrr+
=mn n+ +rn +;¬ +t ¤;¤rr ç,
¤;-n¸ ¤çe +¸e =mn n+ +rr;n
m çt +rn +;¬ +r aro’r +çr
çl ''+rr;n + a-o; =r; ==r; +t
=m=nre +-qtn çr mq ç ar;
a¬+ çe çr¬ ¤; =r; ==r; +r
+rr; çr+r çr ¬rnmrl'' ~t mr''
m o =r ;çr ç¸ , q= ¢r > m
¬r ·nl¬ mrrnm çrm, ¤ m¸q=
¬¸s¬ ar;++r çr mn çl l¬;ªr+
erm am; ar +rt ¬rn ç nr nr
nr +rn+rtn çr +; nr l¤’r ”r
¤l;l=ªrlnnr ¤’r m¸q= l¤; ¬çt
lme =+n l ¤ +r¸ +t nç ¤st l¤l¤>
eter çl
+r ¬ ·nl¬ +nr +rn +; mr,
q= =+¤-rr m +rt ¤ç¸n çt =¤”c
lo’rr l¬o’r lme ;çr çl ~t a;.
l¤-o ¬ =¤”c +çr ç ·- ''e+
= ¤¸ ¤r arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ m ç;
¤=n¸ + lee a¤+r’r çrnr çl''l
an· m;r arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ +¸¤
ms¸+ ¬ çr+;, nªnr + arrrr; ¤;
23
23
98

+rr;n +r ¤¸¬;rrªrr¬-- mr¬¤nr m ¤l;¤n¬ ‘rtrr ar¬ ¤rer ç, a= =¤rr m ~t a;l¤-o +çn ç·-
''q= n¸m + mr¬¤ +r ¤ªr ¤o’r¬ ¤¸lç +t lcmlcmrnt er ¬çt, a-n¬+r +r rr¸¤nr;r çrmrl ¤¸¤r çrmt rr;r
=¤m +t =¸m-rr =l ¬s +r ¤n¬ +t l¤¬n =¤t+r; +;¬t çt ¤smtl'' -
mr¬¤ +r mrnr + ¤+ m ++rt ¬çt ¤=¬r ¤rlçel mrnr çm’rr mrç¬re m ¤=rnt
çl m¸+¤q + alrr+n; erm q=t ¤+ m ¤= ¤nçr=r +rrm ¬r ;ç çl a-ç mrnr m ‘rrln
+r +rm çr ;çr çl ¤;-n¸ =··rrq nç ç l+ q= mçr¬m;t m l¬n¬r +rn ar; a’rrln
ç, an¬t m¸q ar; +çt ¬¬; ¬çt arntl
mrnr +r a=et =¤=¤ m¸+¤q m o=rr
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
at.ta.zaaa
m¸+¤q
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
==r; e+ çt ¤;m =rrr +r
l¤=nr; ç, q= =+¤-rr m mtnr +
t:¤ arnrn m +rm¤r¬g ¬ +çr
ç ·-
qo ‘r;t; +r-nn
¢r>lmrnrmrrtnn·
enor¤ln ¬ ¤r縷
¢r>q qln nlgo·ll tll
ç a¬¸¬l nç ‘r;t; ¢r> ç ,
e= +çr ¬rnr çl q=+r ¬r ¬r¬nr
ç, a=+r ¢r>q, e=r a¬+ nr¤
+r ¬r¬¬ ¤re qr¬t ¬¬ +çn
çl
¢r>q ¤rl¤ mr l¤lç
=¤¢r>”r¸ +rr;nl
¢r> ¢r>qnrqr¬
nrr¤qr¬ mn mmll zll
ar; ç a¬¸¬l =¤ ¢r>r m
¢r>q m; +r çt ¬r¬l ¢r>-¢r>q
+r ¬r nr¤ = ¬r¬¬r ç, ¤ç qr¬
ç, e=r m;r mn çl
al¤+r+n ¤ +r¸n”r¸
l¤+r¬ lm¤ ¤ l=ªrnmgl
+r¸n+rn¸ ¤ n¤q n
ml=”¤r¸ ¤+rl¤”¤r¸ ¤ll tcll
ar; (¤ç¸ l¤+rrm ;lçn e+
=¤ = ar+r’r + =o¸ ’r ¤l;¤¸ ¤
r ç¸ ar +rt ¤;r¤; = ¤¸ ¤r +r¸ nr m
¤¸ªr+g-¤¸ªr+g + =o¸’r l=ªrn,
¤ç ¬r¬¬ nr·n ¤;mrrmr, l¤”¤r¸
=¤ = +r¸nr +r rrr;¤r ¤r”r¤r +;¬
¤rer ar; =q =¤ = =çr; +;¬
¤rer nªrr ¤ gr =¤ = =¤+r
ar¤-¬ +;¬ ¤rer çl
¤nrln”rrml¤ n¤¤nr-
ln=nm=· ¤;m¸·nnl
qr¬qn qr¬m+n plo
=¤=n l¤l”onmgll t:ll
¤ç ¤g ¤nr lnnr +r +rt
=r;r ==r; a= e+ çt ¤;m=rrr +r l¤=nr;
¤nrln, mrnr = aln ¤; +çr ¬rnr
ç l (¤ç ¤;mrrmr¸ ¤r rr=¤=¤
(ar;¸ ¬r¬¬ nr·n ç, nr¤ qr¬
= ¤r¤n çr¬ ¤rer, =¤ + pon m
l=ªrn çl
a¤q”cr¬¸m-nr ¤
+rnr +rr¬ r mç’¤;·l
¤;mrrmln ¤r¤n¸¬ r
nsgs•fLeUiq#”k% ij %AA 13%22
¤¸ =”r q= o ç m l=ªrn ç¸ ar +rt
¤; (mrnr antn ¸ ç, =r¢rt çr¬
= a¤q”cr ar; nªrrªr =+mln o¬
¤rer çr¬ = a¬¸m-nr (e¤¸ =¤
+r rrr;¤r +;¬ ¤rer çr¬ = +rnr,
¬t¤ =¤ = +rr¬ r , ¤grlo+r +r
+rt =¤rmt çr¬ = mç’¤; ar; ‘r¸ç
=l·¤or¬-orr¬ çr¬ = ¤;mrrmr,
e=r +çr mnr çl
n =¤ ¤lrr ¤¸=”r
¤+¸ln ¤ m¸¤r· =çl
loZFkk orZekuks•fi u l
Hkw;ks•fHktk;rsAA 23AA
q= ¤+r; ¤¸=”r +r ar; m¸¤rr
+ =lçn ¤+¸ln +r ¬r m¬¸”n nr¤
= ¬r¬nr ç , ¤ç =¤ ¤ +r; = ¤n nr
ç¸ar +rt l¤; ¬çt ¬-mnr çl
lç-o¸ rrm +r nr m¸ e m >
''m'' arrmr ç¸, nç l¤’¤r= çr¬r
ar ; nq¸ ¤g ¤¬ ¬r¬r ç , ¤;-n¸
q= =mn mrnr +r qn¬r rrr ;
¤ +rr¤ çr ¤er ç l+ ¤r;r n;¤
rrr; arr;r çl ==r; m =rlr¤+
¤+r’r +r l¬nr-n a+rr¤ çr ¤er
çl arnrrm +t ¤¤r +;n çt q=
n¸ m +r mr¬¤ s;nr ç l +nr l+
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r; +t
¤rn rrm = er¤ çr ¤¸+t çl q=
=mn + ¤e ¤ro-l¤¤ro, ‘r-o¬re
ar; n+’rr=> + =çr; arnrrm
+t l’r¢rr ot ¬rnt çl ¤ro-l¤¤ro
qms +t ¬s ç, q=t lee ermr
¬ qms + +rn = rrrlm+ ¤¤r +rt
+;¬t ¤-o +; ot çl nç l=ªrln
rrm + rrr; ¤n¬ +r =+n +;nt
çl ==r; + =+rt rrmr +t +mr¤’r
e+ çt l=ªrln ç l nç l=ªrln alrr+
=mn n+ ¬çt ;ç =+nt ç l +nr l+
¤n¬ +t o¸l”c = rrm ¤;m =tmr
errr ¤¸+r çl ¤l;¤n¬ a¤’++rr¤t
çl arªrr¬ ar; ¤n¬ +r nç +m
a¬rlo+re = ¤er ar ;çr çl n¸m
¤l;¤n¬ a= ¤;m=rrr +r l¤rrr¬
çl nç +rq ¬q ¤rn ¬çt çr ;çt çl
;rn ar; lo¬ +r +m l¬= ¤+r;
l¬;-n; ¤e ;çr ç, n¸m ¤l;¤n¬
+rt +re¤+ + arrt¬ l¬;-n; çr.
nr arnr ç l mtnr + aro¤ arnrn
m +rm¤r¬g ¬ +çr ç ·-
=ç=>n¸m¤n-nm-
çnog¤g¤rr l¤o¸·l
;rl> n¸m=ç=>r-nrn
• gksjk=fonks tuk% AA 17AA
(ç a¬¸¬¸ ¤gr +r ¬r e+
lo¬ ç (a=+r ¸ ç¬r; ¤r +s t
n¸m n+ a¤lrr¤rer (ar;¸ ;rl>
+r (+rt¸ ç¬r; ¤r+st n¸m n+
a¤lrr¤ret ¬r ¤¸ =”r nr¤ +r
¬r¬n ç, ¤ nrmt¬¬ +re + nr¤
+r ¬r¬¬ ¤re çl
m;t ar¬ +t l=ªrln + ¤r;
m, ¬¤ m ‘rr-n l¤n = =r¤nr ç¸
nr e+ çt ¬nt¬ ¤; ¤ç¸¤nr ç¸ l+
m; mrrnm = ¬r +¸e +rt çr ;çr ç,
¤ç a= ¤;m=rrr +t ‘rl¬ +r çt
¤mr+r; ç, ¬r l+ m; m¸=o¤ +
ar’rt¤ro + +r;¤r çt m; mrrnm
= ¤+c çr ;çt çl m¸q q= ¤r; m
23
23
99
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
100
+rm¤r¬g ¬ mtnr + t:¤
arnrn m nt¬ ¤+r; + ermr +t
·nr=nr +;n ç¸e +çr ç ·-
n¬-n =lr¤+r o
¤r-n¢r;¢rrl¤n ;r¬=rl
¤nr-+r¸nm¤rr’¤r-n
n¬-n nrm=r ¬¬r·ll ¡tll
(ç a¬¸¬¸ =rlr¤+ ¤¸=”r o¤r
+r ¤¸¬n ç, ;r¬=rt ¤¸=”r n¢r ar;
;r¢r=r +r (n+rt¸ a-n nrm=
m¬¸”n ¤n ar; +r¸nm¤rr +r ¤¸¬n
çl
a’rr=>l¤lçn rrr;
n¤n-n n n¤r ¬¬r·l
o++rrç+r;=n¸+nr·
+rm;rm¤erl-¤nr·ll :tll
+”rn-n· ‘r;t;=ªr
+r¸nmrmm¤n=·l
mr ¤¤r-n· ‘r;t;=ªr nrl-¤-
ç¤r=¸;l¬’¤nr¬ll ctll
¬r m¬¸ ”n ‘rr=>tn l¤lrr =
;çn rrr; n¤ +r n¤n ç, (nªrr¸
o++r ar; aç+r; = n¸¬ +rm¬r,
ar=l¬ ar ; ¤e + al+rmr¬
= +rt n¸¬ çl ‘r;t; =¤ = l=ªrn
+r¸n=m¸orn +r ar; a-n· +;¤r m
l=ªrn m¸q a-nnrmt +r +rt +¸’r
+;¬ ¤re ç , a¬ aqrl¬nr +r
(n¸¸ ar=¸;t =¤+rr¤ ¤re ¬r¬l
a¤n¸ +n ·n¤=ªrr +r rnr¬
m ;=rn ç¸e, am; çm arrr¸l¬+
ar;rrr¬r ¤çlnnr +r rnr¬ =
o=r nr çm ¤rnm l+ ¤rn· =+rt
ar;rrr¬re nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr = ¤l;n
çl nt¬r ¤+r; +t ¤¸lnnr +r =¤”c
+;n ç¸e +rm¤r¬g ¬ +çr ç ·-
arn¸· =r¤¤er;r·n=¸=r
‘r;t; +r +”c o¬r,
ar=¸;t ¤¸ln +r +rn çl
¤tlnl¤¤rr¬r·l
;=nr· l=¬·rrr l=ªr;r
por arçr;r· =rlr¤+l¤nr·ll
arn¸ , ¤¸ lç, ¤e, ar;r ·n, =¸ =r
(ar;¸ ¤tln +r ¤cr¬ ¤re ;=n¸¬
l¤+¬ l=ªr; ;ç¬ ¤re =¤+rr¤ = çt
m¬ +r l¤ n arçr; =rlr¤+ ¤¸ =”r +r
l¤n çrn çl
+cg¤+ee¤¤rrrn¸”¤r
nt¢¤r= ¢rl¤orlçn·l
arçr;r ;r¬==n”cr
o¸·=r’rr+rmn¤or·ll
+s ¤ , =rcgc , e¤¤rn¸ ¬ ,
alnm;m, nt¢r¤r, ==r , orç+r;+,
o¸·=r, l¤-nr ar; ;rmr +r ar¤-¬
+;¬ ¤re arçr;, ;r¬= ¤¸=”r +r
l¤n çrn çl
nrnnrm ¤rn;= ¤¸ln
¤n¸l”rn ¤ nngl
al·e”cml¤ ¤rmrn
+rr¬¬ nrm=l¤nmll
¬r +rr¬¬ arr¤+r, ;=;lçn
ar; o¸m-rrn¸¬ , ¤r=t, al·e”c ç
nªrr a¤l¤> +rt ç, ¤ç (+rr¬¬¸
nrm= ¤¸=”r +r l¤n çrnr çl
arrr¸ l¬+ ar;rrr¬rar m ‘r;t;
+r +”c o¬r, ar;rrr¬r +r m¸=n
am ¤¬ mnr çl m¬¸”n ‘r;t; +r
+”c ¤o n;t+r = o¸·=r ¤ç¸¤r¬r
çt ar;rrr¬r mr¬r ¬rnr çl =¤rmt
l¤¤ +r¬-o ¬t ¬ e+ ¤r; +çr
ªrr l+ ''q= =mn ==r; + erm
o¸¤e-¤ne +¸’r ‘r;t; ¤re ·nl¬
+r çt arrm ar;rrr+ mr¬n ç l
ar;rrr¬r +r q== +rq =+¤-rr
¬çt ç l +m¬r ; ¤¸ =”r + am;
arrnrlrm+ ‘rl¬ ¤r= = m¸ ¬;
¬rnmt nr ¤ç a=+r =ç¬ ¬çt +;
=+ mrl an· ar;rrr+ +r ‘r;t;,
m¬ ar ; ¤¸ lç ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = =¤=ªr
çr¬r al¬¤rn çl q=+ a+rr¤ m
m¬¸ ”n =rlr¤+ ar;rrr¬r +; çt
t =+nrl''
q== =¤”c çr nr ç l+ =rlr¤+
ar;rrr+ +r =¤ ¤ªrm =rr¬-¤r¬
ar ; =¤r=ªn +r rnr¬ ;=r¬r
¤rlçel çm o=rn ç l+ q= =mn
arnrrm ¬mng + erm l¤l+r-¬
¤+r; + ¬’rte ¤orªrr + arlo
çr ¬rn çl q= ¤+r; + =+rt ¬’r
m¬¸”n +r are=t, a+m¤n ar;
=¸=n ¤¬r on çl
e=t l=ªrln m +rq ¤¸=”r +=
ar;rrr¬r +; =+nr ç ? a¤¬t
q= +m¬r;t ¤; ¤or sre¬ + lee
q¬ =+rt ¬’rr +r +;¬r ar;rrr¬r
+ lee l¬nr-n ar¤’n+ çl e=t
men rrr;¤rr =mr¬ m ¤er ;=rt
çl q= ¤+r; =mr¬ +r +rlmn +;+
e= a==n ermr + q¸¤s + q¸¤s
==r; + ç; lç== m rrm +t ars
m +rr¬ asr ;ç çl nçt +r;¤r ç l+
mr¬¤ =mr¬ +t q’¤; ar; rrm =
ar=ªrr l¬;-n; rrc ;çt ç l q= =mn
nr nç crm a¤¬t ¤;m =tmr +r
errr ¤¸+r çl
an· a¤ arnrrm ¬mng m
¤l;¤n¬ a¤=++rr¤t çr mnr çl =.
=r; + er m a¤ ¤l;¤rrm ;lçn l+=t
rrrlm+ ¤l+nr +r =¤t+r; ¬çt +;
;ç çl nçt +r;¤r ç l+ arnrrm
¬mng m +rr;t =re¤et m¤t ç¸q
çl q= ¢r> m +rt +rl-n +t eç;
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
= =r; ar¤rmm¬ +r ¤++;
çl q= =+¤-rr m +rm¤r¬g ¬ mtnr
+ t:¤ arnrn m =¤”c +;n ç¸e
+çr ç·-
mm¤r’rr ¬t¤er+
¬t¤+r¸n· =¬rn¬·l
m¬· “r”or¬tlqnrl¤r
¤+¸ln=ªrrl¬ +”rlnll :ll
(ç a¬¸ ¬¸ q= o ç m nç
¬t¤rrmr m;r çt =¬rn¬ a’r çl
(ar;¸ l>m¸¤rmnt mrnr (¤+¸ln m
l=ªrn ç¸q m¬ =lçn ¤r¤r ql-qnr
+r ar+l”rn +;nr çl
‘r;t; no¤r¤¬rln
n·¤r¤n¸r+rmnt’¤;·l
m¸çtr¤nrl¬ =nrln
¤rn¸mm-rrl¬¤r’rnrngll sll
¤rn¸ mrr + =ªrr¬ = m-rr +r
¬=l (mç¤r +;+ e ¬rnr ç¸ o.
çrlo+r +r =¤mt ¬t¤rrmr +rt l¬=
¤çe ‘r;t; +r rnrmnr ç, a== m¬
=lçn ql-qnr +r mç¤r +;+ l¤;
l¬= ‘r;t; +r ¤r¤n çrnr çl a=m
¬rnr çl
~r> ¤¢r¸· =¤’r¬
¤ ;=¬ rrr¤rm¤ ¤l
alrr”orn m¬~rn
l¤”rnr¬¸¤=¤nll sll
nç ¬t¤rrmr ~r>, ¤¢r¸ ar;
r¤¤r +r nªrr ;=¬r, rrr¤r ar; m¬
+r ar~n +;+ çt l¤”rnr +r =¤¬
+;nr çl
ar+rm-n l=ªrn¤rl¤
+r¸-¬r¬ ¤r m¸¤rrl-¤nmgl
l¤m¸cr ¬r¬¸¤’nl-n
¤’nl-n qr¬¤¢r¸”r·ll tall
‘r;t; er s +; ¬rn ç¸ e +r
aªr¤r ‘r;t; m l=ªr; ç¸e +r (ar;¸
l¤”rnr +r +rrmn ç¸e +r nªrr nt¬r
¤¸¬¬-m ar; ¬t¤rrmrl
m¸¤rr = n¸¬ ç¸e +r +rt aqr¬t ¬¬
¬çt ¬r¬n çl qr¬=¤ ¬>r ¤re
(qr¬t¬¬ çt¸ nr¤ = ¬r¬n çl
nn-nr nrlm¬’¤¬
¤’n-rnrrm-n¤l=ªrnmgl
;rUuks•I;d`rkRekuks
¬¬ ¤’n-rn¤n=·ll ttll
nrmt ¬¬ a¤¬ pon m l=ªrn
ç¸ e, q= arrmr +r nr¬ +;n ç¸ e çt
nr¤ = ¬r¬n ç ar; l¬-çr¬ a¤¬
a-n·+;¤r +r ‘r¸ç ¬çt l+nr ç
(e = ¸ aqr¬t¬¬ nr¬ +;n ç¸ e +rt
q= arrmr +r ¬çt ¬r¬n çl
q== =¤”c çrnr ç l+ ¤or-n
rrm +r ¤¸¬¬-m +r l=çr-n ¤¸¤r
=rn ç l mtnr m +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸ ”¤r ¬
a=+t =¤”c ·nr=nr +t çl +nrl+
+len¸m mr> ‘r¸qnr¤ ¤; arrrrl;n
n¸m ç, q=lee q= n¸m m +¤e
=¤r +r çt rrm mr¬r ¬rnr çl ‘r¸q
+r +rm ¤¤r ·n¤=ªrr a¬¸=r; =¤r
+r +rn çl +nrl+ q= n¸m m e+
çt q= nr¤ +r =rmr¤n çl
an· nç nr a¤¬ +m +r
çt rrm +t =qr omrl nç n¸m +r
m¸ ¤rrrm ç , q=m l+=t +r or ”r
¬çt çl nç nr q’¤; +¸n ·n¤=ªrr
çl nªrr ;r¬r nªrr ¤¬r, q=m +rq
or”rt ¬çt çl n¸m ¤;¤n¬ ¤+¸ln +r
l¬nm çl nç +re l¬;-n; ¤enr
arnr çl +nrl+ e+ ¤;¤r +r rrm
¤¸ ª¤t +r +rr; alrr+ =mn n+ ¤ç¬
+;¬ +t l=ªrln m ¬çt çrnr çl
an· q=+r =mn ar; n¸mr =
+m l¬l’¤n l+nr mnr çl çmr; rr.
rlm+ l=çr-n + a¬¸=r; =ngn¸m
= +len¸m n+ ç; n¸m + =mn m
çg;r= l¬;-n; ¤nrnr mnr çl
¤nr -¤nr =rlr¤+ nr¤ +m¬r ;
çrnr ¤er mnr, m¬¸”n +t am +m
çrnt ¤et mq, ar; q=t ¤+r; ç;
n¸ m +r =mn +rt l¬;-n; rrcnr
mnrl n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +r mne¤ ç,
a= ¤;m=rrr +r ¤rlªr¤ ¬mng
m a¤n;¤rl q=+ l¤¬r n¸ m ¤l.
;¤n¬ çr çt ¬çt =+nrl ¤¸¬¬-m
+ =+¤-rr m, m;t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln +
a¬¸=r; qr¬ çr¬r =++r¤ çl
¤ n¬ m¸ = = arrnrlrm+
=+¤-rr =ªrrl¤n +;¬ ¤; ç; m¬¸ ”n
+r nç qr¬ ¤r¤n çr =+nr çl m¸=
gr;r ¤r¤n ¤+r’r ¤o ''¤n¬ ‘r-o''
= ¬t¤ a¤¬ =ªr¸ e, =¸ ¢m ar ;
+r;¤r ‘r;t; +r +ro +; arrmr =
=r¢rrr+r; +; =+nr ç +nr l+
arrmr a= ¤;m =rrr +r çt a’r çl
an· ¤¸ ¤ ¬-m çt +nr arm çr ¬ ¤re
¬-m +r +rt qr¬ =++r¤ çl q= n¸m
+r mr¬¤ q= =++r¤ ¬çt mr¬nr çl
q=m a¬+r or”r ¬çt çl nç nr n¸m
+r m¸ ¤r rrm ç l ¤ç =mn o¸ ; ¬çt ¬¤
nç =¤ ¤rn ==r; + =rm¬ +rrln+
=¤ = ¤mrl¤rn çr¬ emmtl
¤nr çt arrnrlrm+ =rrr ¬
+rrln+ =rrr +r a¤¬ arrt¬ +;+
a=+r = ¤re¬ ¤ r;++r l+nr l+
=¤ +¸e ¤l;¤lnn çr ¬rnmrl q=
=+¤-rr m ~t a;l¤-o ¬ =¤”c
q’rr;r +;n ç¸ e +çr ç ·- ''¤ç
qr¬ l¬= >l”rnr ¬ ¤rnr ªrr, l¤;
= ar ;çr ç, a= =r; ==r; +r o¬r
çr mrl'' q= =+¤-rr m a-çr ¬ =¤”c
+;n ç¸e +çr ªrr ·- ''q=+r ¤r;++r
+rr;n çt +; =+nr ç , nol¤ q=+r
¢r> =r¤+rrm çrmr, nªrrl¤ +-qtn
ar-ore¬ +rr;n çt +;mr''l q=
o’r m ¤ç =¬rn¬ rrm ¤¸¬· ¤+c
çr¬ ¤rer ç, l¬=+t ·nr=nr +;n
ç¸e =¤rmt l¤¤+r ¬-o ¬t ¬ +çr ç
·- ''nlo rrm m ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ¬ çr
23
23
101
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
102
==r; +r; + ¤rn· =+rt rrm
q= l=çr-n +r =¤t+r; +;n ç l+
‘r-o = çt =¤+r¸nr +t ar¤lrr ç¸q
çl lç-o¸ o’r¬ + a¬¸=r; 'a' =
=¸l”c +t ar¤lrr ç¸q çl +rm¤r¬g
~t+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr m q= =+¤-rr m
s¤ arnrn + t:¤ ‘er+ nªrr t: ¤
arnrn + z:¤ nªrr zs¤ ‘er+ m
=¤”c +çr ç ·-
arlmrn+r¢r; ¤g
·nrç;-mrm¬¸=m;¬gl
n·¤nrln rn¬-oç
= nrln ¤;mrmlnmgll t:ll
¬r ¤¸=”r 'a' e= (q=¸ e+
a¢r;=¤ ¤g +r a·¤r;¤r +;nr
ç¸ar (ar; a=+ aªr=¤=¤¸ m;
+r l¤-n¬ +;nr ç¸ar, ‘r;t; +r
rnrm +; ¬rnr ç, ¤ç ¤¸=”r ¤;m
mln +r ¤r¤n çrnr çl
'a' nr=loln l¬o’rr
¤g¤rl=>l¤rr· =m¸n·l
¤rg¤rr=n¬ ¤or’¤
nqr’¤ l¤lçnr· ¤¸;rll z:ll
'a ' nng =ng e = nt¬ ¤ +r;
+r =l·¤or¬-orr¬ ¤g +r ¬rm
+çr çl a=t = =¸l”c + arlo+re
m ¤rg¤r ar; ¤o nªrr nqrlo+
;¤ mn çl
n=mrorlmrn¸orp-n
nqor¬n¤· l+nr·l
¤¤n-n l¤or¬r¬ r·
=nn ¤g¤rlo¬rmgll z¡ll
q=lee ¤o +r +ªr¬ +;¬
¤re ~”o ¤¸=”rr +t ‘rr=>l¤lrr
= l¬nn +t ç¸q nq, or¬ ar;
n¤=¤ l+nre =or 'a' e= (q=
¤;mrrmr + ¬rm +r ¸ a·¤r;¤r
+;+ (çt¸ ar;++r çrnt çl
‘r-o = =¤+r¸nr +t ar¤lrrl
q=rq rrm m +rt = =r; +t
ar¤lrr ‘r-o = mr¬n ç l q=
=+¤-rr m ¤rql¤e =¤”c +çnt ç
·- ''arlo m ¤¤¬ (’r-o¸ ªrrl ar ;
¤¤¬ (’r-o ¸ ¤;m’¤; + =rªr
ªrrl ar; ¤¤¬ (’r-o¸ ¤;m’¤;
ªrrl nçt arlo m ¤;m’¤; + =rªr
ªrrl =¤ +¸e a=t + gr;r ar¤-¬
ç¸ar ar; ¬r +¸e ar¤-¬ ç¸ar ç,
a=m = +rq +rt ¤=n¸ a=+ l¤¬r
ar¤-¬ ¬ ç¸ q l a=m ¬t¤¬ ªrr ar ;
¤ç ¬t¤¬ m¬¸”nr +t ¤nrln ªrtl
ar; ¤nrln a-rr+r; m ¤m+nt
ç , ar ; a-rr+r; ¬ a= m ç¤r
¬çt ''l+nr'' q=t ¤+r; nç¸ot
mn +rt ==r; +t ar¤lrr ‘r-o =
mr¬n çl
n ç ¸ l o n r +
=¸”cgn¸r¤lrr-¤+;¤r m +çr mnr
ç ·- ''=m¸ q + a¤;t ne ¤;
a-rr+r; ªrr ar; q’¤; +t arrmr
¬er ¤; l¤¤;¤r +; ;çt ªrtl ‘r-o
+ gr;r a=¬ =m¸q +r anl;¢r
= l¤+r+n l+nr, l¬=+ ¤l;¤
rrm =¤=¤ a¤ nçr or =m¸q çl
e+ ¤rlªr¤ ¬r a nl;¢r + ¬t¤
ç, o¸=;r o¸er+tn ¬r anl;¢r +
a¤; çl''
q= =+¤-rr m ¤or + ;ç=n
+r =¤”c +;n ç¸e mçl”r ~t a;.
l¤-o ¬ +çr ç ·- q= =r¤ +rr m
l¤’¤r= +r nr q= ¤’¤ =¤+ +r
m¸@¤rlonr ¬ ¤+sr ar; a=m
a¤¬ =m¸q m¬r¤qrl¬+ m¸rnr
+r +r; lonrl e+ a nl;¢r +t ¬mç
a-çr¬ or +r o=rr, e+ ¤rlªr¤
ar ; o¸ =;r lo·nl or =rm;r +
=ªrr¬ ¤; a¬+t a¬r¤¸n ql”c +
=rm¬ nt¬ =rm; ¤=rl;n çr aol
¬r +¸e a-çr¬ o=rr, ¤ç e+ e=t
¤=n¸ ªrt, l¬= mr¬¤ ++rt arm
¤e+; o=rmrl
¬¤ ¤ +¸ ln ar ; ¬mng +r
o =r¬ +t a=+t +rr ln+ o¸ l”c
arn;rlrm+ o¸l”c m ¤oe ¬rnmtl
a¬+ ¬t¤ a-çr¬ o=rt amrrr
;rl> ar ; n; lmn çr nr ç¸ ar
nm=g, a-rr+r; m le¤r a rr+r;,
l¬’¤n¬ =m¸q l¬== ''e+m¤''
+ ‘rl+n’rret nm=g + gr;r
a¬+t =rrr aog+r¸ n ç¸ q ªrtl a¬+
a¤; a-çr ¬ o =rr ¤ +r’r ar ;
mrr¸;nr +r o¸;¤nt =m¸q ¬r a·.
¤nm ·nr m ç , ar¬-o =¤=¤ l¤”¤
r¸ +r ¤;m ¤o ç , l¬=+t ar ; a¬+t
ar+l”rn =rrr +r ar;rç¤r +;¬r
ç a¬m = e+ ªrr, a-rr+r; ¤¸¤r
ar+r’r ar+r;çt¬ ¬s l¬’¤n¬
a=ng o¸=;r ªrr, ¤nrlnmn ·nrm
=o¸ ’r =¤ ¤ n¬ e¤ l¬’¤ n¬ =ngl
n or¬r ''e+m¤'' + çt l¤=nr;
ªrl
e+ a-rr +r ;mn o¸ =;r
¤ +r ’r mnl q¬ or aqr ¬
a¬-nnrar + aªrr n a¬-n
=+rr·n ‘r¸-n ar; a¬-n ¤l;¤¸¤r
'¢r' + ¤t¤ a-çr ¬ a¤¬ ¤r;r ar ;
a¤¬t ar=rr + =rm¬, ¬t¤ a¤;
l¬rn l¤+=¬’rte ¤n¬ =rrr +r
nt=;r =m¸q o=rrl e+ ¤+r; +t
a=tm n;m o=rt, l¬=+r a-çr¬
e+ =rç=¤¸¤r =¤+ + gr;r q=
¤+r; ¤¤r¬ l+nr l+ ¤ç o¸er+
= ¤; ¤;mr·¤ =m¸qr n+ ar;rç¤r
+;nt nr a¬+t ar; ¤¤rlçn çrnt
çl nç ç ¤ç +rnr¬+ =m¸q ¬r çm
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q= =mn ==r; +r; + =+rt
rrmr + rrmr ¤rnr +t e+ ¬ =t
çt l=ªrln çl =+rt erm ¤çe +
a¤nr;r , ¤ m+¤;r ar ; = nr +r
m¸¤rmr¬ +;n çl a¬+ gr;r ;l¤n
m -ªrr +r ‘rr rr +;n ç l a¬+t
aem-aem ·nr=nr, n+ ¤¸lç
ar; ‘r-o ¬re + =çr; +;n çl
+¸e a¬ mªrr +r l¬rn ¤ro
+;¬ +r a¤o’r on çl +qnr ¬
q-ç +ªrr + =¤ m a¤¬r +;
¬tl¤+r ¤er¬ +r =çr;r ¤¬r
lenr çl
alrr+ ¤n¸; ermr ¬ ¤nt+
+ =¤ m l¤l+r-¬ ¤+r; +t a¬+
m¸lnnr ¤¬r +; mlo;r m =ªrrl¤n
+; et ç , ar ; a=+r a¤¬t ar¬t.
l¤+r +r =rrr¬ ¤¬r lenr çl ¤rn·
=+rt ¤m+¤;r, a¤nr;r ar; =nr
+r mr> m¸ ¤rmr¬ +;+ arnrrm +t
l’r¢rr o ;ç ç, l¬= ¤+r; l¤l+r-¬
n¸ mr m a¬ + = nr ¬ a= ¤;m =rrr
+r =r¢rrr+r; ar; ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
+t ç, ¤ç ;r=nr +rq ¬çt ¤nr ;çr
çl +¤e m¸¤rmr¬ = +¸e +rt er+r
çr¬ ¤rer ¬çt çl
am; çm l+=t a·e =rro
¤orªr +r +¤e m¸¤rmr¬ ¤”rr n+
+;n ;ç nr çm +¸e +rt er+r ¬çt
çr mrl am; çm l¤¬r m¸ ¤rmr¬
l+e a= =rr¬r ¤r;++r +; o nr
l¬l’¤n=¤ = a=+r ¤+rr¤ çm
q= n¸m + rrmr¤rn +nr ç?
--rrmm¸=, qlnçr= ·nr=nrnr nr ¤r;¤r-+rrc?
a¤¬ =¤r=ªn ¤; mç=¸ = +;¬
emml
nçt l=çr-n ¬t¤¬ + ç; ¢r >
m erm¸ çrnr ç, q== l+r-¬ =+rt
;r=n +rr¤l¬+ ''+rm ¤or +;¬
¤re ar; +rc+r¬ ¤re çl'' o¸·=r
+t ¤rn nr nç ç l+ q= =mn
==r; + =+rt rrmr m e= ermr
+r ¤re ¤rer çl ¤ =·¤rq +t ¤rn
=¸¬¬ n+ +r nnr; ¬çt l
a-ç +rr;t +rn ç l+ am; +çt
e=t =·¤rq ¤+c çr mq nr çmr;t
=rrr +r a-n çr ¬rn mrl nçt
+r;¤r ç l+ ==r; + alrr+n;
¤¸lç¬t¤t erm, ¤l;¤rrm + a+rr¤
m a¬= l¤m¸=r çt ¬çt çr mn,
a¬+ l=rer¤ l¤qr ç n+ +;¬ em
ç ¤;-n¸ l¤; +rt a¤¬r +rm, rr¬
+ ¤e ¤; a¤rrrmln = ¤ern ¬r
;ç çl ¤ =+ +; a¤¬ a¬¸nrqnr
+r o¸=;r +t ¤rn =¸¬¬ +r a¤=;
n+ ¬çt o ¬r ¤rçn ç ¤;-n¸ a¬+r
nç +rm çl n nªrrl=ªrln¤rot erm
¬çt =mqn l+ +re¤+ l¬;-n;
¤enr ;çnr çl a=+t mln m ++rt
+rt ·n¤rrr¬ ¬çt ar =+nrl n¸m
¤l;¤n ¬ a¬rlo +re = çr nr
arnr çl
+re¤+ ¬ ar¬n+ ++rt
¤+rrl¤n ç¸ar ç ar; ¬ ++rt çrmrl
arlo +re = lç;¤n+’n¤, ;r¤¤r
ar; += çrn arn çl ¤;-n¸ =+rt
+r ¬r a-n ç¸ar, ¤ç =¤ l¤lon
çl q¸o ar; crm +r çm’rr e=r çt
a-n çrnr çl o¤ ar; or¬¤ +r
n¸ ç a¬rlo +re = l¬;-n; ¤enr
ar ;çr çl or¬¤ a¤¬t ‘rl¬ +r
e=r ¤o’r¬ +;n ç l+ e=r em¬
emnr ç , ¬tn a-çt +t çr mtl
¤;-n¸ qlnçr= =r¢rt ç al-nm
l¤¬n =rn +t çt ç¸q çl a¬rer
¤ +c çr ¬ ¤; a-rr ;r nr+re
+rrm ¬rnr ç l rrr ; a-rr ;t ;rn
+rt =¸nron + ¤+r’r = ¬m+rmr
aont çl
''a-rr+r; +t ‘rl¬ nr ¬çt
¤rçnt l+ ¤ +r’r çr ¤;-n¸ =¸ n
a¤rrr mln = aon çr ;çr ç ,
q=t +m = n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ çrmrl''
nç ¤¸¤ l¬l’¤n ·n¤=ªrr çl nç
¤l;¤n¬ ==r; +r +rq +rt ¤r¤rt
;r+¬ m a=mªr çl çm o=rn ç
am¬r + ;r¤n m ++rt =¸n a=n
çt ¬çt çrnr ªrr, ar¬ a¬+ ;r¤n
m =¸n ¤ç¸n +m =mn n+ lo=rrq
onr çl nç ¤l;¤n¬ q=t =ot +t
o¬ çl ==r; m ¬r o’r ao ;ç ç,
a¬+t ¤ mln +r +r q ¬çt ;r +
=+nrl nç q’¤;tn ·n¤=ªrr çl
q=+ =+¤-rr m +rr;n + çt ¬çt,
= =r; + a¬ + = n +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr
+; ¤¸+ çl
q= =+¤-rr m mçl”r a;l¤-o
¬ =¤”c +çr ç ·- +rr;n çt ==r;
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
23
103
+rr;n çt ==r; +r arrnrlrm+ or¬ omr''l q=+r ¢r> =r¤+rrm çrmr,
nªrrl¤ +-qtn ar-ore¬ +rr;n çt +;mrl'' -~t a;l¤-o

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
104
l¬l’¤n =¤ = +rr;n nrml=+
‘rl+nnr = ¤¸¤r =¤ = ¬+sr ç¸ar
çl l¬= ¤+r; m¬ (çrªrt¸ =m¸q
m s¸¤¬ emr ªrr, a=t ¤+r; +r.
r;n a-rr+r; m s¸¤ ;çr çl ar;
l¬= ¤+r; m¬ +t +=¤r ¤¸+r;
¤; =¸o’r¬rrr;t ¬ a= m¸+n l+nr
ªrr, +rr;n +rt mr> a=t a¤rn =
¤¤ =+nr çl
+rr;n +r ar¬ro +;¬r ¤l’¤m
+t m¬¤¸;t ªrtl nçt +r;¤r ç, ¤
‘rl+nnr +rr;n + or c¸ +s +;
mnt l ar ; ¤ ‘rl+nnr ar¬ n+ e+
ar; l¤+rr¬¬ + lee ¤nr=;n çl
a-çr¬ em+rm =+¤¸¤r ¤¸¤rrr; +r.
r;n +r q=rq ¤¬r¬ +r “rsgn>
;¤r ç¸ ar ç nrl+ +rr;n +r e+ ar ;
l¤+rr¬¬ +; =+l
o¸=;t n;¤ o’r +r arlªr+
¬re m ¤¸;t n;ç = ¬+s ;=rr çl
ar¬ o’r +t arn +r e+ lnçrq
+rrm -nr¬ m o¬r ¤s ;çr çl +nr
+rq ·n¤=rn :: ¤ln’rn +t o; =
;+m arrr; e+; ¤¬¤ =+nr ç?
+rr;n m arr;r or= ¤¬+; ¬m mnr
++rt tl
nt=; l¤+rr¬¬ +t +r l’r’r
mrn¤¸¤ +t ‘rl+nnr +; ;çt çl
¤ ¤l’¤mrrr; +rr;n +r +rr;n =
aem +;¬ +r ¤¸ ¤r ¤ nr= +;
;çt çl
q=+ alnl;+n a¤n¸ +n
or¬r ‘rl+nnr ¬ =+¤¸¤r o’r m
+rr”rr, rrm, ¬rln ar; ¢rl>n +r.
r¤¬rar +r +rs+r+; =+¤¸¤r o’r
+r ¤rnr¤;¤r a’rr-n ¤¬r ;=rr
çl e=t l=ªrln m o’r +r ¤¤r¬ +r
e+ çt arrrr; ç- ''rrm''l +nrl+
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸ ”¤r ¬ mçl”r ~t
a;l¤-o +r aet¤¸; ¬e m +çr
ªrr- ''+rr;n, rrm + gr;r ar; rrm
+ lee çt al=nr¤ m çl''
+rr;n +r l=çr-n ç- ''al.
ç =r ¤;mr rrm ·l'' q= o ’r ar ;
q= rrm +r lç =r = ++rt ¬”c
¬çt l+nr ¬r =+nrl q= =¤rr m
=¤rmt l¤¤ +r¬-o ¬t ¬ ¤ ¸ +et¬ m
tss: m +çr ªrr- ''+rr;n +r =o’r
ç l+ ‘rrln, ‘r¸+r, rrn ar; ¬mnr
+t a-n m l¤¬n çrmtl +nrl+ ¤
n¸¬r¬t +çr ç, ¬r e+ =mn ¤¸ª¤t
+ =¤rmt ªr? =mr¤n çr mnl ¤
;rm¤re +çr ç, l¬¬+ =l¬+r
+t ¤og¤r¤ = ==r; +r¤nr ªrr?
lmc mn l ¤ a;¤¤re +çr ç ?
l¬-çr¬ ¤¤r= ¤”rr m a¤¬ q¤s
acer lc+ mçr=rm; = ¤ ’rr-n
mçr=rm; n+ ¤ç;r lon ªr l ar ; ¤
=¤¬ ¤re +;rsr m¬¸”nr + l¬ont
çrnr; +çr ç? or¬r ¬rlnnr em.
+rm lmc mql ¤;-n¸ a¤¬t =nr¬
+t ¬ln+nr + +r;¤r nç onre¸
¬rln ++rt ¬çt m; mt, ar ; ¤ç l¤;
a¤¬t l¤¬n +t rrst o=rmtll''
q= = ¤ rr m mçl”r ~t a;l¤ o
¬ +rt +çr ªrr- ''+rr;n, =·¤t
=¤n >nr ;r¬¬ ln+ a=>r +
mrrnm = ¬çt ¤;¬g arrnrlrm+
a-¬ln + gr;r ¤r¤n +;mrl''
q= = ¤ rr m =¤rmt l¤¤ +.
r¬-o ¬t ¬ +rt +çr ç- ''+rr;n

''çmr;r ¤r=nl¤+ ‘r>¸ +rq ¤rç;t ‘rl+n ¬çt çl çmr; ¤r=nl¤+ ‘r>¸ ç· çmr;t
a¤¬t l¤el¤ernt ç¸q o¸¤enr, çmr;t +rt=nr, çmr;t =¤rªr¤;nr, çmr;r crm,
çmr;t mo¤¸l礸¤r +rr¤¸+nrl am; çm am¬r + +¸l>m ;r¤or¤ = ¤¸lrrnr ¬ ¬rn
nr çm n¸;n nç ¤nr em ¬remr l+ q¬= ¬r;r¬ çr¬ +t ¬=;n ¬çtl çm a¬+t
-nrn¤;rn¤rnr = a¤te +;¬ +t ¬=;n ¬çt çl çm a¤¬ ao; ¤r=”r ¬mr¬r
ar; =ç a¬¸+r¸ln ¤or +;¬t çrmtl''
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
ar-nl;+ ºr>¸
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
n¸ m ¤l;¤n ¬ +r =+¤-rr
=+¤¸¤r ==r; = çl ¤¸ª¤t + l+=t
+rrm l¤’r”r + ¤n¬ çr¬ = q=+r
=+¤-rr ¬çt çl q’¤;tn =rrr +
a¤n;¤r + l¤¬r 'n¸m ¤l;¤n¬'
a=++r¤ ç l arlo +re = e =r
çrnr ¤er arnr çl m o=r ;çr ç¸
l+ m; ¬t¤¬ + ¤r;l++r+ +re
= çt nrml=+ ºrl+nnr m¸q ¤;
l¬;-n; ¤çr; +;nt ¤et ar ;çt
ç l ¤ r;++r m nr +rn+rtn +;+ ;r=n
= çcr¬ +r ¤nr= l+nrl q=m
¬¤ a-ç =¤enr ¬çt lmet nr
¤er+r¬ arlo + ;mte l¤> lo=rr
+; ar+l”r n +;¬ +r ¤ nr= +;nt
;çtl
¬¤r¬t + +re m nç çªr+¤
sr a¤¬rnr ar ; ¤¤¤¬ m +rn+rtn
+;¬ +rl ¬¤ n or ¬r çlªrnr; +rm
¬çt arn nr ar¬ +e 'lçn”rt
+r =¤rm' ;¤+; m¸m;rç +;¬ +r
¤nr= +;¬ m emt çl
m o=r ;çr ç¸ l+ a¬+r nç
çlªrnr; +rt a=¤e çr ;çr ç l
a¬+r amer +om m ; l¤;r rr m ¤.
¤r; +;¬ +r çrmrl m¸q q=+r ¤¸¤r
qr¬ ç, nç arl=r;t çlªrnr; m;
lee =çrn+ l=ç çrmrl +nrl+
q¬+ l¤;rrr = m; ¤¤r; +t mln
¤ç¸ n n ¬ çr ¬rn mtl q== n
nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr a¤¬r =n¸e¬
=rr omtl q¬+ =n¸e¬ =rr¬ +r
aªr ç , q¬+r a-nl nç arm çr ¬
¤ret rrc¬rar +r l¤> ç, ¬r +¸e
n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +r aªr
==r; + ¤r¤rt mr> + ¤l;¤n¬ = çl
çr ¬r ç , =¤ al¬¤rn ç l q=m ;lrr
+r; +r +rt a-n; ¬çt ar ;çr çl
+nrl+ m;r +rn¢r> =r¤+rrm çl
l¬n¬r a-rr+r; +rr;n m ç , an¬r
+çt ¬çt çl
am; m;r +rn¢r> +rr;n n+
=tlmn çr nr nr +lo¬rqnr alrr+
çrnt +nrl+ nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +t
‘rl¬ =tlmn çrnt ç, ¬¤ l+ =r.
lr¤+ ‘rl¬ nr +t ‘rl¬ a=tlmnl
q= =¤rr m ~t mr ¬ =¤”c +çr ç
·- ''+rr;n + a-o; =r; ==r; +t
=m=nre +l-qn çr mq çl ar;
a¬+ çe çr¬ ¤; =r; ==r; +r
+rr; çr+r çr ¬rnmrl''
+rr;n m =rlr¤+nr +t ars m
a==n nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr, mr¬¤
+r +rlmn +;+ e¸c ;çt çl m¸q
a·et ¤+r; ¤nr lonr mnr ç l+
q¬ nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +t +rt nr+n
¢rt¤r çr ¤¸+t çl
mrm¸ et =r l¤;r rr +;+ n
¤;r=n çr ¬rn mtl ¤;-n¸ l¬¬
¤n¸; ermr ¬ rrm +r ·n¤=rn +
=¤ m a¤¬r ;=rr ç ¤ çt alrr+
l¤;r rr +; m l +nr l+ m ;r +rn
¢r> =r¤+rrm ç, q=lee q¬ rrm
+ ·n¤=rqnr +t ¤re ==r; +
=rm¬ =r¸ e ¬rn mtl e =t ar;rrr¬r
= erm ¤¸¤r =¤ = l¤m¸=r çr ¤¸+
ç, ¬r ¤rn¢r ¤l;¤rrm ¬ ol q=
n¸ m +r mr¬¤ a¤ ame ¬-m
n+ q-n¬r; +;¬ m l¤’¤r= ¬çt
;=rnrl ¤ç nr ¤rçnr ç l+ ¬r
+¸e +rt ¤ç +;nr ç, a=+ ¤r; m
a= ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln çr¬t ¤rlçe l+
a=+r +¸e ¬ +¸e ¤l;¤rrm l¬+e
;çr çl q= n¸m m ¤rn· =+rt rrmr
+t ar;rrr¬r ¤lçm¸ =rt ç nªrr
+¤e +m+r¤s n+ çt =tlmn çl
l¬=+r ¤l;¤rrm l¬+e¬r a=+.
+r¤ çl
ªr r s t ¤ç¸ n ar ;r rr ¬r e
a-nm¸ =rt ç ¤;-n¸ a¬+t ço mrnr
+ ¢r> n+ nrl¬ l+ arqr¤+ +
¬t¤ n+ çt çl çmr; rrm m-ªrr m
=¤”c le=rr ç l+ m¸ errrr; = e +;
arqr¤+ n+ mrnr +r ¢r > ç l
q== +rrln+ er+r nr lme =+nr
ç , ¤;-n¸ arrnrlrm+ er+r lme¬r
a=++r¤ çl 'arqr¤+ +r +ro¬
+;+ çt =rlr¤+ arnrrm ¬mng
m ¤¤’r l+nr ¬r =+nr çl'
mtnr + s¤ arnrn + tc¤
‘er+ m +rm¤r¬g ¬ =¤”c +çr
ç ·-
''ç a¬¸¬, ¤ger+ = e+;
=¤er + ¤¸ ¬;r¤nt =¤+rr¤ ¤re
ç, ¤;-n¸ ç +¸-nt ¤¸> m; +r ¤r¤n
çr +; ¤¸¬¬-m ¬çt çrnrl'' m;
= =+¤l-rrn er mr +r ¤ rn¢r
¤l;¤rrm lme ;ç çl +nrl+ nç
¤;m=rrr +t ‘rl+n +r çt ¤+rr¤
ç, ¬r l+ =r¤+rrm =rrr çl an·
q= ¤; l+=t rrm l¤’r”r nr ¬rln
l¤’r”r +r +rq e+ mr> alrr+r;
¬çt çl m¸q =¤”c ¤nr lonr mnr
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
23
105

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
am; ¤o
q= =¤rr m =n +¤t; or= ¬t ¬ +rt =¤”c ‘r-or m +çr ç·-
=rrrr +rrq ¬t¤n çt +;r ar’rrl
¬t¤n =m¸q ¬t¤n ¤¸q, ¬t¤n m¸l+n l¬¤r=rll
l¬nn +;m +t ¤r= ¬ +rlc, m¸e m¸l+n +t ar=rll
n¬ e¸c l¬¤ lme¬ +çn ç, =r =¤ q¸ot ar=rll
a¤ç¸ lmer =r n¤ç¸ lmemr, ¬lç nr ¬m¤¸; ¤r=rll
''+¤t;''
23
23
106
lç-o¸ o’r ¬ m l¬= ¤ +r;
m¬¸”n ‘r;t; +r çt =¤rrrm mlo;
+çr mnr ç, a=t ¤+r; ¤rq¤e
m +rt n¸ç-¬r z· zt m nt’r¸ ¬ +çr
ªrr ·- ''¤; nt’r¸ ¬ a¤¬ ‘r;t; +
ml-o; + l¤”rn m +çr ªrr''l q=+
alnl;¬ l¬+¬lel=rn a¤o ’rr +r
¬¤ ¤cn ç nr e=r emnr çl +rq
lç-o¸ =n a¤o’r o ;çr çl
mrrt :· z: ''n¸m =¸¬ ¤¸+ çr
l+ +çr mnr ªrr l+ ·nl+r¤r; ¬
+;¬rl ¤;-n¸ m n¸m= +çnr ç¸ l+
¬r +r q l+=t =>t ¤; +¸ ol¸ ”c sre ,
¤ç a¤¬ m¬ m a== ·nl+r¤r; +;
¤¸+rl'' mrrt : · :t ''nç +rt +çr
mnr ç l+ ¬r +rq a¤¬t ¤r¬t +r
rnrm o nr a= rnrm ¤> ol ¤;-n¸
m n¸ m= +çnr ç¸ l+ ¬r +r q a¤¬t
¤r¬t +r ·nl+r¤r; + l=¤rn l+=t
ar; +r;¤r = ers o nr ¤ç a==
·nl+r¤r; +;¤rnr çl
'' mrrt c· t = c · c n+
'=r¤rrr¬ ;çr l n¸ m m¬¸ ”nr +r
lo=rr¬ + lee a¤¬ rrm + +rm
¬ +;r, ¬çt nr a¤¬ =¤mtn l¤nr
= +¸e +rt ¤e ¬ ¤rarml q=lee
¬¤ n¸ or¬ +; nr a¤¬ arm n¸;çt
¬ ¤¬r, ¬=r +¤ct =+rrar ar;
mlenr m +;n ç nrl+ er m a¬+t
¤srq +;, m n¸+ç =¤ +çnr ç¸l
¤rql¤e m =¬rn¬ rrm +t qe+
¤rql¤e +r o=r +; m¸q e=r emr mr¬r =¬rn¬ rrm +t
¬+e çl nt’r¸ + a¤o’r = lç-o¸ =n +t qe+ lment çl
¤ a¤¬r ¤e ¤r ¤¸+l ¤;-n¸ ¬¤
n¸ or¬ +; nr ¬r n;r orlç¬r çrªr
+;nr ç, ¤rnr çrªr ¬ ¬r¬¬ ¤rnl
nrl+ n;r or¬ m¸¤n ;ç ar; n¤
n;r l¤nr ¬r m¸¤n m o=rnr ç, n¸q
¤ln¤e omrl'' q=t ¤+r; =+rt
rrrlm+ +rnr +r m¸¤n =¤ = +;¬
+ aro’r lon mn çl ¤o’r¬ +;¬
= a=+r ¤ln¤e q’¤; +t n;¤
= l+=t +rt çren m lme¬r =++r¤
¬çt çl nt’r¸ +çnr ªrr arm +nr
çrmr? a=+t l¤-nr mn +;rl
''+e + lee l¤-nr ¬ +;r,
+nrl+ +e +r lo¬ a¤¬t l¤-nr
ar¤ +;mrl ar¬ + lee ar¬ çt
+r o¸·=r ¤ç¸n çl'' q=+ aer¤r
==r; +t ar¤ln + l¤”rn m +çr
mnr çl n¸ç-¬r t·¡·-'' arlo m
‘r-o ªrr, ar; ‘r-o ¤;m’¤; +
=rªr ªrr, ar; ‘r-o ¤;m’¤; ªrrl
nçt arlo m ¤;m ’¤; + =rªr
ªrrl =¤ +¸e a=t + gr;r ar¤-¬
ç¸ar, ar; ¬r +¸e ar¤-¬ ç¸ar,
a=m = +rq +rt ¤=n¸ a=+ l¤¬r
ar¤-¬ ¬çt ç¸ql a=m ¬t¤¬ ªrr
ar; ¤ç ¬t¤¬ m¬¸”nr +t ¤nrln
ªrtl ¤nr ln a-rr+r; m ¤m+nt ªrt
ar; a-rr+r; ¬ a= mç¤r ¬çt
l+nrl q=t ¤+r; ¤rn· =+rt l=ç
r-n me =rrn çl ¤;-n¸ ¬=r ==r;
+ =+rt rrmr m ç¸ar, q=rqnr ¬
+rt rrm + =+rt l¬nm +r m +; lon l
l¤¤rç =+¤-rrr + ¤r; m nr ¤ ¤¸¤r
=¤ = aln¤rot çr mnl ç; =>t
ar; ¤¸=”r +t nt¬ ¤r; ‘rrot çr¬r
ar; rnrm¬r arm ¤rn çl nt’r¸ ¬
l¬= ·nl+r¤r; +t =qr ot ç, ¤ç
l=çr-n nr ¤¸¤r =¤ = rnrm lonr
mnr çl l¬n¬r rrrlm+ l=çr-nr
+r aln+m¤r ¤l’¤mt ¬mng m
ç¸ ar ç ar ; +çt ¬çt ç¸ ar ç l +rr;n
m l¤; +rt l+=t ço n+ rrrlm+
mnrorar +r ¤re¬ çr ;çr çl +re
çt = =r; + er m çm =c t¤rot +ç ,
çmr;r o’r a+rt ¤rl;l>+ o¸l”c =
¤ç¸n ot+ çl
==r; + =+rt rrm =tmr errr
¤¸+ ç, +¤e +rrln+ n;++t =
am; ==r; m ‘rrl-n çr =+nt nr
¤l’¤mt ¬mng m ¤¸¤r ‘rrl-n çr¬t
¤rlçe ªrt, ¤;-n¸ q=+ l¤¤;tn
a¬ o’rr m =¤= alrr+ a’rrl-n
çl çmr; o’r m +rt ¤s ¤s ‘rç;r
m ¤l’¤m +t ¬+e, ¬çr l¬n¬t
alrr+ ç ¤çr an¬t çt a’rrl-n
alrr+ çl ¬r ¢r> q= ç¤r = ¤¤r
ç¸ ar ç ,¤çr +r ¬t¤¬ alrr+
‘rr-n çl
a¤ nr ¤l’¤m + erm +¤e
‘rrl-n +t =rr¬ + lee ¤ln¤”r
'+rr;n =·¤t =¤n>nr', ;r¬¬ln+ a=>r + mrrnm = ¬çt
¤;¬g arrnrlrm+ a-¬ln + gr;r çt ¤r¤n +;mrl - ~t a;.
= o g m ¸ = o ¤
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
107
''+m-l¤+r= m amer +om
¬r m¬¸ ”n +r e+ a·¤n; ar ;
l¤’rren; ¤n¬r m aor e ¬rnmr
ar; a¬ =m=nrar +r çe +;¬r
¤r;++r +; omr, l¬¬ =m=nrar m
m¬¸ ”n +r n+rt = ç ;r¬ a ; ¤; ’rr¬
+; ;=rr ç, ¬¤ = a=¬ ¤nl+n+
¤¸¤rnr ar; ¤¸¤r =mr¬ + l¤”rn m
=r¤¬r-l¤¤r;¬r ‘r¸= l+nr ªrrl
nç a+rt n+ e+ ·nl¬ mn
ar’rr ar; l¤¤r; ar; aro’rmr>
ç l¬=¬ +rr;n ar; ¤l’¤m m, or.
¬r ¬mç o¸;o’rt l¤¤r;+r +r ¤’r
m +;¬r ‘r¸= +; lonr çl
q= mrm +t +lo¬rqnr ¤ nr=
+ l+=t +rt a-n ¢r> +t a¤¢rr
¤ç¸n alrr+ ¬¤;o=n ç, ¤;-n¸
+lo¬rqnr ¬tnt ¬r¬ + lee çt
¤¬t ªrt ar; nlo lo·n ¤;m q·er
‘rl¬ +r al=n¤r¤ ç nr ¤ o¸;
çrmt çtl nçr +rt nlo q= l¤+r=
+r çr ¬r ç nr , ¤¸ l+ nç arrmr ar ;
a-n; ¤n¬r +t al+r¤¸lç gr;r çt
çrmr, q=+r ¤r;++r +rr;n ¤”r çt
+; =+nr ç ar ; nol¤ q=+r
¢r > =r¤ +rr m çr mr, nªrrl¤ + -qtn
arore¬ +rr;n çt +;mrl''
+rl-n o’rt ~t a;l¤-o ¬
¤çe çt a= =mn +r o=r lenr
ªrr, ¬¤ +rr;n rrm ar ; +m +
¬mng m ==r; +r ¬n¸r¤ +;mrl
n+rt nr a-çr ¬ =¤”c +çr ç
''am; =¤ +¸ e ¬”c +r ”c çr
¬rn nr +rt m a= l¤¬r’r + ¤;
¬n =¸¬¬ +t ;rç o=r¸mrl ar¬
==r; m +rr;n +t
+r¸lm+r + =+¤-rr m ~t a;l¤-o + +ªr¬
==r; m ¬r +¸e çr ;çr ç, a==
m ¬;r +rt ¬çt rr¤;rnrl m ¬r¬nr
ªrr l+ rrc¬re e=r =¤ emtl ;çt
¤rn ¤r lç+ aro’r ¤rlonr +tl
m¬ a¬+t ar’rrar +r ++rt ¬çt
=¤t+r;r, q=lee m l¬;r’r +rt
¬çt çrnrl''
'¤ r¤t¬ +re m ¬¤ +rm¤r¬g
a¤nr; en ªr nr =rªr çt orn +rt
arnr +;n ªr ¬r +rm¤r¬g +r
l¤;r rr +;n ªr l nç ;tln =or = çm
o=rn ç l+ a¤¬ ¤¸¤r l¤¬r’r n+
ornr ¬ l+=t +rt n¸m m +rm¤r¬g
+t =rrr +r =¤t+r; ¬çt l+nr çl
an· q= n¸m +r a-n +rt ot+ ¤=
çt çrmrl
q= =+¤-rr m ¤r= + ¤l=ç
+rl¤”nq”cr ~t ¬r=>r om= ¬
a¤¬t ¤¸=n+ =¤¸;t¬ m +rt =r¤
l¤>¤r l+nr çl ''=rm; + ¬rm
(lç-o mçr=rm;¸ ¤re a= rrm
(lç-o¸¸ +t l¤¬n ‘r¸= çrmt''l
''e+ l¬nm ‘r¸ -n ;¤et¤r
+ l¬¤rn + l¤=ç, lç-o¸ar ar;
q =rqnr + ¤t¤ ¤ = ¬re m , ¤ ¤n¸ ;
;¬ ere¸¤ +rlmn erm''l +>r sc
=¤¸;t tal
m ; l¤¤r; = nç m¸ =emr¬r +
a-n +t n;¤ q’rr;r çl
= ¤¸ ;t t + + >r :a +t
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt rnr¬ o¬ nr·n ç
''l¬= ¤rngt¤ m nt¬ =m¸q lmen
ç,
¤çr ¤¸ç=¤ln¤r; + ¤¸¬r;t ¤t; ¬-m
em,
el’rnr m a-ç ;r +¬ +r ¤ nr=
¤rme¤¬ çrmrl
l¬¬ ermr ¬ lç-o¸ ==+¸ln
+r, a¤¬ ‘rr=¬ + or;r¬, ¬”c
+;¬ +r ¤nr= l+nr, a¬+r a-n
+;+ lç-o¸ ==r; m =¬rn¬ rrm +t
¤nr+r ¤ç;r oml q= =+¤¬rr m
=¤¸;t m le=rr ç ·-
¤ç +rr;ntn ¬nr nç¸lonr +t
=çrnnr = ;rm ar; a=+ lm>r
+t n;¤ ¤cmr,
a¬+ n¸ ç ¤r n etl¤nr =
arm
¤rql¤e ¤c¬ ¤rer +t mrn
+t lo’rr m ¤cml
m¸=emr¬ lm~ +r m¸ln¤¸¬+
+çn ç l = ¤¸ ;t + a¬¸ =r; lm~ ar ;
q¬;rqe, nt=; l¤’¤ n¸ ç m +rr;n
+r =rªr o m l = ¤¸ ;t m le=rr ç ==
m =r+n¤ro =mr¤n çr ¬rn mr,
nªrr == ar; aml;+r or¬r +r.
r;n = lm>nr +; eml +rr;n nt=;
l¤’¤ n¸ç +r ¬n¸r¤ +;mr ar; n
or¬r ar¬ +t mçr’rl+nnr a=+r
=rªr omtl
q= ¤+r; zt ¤t =ot m +rr;n
a¤¬ ¤¸;rn¬ =¤l¤rm n¸m m ¤¸¬·
¤¤’r +;, ==r; m ‘rrl-n =ªrrl¤n
+;mrl
+rr;ntn ¬ nr l¤¬n-o¸ m = arm
¤cm
e=l¬= + ¤r; ¤r= ¤ç¸¤ ¬reml
=m¸ q m rr ar ; ¤¤ +r ;r¤n ¬tn
em
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
108
= =r; +r; + ¤ r¤rt ¬r +¸ e
+;n ar ;ç ç ar; arm l+= +r
+nr +;¬r ç, nç =¤ ¤¸¤ l¬l’¤n
ç l l>m¸ ¤rmnt mrnr = +r lmn
ç¸ar mr¬¤ =¤n +r +nr mr¬+;
¬-m-m;¤r + ¤++; m ¤=r ç¸ar
çl mtnr + nt=; arnrn + zc¤
‘er+ m +rm¤r¬g ¬ =¤”c +çr
ç ·'
¤+¸n· l+nmr¤rrl¬
m¸¤r· +mrl¤r =¤’r·l
aç+r; l¤m¸crrmr
+nrçlmln m-nnll zcll
(ç a¬¸¬l ¤r=n¤ m ¸ =¤¸¤
r +m ¤+¸ln + m¸¤rr gr;r l+n ç¸e
çl (nr +rt¸ aç+r; = mrlçn ç¸e
a-n· +;¤r¤rer ¤¸=”r m +nr ç¸,
e= mr¬ enr ç q= ar; =¤”c
+;n ç¸ e +rm¤r¬ ¬ mtnr + ts
¤ arnrn + ct ¤ ‘er+ m +çr
==r; +t ¤¸¤r ·n¤=ªrr
¤¸¤ l¬l’¤n ·n¤=ªrr + a¬¸=r; çrnt
ç ·-
q’¤;·=¤+r¸nr¬r
âís’ks•tqZu frf”BfrA
+rrmn-=¤+r¸nrl¬
n->r=crl¬ mrnnrll ctll
ç a¬¸ ¬ ‘r;t;=¤ n-> m
ar=c ç¸ e = ¤¸ ¤r ¤ rl¤rnr +r
a-nnrmt ¤;m’¤; a¤¬t mrnr
= +r;mrnr ç¸ar, =¤ +r¸n ¤rl¤rnr
+ pon m l=ªrn çl q= =+¤-rr
m mtnr + tt¤ arnrn + ::¤ ar;
:¡¤ ‘er+ m +rm¤r¬g ¬ +çr çl
n=nrr¤m¸lrr”o n’rr e+r=¤
l¬r¤r ‘r>¸-n¸sg¢¤
;r¤n =m¸çmgl
mn¤n l¬çnr· ¤¸¤m¤ l¬lmrr
mr> +r¤ =·n=rl¤¬g ll ::ll
qr¤r ¤ +rt”m ¤ ¬nqªr ¤
+¤r nªrr-nr¬l¤ nrrr¤t;r¬gl
mnr çnr=r¤ ¬lç mr ·nlªr”or
n¸rn=¤ ¬nrlç;¤r =¤r¬r¬gll
q== n¸ =rs r çr (ar ;¸
n’r +r ¤r¤n +; (nªrr¸ ‘r>¸ar
+r ¬tn+; rr¬-rrr-n = =+¤-¬
;r¤n +r +rr m (ar ;¸ nç =¤
(’r¸;¤t;¸ ¤çe = çt m; gr;r mr;
ç¸e çl ç =·n=rl¤¬l (n¸ nr ¸
+¤e l¬lmrrmr> çt çr ¬rl
qr¤r¤rn ar; +rt”ml¤nrmç
nªrr ¬nqªr ar; +¤r nªrr ar;
+rt ¤ç¸n = m; gr;r mr; ç¸e ‘r¸; ¤t;
nr çrar +r n¸ mr; (ar ;¸ +rn mn
+; l¬·=-oç (n¸¸ n¸ç m ¤l;nr
+r ¬tnmr, q=lee n¸ç +;l
q ’¤; +r a¤nr; nrml=+
=rrr + l¤¬r’r + lee çt çrnr
çl nt=; l¤’¤ n¸ç m or lnçrq
¬¬= =nr =rrm çr ¬ +r =¤”c
aªr ç l+ ~t a;l¤-o +t rrr”r¤rr
e=t açn¸+t +¸¤r = lmet oren çt m ==r; m ¤rc¬ l¬+e ¤sr
ç¸l m;r q=m +¸e +rt ¬çt çl m nr mr> a= ¤;m arrmr +r =¤+ ç¸l m
nr =¤r + ¤oe m¬o¸;t mr> +r alrr+r;t ç¸l ¬r +¸e ¤rc ;çr ç¸, a=
rr¬ ¤; m;r ;lrr +r; +rt alrr+r; ¬çt çl
z: ¤;¤;t tsss
• m¸q =¤”c ¤nr lonr mnr ç l+ ç; ¤l;¤n¬ +r =mn
=¸l¬l’¤n çl =mn ar¬ ¤; =r;t ¤l;l=ªrlnnr a¬¸+¸e çr+; ªrrs =
¤nr= = çt =r; +rn =+¤¸¤r çr ¬rnml
at mr¤ tsss
açn¸+t +¸¤r
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere¬t l=nrm
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
109
m; ¬= =rrrr;¤r ·nl¬ +
mrrnm = , ¤ +r¸ ¬r +¸ e +;¤r¬
¬r ;ç ç, ¤ç +rr;t a¤++r +t ¤rn
çl ¬r +¸e m; mrrnm = çr¬ ¬r
;çr ç, a=+ ¤r; m ==r; + arm
·nl¬ + =rm¬ am; m ¤nr¬
em¸ nr m l¬l’¤n nr; ¤; ¤¸¤r =¤
= ¤rme rrrl”rn +; lonr ¬ramrl
= =r; m e+ ; lm=nr¬t +rrm ¤; e+
m;t¤ +t +·¤t qr ¤s t m ¤ or ¤ r¤rt
= =r; m ¬r +¸ e +;¬ ¬r ;çr ç , ¤ç
q’¤; +r +rr;t ¤mr+r; çl =¬g
tss¡ m n¸ç-¬r +r t: · zc,z: nªrr
tc · : = t: +r a’r ¤c¬ ¤; m¸q
¤st l¬qr=r ç¸q l+ nç m; ¤’¬
+r +=r arr; lmerl ¤nr emr¬
¤; m¸q mre¸m ç¸ar l+ ¤ç a’r nr
q=rqnr +t ¤l¤> rrrlm+ ¤¸=n+
'¤rq¤e' +r a’r ªrrl
a¬rnr= m¸q +¸e lo¬r ¤ro
¤rq¤e +r e+ +rrm The New
Testament lme mnrl ¤ç ¤¸=.
n+ e+ lç-ot a¬¸¤ro ªrtl m¸e
+rr”rr +r lç-ot a¬¸ ¤ro ¤ç¸ n men
aªr =mqr ;çr ªrrl q= ¤; m¬
¤t. + . ‘rmr ¬rm+ ; e¤ a=¤nre,
¤t+r¬ ; +t m c¸ ¬ = m¸ e +rr”rr
+t ¤rq¤e etl a=+ l¤’r”r or
a’r m¬ m;t srn;t m le=r, ¬r
l+ m; = =+¤l-rrn ç, l¬= ¤;m
=rrr ¬ m¸q lo=rrnr ar a¬+t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln +;¤rql
St. Johntc · tz = t: +t =+rt
¤rn ¬¤ =·¤t ¤mrl¤rn çr¬ emt
nr m¸q +rr;t ar’¤n çr¬ emrl
e+ lo¬ m¬ =r¤r q= ar¬-o +
¤r; m ¤rq¤e m +nr +çr ç, nr
+rm¤r¬g +t mrnr +r =re ¤sr l¤l¤> çl
m¸q ¤;¤rr lmet l+ St. John t:
· tt nªrr +r¬¬ =lçnr z: · : ¤c¸l
¬¤ m¬ a= a’r +r ¤cr nr +rr;t
a¤++rr ç¸arl ¬r +¸e le=rr ªrr,
ot+ ¤=r çt ar¬-o m; gr;r m;
l’r”nr m ¤e ;çr ªrrl q= ¤; m¸q
l¤¤r; arnr l+ m¸q nr ar;rrr¬r
l¤’r”r + +r;¤r e=r çr ;çr ç,
¤;-n¸ m¸q= ¬¸s¬ ¤re ermr +r
e=r +nr çr ;çr ç, q= ¤; m¸q
¤ l;nr + +rm +r t· : +r a ’r
lo=rrnr mnrl a= ¤c +;, m +¸e
+rt ¬çt =mqrl l¤¤r; arnr l+
m¸q= =+¤l-rrn =+rt ermr +r
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr l+= +r;¤r = çr
;çt ç? q= ¤; m¸q St. John : ·
: = s n+ +r a’r ¤c¬ +r aro’r
lmerl a= ¤c¬ =, m =mqr l+
nç lç-o¸ o’r¬ + lg¬ ¤¬¬ +
l=çr-n +t ¤rn çl
m;t ar;rrr¬r +r n;t+r nr
lç-o¸ o’r ¬ + a= l=çr-n ¤;
arrrrl;n ç l+ =r;r ¤ gr¤s
a-o; ç l an· a= ¤;m=rrr =
=+¤+ a-nm¸=rt ç¸e l¤¬r a=+.
+r¤ çl q= ¤; m¸q St. John z ·
ts = zt nªrr zCoriuthiaws +r c·
tc +rrm o=r¬ +t ¤;¤rr lmetl
m¸q a¤n¸¬ nªnr ¬ ¤ç¸n
¤+rrl¤n l+nrl l¤¤r; arnr ==r;
+ ermr ¬ =¤rªr¤’r aem-aem
rrm ar; =+¤orn ¤¬r+; a¬+
o+or; ¤¬ ¤o çl q’¤; ¬ l¬n¬
+rt =n ¤or l+n, ¤ ==r; + =+rt
¤rl¤rnr + lee +rn +; mn çl
lç-o¸ m¸=emr¬, q=rq, nç¸ot,
¤rç ¬¬ arlo =+rt mr¬¤tn ¤¸lç
+r ¤mr+r; çl
e+ lo¬ l¤¤r; arnr l+ q=
=mn nr ¤ç¸n +m ermr = =+¤+
ç ¤;-n¸ l¬= =mn ==r; + l¤l+.
r-¬ ermr = =+¤+ çrmr nr l¤;
+=t l=ªrln çr mt? q= ¤; +m
¤l;nr + +rm z · t¡ = ts +r o=r¬
+t ¤;¤rr lmetl z · ::
a¤n¸ ¬ nªnr +r o =r +; m¸ q
¤s r a¤++rr çr ;çr ç l or ç¬r; ¤”r
¤çe ¬r nªn e+ mçr¬g arrmr
¬ ¤nre, ¤ =+rt m; ¬= =rrrr;¤r
·nl¬ = ¤mrl¤rn çrn o=r ¤sr
a·r++rr çr ;çr çl ¤rq¤e ar;
mtnr m le=rt =+rt ¤rn , m +rr ln+
¬mng m ¤mrl¤rn +;¬ +t l=ªrln
m ç¸l aln ‘rtrr =+rt nªn ==r;
+r; m ¤+c çr¬ ¤re çl
¤+r¸ +t eter l¤l¤> çl
q=rqnr +t ¤ªrm St. John
gr;r le=rt ''¬t¤¬ +r mrm ''
=¬g tss¡ m a¬rnr= ¤c¬ +r
lmetl ¤;-n¸ ¤rq¤e m ¤l¤rn
¤rnr +t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ lnnr nªrr
=r¢rrr+r; ¤ç¸n ¤çe = ¤r;++r
çr mn ªr l The new Testa-
ment nr =¬g tssc + al-nm
lo¬r m lmer, q=+ ¤ro =+rt
nªnr +r, ¬r ¤rq¤e m or ç¬r;
=re ¤çe le=r lonr mnr ªrr,
+rn=¤ m m; mrrnm = ¤l;l¤rn
çrn ç¸e, ¤;m=rrr gr;r lo=rrnr
mnrl ¤st l¤l¤> ¤rn çl ¤l’¤mt
¬mng +r =¤t+r; +;¬ m +rr;t
mr¬l=+ ¤; ’rrl¬nr +r =rm¬r
+;¬r ¤smrl ¤;-n¸ =r¬ +r ¬m
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¬çt emnrl arl=r; =·¤rq +r
=¤t+r; +;¬r çt ¤smrl arq-=.
ct¬ ¬ ¬r l=çr-n ¤ ln¤rlon
l+nr ç l+ a¬rlo+re = ¤r e mn
‘r-o ¤gr¤s m ar¬ +rt mr¬¸o çl
a= ¤qrl¬+ a¤+;¤r = =¸¬ ¬r
=+n çl m +çnr ç¸, ‘r-o çt ¬çt
=+rt rrc¬rar + o¸’n +rt ¤rç ¤
+r¸n+re +t ç nr +rl¤”n m rrc¬
¤ret ç, o=r =¸¬ ¬r =+n çl m
q= ¤mrl¤rn +;¬ +t l=ªrln m ç¸l
nt’r¸-m¸=r nr +e ç¸e ªrl
m¬ e+ ¤r; e+ o¸’n o=rrl
m l+=t =rm; +r ¤r; +;+ a=+
l+¬r; ¤ç¸¤rl a= =rm; m ¤ç¸n
a ¤t-a ¤t eç; ao ;çt ªrtl ¤;-n¸
a== ¤rç; l¬+e¬ + lee l¬¬
¤cgcr¬r ¤; ¤c¬r ªrr, ¤ç qn¬t
a¤t ªrt l+ m; çrªr +t ¤+s =
¤rç; ªrtl a¤r¬+ +nr o=rnr ç¸
l+ e+ ¤ç¸ n çt ¤le”c ·nl¬ ot+
m; a¤; ¤ret ¤cgcr¬ ¤; ar+;
=rsr çr mnr ar; q¸+ +; a¤¬r
orlç¬r çrªr m ;t n;¤ ¬t¤ +t ar ;
¤cr lonrl m¬ a=+r orlç¬r çrªr
m; orlç¬ çrªr = ¤+s lenr ar;
a=+ =çr; q¸e¬ emrl m¬ =r¤r
¤ç m¸q =rt¤ +; l¬+re emr,
¤;-n¸ a=¬ e+ q¤ +rt m¸q a¤;
¬çt l=r ¤r, ¤;-n¸ m ;r çrªr m¬¤¸ nt
= ¤+s ;çr, ersr ¬çtl m ¤ç¸n
¤; ’rr¬ ç¸ ar =r ¤r +nr l+nr ¬rnl
l¤; m¬ m; orlç¬ çrªr +t nr+n
+ =çr; m; ‘r;t; +r =+rrer ar;
m; ¤rn ¤; +r a¤; l+¬r; +t
n;¤ ¤crnrl =nrm = m; ¤re ¤;
+r am¸or a¤; +t ¤cgcr¬ +
a¤; lc+ mnr ar; a= ¤; ‘r;t;
+r ¤¬¬ =+rren ç¸e orlç¬ çrªr
+t ‘rl¬ = ‘r;t; +r a¤; c+en
ç¸e ¤rç; ar mnrl
¤çe m¸ q l¤e+¸ e +rt a+mto
¬çt ªrt l+ m¸q ¤rç; l¬+e¬ m
=¤enr lme ¬rn mt +nr l+ a¤;
=rs r aln¤le”c ·nl¬ m¸ q ¤rç;
l¤e+¸e ¬çt =rt¤ ;çr ªrrl
an· ¬¤ m ¤rç; l¬+e +;
a=+ orlç¬t n;¤ =rsr çr mnr
nr m¸q +rr;t ¤=-¬nr ç¸ql q=+
nr+re ¤ro ¤ç o¸ ’n =rrm çr
mnrl ar ; =+rt ¤rn ¤rq¤e =
lme +; ¤= çt =çt ¤mrl¤rn çr
;çt ç, ¬=r a=m le=rr çl e+
lo¬ a¤; + o¸’n +t ¤rn nro ar
mq ar; =r¤r a¬ o¸’n +r aªr
ar n+ =mq m t arnrl q=
¤; m¸q ¤l;nr + +rm + z · :: +
o=r¬ +t ¤;¤rr lmetl a= ¤c+;
m¸ q +rr;t a¤++rr ç¸ arl =r ¤r
¤;mrrmr l+= ¤+r; ¬t¤¬ m çr¬
¤ret rrc¬rar +r l¬l’¤n =mn
¤; a¤¬ gr;r l¬l’¤n l+n ç¸e
n;t+ = =mqr ;çr çl mr¬¤tn
¤¸lç l¬= ¤rn +t ++rt +r¤¬r +rt
¬çt +; =+nt, q’¤; ¢r¤r +r; m
a= =++r¤ +;+ +rn =¤ m ¤l;l¤
rn +; onr çl
m¸q +rr;t a¤++rr çr ;çr çl
e+ ¤r; m ¬ q ’¤; = ¤ rªr ¬r +t ªrt
l+ m¸q ¬= =rrrr;¤r ·nl¬ = n
a=++r¤ +rn +nr +;¤r ;ç ç?
+¸ ¤nr l+=t nr ·n ar ; a¤n¸ ¬
·nl¬ +r nç +rn =r¤l l¬=+t
==r; m ¤ln”or ar; =rmrl¬+
mr-nnr çr , q= ¤; m¸ q arr; lmer
l+ nç =¤ n¸q çt +;¬r ç, ar;
l+=t +r ¬çt =r¤r ¬r =+nrl''
an· ao¸ ’n =rrr + q’rr;
23
23
110
''l¤’¤ +r l¬= ¤+r; l¤¬r’r ‘rtrr çr¬ ¤rer ç, a=+r ¤¸¤r+rr= q= ¤”r (tss:¸ m ç¬ nr>r + =mn m
al·¬+rs + =¤ m ¤+¸ln ¬ ¤r;++r +; lonr çl em+rm ¬r =rer m ¤+¸ln +r nç ¬rc+ ¤¸;r çrmrl o’r¤r ¤”r
¬n n¸m +r ¤r;++r çrmrl q= ¤+r; =¬g zaza n+ =+¤¸¤r mr¬¤ ¬rln a¤¬ a=et =¤=¤ m aªrrng lo·n
=¤ m =¤r-nl;n çr ¬r¤mt aªrrng ¤¸¤rnr ¤r¤n +; emtl q= lo·n ¤l;¤n¬ +r m¸=n +r;¤r ¤lo+ o’r¬
m ¤l¤rn o’r¤ a¤nr; +r a¤n;¤r çrmrl l¬=+r ¤¤r¬ mçr¬g arrmr nt’r¸ ¬ mªn¸ z:·:t m =¤”c ‘r-or m
l+nr çl ar¬ m q= ;ç=n +r ==r; +r am; ¤nr +rt o¸ nr +rt m;t ¤rn +r l¤’¤r= +rq ¬çt +;mrl ar; m¸q
a+rt q= ;ç=n ¤; = ¤or çcr¬ +r aro’r +rt ¬çt çl an· qn¬r çt le=r +; =mr¤n +;nr ç¸l rr-n¤rol
(;rm ¬¤mt + ¤r¤¬-¤¤ ¤; l=¤ qn¬r çt le=r¬ +r aro’r çl¸
tc.¡.tss:,¬rrr¤¸;
n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +r ¤r;++r
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

s.s.tsss
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
l¤”¤r¸ ¤¸ ;r¤r =¤”c +çnr ç l+
+len¸m m ¤rg¤rr¤, ¢rl>nr¤
nªrr ¤’nr¤ +r ¤¸¤r =¤ = ¤n¬
çr ¬rnr ç l e+ mr> ‘r¸ qr¤ +r
=rm r¤n ;ç ¬rnr ç l nç nr¤ a¤¬
m¸¤r-rrm = ==r; + =+rt ¬t¤r +r
=¤re¬ +; ;çr çl nçt +r;¤r ç
==r; m ¤¸¤r =¤ = nrml=+ =rrr
+r =rmr¤n çl
q’¤; + ¬rm +t ars m =+rt
erm nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +r a¤nrm
+; ;ç çl arm ·nl¬ +rt q=t n¸m
+ m¸ ¤rrrm = ¤ +rrl¤n çr ¬ + +r;¤r
+¸e +rt ¬çt =mq ¤r ;çr çl e=
rrm m¸=ar +t ==r; + =+rt rrmr
m ¤rc =t ar mq çl q= =+¤-rr
m =mªr m¸ = ;rmor= ¬t mçr;r¬ ¬
¤ç¸n çt =¤”c ·nr=nr +t çl
ln-çt er+ ¬ª¸r¬ l¬mr¤r ¬rel
nnr o¤;rnrl=+r¤rt ¬ ¤rell
¬mt ªrr;er o¤ nr ¤r;er=l
m¸=¤t¤r nr =¤ªrrçt ¬ ot=ll
nt¬r er+ - +r¸er+, o¸er+,
¤rnreer + ¬çr = ar¤-¬ ç¸ e a=
=¤~”o ¤;¤g o¤rlrro¤ ~t;rm
+r +rq ¬çt +çnrl ¬m m, =¤r.
rrm o¤nr ¤¸;rnr mnr çl a=+ ¤r.
;t ¤e ¬r¬ + ¤’¤rn ¤ç lo=rrq
¬çt o ;çr çl a= =¤o¤rlrro¤ +t
¤r;t +t nr mnt ç, l+-n¸ =ogm¸=
=¤t m¸¤n¤; +t =çrnnr + l¤¬r,
¤ç ¬çt ot=r =+mrl
(a¤ =mªr =ogm¸ =o ¤,
=ogm¸ = +t ¤;t¢rr + = +;¬t
n¸m + m¸¤r-rrm =
==r; + =+rt ¤r¤rt ¤+rrl¤n çrn çl
¤rlçe, nç =mqrn ç¸
m¸= ¤rçnr ¤rçnr e¢r +rctl
¤ç¸=re m>r¤et ‘rl¬ mrotll
m¬t +rm¬r ¤c+ rrrnmrnrl
¬¬t ·nªr ; nr ¬·ç m¸l¬ ornr ll
tsall
m¸ =ar +r o =rn -o =rn
er=rr +;rsr, m¸= lmeml ¤ ¤ç¸n
¤”rr n+ m> gr;r ¤n¸;rq = a¤¬
+rtn; ¬ro¸m;t +t ¤st ‘rl¬ gr;r
+rm¬r ¤¸ln +; ermr +r a¤¬
¤m¸e m l¤-nrml¤r =o¸’r a¤¬t
m> ‘rl¬ + ¤+rr¤ = çt ¤=rn
l¤;n çl e= erm ·nªr çrn çl ¤
mr¢r ornr- =ogm¸=-¤o ¤r¬ +
alrr+r;t ¬çt çrn l
¬·ç ¤c+t ¤re+¸ q·nmro¸l
¬·ç l¬o+¸ m-== +rl¬ mo¸ll
¬·ç a-mn¸ ¤=¬t =m¤rrr¸l
¬mt qrl¬nr nrl¤ =rrr¸ amrrr¸ll
tstll
¬r ¬ro¸ +;¬ ¤rer çrnr ç,
ermr + =+m¸=r ot¬nr lo=rr+;
arçgero ar¤-¬ +;¬ ¤rer
nr lmªnr ¤’r=r +;¬ ¤rer çrnr
ç nªrr a¤¬ =rrr¸r¤ +r ¤o’r¬
+; ermr = ¤=r e¸c¬ ¤rer q·n
er +rt çr nr ç , ¤ç =ogm¸ =-¤o +r
alrr+r;t ¬çt çrnrl
¤ç l+=t +t l¬-or ¬çt
+;nr, l+=t = mrr=n t ;=rnr,
a-mrr ¬çt çr nr, ·n=¬t ¬çt
çrnr nªrr ¤¸;t =mln m ¬çt ;çnrl
¬r ¤¸;t =mln m ¤rrrr sre¬¤rer
qr¬ =+¤-¬ çrnr ç, ¤çt amrrr
qr¬t ·nl¬ =rrr¸ çl e=r ¬r¬¬r
¤rlçel
¬·ç ¤ramt ¤rç¸ct +rm ¤r.
ctl
l+n¤t¤r ¤r¤renr nl¤ mrotll
m¸=r ¤rlernr=rl;=r ¤renr çl
m¬r =ogm¸= nrl¤ ‘rrrr¸l¬ ¤rçll
tszll
¤ç ·nl¬ ¤¸me=rr; ¬çt çr.
nrl a=+ a-n;m m +rm +rr¤¬r
¬çt çr ntl a=m l+nr + l¤¬r
¤r¤renr ¬çt çr nt ¤ç m¸ =r = ¤r e
mn ‘r-or +r ¤ =r çt ar¤;¤r +;¬
m =mªr çrnr çl ç m¬l q¬ e¢r¤
rr = n¸¬ ·nl¬ +r çt =ogm¸=
=mq¬r ¤rlçel
¬¬t +r¬ qr¬t l¤¤+t l¤;rmtl
+¸¤re¸ m¬=¤t ¢rmr¤n nrmtll
¤+r¸ o¢r ·n¸r¤-¬ ¤rn¸n ¬r¤rl
¬nr¤ l¬ nr m =mrrrr¬ ¤r¤r ll
ts:ll
¤ç =ogm¸ = ¤o +r alrr+r;t
+r¬ çrnr ç ar; l¤¤+ ¤;rmn
=+¤-¬ +¸ ¤re¸ , m¬=¤t, ¢rmr’rte,
nr mt, =mªr arn-n =r¤rrr¬,
·n¸r¤-¬ (¤rn¸r¤-¬mln¤rer¸ ,
¤rn¸ n =+¤-¬ nªrr = mln +;¬ ¤;
=mrrrr¬ +t ¤rl¤n +;r+; =mrrr.
r¬t ¤¬r¬ ¤rer çrnr çl
¬·ç nl¤ ¬re ¬= nl¤ arel
+er erme =¤¬¬r¤l¬ ¤rell
al¬¤r·n n ¤r·n ¤r¤ ¤or¤
m¬r = n ar¬ n ‘rr rrtn ¬r¤ ll
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
23
111
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ts¡ll
¬r ¤çe ¬çt ªrr, ¤ç çr mnr,
¬r ¬çt arnr ªrr, ¤ç ar mnrl
=¤¬¬ +t ¤r¤rt + +r;¤r ar+e¬
çr¬ emrl ¬r al¬¤r·n ªrr, ¤ç
¤r·n çr mnrl a= ¤r¤rt = ¤re¬r
¤rlçel =n-=mln = a¬-n ¤g
+t =rr¬ +;¬t ¤rlçel
q=t ¤+r; =n =ogm¸= +t
mlçmr m mt;r¤rq nr nçr n+
+ç mq ·-
''m¸=-mrl¤-o or¬r =rs,
l+=+ erm¸ ¤r¤l
¤leçr;t m¸=o¤ +t ,
mrl¤-o lonr lmern''ll
=n +¤t; ¬ +rt q= =+¤-rr
m +çr ç ·-
''+¤t;r ''rrr;r'' amm +t,
=ogm¸= ont e=rrnl
aec nrlç ¤lcn =or,
=¤rmt =m emrnll''
a¤n¸ ¬ nªnr = =¤”c çr nr ç
l+ q= =mn ==r; m += rrm m¸=
¤+c çr ;=r ç, nçt +r;¤r ç l+
q= =mn ==r; m +rr;t a-rr+r;
·nr¤n ç +nrl+ q= =mn +rq
+rt ar;rrr¬r ¤rn¢r ¤l;¤rrm ¬çt
o ;çt ç, an· ermr +r l¤’¤r= çt
=rrm ¬çt ç¸ ar, er mr ¬ rrm m¸ =ar
+ l¤=ç l¤qrç n+ +; lonr çl
e=t +rn+; l=ªrln ¬¤ +rt ==r;
m ç¸q ç, n¤ a= ¤;m =rrr +r
a¤n;¤r = =r; m ç¸ ar ç l q=
=+¤-rr m mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o ¬
+rt +çr ç ''==r; m mr¬¤ ¤n¬r
m alnmr¬= nrl¬ +r armm¬
a¤’n++rr¤t çl''
23
23
112
~t +¸ ”¤r ¬ a¤n¸ ¬ nt¬r
¤¸lrrnr +r ¬;+ +r gr; +çr çl
+rm¤r¬g ¬ e =t ar=¸ ;t ¤ +¸ ln
¤re m¬¸”nr +t ·nr=nr +;n ç¸e
+çr ç ·-
aç+r; ¤e o¤
+rm +rrr ¤ =l~nr·l
mrmrrm¤;oç”r¸
izf}”kUrks•H;lw;dk%AA
aç +r;, ¤e, rrm s, +rm¬r,
ar; +rrrrlo + ¤;rn¤r ç¸e, o¸=;r
+t l¬-or +;¬ ¤re ¤¸=”r a¤¬
ar ; o¸ =;r + ‘r;t; m (l=ªrn¸ m¸ q
a-nnrmt = g”r +;¬ ¤re çl
nr¬ç lg”rn· +¸;r--
==r;”r¸ ¬;rrrmr¬gl
+rm, +rrr nªrr er+r ¬;+ + gr; çl
l¢r¤r+n¬=>m’r¸+rr-
¬r=¸l;”¤¤ nrl¬”r¸ll
a¬ g”r +;¬ ¤re ¤r¤r¤r;t
(ar ;¸ +¸ ;+mt ¬;rrrmr +r m = .
=r; m ¤r;+¤r; ar=¸ ;t nr l¬nr m çt
lm;rnr ç¸ l
ç a¬¸ ¬, ¤ m¸ c ¤¸ =”r
¬-m-¬-m m ar=¸ ;t nr l¬ +r
¤r¤n ç¸e, m; +r ¬ ¤r¤n çr+;,
a== çt aln ¬t¤ mln +r ¤r¤n
çrn çl
l>l¤rr ¬;+ =no
gr; ¬r’r¬mrrm¬·l
+rm· +rrr=nªrr
er+r=n=mronr>n rn¬ngll
+rm, +r rr nªrr er +r nç nt¬
¤+r; + gr; arrmr +r ¬r’r +;¬
¤re ç , q=lee q¬ nt¬r +r rnrm
o¬r ¤rlçel
ç a¬¸ ¬, q¬ nt¬r ¬;+
+ gr;r = m¸¬ ç¸ar ¤¸=”r a¤¬
+rnr¤r +r ¤;¤r +;nr ç, q==
(¤ç¸ ¤;m mln +r ¬rnr çl
q=+ ¤r¤¬¸o q= =mn n¸m
+ m¸¤r rrm + +r;¤r ¤rn· ==r;
+ m¬¸”n ar=¸;t ¤¸lrrnr = m=n
çl a¤¬r =r¸¬ çt =¤n +r +rc¬
+r nnr; çl e+ çt l¤nr + ¤¸> e+
o¸=; + ¤r¤rr + ¤nr= çl e=r rrr;
a-rr+r; ¬¤ +rt ==r; m ç¸ar ç
nr a= ¤;m =rrr +r a¤nl;n çr ¬r
çt ¤sr çl
q= =+¤-rr m ==r; + ¤ç¸n
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
By entering the spiritual life one opens to a “new force”
which can change one’s destiny. Sri Aurobindo 22.8.1937
=ogm¸=o¤ +t +¸¤r = =+rt m¬r+rm¬re ¤¸¤r çrnt çl
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm


AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
am; m¬¸ ”n =·¤ aªrr m
arnrrm¤rot ç nr a=+r =trrr
=+¤+ a¤¬ çt ‘r;t; l=ªrn arrmr
ar; ¤;mrrmr nr¤ = çl nç nr¤
çt ==r; + =¤+r¸nr + +r;¤r çl
an· +r¸ n +rl¤”n +r =+rt =·¤r
qr¬ =++r¤ ç l +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸ ”¤r ¬
mtnr m +çr ç ·- arnrn t: ‘er+
: ¤ s m-
mm¤’rr ¬t¤er+
¬t¤+r¸n· =¬rn¬·l
m¬· “r”or¬tl-qnrl¤r
¤+¸ln=ªrrl¬ +”rlnll :ll
q= oç m nç ¬t¤rrmr m;r
=¬rn¬ a ’r ç , l>m¸ ¤rmnt mrnr m
l=ªrn ç¸q m¬ =lçn ¤r¤r ql-qnr
+r ar+l”rn +;nr çl
‘r;t; no¤r¤¬rln
n·¤r¤n¸r+rmnt‘¤;·l
m¸çtr¤nrl¬ =nrln
¤rn¸m-rrrl¬¤r’rnrngll sll
¤rn¸ m-rr + =ªrr¬ = m-rr
+r ¬= (mç¤r +; e ¬rnr ç ¤=
çt¸ oçrlo+r +r =¤rmt ¬t¤rrmr
+rt l¬= ¤çe ‘r;t; +r rnrmnr ç,
a== q¬ m¬ =lçn ql-qnr +r
mç¤r +;+ l¤; l¬= ‘r;t; +r ¤.
r¤n çrnr ç, a=m ¬rnr çl a¤n¸¬
= nç =¤”c çr nr ç l+ ¬t¤rrmr +r
=r¢rrr+r; çr ¬ +r aªr ç ¤;mrrmr
+r =r¢rrr+r; ar; ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
çr mql +nrl+ ¬t¤rrmr ¤;mrrmr
+r çt =¬rn¬ a’r çl an· ¤ç
am; çl a=¬ l¬n¬ +rt ‘r;t;r
m ¤r= l+nr ç ar; arm l¬n¬
‘r;t;r m ¤r= +;nr ç¸ar ==r;
¤¸¬¬-m ar; ¤¸¤r+rr=
+r =rnr¤¬ =++r¤ çl
+m +r l¬;-n; mln‘rte ;=rmr,
a=+r qr¬ =++r¤ çl +rm¤r¬ ¬
eo arnrn + zc¤ ‘er+ m +çr
ç ·-
¤orç =mntnrl¬
¤nmr¬rl¬ ¤r¬¸¬l
+rl¤”nrl¤r ¤ +r¸nrl¬
mr n¸ ¤o ¬ +’¤¬ll sll
''ç a¬¸¬l ¤¸¤ m ·nntn ç¸e
ar ; ¤n mr¬ m l=ªrn nªrr arm çr.
¬ ¤re =+rt +r¸nr +r, m ¬r¬nr ç¸,
¤;-n¸ m¸q+r +rq +rt ¬çt ¬r¬nr
çl' q== nç ¤rn =¤”c çrnr ç
l+ q’¤; nr¤ +r ¬r¬¬ ¤rer çt
+r¸n ar; +rl¤”n +r ¬r¬ =+nr çl
q= n¸m + =+rt rrmr¤rnr ¬ n¸m
+ m¸¤rrrm + +r;¤r arnrnm +r
+¤e ·n¤=rn + =¤ m a¤¬r
;=rr çl
rrrlm+ m-ªr +¸e ¤ren ç
ar; ¤ a¤¬t ¤rer+t ar; n+¤.
¸lç + ¤e = ermr +r ar; çt +¸e
=mqr ;ç çl +nrl+ q= =mn +r
nªrr+lªrn qr¬ m¬¸”n +r +¸e
¤l;¤rrm ¬çt onr ç, an· ==r;
+ ermr +r l¤’¤r= rrm m¸=ar =
aonr ¬r ;çr ç l +nr l+ rrm m¸ =ar
¬ q= ¤c = ¬rs lenr ç, an·
q= ¤ern ;ç¬r çt a¬+t m¬¤¸;t
çl q= ¤+r; +t çorrmt ¤¸lrrnr
+ +r;¤r rrm + l¤=ç l¤qr ç
¤ r;++r çr mn l +rr ln+ l¤qr¬
+t a-¬ln ¬ arnrrm m¸=ar +t
l=ªrln ar; =r;r¤ +; otl q= lee
arnrrm ar ; +rr ln+ + =¤ m e+
çt nr¤ l¤+rrl¬n çr mnrl or¬r
oer m +rn+; c+;r¤ ar; o¸+rr¤
l¬;-n; ¤c nr çt mnrl +nr l+
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ e+ =·¤rq ç,ar;
=rn, =rn +r ar+l”rn +;nr ç,
q=lee = =r; + er mr ¬ arnrrm
+r ers, +rrln+ l¤qr¬ + =çr;
=¸=r ‘rrl-n +t =rr¬ ¤r;++r +;
otl
m¬¸”n ‘r;t; +t =+rt ¤+r;
+t =¸=r =¸l¤rrre +rrln+ l¤qr¬
¬ a¤e-rr +;r ot, ¤;-n¸ ==r; +
mr¬¤ +r =¸=r ar; ‘rrl-n l¤; +rt
¬çt lme =+tl ¤nr-¤nr l¤qr¬
a-¬ln +;nr mnr, a’rrl-n ¤c nt
çt mql ar¬ ¬r ¤=n¸l=ªrln ==r;
+t ç , a=¬ l¤qr¬¤ nrar +r
mç;rq = =r¤¬ + lee m¬¤¸; +;
lonr çl ar¬ ¤qrl¬+ o¤t ¬¸¤r¬
= nç =¤t+r; +;¬ em ç l+ qr¬
¤ r¤n +;¬ + a=+ +rr ln+ =rrr¬r
+ alnl;¬ a-n =rrr¬ +rt çl
nç e+ ‘r¸+r =+n çl '=·.
¤rq ¤=-o' ar; '=·¤rq ¤;=r'
erm çt q= lo’rr m n;++t +;+
==r; +r +¸e o =+ml ¤r+t l¬¬
arrnrlrm+ m¸=ar = = =r; +
erm a+mto emre ¤o ªr, a¬=
er m l¬;r’r çr ¤¸ + ç l ªrr ªrr a¤o ’r
+m +r¤s ¤ o’r ¬, =¤r m, ‘r-o
¬re, n+ ’rr=> ar ; a-rrl¤’¤r=
= erm ¤¸¤r =¤ = l¬=r=rlçn çr
¤¸+ çl q=+ l¤¤;tn l¬¬-l¬¬
o ’rr ¬ ¤ qrl¬+ a-¬ln +t ç , ¤çr
a’rrl-n alç =r + nr¤s¤ ¬¸ rn ¬
23
23 113
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ermr +r +rn+rtn +; lonr çl
an· a¬+r +rt q= ¤ªr +
aer¤r ‘rrl-n ¤ r¤n +;¬ +r o¸ =;r
;r=nr =rr¬¬r ¤s ;çr çl
am l;+r m ¤ ¤¤¬ o n ç¸ e
~ç n =¤rmt l¤¤ +r¬-o ¬t ¬
+çr ªrr - ''l¤l+r-¬ mnmnr-n;r
nr l=çr-nr ¤; l¤’¤r= +;¬ +
¤nr¬ lç-o¸ rrm m ¬çt ç, ¤;¬g
lç-o¸ rrm nr ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ lnnr
ar; =r¢rrr+r; +r rrm çl +¤e
l¤’¤r= +r rrm, lç-o¸ rrm ¬çt çl
lç-o¸ rrm +r m¸ em > nr 'm ' arrmr
ç¸ , nç l¤’¤r= çr ¬r ar ; nq¸ ¤
¤¬ ¬r¬r çl'' ar¬ çmr; rrm =
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r; +t
¤rn ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = l¤or çr ¤¸ +t ç l nçt
rrm +r ¤ r¤r ªrtl an· q=+ a+rr¤
m ¤ r¤rçt¬ rrm mr¬¤ +r +r q er+r
¤ç¸¤r¬ +t l=ªrln m ¬çt çl
''¤l;¤n¬'' ¤+¸ln +r ace
l=çr-n ç l +r q +rt ‘rl¬ q=
¤ +rrl¤n ¬çt +; =+nt ç l nç
+m a¬rlo +re = ¤enr arnr
çl an· l¬;r’rr +r +rq +r;¤r
¬çtl arr; ar; ¤+r’r +r =rr”r
çmr; a-o; a¬rlo +re = ¤er
ar ;çr çl ;rl> + o¤nr ++rt ¬çt
¤rçn l+ ¤+r’r çr ¤;-n¸ l¤; +rt
;rn ar; lo¬ +r +m a¬rlo +re
= ¤er ar ;çr çl çm =r¸e loe =
çmr;t +m¬r;t +r =¤t+r; +;+
arrnrlrm+ ¬mng m ‘rrrr +rn
¤r;++r +;¬ ¤rlçe, l¬= ¤+r;
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ nr+re ¤l;¤rrm
o¬r ¤r;++r +; onr ç a=t ¤+r;
a=+r ¬¬+ arnrrm l¤qr¬ +rt
¤l;¤rrm onr çl
q= ¬mng + =+rt =ro ¬mo
+ çl nçr arrr; +r +rm çt ¬çtl
¤l;¤rrm + a+rr¤ m çt er m
q== l¤m¸=r ç¸e çl arrnrlrm+
l¤qr¬ +rrln+ l¤qr¬ +r ¬¬+
çl ar¬ n+ +r =r;r ¤+c ==r;
a=t ¤;m=rrr +t o¬ çl l¤nr ¤¸>
m g¤r +=r? q= +¸l>m g¤r +rr¤
¬ çt ==r; +r ar¬ +t a’rr-n
l=ªrln m er+; =rsr +; lonr çl
q=+ ¤r; m mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o
¬ =¤”c +çr ç ·- ''e+ =+¤¸ ¤
r arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ + lee ç;
ar¤’n+ ç ''l aªrr ng ¬t¤¬
+r ç; +rn +mr¤’r arnrrm =
arn-¤rn çl ¤lo+ +re + ¤ro
m¬¸ ”n l¬;-n; a= ¤;m=rrr =
aem çcnr mnrl
ar¬ +r mr¬¤ a= +lm+
aemr¤ +t ¤l+nr + +r;¤r, a=
¤;m=rrr = =¤r lrr+ o¸ ;t ¤; ar+;
=rsr çr mnr çl +¸l>m ¤n¬ +
=rªr çm er mr ¬ 'qçer +' +
=ªrr¬ ¤; +¤e '¤;er+' +t n;¤
nr+¬r ¤r;++r +; lonrl =mr¬ +
arrr am-l=>nr +r ¤m¸ ¤¬r +;
;=r lonrl a= arrnrlrm+ ¢r> m
¤ç¸n +¸e ¤rnr ¤; ¤ln¤-rr emr
lonrl ¬mng ¬¬¬t + =rªr q=
a-nrn + +r;¤r çt ==r; ar¬
qn¬r o¸ ·=rt ç l =>t ¬rln +r mr +r
=¤=¤ ¤lç¬ +r =¤=¤, orot +r
=¤=¤ arlo =+rt =¤=¤ +r¸e+;
a=+r + ¤e +rr m +t ¤=n¸ çt mr¬r
¬r ;çr ç l = =r; + mr¬¤ ¬ ¬mng
¬¬¬t +t e=t o¸mln +; ot l+
a= ;=ren m ¤ç¸¤r lonr çl çmr;
¤rn· =+rt rrmm¸=ar ¬ +¤¬ ar;
+rlm¬t +r ¬r =¤=¤ ¤¬r srer
ç, ¤çt o¸·=rr +r +r;¤r çl
q=+ alnl;¬ ar;rrr¬rar
+r e=r =¤=¤ ¤¬r +; ;=r lonr
l+ l¬= l=>nr a¤¬t ¤r+¸ln+
=;¤¬r + +r;¤r, +;¬ m a=mªr
çl ¬¤ n+ rrm +r a=et =¤=¤
¤+c ¬çt çr ¬rnr, q= ¢r> m
¤mln ar; ‘rrl-n a=++r¤ çl
~t a;l¤-o ¬ m¸¤rrle¬t o¤t
+r ¤> le=rr ªrr -''q’¤; nlo ç
nr a¬+ al=nr¤ +r a¬¸ +r¤ +;¬
+r, a¬+r =r¢rrr+r; ¤r¤n +;¬
+r +r q -¬-+r q ¤ªr çr mr, ¤ç ¤ªr
¤rç l+n¬r +rt o¸mm +nr ¬ çr?
a= ¤ªr = ¬r¬ +r m¬ o¸c=+r¤
+; lenr çl lç-o¸ rrm +r +ç¬r ç
l+ a¤¬ ‘r;t; +, a¤¬ +rtn; çt
¤ç ¤ªr çl a= ¤; ¤e¬ + l¬nm
+rt lo=rr lon çl a¬ =¤+r ¤re¬
+;¬r, m¬ ¤r;++r +; lonr ç, e+
mrç + a-o; a¬¸+r¤ +; =+r ç¸
l+ lç-o¸ rrm +t ¤rn q¸ot ¬çt çl
l¬¬ l¬¬ l¤çg¬r +t ¤rn +çt
mq ç, m a¬ =¤ +t a¤el-rr +;
;çr ç¸l
''mçl”r a;l¤-o + a¬¸=r;
a= ¤ªr ¤; ¤e+; ç; ¤r¤rt l=lç
¤ r¤n +; =+nr ç l q= ¤ªr ¤;
¤e¬ + alrr+r;t =>t-¤¸ =”r
or ¬r ¤;r¤; + ç+or; ç l m ;t
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ lnnr + a¬¸ =r; +rt e+
mr> nçt ;r=nr çl l¬= ¤; ¤e¬
= çt a= ¤;mrrrm n+ +t nr>r
=++r¤ çl
==r; + ¤rn· =+rt rrm ==r;
+t ar¤lrr '‘r-o' = mr¬n çl q=
=+¤-rr m ¤ o =¤”c +çnr ç ''
arar a= ¤nrln m ¤ç¸¤ ¬r =¤;
er + +t ç , a= ¤nr ln m l¬= +r q
=r¤s =r¤s ¬çt +; =+nrl'' ¤o
23
23 114
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=¤”c +çnr ç l+ l¬= qr¬ +r
(ar¬-o +r¸ nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr ¬
+ o +; ;=rr ç , a=+t m¸ l¬ + ¤e
''¤+r’r¤o ’r-o'' = çt =++r¤ çl
¤o ¤r;+¤r; a= ¤+r’r¤o ‘r-o
= ¬r lo·n ¤ +r’r l¬+enr ç ,
a== lme¬ ¤re lo·n ar¬-o
+t ¤rªr¬r +;nr çl q= =+¤-rr
m mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬ ¤o ;ç=n m
le=rr ç ·- ¤lo+ q”crar ¬ ¤m
¤; ar¤ = aªrrng q=+ =rn
ar; m¸e =ªrr¬ = o¸l”c¤rn l+nr
ar; a-çr¬ a¤¬t mr¬¤nr m a=
lo·n ar¬-o + ¤¤rç + =¤ m
o=rr ar; mç¤r l+nrl lm> o¤ +
q= arrnrlrm+ ¤’¤ ar¬-o +r
¤orl-n+ ar¬-o aªrrng ¤lo+
mn=g +t ·nr=nr +;nt ç¸ q
nlrr;tn a¤l¬”rog q=+ l¤”rn
m +çnr ç l+ ''¤m q=+ ‘rt”r
=ªrr¬ ¤; çl'' ¤;-n¸ ¤m + lee
¤ç l¬= ‘r-o 'l¤nmg' +r ¤=o
+;nt ç , a=+r ot+ aªr ç arrmr
+ arnl;+ =¸=r ar; =nr”r +
l¤”rnr +t ar¬-oorn+nrl ¤lo+
mrn+r ¬ q=t m¬r¤qrl¬+ nr¤
+r a¤nr m l+nr ç l a-çr ¬ mn=g
ar; ¤n=g +r ¬rsr ¤¬rnr çl
mn=g ç =¤ l¤”rnr = =¤n >
ar-nl;+ ar¬-o nr¤ ar; ¤n=
ç ¤orªr ar; ¤rl¤rnr m arrmr +r
lme¬¤re ç”r ar; =¸=r + =¤ m
a= ar¬-o +r ¤lç-¤¤rçl ¤lo+
=¸ =r ç nçt lo·n ar¬-o ¬r a¤¬
=rªr ¤l¤> a¤el-rr +r ar; =¤
¤orªrr m l¬”+e + =¸ =r + a¬¸ +r¤
+r ¤;or¬ ernr çl ar¬ ==r; =
¤ç ¤+r’r¤o ‘r-o l¬=+ lo·n
¤ +r’r = lo·n ar¬-o +t a¬¸ +r¸ ln
çrnt ç, +çr ¤er mnr l
¬¤ n+ çm ==r; m q=+t
+rrn+ =¤ = ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ¬çt
+;¤r on, +rm ¤e çt ¬çt =+nr
çl q= lo·n ar¬-o ar; ‘r-o +
¤r; m +rm¤r¬g ¬ mtnr m =¤”c
+çr çl ‘r-o = =¸l”c +t ;¤¬r +
=+¤-rr m +rm¤r¬g ¬ t:¤ arnrn
+ z:¤ ‘er+ m +çr ç·-
'a' nr=loln l¬o’rr
¤g¤r=>l¤rr· =m¸n·l
¤rg¤rr=n¬ ¤or’¤
nqr’¤ l¤lçnr· ¤¸;rll z:ll
(ç a¬¸¬l¸ ''a nng =ng
e = (nç¸ nt¬ ¤ +r; +r =l·.
¤or¬-o rr¬ ¤g +r ¬rm +çr
çl a=t = =¸l”c + arlo+re m
¤rg¤r ar; ¤o nªrr nqrlo+ ;¤
mn çl'' q== =¤”c çrnr ç l+
==r; +t ar¤ln a=t ¤+r’r¤o
‘r-o (q’¤;¸ = ç¸q çl a= ‘r-o
= ¬r lo·n ar¬-o arnr ç, a=
=+¤rr m +rm¤r¬g ¬ mtnr + :¤
arnrn + zt¤ ‘er + nªrr eo
arnrn + zz¤ , z:¤ nªrr zs¤
‘er+ m +çr ç·-
¤rg=¤’r”¤=¬ rrmr
l¤-ornrrml¬ nr=¸=rml
= ¤gnrmn¸¬ rrmr
=¸=rm¢rnm’¬¸nll ztll
¤rç; + l¤”rnr m ar=l¬
;lçn a-n·+;¤r ¤rer ¤¸ =”r
a-n· +;¤r m ¬r +rm¤ng rnr¬
¬l¬n ar¬-o ç , a=+r ¤ r¤n
çrnr çl ¤ç ¤¸=”r =l·¤or¬-o rr¬
¤;¤g ¤;mrrmr=¤ nrm m e+t.
+rr¤ = l=ªrn ç¸ar, a¢rn ar¬-o
+r a¬¸+r¤ +;nr çl
=¸=rmrnnl-n+ nrrog¤¸lç
mrgmntl-qnmgl
¤lrr n> ¬ ¤¤rn
l=ªrn’¤eln nr¤n·ll ztll
''ql-qnr = antn + ¤e ‘r¸ ç
ç¸ q =¸ ¢m ¤¸ lç gr;r m ç¤r +;¬
nr ·n ¬r a¬-n ar¬-o ç , a=+r
l¬= a¤=ªrr m a¬¸+r¤ +;nr ç
ar; l¬= a¤=ªrr m l=ªrn ç¸ar
nç nr mt +rm¤r=¤=¤ = ¬çt
¤ernmr¬ çrnr çl''
¤’rr-nmr¬= @¬
nrlm¬ =¸=rm¸rrmmgl
a¤ln ‘rrn;¬=
¤g+r¸nm+rm”rmgll z:ll
+nr l+ l¬=+r m¬ a·et
¤+r; ‘rr-n ç (ar;¸ ¬r ¤r¤ =
;lçn ç ar ; l¬=+r ;¬r m¸ ¤r ‘rr-n
çr mnr ç , e = q= =l·¤or¬-orr¬
¤g + =rªr e+t+rr¤ ç¸e nrmt +r
aln arrm ar¬-o ¤r¤n çrnr çl
n-¬-¬¤ =orrmr¬
nrmt l¤mn +rm”r·
=¸=r¬ ¤g==¤’r
mrn-n =¸=rm’¬¸nll zsll
''¤r¤ ;lçn nrmt q= ¤+r;
l¬;n; arrmr +r (¤;mrrmr m ¸
emrnr ç¸ar, =¸=r ¤¸¤+ ¤;¤g
¤;mrrmr +t ¤ rl¤n=¤ a¬-n
ar¬-o +r a¬¸ +r¤ +;nr ç ''l
ar¬ ¤ç ar¬-o +çr ¤er mnrl
mtnr + a¤o’r+ ar; ·nr=nrnr
rnrm, n¤=nr, or¬, ¤¸¤n, =¤m,
¬;+ +r a¤o’r o ;ç çl q= m¸e
nr¤ +t a¬¸+r¸ln +nr ¬çt +;¤r
;ç ç? mtnr + a¤o’r +r a¬¸¬
= alrr+ +rq t =mq =+nr
çl a=¬ a¤o’r =¸¬¬ + ¤ro ¬r
+¸ e l+nr, mtnr çm ¤çt o’rr nt ç l
a¬¸ ¬ ¬ +r ¬ =r or¬ ¤¸ ¤n, rnrm,
23
23 115
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
n¤=nr mtnr +r a¤o’r =¸¬¬ +
¤ro l+nrl
¤lo+ m¬rl¤qr¬ (arnrrm
l¤qr¬¸ + a-r¸=r; m¬¸”n =rn
nr¤r = =rrlcn ç, l¬=+ +r’rr
m arrmr a-nl¬lçn çl ¤ ç ·-
t. a-¬mn +r’r z. ¤r¤rmn+r’r
:. m¬r mn+r ’r ¡. l¤qr¬mn +r ’r
:. ar¬-omn+r ’r c. l¤ngmn
+r’r ar; :. =ngmn+r’rl a-¬
= e +; l¤qr¬ n+ ¤r; nr¤
+rrln+ =rrr = =+¤l-rrn ç ar;
ar¬-o = =ng n+ nt¬r a= ¤;m
=rrr (=ng+l¤ng+ar¬-o¸
=l·¤or¬-orr¬ ¤;¤g ¤;mrrmr
= =+¤l-rrn ç l lç-o¸ o’r ¬ +
a¸¬=r; m¸errrr; = e+; arq.
r¤+ n+ mrnr +r ¢r> çl nrl¬
a-¬mn +r ’r = l¤qr¬n+r ’r
n+ mrnr +r ¢r > ç l q=+ a¤; +
nt¬ er+ =rn er+, ae=r er+
ar ; amm er + a= ¤;m =rrr
(=ng+l¤ng+ar¬-o¸ + er+
ç l arqr¤+ +r +r o+; a¤; aon
çt ¬t¤rrmr mrnr + ¢r> = l¬+e
+; ar¬-omn +r’r m ¤¤’r +;
¬rnr çl q=+ =rªr çt mtnr ar;
¤ o m ¤l¤rn a¢rn ar-nl;+ lo·n
ar¬-o +t a¬¸ +r¸ ln m¬¸ ”n +r
çr¬ emnt çl m; =n =ogm¸=o¤
¬ a= ar¬-o +r rr;r ¤; a¤n.
l;n +; lonr çl a-çt +t +¸¤r =,
m a=+t ¤rn¢r =¤ m a¬¸+r¸ln
+; ;çr ç¸l arrnrlr+r+ o¸l”c =
m¸ q= ¬¸ s ¬ ¤re er mr +r +rt
q=+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr çr ;çt ç,
¬r l+ +rrln+ ¬mng m =rnrl¤n
çr ;çt çl
q= =+¤-rr m q=rqnr +r
¤l¤> rrrlm+ m-ªr ¤rql¤e +rt
¤çt +çnr ç ¬r çmr; m ªr +çn ç l
==r; +t ar¤ln + ¤r; m ¤rql¤e
+ =n ¬rç¬ t· t = ¤r; m +çr ç
·- ''arlo m ‘r-o ªrr, ar; ‘r-o
¤;m’¤; + =rªr ªrr, ar; ‘r-o
¤;m’¤; ªrr nçt arlo m ¤;m’¤;
+ =rªr ªrrl =¤ +¸e a=t + gr;r
ar¤-¬ ç¸ar ar; ¬r +¸e ar¤-¬
ç¸ ar ç , a=m = +r q +rt ¤=n¸
a=+ l¤¬r ar¤-¬ ¬çt ç¸ q l a=m
¬t¤¬ ªrr ar; ¤ç ¬t¤¬ m¬¸”nr
+t ¤nrln ªrtl
¤o ar; mtnr m ¤l¤rn a¢rn
lo·n ar-nl;+ ar¬-o + ¤r;
m ¤rq¤e m +r¬¬ =lçnr z: · :
m +çr ç·- ''nç e+ ar-nl;+
ar¬-o ç ¬r =+rt =·¤ l¤’¤rl=nr
+ pon m arnr çl nç ar¬-o
pon m ¤¬r ;çnr çl =r=rl;+
ar¬-o + =mr¬ nç arnr-¬rnr
¬çt çl a=+r ar¬-o ¤¸¤r çl ¤ç
çmr; pon + +cr;r +r ar¬-o
= n¤ n+ +r;nr ç ¬¤ n+ ams
¬ ¬rnl ¤+r¸ +r ar¬-o ¬r çmr;
ponr m ¤çnr ç , çmr; ponr
= ams+; o¸=;r n+ ¤ç =+nr
çl''
ar¬ = =r; = ¤ç lo·n
ar¬-o ar ; lo·n ¤ +r’r +çr
¤er mnrl =+rt rrm l¬= ‘r-o =
=¸l”c +t ar¤lrr mr¬n ç, a=+t
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ; =r¢rrr+r;
a=++r¤ +nr çr mnr ç? ==r;
nªrr l=ªrln ¤e ;çr çl ¤r;r +r’r
nr a¤e-rr ç ¤;-n¸ nt¬ +r ’r
(=ng+l¤n+ar¬-o¸ m¸ m çr
¤¸+ çl ¬¤ n+ a¬+t a¤el-rr
arm mr¬¤ + lee =¸ e+r ¬çt
çr ¬rnt ç, l¤or ¤; al¤or +r
alrr+r; ;ç mrl +rr ln+ l¤qr¬
nrml=+ ¤¸lrrnr + arrt¬ ;ç+;
a¬+ aro ’r +r ¤re¬ +; mrl
l¬= lo¬ +rr ln+ l¤qr¬ a¤¬
¬¬+ arnrrm l¤qr¬ + aro’r
¤; ¤e¬ emmr, mçl”r a;l¤-o
+ ‘r-or m ''rr;r ¤; =¤m an;
ar¤mrl''
çmr; =+rt = nr ¬ çl;¬rm
+t mlçmr mrq ç l +rm¤r¬g ¬
+rt mtnr m a¤¬t l¤+r¸lnnr +r
¤¤r¬ +;n ç¸e ta ¤ arnrn +
z:¤ ‘er+ m ¬¤nq (¬rm¬¤¸
+r =¤rrrm nq ¤nrn ç¸e a¤¬t
l¤+r¸ln ¤nrnr çl ¤mre m ¬-m
mçr¬g arrmr ¤ n-n mçr¤ +r¸ , ¤ +r¸
¬mog¤-rr¸ , ;rm+¸ ”¤r ¤;mç =,
nªrr =n =ogm¸= ¬r¬+ o¤ ¬t
nªrr =n +¤t; arlo =+rt =nr
¬ çl; ¬rm +r çt mr¢r +r =rrr¬
¤nrnr çl =n =ogm¸=o¤ ¬r¬+
o¤ ¬t ¬ ¬rm +t mlçmr mrn ç¸e
+çr ç·-
''+rrm-rrn¸;r ¬r¬+r,
an; ¬rn ¤;+rrnl
¬rm =rmr;t ¬r¬+r,
¤ct ;ç lo¬ ;rnll''
=n +¤t; ¬ e+ +om ar;
arm ¤c +; çl;¬rm +t mlçmr
mrn ç¸e +çr ç-
''¬rm ame an; ¬ +rrql
ar; ame le-r-le-r ¤lc an;
¬rm ame lo¬ ¤c =¤rnrl''
l¬= mn=g (lo·n ar¬-o¸
+t ¤rn ¤ o +;nr ç , l¬=+r
m¸¤rmr¬ ¤rq¤e m ç, l¬= a¢rn
ar¬-o +t ¤rn +rm¤r¬g ¬ mtnr
m +t ç , l¬= ¬rm =r¸ mr;t ar ; ¬rm
23
23 116
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ame +t ¤rn =+rt =nr ¬ +t ç,
a=+r ¤r¤n +;¬r çt arrnrlrm+
ar;rrr¬r +r ac ’n ç l q=+
aer¤r =¤ ar;rrr¬re l>m¸ ¤rmnt
mrnr + ¤+rr¤ ¢r> +t çl
=¤rmt ~t l¤¤+r¬-o ¬t ¬
e+ +om ar; arm ¤c +; +ç
srer - ''a¬¸+r¸ln-a¬¸+r¸ln +t
nç mçnt ‘rl¬ mn ¤r¤rt +rr;n
+ çt arrnrlrm+ mm¬ m¤se =
arl¤+r¸ n ç¸ q ç l e+ mr> çmr;r ¤ l.
o+ rrm çt ç ¬r ¤r;+¤r; +çnr ç ,
q’¤; + o’r¬ +;¬ çrm, a=+t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ ln +;¬t çrmt, n+rt
m¸l¬ =++r¤ çl nrn +t n;ç +¸e
‘r-o ;c e¬ = +rm ¤e çt ¬çt
=+nr çl'' =¤rmt ¬t ¬ nç ¤rn
a¬rnr= çt ¬çt +çt ç l ¤ +rl¤”n
o¸”cr ªrl a-ç ¤ç¸n a·et ¤+r;
qr¬ ªrr l+ +rr;n arm ¤e+;
==r; m q¬ nªnr +r =rnrl¤n
+;mrl =nr +t ¤r¤rt l¬;ªr+
¬çt çr nt ç l n¸ m + m¸ ¤rrrm
+ +r;¤r nrml=+ ¤¸lrrnr +t
¤rrr¬nr çr¬ = a= =mn erm
a= =mq ¬çt ¤rn çl mçl”r
a;l¤-o ¬ q= =+¤-rr m ¬r
rrr”r¤rr +t ç, ¤ç ¤çe + =nr
+t ¤rnr +r ¤mrl¤rn +;nt çl
mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬ a=
¤;mnr¤ +r rr;r ¤; a¤nl;n
+;r¬ + lee a¤¬ am¸ rn
¬t¤¬ +t arç¸ ln o sretl ¤
a¤¬ ¬t¤¬ m çt =¤enr +
=¤r·¤ l’r=r; ¤ç¸¤ mn ªrl a=
¤;mnr¤ + rr;r ¤; a¤nl;n
çr¬ + ¤; m a-çr¬ rrr”r¤rr
+t ç -
''z¡ ¬¤+¤; tszc +r ~t+¸ ”¤r
+r ¤¸ª¤t ¤; a¤n;¤r ç¸ar ªrrl
~t+¸ ”¤r alnmr¬l=+ ¤ +r’r
¬çt ç l ~t+¸ ”¤r + a¤n;¤r
+r aªr ç, alrrmr¬l=+ o¤
+r a¤n;¤r ¬r ¬mng +r
alnmr¬= ar; ar¬-o + lee
nnr; +;nr çl ~t+¸”¤r ar¬.
-omn ç l ¤ alnmr¬= +r a¤¬
ar¬-o +t ar; aog¤¸ç +;+
l¤+r= + mrm +r =mªr¬ ar;
=¤re¬ +;n çl''
a¤n¸¬ +rl¤”n¤r¤rt ¬çt
çl e+ =·¤rq + a¤nl;n çr¬
+t rrr”r¤rr çl ~t a;l¤-o +
a¬¸ =r; ¤ç ¤;m=rrr a¤¬
+lm+ l¤+r= + =rªr =r; = =r;
+r ar+l”rn +;¬ emmtl m;t
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln + a¬¸ =r; ¤ç
=rrr tssz + ¤ r;++r = ¤ +c çr ¬r
¤r;++r +; omtl tssz n+ ¤ç
+rr;n m +r¤t ¤e ¬rnmt ar;
arm + nt¬ ¤”rr m ¤¸; ==r; m
¤e ¬r¤mtl
+nr l + arnr rm qr ¬
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r;
+r l¤”rn ç, q=m a¤o’r nr
m-ªr alrr+ =çrn+ l=ç ¬çt
çr =+nl m¸q ¬r +¸e +rt lmer
a=m a¤o’r nr m-ªr +r e+
¤ln’rn +rt =çnrm ¬çt ;çr çl
= n =ogm¸ =o ¤ l¬;r+r; ¤ g +
=r+r; =¤=¤ çr n ç l a¬+t +¸ ¤r
+ l¤¬r q= ¬mng (arnrrm
¬mng¸ m ¤¤’r a=++r¤ çl
m¸q =¬g tsc: = tssz n+
l¤l+r-¬ ¤ +r; +t ar;rrr¬re
m¬¤¸;t m ¤=+; +;¬t ¤stl
ar¬ n+ l¬n¬t ar;rrr¬re ,
m¬ +t ar; ¬r a¤ +; ;çr ç¸,
¤ç =¤ ¤l;l=ªrlnnr ¤’r +;¬t
¤s ;çt çl ¤rn+ +r ¬nr ¤l;¤
rrm lme ;çr çl
q’¤; +¸¤r ar; m¸=o¤ +
ar’rt¤ro + +r;¤r ¤m-¤m ¤;
lo’rr l¬o ’r ar ; ¤ªr ¤ o’r ¬
lme ;çr çl
m e+ =rrrr;¤r m¸ç=ªrt ¤r¤
rt ç¸ l m ; ¬ = ¬r¤t¬ + mrrnm =
nç =¤ çr¬r a¤¬ ar¤ m e+
ar’¤n ar ; l¤l¤> ¤rn ç l m +rt
(;¬rm¸¤r = arnlrr+ ¤+rrl¤n
¤r¤rt ç¸l ar¬ +rt ¤ç ¤¸lrr m¸q
;ç ;ç +; a¤¬t n;¤ ar+l”rn
+;nt ç l ¤;-n¸ m a¬¸ +r¤ +; ;çr
• ''nlo rr¬ + gr;r çm o¸ =;r +t +rerq +; =+n
ç, n¤ nr ¤ç +rm +t ¤t¬ çl a-nªrr ¤ç rr¬ a¬ªr
+r rr; ç ar; l¬n¬r ‘rtrr a== çm a¤¬r l¤¤s e¸sr
=+, an¬r çt a·erl''
- =¤rmt l¤¤+.

23
23 117
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q= n¸m m =r=m +r mr¬¤
=mq çt ¬çt ¤r ;çr çl +q erm
;rn +r; ¬rmn ;ç +; +r¬¬ +tn¬
+;¬ +r =r= m +çn ç , +q +ªrr,
a¤o’r arlo m =l+mlen çr¬ +r
=r=m +çn çl ¤;-n¸ =r=m +r
=çt aªr ar; ¤+rr¤ ¤rn¢r =¤
m ermr +r a+rt lme çt ¬çt ;çr
çl
=ng ar ; a=ng, ¤ +r’r
ar; a-rr;r or l¤¤;tn ‘rl¬ nr
(+rr¤¸ çl or¬r ++rt =rªr ;ç çt
¬çt =+nl a¬rer çrn çt a-rr;r
+rrm ¬rnmrl ¬çr =ng ¤+c çr
¬rnmr ¤çr a=ng lc+ çt ¬çt
=+nrl q=+r =¤”c mne¤ ç l+
q= =mn ==r; + mr¬¤ l¬=+r
=r=m +t =qr o ;ç ç, ¤ç =rn
= ¤ç¸ n o¸ ; ç l m arm er mr =
¤rn·=¸¬nr ;çnr ç¸ l+ ar¬ am¸+
mçrrmr +r =r=m ç, a¤o’r çl
m ++rt-++rt ¤¸e enr ç¸ l+
am¸ + mçrrmr, l¤ee =rer =
ar¬ n+ er=rr ermr +r a¤o’r
o ¤¸+ çrm, ¤nrqn l+n¬ ¤ln’rn
erm ¤l;¤lnn ç¸e? ¤rn· e+ çt
arr; lmenr ç l+ q=m mçr;r¬
+r +nr or”r ç, +len¸m + mr¬¤
çt +r”c çl q= ¤+r; er=rr ermr
+r ¢r¤r +r; m or”rt +ç lonr ¬rnr
ç l ¤ ¤r; a¤¬r =mn ar ; rr¬
¬”c +;+ o¸;-o¸; = arn ç, ar;
+=t o¸mln çrnt ç, q¬+tl ++rt
l+=t ¬ mçrrmr ¬t ¤; ¤’¬¤r¤+
l¤µ emr+; ¬r¬¬ +r ¤nr= çt
=r=m +r ¤+rr¤
¬çt l+nr l+ +çt ¬s m nr or”r
¬çt çl m¸q q= =+¤-rr m l+=t
= -nr=t ¬ e+ l+==r =¸ ¬rnr
ªrrl =ot +r mr=m ªrrl e+ ¤rrr;t
a¤¬ ta-tt =re + ¤¸> +r e+;
a¤¬ çt mr¤ + e+ mçrrmr +
¤r= mnr ar; ¤rer, mçr;r¬ nç
es+r m¸s ¤ç¸n =rrnr çl ¤ç¸n
m¬r +;¬ ¤; +rt mr¬nr ¬çt çl
+¸¤rnr ar¤ q= +¸e a¤o’r o nr
‘rrno mr¬ ¬rnl
a= mçrrmr ¬ +çr, a= t:
lo¬ ¤ro m; ¤r= er¬rl t: lo¬
¤ro ¤ç ¤rrr;t l¤; es+ +r e
mnr nr mçr;r¬ ¬ alrr+ m¸ s
=rr¬ +t çrl¬ ¤nr+; m¸s =rr¬
= m¬r l+nrl es+ ¬ a= lo¬
= m¸s =rr¬r ers lonrl +¸e lo¬
¤ro ¤r rr;t a= mçrrmr + ¤r=
mnr ar; ¤rer mçr;r¬ qn¬t =t
¤rn +ç¬t ªrt nr ¤çe çt +ç on,
m;r t: lo¬ m¸s ar; +nr ¤¤ro
çr¬ lonrl
mçr;r¬ ¬ +çr +rrq a=
lo¬ n+ m +rt m¸s =rrnr +;nr
ªrrl an· m;t ¤rn +r a= es+
¤; +¸e +rt a=; ¬çt çrnrl ar¤
+ ¤ªrm ¤r; ar¬ + ¤ro m¬ m¸s
=rr¬r l¤e+¸e ¤-o +; lonrl q=
lee t: lo¬ ¤ro m;t ¤rn +r a=
es+ ¤; a=; ç¸ar ar; a=¬
m¸s =rr¬r ers lonrl m¬ mçr;r¬
= nçt ¤’¬ l+nr ªrr l+ ar¬ +
n¸m + rrm m¸=ar +r ¤+rr¤ +nr
¬çt çr ;çr ç? q= ¤; mçr;r¬
¬ a¤n¸ +n aorç;¤r o +; +çr
+rt q=m çm çt or”rt çl ==r; +
ermr +r or”r ¬çt l ¤ç mçrrmr
¬=¬rªrt (l=ç =m¸orn +r¸ ªrrl
m;t m¸er+rn ¤er¬r ;e¤ =c’r¬
¤; c¸ ¬ +r q-n¬r; +;n =mn
ç¸ q ªrtl ¤ç =rrr¸ ¤;l= m=; m
;çnr çl ~t =rm; ¬rªr ¬t + =rªr
¤t+r¬; =c’r¬ ¤; arnr ªrrl m¸q
¤çer ·nl¬ lmer l¬=¬ =·¤t
¤rn +çtl m o=rnr ç¸ m¸=o¤ +
¤r= ¬r¬ ¤re =+rt ·nl¬ ‘r;r¤
ar; mr= +r =¤n· çt rnrm +;
on ªrl a¬+ =¤m¤r= + ¤ro m¸q
= ¬¸s¬ ¤re erm +rt ‘r;r¤, mr=
arlo nrml=+ ¤=n¸ar +r =¤n·
çt rnrm +; ;ç ç, ar; ¬r e=r
¬çt +; =+n ¤ or ¤r; ¤r; ar+;
ar¬r ¤-o +; on çl l¤; m; ¤r=
ar¬ +t lç+mn çt ¬çt çrntl =·.
¤rq +r a=; qn¬r =ªrrq ar;
mç;r çrnr ç l+ e+ ¤r; l¬qr=¸
¤¬+; ar¬ ¤rer ¬t¤¬ +r; a=
a¬¸+r¸ln +r ¬çt +r¸e =+nrl
=r=m +r mne¤ =·¤rq +r
=m +;¬ = çl l¬= ¤+r; arm
+ ¤r= ¬r¬ = mmt mç=¸= ç¸e
l¤¬r ¬çt ;ç =+nt, a=t ¤+r; =
=r=m +r a=; çrnr çl =·¤r m¸=
a= ¤;m ¤ n¬ =rrr = =trrr =+¤+
;=rnr ç l an· ¤nr çt ar¤+ pon
+ nr; a¬= ¬¸s l+ ar¤m ¤ç
=rlr¤+ ¤+r’r ¤+c çr¬ emmrl
¤nr-¤nr a¬+r =rl¬rn ar; ¤m
¤cnr ¬rnmr, ¤+r’r =¤”c ar;
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
=r= m +r mne¤ =·¤rq +r = m +;¬ = ç l l¬= ¤ +r; arm + ¤r= ¬r¬ = mmt mç=¸ =
ç¸e l¤¬r ¬çt ;ç =+nt, a=t ¤+r; = =r=m +r a=; çrnr çl =·¤r m¸= a= ¤;m ¤n¬
=rrr = =trrr =+¤+ ;=rnr çl

23
23 118
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m ¬ ¬r +¸ e l¤ee ¤¸ ”or
m le=rr ç, ¤ç ¤¸¤r =¤ = m;t
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ¤; arrrrl;n ç l
q= =mn ==r; m arrnrlrm+
¬mng m ¬r ¤=n¸ l=ªrln ¤e
;çt ç , a=+r ar ; =·¤rq +r
n¸e¬rrm+ ¤¤r¬ +;¬ + lee
m¸q l¤¤’r çr+; arer¤¬rrm+
‘r et +r =çr;r e ¬r ¤s rl nç
mr> =mqr¬ + lee l+nr mnr
¤nr= çl m ¬r +¸e ¤nr¬r ¤r.
çnr ç¸, a= l¤; +rt =¤”c =¤ =
¬çt ·n¬ +; =+r ç¸, +nrl+
arnrrm¤ro mr> ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
ar; =r¢rrr+r; +r çt l¤”rn çl
=r=rl;+ +rr”rr m a= ·n¬
+;¬r +lo¬ çt ¬çt a=++r¤ =t
¤rn çl =r=rl;+ ¬t¤r +r a=t
+t +rr”rr m =mqr¬ + lee q=
n;t+ + aer¤r ar; +rq ;r=nr
ç ¬çt l = =r; +r nç l¤=n¸ n
=¤=¤ mr> a=t e+ ¤;m=rrr
+r =¤=¤ ç l l¤;r rrr+rr= ar ;
l+r-¬nr çm lo=rrq o ;çt ç,
¤ç mr> l>m¸ ¤rmnt mrnr +r
=re çl o¸·=r-=¸=r +t a¬¸+r¸ln
çt ¬t¤¬ +r ;ç=n çl ¬¤ ¬t¤
mrnr +t ¤l;lrr = a¤; ao ¬rnr
ç nr a=+r +rm rrt;-rrt; =mr¤n
çr ¬rnr çl
e=t l=ªrln m a= mçr¬g
arrmr +r = =r; +t ç; ¤=n¸
m mr> a=t ¤;m =rrr + o’r¬
+ro ¤¸lç + +rm +
+r;¤r çt arer¤¬r-¤rnrer¤¬r çrnt çl
çrn çl nç e+ =·¤rq çl ¬¤
==r; e+ çt =rrr +r =¤=¤ ç
nr arer¤¬r +r¬ +;, l+=+t
+; ? nç =¤ +r o nr arqr¤+ +
¬t¤ + mrnr + ¢r> m çt mç=¸=
çrnr çl mrnr ¬ ¬t¤r +r e=r
+rlmn +; ;=rr ç l+ l+=t +r
=·¤rq +r +rr¬ n+ ¬çt çr ¤r
;çr ç l aet¤¸ ; ¬ e m +rm¤r¬g ¬
mçl”r a;l¤-o +r ¬r or aro’r
lon ªr, a== l=ªrln l¤e+¸e
=¤”c çr ¬rnt ç l +rm¤r¬g ¬
¤çe aro’r m ~t a;l¤-o +r
+çr ªrr·- ''m¬ n¸+ç e+ +rm
=r¤r ç, n¸+ç q= ;r”c¸ +r aor¬r
ç, m ¬çt ¤rçnr l+ n¸m alrr+
=mn n+ q= ¤r; ot¤r;t m ¤-o
;çrl n¸m ‘rtrr e¸c ¬rarml ¬rar
ar; m;r +rm +;rl''
o¸=; aro’r m +rm¤r¬g ¬
a¬= +çr ªrr·-''q= e+ ¤”r
+ e+r-n¤r= m n¸+ç ¤ç¸n +¸e
lo=rrnr mnr ç , l¬¬ ¤rnr +
¤r; m n¸+ç ‘r+r ªrt, a¬+r n¸m¬
¤rn¢r =¤ = o=r lenr çl
m q= o’r +r a¤¬r =o’r
¤er¬ + lee aor ;çr ç¸l nç
=o’r a= =¬rn¬ rrm +r =o’r
ç, l¬= n¸m a+rt n+ ¬çt ¬r¬n
ªr, ¤; a¤ ¬r¬ mn çrl n¸m ¤rç;
¬rar nr a¤¬ o ’r¤rl=nr =
+ç¬r l+ n¸ m =¬rn¬ rrm +
lee ao ;ç çr, n¸+ç =¤rªr l=lç
+ lee ¬çt, al¤n¸ ==r; + lee
aornr ¬r ;çr çl
¬¤ +çr ¬rnr ç l+ +rr;n
¤”r mçr¬g ç nr a=+r mne¤ ç
=¬rn¬ rrm mçr¬g çl m¬ n¸+ç
lo=rr lonr ç l+ m =¤ ¬mç ar ;
=¤ m mr¬¸o ç¸l ¬r o’r + lee
es ;ç ç, a-çt m ¬çt, o’r +
l¤;r lrrnr m +rt, m çt +rm +; ;çr
ç¸l ¬r¬ nr a¬¬r¬, ¤rn¢r=¤
= =çrn+ çr+; nr l¤;rrr +;n
ç¸e, =¤ m;r çt +rm +; ;ç çl
m;t ‘rl¬ +rm +; ;çt ç, ar;
¤ç lo¬ o¸ ; ¬çt ¬¤ +rm m
=¤enr ¤r¤n çrmtl'' +rm¤r¬g
+ a¤n¸¬ aro’rr = l=ªrln ¤¸¤r
=¤ = =¤”c çr ¬rnt çl a¤n¸¬
= =¤”c çr mnr ç l+ =¤> e+
çt ‘rl¬ +t =rrr ç, l¤; +r¬
l+=+r l¤;rrrt çl
''m¸q +rt ==r; m =¬rn¬
rrm + lee +¸e +;¬ +r aro’r
ç, a=+r ¤r¤¬ =o’r ==r; +
ermr n+ ¤ç¸¤r¬r ç, q=tlee
=¤r+re =mr¤n çr¬ = eç =re
¤çe , = ¤r l¬¤¸ n çr ¬ + aro ’r o
+;, a¤¬ +rm m emr lonr çl
m e+ =¤r ers +; o¸=;t
=¤r m em mnr ç¸l ¬r +¸e m¸q
23
23
127
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
==r; + ¤rl¤rnr +t ar¤lrr
+r +r;¤r ¬; ar; mror ‘rl¬ nr çt
çl or¬r + =çnrm = çt ar¬ ¬r
==r; çm o=r ;ç ç, a=+t ;¤¬r
ç¸q çl or¬r + lmer¤ l¤¬r nç
+rn =++r¤ ¬çt çl ==r; m n¸m
¤l;¤n¬ + =rªr-=rªr ¬r;t ¬rln
+r ¤n¬ çrnr çt mnrl ¤nr-¤nr
=rlr¤+ ‘rl¬ +r çg;r= çr nr ¤er
mnr ar; ==r; m nrml=+ ‘rl¬
+r ¤+rr¤ ¤cnr mnr, mrn¸ ‘rl¬
+r ¤n¬ çrnr çt ¤er mnrl ¬r;t
+r çmr; rrm m ‘rl¬ +r ¤nt+
mr¬r çl
arlo m¸ = ‘r +;r¤rn ¬t ¬
¤r;l++r+ ¬t¤¬ m +¤e +rm¤r¬g
‘r+; +t çt ar;rrr¬r +t, ¬mng
¬¬¬t ¤r¤nt +r a-çr¬ nro n+
¬çt l+nrl q= n;ç ¤ ç; ¤+r; =
‘rl¬ çt¬ çrn çt ¤e mn, ¬¤
a-ç q=+r qr¬ ç¸ ar nr +rm¤r¬g
l’r¤ = ¢rmr mrm +; mr +t ‘r;¤r
m ¤e mnl q= ¤+r; çm o=rn
ç, =+¤¸¤r +rr;n m =¬rn¬ rrm +r
e+ e> =rmr¤n =ªrrl¤n +;¬ m
¤ =¤e ç¸el m¤s¬ lm~ +t rrm
¤r¬t mrmt + ¤’¬r +r arr; o¬
+ lee a-ç ¤;+rnr ¤¤’r + gr;r
¤ç qr¬ ¤r¤n +;¬r ¤sr n+rt a-ç
¤¸¤r =¤enr lme =+tl
ar¬+e + =+rt rrmr +
rrmr¤rn +¤¬ ar; +rlm¬t +r
¤n¬ +r m¸ =n +r;¤r mr¬ ;ç
ç l ar¬ = =r; m ¬r;t ¬rln +t
¬r o¸ o ’rr çr ;çt ç , a=m q¬
¬r;t ¬rln + ¤n¬ ç¸e l¤¬r
==r; m ‘rrl-n a=++r¤ çl
rrmr¤rnr +r m¸=n çrªr çl =>t m
m¬¸”n = +q m¸¤rr alrr+ ‘rl¬
çrnt çl nçt +r;¤r ç l+ ¤ç ‘rl¬
a¤¬t a¤r; =rrr + +r;¤r ==r;
+t ;¤¬r +;nt ar; a=+r ¤re¬
¤r”r¤r +;nt çl q=+ l¤¤;tn ar¬
+ mr¬¤ ¬ a¤¬t ar¤lrr ar ;
¤r”r+ ‘rl¬ +t ¬r o¸o’rr +t ç,
a=+r ¤¤r ¬ a=++r¤ ç l çm o =rn
ç l+ ¤;+rnr ¤¤’r gr;r arlom¸=
‘r +;r¤rn ¬t qr¬ ¤ r¤n ¬çt
+;n nr a¬+r qr¬ arr¸;r ;çnr
ar; a-ç a¤¬ ac’n m ++rt +rt
=¤enr ¬çt lmentl
ar¬ a-çt + a¬¸nrq =+rt
rrmr ¤rn +rlm¬t +r ¤n¬ +r
+r;¤r mr¬ ;ç çl =+rt erm a¬+
a¤o’r +r =¸¬n ç ar; a=t +
a¬¸=r; +rnr¤r +t +rm¬r +;n
çl arlom¸= ‘r+;r¤rn ¬t am;
¬mng ¬¬¬t ¤r¤nt +t ar;rrr¬r
¬çt +;n nªrr ¤;+rnr ¤¤’r g
r;r qr¬ ¤r¤n ¬çt +;n nr ar¬
= =r; m a¬+r ¬rm n+ +r q
¬çt ¬r¬nrl nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr ¬
=¤= alrr+ çg;r= q=t mrn¸ ¸
‘rl¬ +r l+nr çl nrml=+ ‘rl¬
nr a·et ¤+r; =mqnt ç l+ ¬¤
n+ ‘rl¬ +m¬r; ¬çt çrmt, n¤
n+ nç a¤¬t =-nr¬r +t ;¢rr
+;nt ;çmtl
an· =¤= ¤çer ¤çr; q=
¬mng ¬¬¬t ¤; çt ç¸arl
= =r; +r +r q +rt ¤ r¤rt
l¬l’¤n =mn ar; ar¤’n+nr +
l¤¬r ;ln l+nr +t n;¤ ar+l”rn
¬çt çrnrl e+ m¬¸”n ¬rln çt e=t
+r”c ç¸q ç l+ l¬=¬ =+rt =tmr.
ar +r arerr¬ +; lonr çl ¬t¤
rrrl;nr m nç =¤ = alrr+ ¤lnn
ç¸ql ==r; + =+n +çer¬ ¤re
o’r, =melm+ l¤¤rç +r -nrn
= mn +;r; o ¬ n+ + +¸ lr”rn
+rn +r +;n ç¸e +rt ¬çt ‘rmr ;ç
çl q== alrr+ ¤n¬ mr¬¤ ¬rln
+r a=++r¤ çl m¸q =¤= alrr+
o¸·=r nr a= =mn çrnr ç ¬¤ +r.
r;ntn ==+¸ln a= ¤ªr +r”c ar;
l¤+¸n ==+¸ln +t n;¤ ar+l”rn
çrnt çl
çmr; o ’r ¤rl=nr +t e =t
¤¤¸ln o=r +; m¸q +rr;t +”c çr.
nr çl m;t =mq m ar¬ ¬r o’rr
çmr; o’r ¤rl=nr +t ç, a=+ m¸e
+r;¤rr m m¸=n +r;¤r ¬r;t ¬rln
+r ¤n¬ çl ¬¤ n+ q= ¬rln +r
¤n¬ ¬çt l+nr ¬rnr ç, o’r m
arrnrlrm+ ¤ n¬r a=++r¤ ç l
arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r + l¤¬r ==r;
+r ¬r +lm+ ¤n¬ çr ;çr ç , a=+r
;r+ ¤r¬r a=++r¤ çl
an· m¬¸ ”nr + =rªr-=rªr ¬¤
n+ ¬r;t ¬rln +r +rt arrnrlrm+
o¸l”c = ¤n¬ ¬çt l+nr ¬rnr ç,
= =r; m ¤¸ ¤r ‘rrl-n a=++r¤ ç l ¬¤
n+ =¬rn¬ rrm + a¬¸=r; ¬r;t
¬rln +r =+mr¬ ¬çt çrmr, çmr;r
‘rrl-n +r =¤¬r arr¸;r çt ;çmrl
çmr; o’r +t ¬r;t +r l¤>¤r +l¤
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

23
23
128
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
zt¤t ‘rnr-ot m +rr;n +t
==r; m +nr l=ªrln çrmt, q=+r
e+; =rrr ¤¢r ar; l¤;rrrt ¤¢r m
+r¤t etcr +=t ¤e ;çt çl =+rt
er mr +r rnr¬ mr> ¤ qrl¬+
a-¬ln ¤; çl =+rt erm mr> ¤q.
rl¬+ a¤el-rrnr +r çt a-¬ln
+r ¤nt+ mr¬n çl am; ¤qrl¬+
a¤el-rrnr çt mr> ==r; +t =¸=r
‘rrl-n +r =çr;r çrnt nr ¤l’¤m
+ o’rr m nr q= =mn ¤¸¤r ‘rrl-n
çr¬t ¤rlçe ªrtl ¤;-n¸ ¤çr l=ªrln
ot+ q=+ l¤¤;tn çl
er mr +r ¬t¤¬ qn¬r a’rr-n
ar ; n¬r¤ ¤¸ ¤r ç l+ sa-s: ¤ ln’rn
er mr +r =r ¬ + lee l¤l+r-¬
¤ +r; + ¬’r +t o¤rqnr +r =çr;r
e¬r ¤snr çl ¬r ¤=n¸ q’¤; ¬
l¤¬r l+=t +ro+rr¤ +, ==r; +
=+rt ¤rl¤rnr +r m¸¤n m ¤or¬ +t
ç¸q ç, ¤ç +rt q¬ ermr + ¬=t¤
m ¬çt le=rt çl
q= ¤ +r; mr¬l=+ ‘rrl-n
+ a+rr¤ m l¬;-n; n¬r¤m =n
lomrm, l¤l+r-¬ ¤+r; + o¸”+m
==r; m ¤er ;çr çl q’¤; ¬ ¬r
¤qrl¬+ qr¬ ==r; +r lonr ç,
a=+r a¤nrm mr¬¤ +t +rerq
+ lee +m ar; l¤¬r’r + lee
alrr+ l+nr ¬r ;çr çl ==r; +r
or l¤’¤ n¸ çr m qr +¬ ¤rer ¬m ¬
ar¬ =¤= alrr+ l¤l-nn çl
a=+t çren = =r; +r; =
l¤¤;tn çl =r; ==r; m ¬-m o;
zt ¤t ‘rnr-ot + ¤r; m
+rr;n m qn¬r ‘rr; +nr m¤ ;çr ç?
¤c ;çt ç , ¤;-n¸ ¤çr ¬-m o;
l¬;-n; rrc ;çt çl ¤çr + l¤gr¬r
+r q= l=ªrln = +rr;t l¤-nr çr ;çt
çl a¬+r +ç¬r ç l+ am; nçt
l=ªrln ;çt nr ¬m¬ =r¸¬ ==r;
= =rrm çr ¬rnmrl nçt l=ªrln
ar; o’rr +t ç, +çt +rt ‘rrl-n +r
¬rmr l¬’rr¬ n+ ¬çt çl
e=t l=ªrln m çmr; o’r¤r=t
am; mr> ¤ qrl¬+ a-¬ln +r
¤mln +r ¤nt+ =mq nr nç e+
+rr;t +r¸e çrmtl l¤; ¤ç ¤;m =rrr
zt¤t =ot +r qn¬r ‘rr ; +nr m¤¤r
;çt ç l mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬ +çr
ªrr, ar¬rot e¬ + ¤ro +rr;n +r
=¤=¤ ==r; + =rm¬ +=r çr?
nç alrr+ mçr¤ ¤¸¤r l¤”rn çl
am; +rr;n a¤¬t =tmrar +r
l¤=nr; +;nr ç¸ar ¤qrl¬+ o¸l”c
= ==r; + a-n o’rr + ¤;r¤;
=rsr çr ¬rn nr ==r; m +¸e +rt
¤+ ¤s¬ ¤rer ¬çt ç, ¬çr qn¬
o’r ç e+ ar; ¬¸s ¬remrl
q= ¤+r; +rrln+ a-¬ln =.
=r; m ‘rrl-n =ªrrl¤n +;¬ m +rt
=¤e ¬çt çr mtl ¤ qrl¬+ o¸ l”c =
gr¤; n¸m +r mr¬¤ =¤rrrm l=ªrln
m ªrrl l¤; +rt mçr+rr;n +r n¸ç
ç¸ar ar; ==r; ¤qrl¬+r ar;
¤t;r = =rret çr mnrl am; ==r;
m =·¤t arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r ¬çt
arq nr mçr+rr;n + n¸ç m ==r;
+t ¬r çren ç¸ q , a== l+r-¬ ¤l;¤
rrm +t ar’rr + ¤e +r¤¬r ç l
¤;-n¸ ==r; + rrrlm+ m-ªr ar;
=nr +t +rl¤”n ¤rl¤rnr =+n +;
;çt ç l+ ¤ç ¤;m =rrr mr¬¤ =¤
m, ==r; m =¸=r ‘rrl-n =ªrrl¤n
+;¬ çn¸ a¤nr; e ¤¸+t çl
a¤¬ +lm+ l¤+r= + =rªr
¤ç ‘rl¬ , q= =ot + a-n n+
= =r; +r; +t mr¬¤ ¬rln +r
a¤¬t n;¤ ar+l”rn +; emtl
m;t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr + a¬¸=r;
¤ç ‘rl¬ =¬g tss: n+ +rr;n m
a¤¬r ¤¸;r ¤+rr¤ ¬mr emtl q=+
¤ro arm + ¤¤rr m ¤¸; ==r; m
a=+r e+ e> ¤+rr¤ =ªrrl¤n çr
¬rnmrl
q= =mn = =r; m =¤=
¤sr q=rq rrm, l¤; m¸l=em rrm
ar; l¤; ¤rç rrm çl q=rq rrm
+ ¤¤n+ nt’r¸ ¬ ==r; ers¬ =
¤çe çt rrr”r¤rr +; ot ªrt ·- ''m
n¸m = =¤ +çnr ç¸, l+ m;r ¬r¬r
n¸+çr; lee a·er ç, +nrl+ nlo
m ¬ ¬ra, nr ¤ç =çrn+ n¸+ç.
r; ¤r= ¬ arnmr, ¤;-n¸ nlo m
¬ramr, nr a= n¸+çr; ¤r= +r¬
o¸ mrl ar ; ¤ç ar+; = =r; +r ¤r¤,
rrrlm+nr ar; -nrn + l¤”rn m
l¬=rr; +; omrl '¤r¤' + l¤”rn m
q=lee l+ ==r; +r =;or; or”rt
oç;rnr mnr çl m¸q n¸m = ¤ç¸n
=t ¤rn +ç¬t ç, ¤;-n¸ a+rt n¸m
a= =ç ¬çt =+rml
¤;-n¸ ¬¤ ¤ç aªrrng =rn
+r arrmr aremr, nr n¸ +ç =¤
23
23
129
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤nremrl ¬r +¸e l¤nr +r ç,
¤ç =¤ m;r ç, q=lee m¬ +çr
l+ ¤ç m;t ¤rnr m = e+; n¸+ç
¤nremrl q=+ aer¤r nt’r¸ +
a¬¸nrqnr m = +q ar; =nr ¬
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +t ç l+ za¤t =ot
+ a-n n+ +etl=nr +r al=.
nr¤ lmc ¬rnmrl
nt’r¸ nªrr a-n = nr +t
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +r e +; q =rq
¬mng m ar¬ =re¤et m¤t ç¸ q
ç l o¤t ¬¸ ¤r¬ = q =rq rrm ¤ ¤r;+
q= =¤t+r; +;n ç¸ e = +çn ç ·-
''+¸ e l¤¬r’r + e = ¬¤t ç ¬r nç
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt +;n ç l+ ¤t=¤t
‘rnr-ot + a-n n+ +etl=nr
+r al=nr¤ çt lmc ¬rnmrl e+
e = ¬¬ ; ¤¸ ç ·nl¬ +r l¤> ç ¬r
+¤ + l¬+c ¤ç¸ ¤ ¤¸ +r çr , ¤;-n¸
¤;m’¤; + ¤l;¤r; + lee ¤r=n¤
m +rq e=r =rn;r ¬çt çl
¤;m ’¤; ¬ q=lee a¤¬
e+er n ¤¸ > +r o lonr l+ çm
=¤ e+ ;ç =+ l a=¬ a¤¬
¤l;¤r; + lee +rr;t m¸rn ¤¸+rnr
çl m ¬çt mr¬nr l+ ¤;m’¤; a=
+rn +r =+¤-¬ ¬çt +;mr, ¬r
a=¬ ¤r;++r l+nr çl'' a¤n¸¬
= e+ e=t qe+ ¬¬; arnt ç
l+ q =rq ¬mng nt’r¸ (a¤¬
¤;mrrmr¸ ar ; a¤¬ çt rrm
+ =-nr +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr =
arnlrr+ +rn+rtn çl
q= =+¤-rr m m ¬ e+
+rm+r¬t q =rq mlçer = e+
lo¬ 'n¸ç-¬r' +r +çt nt’r¸ +t
¤rn + ¤r; m ¤¸enre +t nr a=¬
+çr l+ m¸ q nr qn¬r qr¬ ¬çt ç ,
m ar¤+r çmr; ¤ro;t = lmer+;
mre¸m +;¤r =+nt ç¸l q=+ ¤ro
a=¬ +çr l+ ar¬+e ¤rªr¬r +
¤ro ¤ro;t =rç¤ çm m¸=n ¤¤ =
arnr aro’r ç; qn¤r; +r =¸¬rn
çl aro’r +¸e q= ¤+r; ç·-
''q= =mn q=rq rrm ¤ç¸n
+lo¬ ¤l;l=ªrlnnr = m¸¬; ;çr çl
rrm ¤; =+c + ¤roe m¤s;r ;ç
ç l çmr; rrm ¤; +rr;t ar+m¤r çr ¬
¤rer çl am; ar¤+r q=rq rrm
nr ar; l+=t +rt rrm +r rrmm¸=
çmr; rrm + ¤r; m +¸e +rt a¤o’r
o nr ar¤ a=+t ¤rn ¬ =¸¬rl ar¤
+r ¤¤ + ¤ro;t ¬r aro’r o, a=t
+r ¤re¬ +;n ç¸e, q= =+c +t
rrst m a¤¬ rrm +t ;¢rr +;l''
m¬ a= mlçer = ¤¸er +nr ar¤
ermr +r +rq ¤rn¢r =+c ¬¬;
ar ;çr ç nr a=¬ arr; lonr l+
m¸ q nr e =r ¬çt emnrl q=+
¤ro m¸l=em rrm +r ¬+¤; çl q=
rrm + ¤¤n+ mrç+mo =rç¤ +t
+rt +em t¡ ¤t =ot + ¤ro ¤-o
çr mql q= rrm + a¬¸nrqnr +
a¬¸=r; arm +r =mn q= rrm
+ a¬¸+¸e ¬çt ;çmrl q= ¤+r;
n or¬r ¤s rrm çg;r=r-m¸=r çr
¤e çl
nt=;r rrm, ¤rç rrm çl q=
rrm +t ¬çr ar¤lrr ç¸q, ¤çt ¤¸¤r
=¤ = ¬”c çr ¤¸+r çl ¤rç ar;
¬ ¬ rrm or ¬r l¬;t’¤; ¤rot rrm ç l
n rrm mr> ;r¤n =rrr + =çr; ¤¬¤
ç¸e çl ¬¤ =¬rn¬ rrm =¤t =¸n
aon çrmr nr q¬ =+rt lcmlcmrn
ç¸e l=nr;r + ¤+r’r +t ¤nrln ¤¸¤r
=¤ = =mr¤n çr ¬rnmtl
zt ¤t =ot = =¬rn¬ rrm +r
e+ e> =rmr¤n ==r; m ¤r;++r
çr ¬rnmrl q= =+¤-rr m mçl”r
a;l¤-o ¬ = =r; + =+rt = nr
= e+ +om arm ¤c +; rrr”r¤
rr +t çl
~t a;l¤-o ¬ a= ¤;m =rrr
+ a¤n;¤r +t =¤”c rrr”r¤rr +;n
ç¸e +çr ç·- ''z¡ ¬¤+¤; tszc +r
~t +¸ ”¤r +r ¤¸ ª¤t ¤; a¤n;¤r
ç¸ar ªrrl ~t+¸”¤r alnmr¬l=+
¤ +r’r ¬çt ç , ~t +¸ ”¤r + a¤n;¤r
+r aªr ç alrrmr¬l=+ o¤ +r
a¤n;¤r ¬r ¬mng +r alnmr¬=
ar; ar¬-o + lee nnr; +;nr
ç l ~t+¸ ”¤r ar¬-mon ç l ¤
alnmr¬= +r a¤¬ ar¬-o +t
ar ; aog¤¸ ç +;+ l¤+r= +r
=mªr¬ ar; =¤re¬ +;n çl''
q= ¤;m =rrr + +lm+ l¤+r=
+ =rªr ==r; m ¬r ¤l;¤n¬ çr¬
¤rer ç, a=+r ¤¤r¬ +;n ç¸e ~t
a;l¤-o ¬ +çr ç ·-
''el’rnr ¬mng-pon +t
‘rrl-n +r ;=r¤rer çl nr;r¤ +t
¤ or +t ç¸ q ¤tmrl;nr +r ot+ +;¬
¤rer çl nr;r¤ ¬ +rrln+ l¤qr¬,
l¬nl>n ;r¬¬tln, aorm, ·nr¤r;
arlo m ¤ç¸n ¤mln +; et çl a¤
+rr;n +r +rm ‘r¸= çrnr çl a=
q¬ =¤ ¤t¬r +r arnrrm ‘rl¬
+ arrt¬ +;+ rr;nt ¤; =¤m
¤=r¬r çl''
==r; + =+rt rrmr +t rr¤;r.
çc ar; =+rt rrmr + rrmr¤rnr +t
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr nç o’rr ;çt ç l+
= =r; m +r q e =t arrnrlrm+
‘rl¬ ¤+c çr¬ ¤ret çl ¬r =.
=r; +r; + mr¬¤r +r a¤¬t n;¤
ar+l”rn +;+ a-ç ar¬-o ar;
‘rrl-n +t n;¤ aog¤¸ ç +;+
l¤+r= +r =mªr¬ ar; =¤re¬
+;mtl
a m ¬t +t +çr¤n ç l+ +rr;n
m +rt zt¤t =ot +r e +; =+rt ¤m +
erm +¸e ¬ +¸e +ç ;ç ç, ¤ =r¸o
¬çt =mq ;ç ç l+ ¤ e =r +nr +;
;ç ç , ¤ç ¤;m =rrr =¤ +r +r;mrn
ç¸e a¤¬t q·er + a¬¸=r; ¤er
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130

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ar¬ +r mr¬¤ l+=t e =t
ªrrªrt ¤rn m l¤’¤r= ¬çt +;nr,
l¬== +rq ¤l;¤rrm ¬ lmel ¤q.
rl¬+ a¤el-rrnr ¬ q= n¸ m +
mr¬¤ +r ¤ç¸ n ¬rm n +; lonr
çl mr¬¤ nr+re ¤l;¤rrm +t mrm
+;nr çl ¬t¤¬ +r; +rq ¤l;¤rrm ¬
o¬ ¤ret, l+=t +rt ar;rrr¬r +r
q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ ¤¸¤r =¤ = ¬+r;
¤¸+r çl e=t l=ªrln m =+rt rrmr m
¤¤len ar;rrr¬r ¤çlnnr +r q=
n¸m +r mr¬¤ a¤ =¤t+r; ¬çt +;
;çr çl nçt +r;¤r ç l+ ==r; +
n¸¤r ¤m ¬ =+rt rrmr + rrm m¸=ar
m l¤’¤r= =rr lonr ç, ¤-o ¤¸sgc
ar; al’rl¢rn ermr + =çr; =+rt
rrm ;mn ç¸e m;¤rr=-¬ +t l=ªrln
m ¤ç¸¤ ¤¸+ çl
e = er mr +r +rt q+cgor
+;¬ + lee +rr;t ¤¤r; ar; rr¬
+r =çr;r e¬r ¤s ;çr çl q= ¤+r;
al-nm =r = e n ç¸ e =+rt rrmr
+r ¤n¬ =l-¬+c çl ¤+¸ln ++rt
l+=t =ªrr¬ +r l;+n ¬çt ersnt
ç, l¬= ¤+r; ¤¸sgcr m¬¸”n m;nr
ç, a== ¤çe ¤·¤r ¬¤r¬ çr+;
a=+r =ªrr¬ e¬ +r nnr; çr ¬rnr
ç, a=t ¤+r; +r ¤oer¤ ==r; +t
ç; ¤=n¸ m l¬;-n; çr ;çr çl mln
+r ¬rm çt ¬t¤¬ çl ==r; +t ç;
¤=n¸ l¬;-n; mln’rte çl
=¸¬¬ +t ‘rl¬ n¸¤r +re çt
çl nç l=çr-n ==r; +t ç; ¤=n¸
¤; erm¸ çrnr çl ‘rl¬ çt¬ ¤=n¸ m
=¸¬¬ +t ¢rmnr =mr¤n ¤rn· çr
¬rnt çl e=t l=ªrln m =+rt rrmr
+t m¸n¤rn·, l¬;ªr+ ar;rrr¬r ¤ç
lnnr +r al-nm =mn çl ¤+¸ln
l¬l’¤n =¤ = q= =ªrr¬ +t ¤¸ln
+ lee l¬l’¤n =mn ¤; ¬q ‘rl¬
+r = =r; + ¬t¤r + +rnr¤r + lee
¤+c +;mtl q= =+¤-rr m mçl”r
a;l¤-o ¬ =¤”c q’rr;r +; lonr ç l
a= ¤;m=rrr n+ ¤ç¸¤ +; a=+r
=r¢rrr+r; ar ; ¤ rn¢rr¬+r¸ ln +;¬r
=++r¤ ç, q= =+¤-rr m ¬r ¤ªr
~t a;l¤-o ¬ lo=rrnr ç, a=+
aer¤r +rq ;r=nr ç çt ¬çtl
¤lçm¸=rt ar;rrr¬r = a==n
¬-mr m +rt a= ¤;m =rrr n+
¤ç¸¤¬r =++r¤ ¬çt çl m¸q +rt q=
¤+r; +t a¬¸+r¸lnnr =rer = çr
;çt çl m¸=o¤ + =¤m¤r= + ¤ro
nr m¸q= ¬¸s¬ ¤re ermr +r +rt ~t
a;l¤-o gr;r ¤l¤rn a¬¸+r¸lnnr çr
;çt çl ~t a;l¤-o ¬ q= =+¤-rr
m +çr ç·- ''q’¤; nlo ç nr a=+
al=nr¤ +r a¬¸ +r¤ +;¬ +r,
a¬+ =r¢rrng o’r ¬ ¤ r¤n +;¬
+r +rq ¬ +rq ¤ªr çrmr, ¤ç ¤ªr
¤rç l+n¬r çt o¸mm +nr ¬ çr, a=
¤ªr = ¬r¬ +r m¬ o¸c =+r¤ +;
lenr çl
lç-o¸ rrm +r +ç¬r ç l+ a¤¬
‘r;t; +, a¤¬ +rtn; çt ¤ç ¤ªr ç,
a= ¤; ¤e¬ + l¬nm +rt lo=rr
lon çl a¬ =¤ +r ¤re¬ +;¬r
m¬ ¤r;++r +; lonr ç, e+ mr= +
a-o; a¬¸+r¤ +; =+r ç¸ l+ lç-o¸
rrm +t ¤rn q¸ot ¬çt ç, l¬¬ l¬¬
l¤µr +t ¤rn +çt mq ç, m a¬ =¤
+t a¤el-rr +; ;çr ç¸l'' q= +rn
+r ~t a;l¤-o +nr +;¬r ¤rçn
ªr , q= =¤-rr m a-çr ¬ =¤”c +;n
ç¸e +çr ç·-''m a¤¬ l¬¬ + lee
+¸e +rt ¬çt +; ;çr ç¸, +nrl+ m¸q
a¤¬ lee ¬ mr¢r +t ar¤’n+nr
ç , ¬ alnmr¬l=+ l=lç +tl nçr m
q= l=lç + lee ¬r nr¬ +; ;çr ç¸ ,
¤ç +¤e q=lee l+ ¤rlªr¤ ¤n¬r
m q= +rm +r çr¬r ar¤’n+ çl
ar; am; nç ¤çe m; a-o; ¬
ç¸ar nr ar;r m +rt ¬ çr =+mrl''
a¤n¸¬ = =¤”c çrnr ç l+ l¬n¬
+rt mçr¬g =n ç¸e ç, a-çr¬ a¤¬
lee +¸e +rt ¬çt l+nrl
a= ¤;m =rrr n+ ¤ç¸ ¤¬
+r ;r=nr ¬t¤ mr> + +rnr¤r +
lee =rr ¬rl e = çt ¤;m lçn ”rt
ar; onre¸ =n =ngm¸= ==r; +r
+rnr¤r +;¬ m =¢rm çrn çl ¤
a¤¬ ¬t¤¬ m q= ¤rn +t qe+
n+ ¬çt lo=r¬ on l+ ¤ +nr +;
;ç ç? a= ¤;m =rrr n+ ¤ç¸¤¬ +r
;r=nr =rr¬ +; a=+r =r¢rrr+r;
+;+ a=t m et¬ çr ¬rn çl ==r;
= l¤or çr¬ = ¤çe ¤ q= a¤¬t
al¬n ¤;m ‘rl¬ +r l+=t e =
a¤n¸¬ ¤r> +r =r¤ +; ¬rn ç,
¬r ==r; + ¤r¤rt mr> + +rnr¤r
+ lee q=+r a¤nrm +; =+l nç
çrnr ç =·¤r rnrml a¤¬t ¬t¤¬
+r; +t +mrq +r a¬rnr= çt = .
=r; +t +rerq + lee al¤n +;+
¤¸¤¤r¤ ¤e ¬rn çl
rrm¤s, ¤o’r¬ ere=r arlo
+rq +rt nrml=+ ¤¸ln a¬+ ¤r=
+rt ¬çt ¤c+ =+ntl e=t açn¸+t
+¸¤r = lmet oren çt m ==r; m
¤r c¬ l¬+e ¤s r ç¸ l m ;r q=m
+¸e +rt ¬çt çl m nr mr> a= ¤;m
arrmr +r =¤+ ç¸l m nr =¤r +
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

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131
¤rnr¢rr¬¸+r¸ln nr
+ l¤¬r ¤n¬r =++r¤ ¬çtl
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln nr =r¢rrr+r;
+t ¤rn ar¬ +e + +r q rrmr ¤rn
+;n çt ¬çtl q’¤; + ¬rm +t
mlçmr nr =r¸¤ +;n çl n+ ‘rr=>
ar; ‘r-o ¬re + arrrr; ¤; q’¤;
+t l¬rn ¬q ·nr=nr +;+ er.
mr +r ¤rlç+ o¸l”c = l¬rn ¬nr
·nrnrm +;¤rn ;çn çl
q= ¤ +r; aeqr¬ ¤ret
¤ l+nr l¬;-n; ¤ent ;çnt ç l e =t
¤++t rrr;¤rr ermr + loer m ¤or
;=rt ç l+ nç +rm qn¬r +lo¬
ç l+ +q ¬-mr + emrnr; ¤nr=
= çt +¸e ¤r¤n l+nr ¬r =+nr
çl e+ ¬-m m nr l+=t ¤+r; +rt
=¤enr =++r¤ ¬çt çl q= ¤+r;
= =r; + a= =n er m ·nªr m
a¤¬r m¬¸”n ¬t¤¬, l¬¬t¤ ar;
¤lçm¸=rt ar;rrr¬r m ¬”c +; ;ç
ç l q ’¤; + ¬rm m l+n¬r ¤mr+r;
ç, q=+t ·nr=nr +;n ç¸e, =n
+¤t; ¬ +çr ç·-
''¬rm ame an; ¬ +r.
rql ar; ame- le¬-le¬
¤lc an;, ¬rm ame lo¬ ¤c
=¤rnrl
=n =ngm¸= ¬r¬+ ¬ q’¤;
¬rm +t mlçmr mrn ç¸e e+ +om
ar; arm ¤c+; +çr ç ·-
''+rrm rrn¸;r ¬r¬+r,
an; ¬rn ¤;+rrnl
¬rm =r¸mr;t ¬r¬+r,
¤ct ;ç lo¬ ;rnl''
am; a¤n¸¬ ¤rn =rn ç nr
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln nr =r¢rrr+r; +t ¤rn
rrrlm+ m-ªrr n+ çt =tlmn +nr?
rrmr¤rn ==r; + ermr +r a=
¬rm =r¸mr;t +r ar¬-o +nr ¬çt
loer ;ç ç? nr nr =n =ngm¸=
¬r¬+ ar; +¤t; men +ç mn
ç, nr arrr¸l¬+ m¸= =çt ¬çt çl
or¬r m = e+ =rn çl a= ¤;m
=rrr = ¬¸s l¤¬r ¬ nr =r¢rrr+r;
ar; ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln =++r¤ ç ar;
¬ çt ¬rm =r¸mr;tl a= ¤;m =rrr
+r =r¢rrr+r; ç¸e l¤¬r =¤ q¸or
çl n+, ¤¸lç¤rn¸n, ¤o’r¬, ‘r-o
¬re, ¤lçm¸ =rt ar;rrr¬r ar ;
a-rrl¤’¤r= a= ¤;m =rrr =
¬¸ s ¬ m +r q =çnr m ¬çt +;
=+nl
n =¤ +¸l>m ¬ot + l¤¤;tn
lo’rr m e ¬rn çl l¬¬t¤ ¤orªr
a¤¬ ar¤m =¬t¤ +r +rer ¤¸;r
+;¬ +t ‘rl¬ l¤r+¸e ¬çt ;=rn
çl +¤e =¬t¤ ar; ¤n¬ ‘rl¬
çt =¤ +¸e +;¬ m =¢m çl m;t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln + a¬¸=r; ==r; m
q= =mn =rlr¤+nr +r ¤rn· a+.
rr¤ çr ¤er çl nrml=+ ¤¢r m +rt
+rq ¤¤e ‘rl+n’rret =rrr ¬¬;
¬çt ar ;çt ç l arrnrlrm+nr
+ ¬rm ¤; n¸·e ¤rm mrmt erm,
==n ¤mr+r; ar; ¬rc+ lo=rr
+; +rlmn +; ;ç çl or¬r çt ¤¢rr
m e=r ‘rl¬ çt¬ =mn l+=t n¸m
m t arnrl
ç; n¸m m =rlr¤+ =rrr +r
¤esr +rr;t ;çr, ¤;-n¸ nrml=+
¤¢r +rt ç; n¸m m =rlr¤+ =rrr +r
ee+r;nr ;çrl ¤;-n¸ q= =mn
==r; +t ¬r l=ªrln ç, e=r ‘¸r-n
+re ++rt ¬çt arnrl =rlr¤+
‘rl+nnr m¸ n¤ rn· çr ¤¸ +t ç , ¤;-n¸
q=t ¤ +r; nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr
+rt al-nm =¤r= e ;çt çl e=r
‘rl¬ =n¸e¬ ++rt ¬çt l¤msrl
>nrn¸m = =rlr¤+ ‘rl+nnr +r
çg;r= ¤r;++r ç¸ar ªrrl q= =mn
a¬+r =¸n a=n çr ¤¸+r ç ¤;-n¸
q=+ l¤¤;tn ¬¤ m o=rnr ç¸ l+
nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +r +rt =¸n a=.
nr¤e n+ ¤ç¸¤ ¤¸+r ç, nr m¸q
mçl”r a;l¤-o +t +rl¤”n¤r¤rt
‘rn ¤ln’rn =rn çrnt ¬¬; arnt
çl ~t a;l¤-o ¬ a= ¤;m ‘rl¬
+ aon +t =¤”c +rl¤”n¤r¤rt çt
¬çt rrr”r¤rr n+ +; ot ç ·-
''z¡ ¬¤+¤; tszc +r ~t+¸”¤r
+r ¤¸ ª¤t ¤; a¤n;¤r ç¸ ar ªrrl
~t+¸”¤r alnmr¬l=+ ¤+r’r ¬çt
ç l ~t +¸ ”¤r + a¤n;¤r +r aªr ç ,
alrrmr¬l=+ o¤ +r a¤n;¤r ¬r
¬mng +r alnmr-r= ar ; ar¬-o
+ lee nnr; +;nr çl ~t+¸”¤r
ar¬-omn çl ¤ alnmr¬= +r
a¤¬ ar¬-o +t ar; aog¤¸ç
+;+ l¤+r= +r =mªr¬ ar; =¤.
re¬ +;n çl ¬¤ a-rr+r; =rrm
çr¬ emnr ç nr çm =mq ¬rn ç
l+ a¤ =¸nron çr¬ ¤rer çl
ot+ a=t ¤+r; ¬¤ m o=rnr
ç¸ l+ nrml=+ =rrr a¤¬ al-nm
=¤r= e ;çt ç, a=+t ot+ ¤çt
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132
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q= =mn ==r; m +¤e +rr.
ln+ =¸=r +r çt ==r; +r mr¬¤
ar¬-o +t =qr o ;çr çl ar¬-o
ar; +rrln+ =¸=r m ;rn ar; lo¬
+r a-n; ç l ar¬-o l¬;-n;
¬t¤¬ +r; e+ çt l=ªrln m ;çnr
ç, ¤;-n¸ =¸=r +t l=ªrln l¬;-n;
¤oent ;çnt çl ¤¤¤¬ m l¬¬
¤t¬r = =¸ =r +t a¬¸ +r¸ ln çr nt
ç, l+’rr;r¤=ªrr m arn çt =¸=r
+ arrrr; ¤oe ¬rn ç l ¬¤r¬t
m a= l=ªrln m ar; arrrr;+r¸n
¤l;¤n¬ çr ¬rnr çl ar; ¤¸cr¤r
arn çt, ¤¤¤¬, l+’rr ;r¤=ªrr
ar; ¬¤r¬t m l¬¬, l+r-¬-l+r-¬
+r;¤rr = =¸=r +t a¬¸+r¸ln çrnt
ªrt, a== l¤e+¸e l+r-¬ l=ªrln
çr ¬rnt çl q= ¤+r; çm o=rn

ç, ==r; +r mr¬¤ l¬= ar¬-o
+t =qr o ;çr ç, ¤ç mr> +rrln+
=¸=r çt çl ar¬-o l¤; =ªrrq çrnr
ç , a=+r =¤=¤ ar ; +r;¤r am +
=rªr-=rªr ¤l;¤n¬ ‘rte ¬çt çl
+nrl+ q= n¸m + mr¬¤ ¬ ar¬.
-o +r =¤ro ¤=rr çt ¬çt ç, q=
lee ¤ç ar¬-o ar; =¸=r m +rq
a-n; ¬çt =mqnr ç l =¸ =r-o¸ ·=r
+t l=ªrln ¤l;¤n¬‘rte ç, ¤;-n¸
ar¬-o l¤; =ªrrq ;çnr çl
ar¬-o a¬¸ +r¸ ln +r ¬rm ¬çt
ç l ¤ç nr l¤; =ªrrq l=ªrln +r
¬rm ç, ¬r ¬t¤¬ +r; =¸=r-’rrl-n
+ =rªr-=rªr mr¬¤ +r m·¬ ar;
¤ =-¬ l¤rr ;=rnr ç l am ar ;
¤l;l=ªrlnnr a=m +r q a-n; ¤ or
¬çt +; =+ntl ¤;-n¸ e=t l=ªrln
+r a¬¸ mr¬ q= n¸ m +r mr¬¤ emr
çt ¬çt =+nrl q=m a¬+r or”r
¬çt ç , +nr l+ ar¬-o ¤ or¬ +;¬
¤ret ‘rl¬ nr ==r; = e¸¤n ¤rn·
çr ¤¸+t çl m; = =+¤l-rrn erm,
¬¤ l¬;-n; ar¬-o +t a¬¸+r¸ln
+;n ç nr a-ç =¸=r ar; ar¬-o
+ a-n; +r ¤nr emnr ç l ar¬-o
+r çmr; =+rt =nr ¬ '¬rm ame'
ar; '¬rm =r¸mr;t' +t =qr ot çl
+nrl+ q= ¬rm =r¸mr;t +t ¤rn,
q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ +rr¤l¬+ ar;
q¸ o =mqnr ç , an· a=+t =mq
+ ¤rç; +t ¤=n¸ çl nçt +r;¤r ç,
¤¤r; q= n¸m + mr¬¤ =¸=r ar;
ar¬-o m +rq +ro ¬çt +; ¤r
;ç çl +rrln+ =rrr¬r = ar¬-o
lmenr nr ¤l’¤m ¬mng + erm
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
nlo l+=t e+ +rt ¬t¤ m ¤g +r l¤+r= çr mnr nr, =ç=r m¬¸”n a=t ¤nrln +
mrm = arm ¤cn çl ¤gq ¤¸=”r çt er+ m¸= ¤¬ =+n ç, nç ¤rn ‘rr=> ar; n¸l+n
or¬r = ¤mrl¤rn çrnt çl =¤rªrn¸+n ¤rg¤rr ¬ l¬= +¸em¸= ¤ªrr +r ¤¤r; l+nr, ¤ç
¤o ar; ‘rr=>r + l¤=ç çl q=tlee =rrr¬r +;¬ ¤; +rt erm a¤ l=ç nr ¤gq ¬çt
¤+¸ln +r nç ;ç=n¤¸¤r l¬nm ç l+ =rn nnr; çrn çt ¤t¬ lmenr çl ¤nrçt arrmr
+r rrm +t ar¤’n+nr çrnt ç, rnrçt rrrlm+ ‘rl+n +r o¬¤rer +rq ¬ +rq ar¬r çt
¤rlçel '=rr¬ +;¬ ¤re ¤r¤t +t +rc =rr¬ +;¬ ¤re açr;+ = çr çt =+nt çl' ¬¤
mç¤r +;¬¤ret arrmr +t ar+”r¤r-’rl+n ¤¸¤r ar; ¤l;¤+¤ çr ¬rnt ç, a= =mn a=
ar+”r¤r +r arr; o¬¤ret ar¬t çt ¤rlçel (s]z:¸
=¤rmt l¤¤ +r¬.
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23
133
ç¸ e +rt ao¸ ’n çr ¬rn ç l
a¬+ ¤ +r’r +r = =r; m +r q
al=nr¤ ¬çt ;ç ¬rnr çl ¬¤ m¸q
nç ¬¬r;r ¤rn¢r lo=rrnr ¬rnr
ç nr m¸q ¤++r l¤’¤r= çr ¬rnr
çl a”rr +re + ¤ro =¸nron m
l¬n¬t o; emnt ç, ot+ an¬t
çt o;t a¤ a= ¤;m=rrr + ¤+c
çr¬ m çl l¤; a;l¤-o +t nç
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt =·¤t çr ¬rnmt ·-
''el’rnr ¬mng-pon +t ‘rrl-n
+r ;=r¤rer ç l nr ;r ¤ +t ¤ or
+t ç¸q ¤tmrl;nr +r ot+ +;¬
¤rer çl nr;r¤ ¬ +rrln+ l¤qr¬,
l¬nl>n ;r¬¬tln, aorm, ·nr¤r;
arlo m ¤ç¸n ¤mln +; et çl a¤
+rr;n +r +rm ‘r¸= çrnr çl a=
q¬ =¤ ¤t¬r +r arnrrm ‘rl+n
+ arrt¬ +;+ rr;nt ¤; =¤m
¤=r¬r çl
zs.az.tsss

ar¬-o ar; =¸=r
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m o =r ;çr ç¸ , q= n¸ m +
mr¬¤ ¬¤ +¤t; ar; ¬r¬+ +t
'¬rm ame' ar ; '¬rm =r¸ mr;t' +t
¤rn =¸¬n ç, nr ¤cn ç nr a-ç
q= ¤rn ¤; l¤e+¸e çt l¤’¤r=
¬çt çrnrl a¤¬ qr¬ + a¬¸=r;
¤ q= ¤rn +r q’¤; + lee ~ç
r = +rm m lee ç¸e aln’rnrl¬
ae +r; + alnl;¬ +¸ e +rt
mr¬¬ +r nnr; ¬çtl
m ermr +t q= mr-nnr +
lee a-ç or ”r ¬çt o =+nr
ç¸l +nrl+ arrnrlrm+ ¬mng
=rlr¤+ ‘rl¬ nr + çg;r= +
+r;¤r çt ==r; + mr¬¤ +t nç
l=ªrln çl
m¬¸ ”n q ’¤; +r =¤ ~ ”o
=¤=¤ ç l a= ¤;m =rrr +t
al+r·nl¬ mr> q=t nrl¬ = =+.
+r¤ çl mr¬¤ ‘r;t; m çt ¤ç a=tm
=rrr a¤¬ ¤¸¤r l¤+l=n =¤=¤ m
l=ªrn çl q=tlee =+rt =nr ¬ q=
nrl¬ +r o¸e+r ¤nrnr çl ¤;-n¸
n¸m + m¸¤r-rrm + +r;¤r a=çrn
mr¬¤ q=+r =¤ro ¬çt ¤=r ¤r¬
+ +r;¤r q=+r mr> +rr¤l¬+
nr aln’rnrl¬ =mq ;çr çl m¬
+;t¤ nt¬ ç¬r; ¤¤ ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
ar; =r¢rrr+r; nªrr ¬rm =r¸mr;t
+ ¤c¤rnl ¤¤ + a-n m nç ¤rn
=¤”c =¤ = er¤t mq ªrt l+ ·-
' ' ¬r + r t + r r q -¤l ç¬
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ; ¬rm =r¸ mr;t
+ =+¤-rr m a¤¬t l¬qr=r
¬rm =r¸mr;t e+ =·¤rq ç,
nç +rq +rr¤l¬+ ar¬-o ¬çtl
‘rr-n +;¬r ¤rç, =¤n =r=m m
=l+mlen çr +; o=rl'' m¸q nç
o=r +; a¤++rr ç¸ar l+ =¤rmt
;rm =¸=r or= ¬t + ¤¤¤¬ =¸¬¬
¤re +r q=+r l¤’¤r= ¬çt ç¸arl
mr> e+ l¬qr=¸ çt m; ¤r= ar
=+rl ¤;-n¸ ¬r e+ l¬qr=¸ arnr,
m a== ¤¸ ¤r =-n¸ ”c ç¸ l ¤ç q= ¤ªr
+r ;rçt çr¬r, q= ¤rn +r =¤”c
¤mr¤r ç l+ mr> +rr;n m çt a=
¤;m=rrr +t arl=r;t l¤-mr;t
¤¤t ç¸q ç, l¬=+r ¤¤¤len +;+
==r; +r; m ¤ç =rlr¤+ ¤+r’r
¤ernr ¬r =+nr çl
m¸q ¬r =¤”c q’rr;r ªrr, ¤ç
=çt l¬+er l+, nç ¤ +r’r =¤r ·¤
er + = ar ;çr ç , an· ¤çe a-çt
ermr +r ¤n¬ +;mrl q= ¤+r;
==r; + ‘rl¬ =+¤¬ ¤¸lç¬t¤t
erm ¬¤ q= ¤+r’r = ¤n¬ çrm
nr ¬t¤ q=+r ¤ +r’r =ç¬ çt ¤ e
¬rnmrl m;t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr ar;
a= ¤;m=rrr +r aro’r ot+ me
=rr ;çr çl o’r m ¬r nm= ·nr¤n
ç , a=+ ¤r; m ~t a;l¤-o ¬
le=rr ç ·-
''nç +q +r;¤rr = ç l
lç-o¸=nr¬ m am¬r + ar¬ =
¤çe çt nrml=+ ¤ ¤¸ lnnr ar ;
le-¬-l+r-¬ +;¬ ¤ret ‘rl¬ nr
+r ¬r; çr ¤er ªrrl a¬+ ar¬
¤; mr¬r =r;r nm=g or= ¤¬+;,
nçr ¬m mnrl
+¸e ¤r=nl¤+ +rm çr¬ =
¤çe nç ¬=;t ç l+ nçr ¬rm¸ln
arn l lne+, or= ar ; l¤¤ +r¬-o
q¬m = +r q =rrrr;¤r aromt
¬ ªr, el+¬ q¬+ çrn ç¸e +rt
nm=g ¤¬r ç¸ ar ç l''l mçl”r
a;l¤-o +t a¤n¸¬ ¤rn = nç
¤rn =¤”c çrnt ç l+ ''a-rr+r;
qn¬r or= ¤¬ +; ¬m mnr ç l+
a= alrrmr¬l=+ o¤ + a¤n;¤r
+ aer¤r a¤ q=+r +rq qer¬
¬çt ¤¤r çl'' m; l¤¤r; = +rt q=
¤ +r’r +r =¤= ¤çe +rr;n m
¤e¬r ¬=;t çl ~t a;l¤-o +r
+rm¤r¬g ¬ aet¤¸; ¬e = e¸c¬
= ¤çe ¬r aro ’r lonr ªrr, a=+r
+rt nçt aªr l¬+enr ç l +rm¤r¬g
+r aro’r ªrr l+ ·- ''n¸m ¤rç;
¬rar nr a¤¬ o’r ¤rl=nr +r
+ç¬r l+ n¸m =¬rn¬ rrm + lee
ao ;ç çr, n¸+ç =¤rªr l=lç +
lee ¬çt, al¤n¸ ==r; +t +rerq
+ lee aornr ¬r ;çr çl ¬¤ +çr
¬rnr ç l+ +rr;n ¤”r mçr¬g ç nr
a=+r mne¤ ç l+ =¬rn¬ rrm
mçr¬g çl
'' q== =¤”c ç l+ = =r;
+r ar+l”rn +;¬ + lee, ¤çe
+rr;n ao¬r, ¤n¬ çr¬r ¬=;t ç,
q=+ l¤¬r ==r; +r ¤n¬ +;¬r
¤ç¸n +lo¬ +rm çl çm o=rn ç
l+ çmr; arm o’r¤rl=nr +t e+
¤ ¤¸ ln ¤¬ mq ç l+ ¤ ¤l’¤mt
¬mng +t ar=r ¤-o +;+ ¬+e
+;¬ m em çl o¸=;t n;¤ ¤l’¤mt
23
23
134
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤r; = ar+; l¤o’rt a=+t
=rr¬ +; ;ç ç, ¤ç¸n çt a¬t¤
l=ªrln ç l m¸ q a·et n;ç nro
ç , >l”r+ ’r m m¸ l¬ +t ; ln m
mmr + l+¬r; m =rsr ªrrl qn¬
m +¸e l¤o’rt +rm¤r ¤=> ¤ç¬,
¤çr ar+; =rs çr mnl ªrrst çt
o; m +rc ¤-c rrr;t +¸e =¤¬¬
=¤l;¤r; ¤çr ar mn l a¬m =
e+ =¤¬¬ ¬ am¬t +rr”rr m a¬
l¤o l’rnr = ¤rn ‘r¸ = +; otl
+nr l+ m +rt ¤r= çt =rsr ªrr, q=
lee m +rt =¸¬¬ em mnrl
lç-o¸ =nr¬t =¤¬¬ ¬ +çr
l+ ''ar¤ er m ¤ç¸ n =mqor;
ar; =+n erm ç, ar¤ q¬ omr
+ ¤++; m += ¤= mn? n erm
+¤e ar¤ ermr = rr¬ om¬ +
lee, l¤l+r-¬ ¤+r; + =¤rm ;¤
;ç çl q¬+ ¤r= e=t +rq ‘rl¬
¬çt ç, l¬=+ lee ar¤ omrn ¬r
;ç çr''l q= ¤; e+ l¤o’rt ¤rer
''ar¤ +nr +ç ;ç çr, m¸q =mq
¬çt ar ;çr ç e=r emnr ç ar¤
¤¸¤rmç = m=n çl +nr ar¤¬ q¬
= -nrl=nr + ¤r= ar+; ++rt
¬r¬¬ +r ¤nr= l+nr l+ n +nr
+; ;ç ç? m o=r ;çr ç¸ çmr;r o .
l¬+ ¬t¤¬ m ¬r =r¤ çr¬r ¤rlçe
a== e+ ¤ =r +rt alrr+ ¬çt
lenr ¬r ;çr çl
m ¬¤ çmr; o’r¤rl=nr +t
nç çren o=rnr ç¸ nr ¤ç¸n ç;r¬t
çrnt çl çmr; o’r + =+n ar;
=rrr¬ =+¤-¬ erm ¤¸¤r =¤ =
rrm = l¤m¸=r çr ¤¸+ çl ¬¤ n+
a-ç ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln, =r¢rrr+r;
ar; ¬rm =r¸mr;t +t a¬¸+r¸ln ¬çt
+;¤rq ¬rnt, ¤n¬r a=++r¤ çl
‘r;t; + l¬= am m ¤tmr;t
çr nt ç , sr +c; ¤t;-¤rs gr;r
a=t am +r qer¬ +;n ç, n+rt
¤¸;r ‘r;t; =¤=ªr çrnr çl an· çm
¤çe q-çt ¤tmr; ermr +r qer¬
+;¬r ç , n+rt ¤ n¬r =++r¤ ç l
çm o=r ;ç ç, çmr; o’r + ¤rn·
=+rt ;r¬¬nr, ¤rm mrmt nrml=+
nrl>+r + ¤++; m ¤c ç¸e çl e=
a¬+ nrml=+ nrl>+ ;r¬ =rrr
+r +rn+; o¸=¤nrm +;+ a¤¬t
+ret l’r¢rr +r ¤=r;-¤¤r; +;+
o’r m a-rr+r; ¤er ;ç çl q=
¤+r; =mr¬ +r ¬r ¤m q¬ nrm.
l=+ ermr + ¤++; m ç nªrr ¬r
q¬ crlmnr = nm ar+; rrm =
l¤m¸=r çr ¤¸+r ç, =¤¤ªrm a¬+r
qer¬ l+n l¤¬r o’r m ¤n¬r
a=++r¤ ç l ¤l’¤mt ¬mng +
erm =·¤rq +r ¤;=r¬ ar; =¤t.
+r; +; m ++rt t lqq+nl
=¤= +lo¬ +rm nr ¤¸ ¤r m ç =
m =n nªrr+lªrn =+n ar ; =+¤-¬
ermr +r qer¬ +;¬r çl q¬+r
qer¬ çr¬ ¤; ¤¸;r ‘r;t; =¤=ªr çr
¬rn mrl =rrr rrr;t ar ; q¬ =+¤-¬
ar; =+n ermr +t +rq alrr+
==nr ¬çt çl
¬¤ ¤ç ¤;m=rrr =l+n =¤ =
= =r; + =rm¬ ¤ +c çr +;, a¤¬r
+rn ‘r¸= +; omt, nr a-rr+r;
+ o¸; çr¬ m +rq o; ¬çt emmtl
m¸q =¤”c ¤nr lonr mnr ç l+ ç;
arrnrlrm+ m¸ = + gr;r = ¤ l”rn ¬r qr¬ arrmr +r ¤ r¤n çr nr ç , a== a·¤n; e¤ ¤l¤> ¤=n¸
ar ; +¸ e ¬çt ç l nlo m¬¸ ”n ¤¸ ¤r nr mt çr ¤¸ +r ç , nr ¤ç =¤n· çt a= ¤ r¤n çr ¬rnr ç l l+ n¸ ¤¸ =n+r
gr;r nr a= ¤ r¤n ¬çt l+nr ¬r =+nrl n¸ m o¸ l¬nr + ¤r;r +r ¬r m - lçmren, arr¤=, +r+ =’r
¤¤ n nr mr ¤t nr =çr;r m=+r¸ lm nr =m¸ q +t net m ¬r+; a¤¬r l=; ¤c+r ,¤; l¤¬r m¸ = lme n¸ +ç
¤ç qr¬ ¤ r¤n ¬çt çr =+nrl
+rm¤r¬ +t +¸¤r aªr¤r a¬+t nr·nnm =-nr¬ mçr¤¸=”rr +t +¸¤r ¤r¤n +; erl n çt +rm.
¤r¤rl¤n + ¤rrr¬ a¤rn çl e= mçr¤¸=”rr +r =m er+r çr¬r ¤ç¸n çt +lo¬ ç, ¤r¤ lm¬c +rt
a¬+r ot+-ot+ =m-rrr+r çr ¬rn nr =r;r ¬t¤¬ çt ¤oe ¬rnr çl nlo n¸m q¬ mçr¤¸=”rr +t
=mln + =¤m¸¤ q·e¸+ çr nr n¸+ç l+=t ¬ l+=t mçr¤¸=”r +r =m er+r a¤’n çrmrl n +r+n
n mçr¤¸=”r ¬çr ;çn ç, ¤ç =ªrr¬ ¤l¤> çr ¬rnr ç, ¤+r¸ +t =nr¬r +r e=r mçrr+n çl ¤ =¤n
¤+r¸ ç, ¤ ¬r +çn ç ¤çt ‘rr=> çr ¬rnr çl e=r ç a¬+r mçrr+nl ¤ l¬= =ªrr¬ ¤; l¬¤r= +;n
ç, ¤ç a¬+ oçl¬·=¸n ¤l¤> ‘rl+n =¤-o¬ = ¤l;¤¸¤r çr ¬rnr ç, ¬r +rq a= =ªrr¬ ¤; ¬rnr
arrnrlrm+ m¸=
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o ¬t
23
23
135
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r q’¤;tn
‘rl¬ + ¤nr= = ¤ent çl q=m
mr¬¤tn ¤¸ lç gr;r l+nr mnr
¤nr= =rªr+ l=ç ¬çt çr =+nrl
mr¬¤tn ¤ nr= +r alrr+ =
alrr+ ¤ qrl¬+ a¤+;¤rr =
=¸=l¤¬n ¤¤r; = alrr+ +¸e +rt
¬çt +çr ¬r =+nrl m¬¸”n a¤¬
¤¸ ¤r qr¬ ar ; ‘rl¬ + =çr; +r¤t
e+¤ =mn n+ arrnrlrm+ ¤¤r;
¤er =+nr ç l +rr ln+ =rrr¬r
+ gr;r l¬;-n; er=rr ermr +r
q+cgor +; =+nr çl
¤;-n¸ q= ¤+r; ¤ernr mnr
+r q +rt al+rnr¬ =mr¤n çr ¬
+ ¤ro +rq +rt a=; ¤te ¬çt
er s nrl q= ¤ +r; + a= =n
al+rnr¬r = ¬¤ ermr +r +¸e +rt
¤l;¤rrm ¬çt lmer nr erm l¤m¸=r
çr mnl q= ¤+r; l¤m¸=r ç¸e er.
mr +t ==nr ¬¤ alrr+ çr mq
nr ermr m l¤qrç +t lç+mn ar
mq ar; rrrlm+ m¸=ar +r =r¸er
l¤;rrr çr¬ emrl +nrl+ q= n¸m
+ m¸=ar + ¤r= ¬r ¤=n¸ ¤¤t ç¸q
ç, a=+ aer¤r ¤ +¸e +rt o¬ +t
l=ªrln m ¬çt çl
e =t l=ªrln m lo¬-lo¬
l¤msnt ç¸q çrern +r +r¤¸ +;¬
+ lee, q= n¸m + rrm m¸=ar ¬
¤o’r¬, ‘r-o¬re, n+ ¤¸lç ar;
rr¬ + =çr; l¤qrç +r o¤r¬ +r
¤nr= l+nrl ¤nr-¤nr q= ¤l+nr
= rrm m¸ =ar ¬ a¤¬t ¤+s
m¬¤¸n +;¬ +r ¤nr= n¬ l+nr,
çrern +r¤¸ = ¤rç; çr mel ¤-o
m;¤rr=-¬ =>t-¤¸=”rr + aer¤r
a¬+ ¤r= +¸e +rt ¬çt ¤¤rl ¤ +rt
a¤¬ ¬t¤¬ +r; + l+n ç¸e +mr
arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r += ¤ent ç?
+ +rn = +rn+rtn çr+; ¤¤r¤ +
lee ;ç mnl a¤¬t çt n=¤t; =
+rn+rtn n ‘rl¬ çt¬ a=çrn er m
+¸e +rt +;¬ +t l=ªrln m ¬çt çl
rrmm¸= +rt a·et ¤+r; =mqn ç
l+ ¬t¤¬ +r; q-çr¬ ¬r a-nrn
arnr¤r; +;+ e¸cr ç, a=t +r
+rn q¬+r ¤¸;t n;ç = =rr ;çr
çl a¬+t q= +m¬r;t +r a·et
¤+r; =mqn ç¸e rrm m¸= q-ç
rnrm, n¤=nr, or¬-¤¸ ¤n, ¤r¤
arlo +t ·nr=nr a¤¬ lç=r¤ =
¤nr+; l+=t ¤+r; a¤¬r ¤¤r¤
+;¬ m em ç¸e çl
''=¸ ¬¬ +t ‘rl¬ nr ¤c n
ç¸e =¸n m çrnt çl q=t lee ==r;
+r mr¬¤, aon çrn ç¸e =¸n +r
¬m=+r; +;nr ç, +rq +rt a=n
çr n ç¸ e =¸ n +r ¬m=+r; ¬çt
+;nrl q= n¸m + ‘rl+nçt¬ ar;
a=çrn rrmm¸= a=n çrn ç¸e =¸n
+ =çr; l+n¬ lo¬ n+ l¬-or ;ç
=+m, nç =¤”c ¤rn çl'' l¬=
¤+r; s¸¤nr ·nl¬ ln¬+ + =çr;
¬çt ¤¤ =+nr, ot+ a=t ¤+r;
nç +rm¬ +t ¬r¤ nr s¸¤mtl a¤
q= ¤¤r¬r a=++r¤ çr mnr çl
qlnçr= =r¢rt ç, ¢rt¤r çrnt ç;
=rrr ¬q ‘rl¬ + aon çr¬ +r
=+n çl q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ e=t
l+=t ·n¤=ªrr m l¤’¤r= ¬çt
+;nr ¬r +rq ¤l;¤rrm ¬çt ontl
q ’¤; am; ç nr a== =+¤+
+;+ ¤ rªr ¬r +;¬ ¤; l¬l’¤n =¤
= ¤l;¤rrm lme¬ ¤rlçel ¤l;¤rrm
+ a+rr¤ m çmr; lomrm m or ¤ ’¬
¤or çrn ç nr nr q’¤; ¬rm +t
+rq ‘rl¬ ç çt ¬çt, ar; am;
ç nr çmr;r =o’r a=+ ¤r= ¤ç¸¤
çt ¬çt ;çr çl +nrl+ çmr; =+rt
= n +ç mn ç l+ q ’¤; ¤;m onre¸
çl q’¤; +¸¤r + aorç;¤rr = çmr;
rrrlm+ m-ªr +r; ¤s çl
çm o=rn ç, q= n¸m m ¤.
¤len ar;rrr¬r ¤çln = +t mq
¤rªr¬r +r +rq arr; ¬çt lme ;çr
çl q== nçt ¬nt¬r l¬+enr ç
l+ çmr; ¤rªr¬r ¤> ¤; ¤r¬ ¤re
+r =çt ¤nr ¬çt le=rr çrnr çl
¤nr am; ot+ çr nr nr a=+r
arr; l¬l’¤n =¤ = lmenrl an·
q= n¸ m + mr¬¤ +r am; a=
¤;m =rrr +t =rr ¬ +;¬t ç nr
a=+r =çt ¤nr ¬r¬¬r ar¤’n+
çl +rrln+ l¤qr¬ ¬ q= ¤+r; +t
=rr¬ = a¤¬t ¬r a·¤ =rrr ar;
‘rl¬ ¤r¤n +; et ç, ot+ a=t
¤+r; arnrrm l¤qr¬ +rt a¤¬t
¤;mr·¤ l=ªrln ¤; ¤ç¸¤ =+nr çl
a¤ =mn ar mnr ç l+,
a¤ ¤ç ¤;m=rrr =¤n ¤+c çr+;
a¤¬ ¤+c l+n ç¸e +rrln+ l¤q.
r¬ +r arrt¬ +;+ ==r; m =¤n
+r =¸=r ‘rrl-n +r ;r¤n =ªrrl¤n
+;l ¬¤ n+ ¤ç ¤;m =rrr =¤n
¤+c çr+; a¤¬t ¤+c +t ç¸q
nr+n +r a¤¬ arrt¬ =¤rlen
¬çt +;mt, ==r; m =¸=r ‘rrl-n
a=++r¤ çl
q= =mn =r; +rrln+ l¤qr¬
+t a¤el-rrnr , nrml=+ ‘rl¬
nr + arrt¬ çl nrml=+nr +r
m¸ ¤rrrm , lç =r, rr¸ ¤rr, g ”r ar ;
l¤¬r’r çl q¬ ‘rl¬ nr = =¸¬¬
+t a+mto + ¤e ¤; ar¬ n+
+q ¤nr= l+n, ¤;-n¸ =¸¬¬ +
=ªrr¬ ¤; l¬;-n; =çr; çt ¤mln
+;nr ;çrl q= ‘rnr-ot + ¤r;++r
23
23
136
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
;r”c¸ = rr (etm ar ¤ ¬ ’r-=¸
+r l¬mr¤r l+nrl
nç ¤nr= +rt a=¤e ;çr,
ar; o¸=;r l¤’¤n¸ç ¤çe = +rt
+rn+; ç¸arl n¤ ‘rrl-n er¬ +r
ar ; ¤ nr= +;n ç¸ e a-çr ¬ '= n¸ ¬
;r”c¸ =rr (n¸.e¬.ar¸ +r l¬mr¤r
l+nrl ¤;-n¸ çm o=r ;ç ç l+ n¸.
e¬. ar . +rt ‘rrl-n er¬ m ¤¸ ¤r =¤
= a=¤e çr ¤¸+r çl
= =r; m q= =mn e+ +rt e =r
¢r¤r ¬çt ¤tn ;çr ç, l¬=m +rr.
ln+ l¤qr¬ ¬ ¬;= çr; ¤-o l+nr
çrl ¤¤rr = ==r; + l+=t ¬ l+=t
lç== m ¬; = çr; ar ; n¸ ç l¬;-n;
¬r;t çl l¤’¤ +t =¤r·¤ ‘rl¬ nr
+ =+rt ¤nr= a=¤e çr ;ç çl
= =r; m a¤ nr ç; ¢r > m ¬;= çr;
¤r;++r çr mnr çl or¬r l¤’¤ n¸ç
r = +rt alrr+ l¤¬r’r ;rn lo¬
==r; m çr ;çr çl =+rt ¤lçm¸=rt
¤rlç+ ¤nr= a=¤e çr ¤¸+ çl
+nrl+ ‘rrl-n a-o; = arnt ç,
‘rrl-n +r =+¤-rr loe = çl
an· a-nm¸=rt ar;rrr¬r =
a= ¤;m =rrr = ¬¸s l¤¬r ‘rrl-n
a=++r¤ ç l m ¤ rn¢r =¤ =
a¬¸+r¤ +; ;çr ç¸ l+ ¬r l¤+r=
m ; nªrr m ; m¸ =o ¤ m çr ¤¸ +r
ç, ¤ç arrnrlrm+ ar; +rrln+
¬mng m ¤rn¢r ¤l;¤rrm o ;çr çl
m¸q = ¬¸s¬ ¤re =+rt ermr +r
¤ç ¤;m ar¬-o ar; ¤;m ‘rrl-n
lme ;çt çl
l¬=+r l+ l¤l+r-¬ = nr
¬ ''¬rm =r¸ mr;t'' ar ; ''¬rm
ame'' +t =qr ot çl m nªrr m;
m¸ =o ¤ l¬n¬r ar;r ç¤r +; ¤¸ + ç ,
a= ¤ªr +t nr>r m m¸q= ¬¸s¬
¤re ermr +r l+=t ¤+r; +t +l.
o¬rq ¬çt çr ;çt çl
a-ç q= ar ;r ç¤r m
l¬¬ l¤l¤>-l¤l¤> er +r +t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr çr ;çt ç, a==
=+rt ar¬-o l¤+rr ; çr ;ç ç l
m¸ errrr; = e +; amm er +,
¬çr n+ ¤ ¤ç¸ ¤ =+ ç , çmr;
>l”rnr gr;r ¤l¤rn =+rt ¤rnr +t
¤rn¢r a¤el-rr çr ;çt çl q=+
=rªr-=rªr =¸¢m ‘r;t; ar; +r;¤r
‘r;t; = =+¤l-rrn a¬+ ¤+r;
+t rrc¬re, arrnrlrm+ ‘rl¬ nr
¤çe ¤nr ;çt çl ar; =+rt +lm+
=¤ = +rrln+ ¬mng m =rnrl¤n
çr ;çt çl q== q¬ or¬r ‘r;t;r +
a-o; 'arrmr' +t ¤rn çmr; =nr
¬ l¬= ¤+r; ¤nrq ç, a=+ +rt
=¤”c l¤çg¬ l¬-ç m ¤ç¸n ¤çe
o=r ¤¸+r ç¸, m; a¬¸nrqnr +r
¤rn¢r =¤ = lme ;ç çl
+r r l n+ ¬mng m l ¬¬
arrnrlrm+ ¤rnr +r ar¬ n+
mr¬¤ +¤e m¬rrsn ar; +rr¤.
l¬+ mr¬nr ç, ¤ =+rt a==n
¤ mr¤rr =lçn =rn ¤ mrl¤rn çr
;çt çl m¸errrr; = e+; arqr¤+
n+ + mrnr + ¬mng +t =+rt
‘rl¬ nr +t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln, l>m¸¤
rmnt mrnr (¤gr, l¤”¤r¸, mç’r¸
=lçn çr ;çt çl n =+rt ‘rl+nnr
+rrln+ ¬mng m +rt =rnrl¤n çr
;çt çl arqr¤+ = a¤; + er+
¤¸¤r =¤ = =rlr¤+ ç nªrr nçr
‘r-o +r =¤ ¤oe +; l¬;-n;
=¸¢m =¤ rrr;¤r +;nr ¬rnr çl
an· q¬+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr ¤¸¤r
=¤ = mr¬¤tn +rr”rr m ·n¬ ¬çt
+t ¬r =+ntl ¤¸; ¤nr= + ¤r¤¬¸o
=+rt a-n m nçt +ç on ç l+ ¬r
+¸e çm o=r ;ç ç, =¸¬ ;ç ç ar;
a¬¸+r¤ +; ;ç ç, a= çm +rr”rr
gr;r ·n¬ +;¬ m a¤¬ ar¤+r
a=mªr mç=¸ = +; ;ç ç l m¸ q
¤ç¸n ¤r; erm ¤¸en ç l+ +nr q¬
;ç=n ¤¸¤r ¤rnr +r ++rt mr¬¤tn
+rr”rr m ¤nr¬r =++r¤ çrmrl
m a-ç çm’rr e+ çt arr;
onr ç¸ l+ m¬ n¸+ç ¤r;++r m çt
¤nr lonr ªrr l+ arnrrm qr¬
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr ar; =r¢rrr+r;
+r l¤”rn çl q=m mr¬¤tn ¤¸lç
ar; qr¬ +¸e +rt =çnrm o¬ +t
l=ªrln m ¬çt ç l nçt +r;¤r ç
m¬ ar¤ ermr +r ar¬ n+ +rq
a¤o’r ¬çt lonr, +rq +m+r¤s
nr ¤lçm¸ =rt ar;rrr¬r +t +rt =erç
¬çt otl m¬ çm’rr nçt ¤rn +çt
l+ q= ¬mng m ¤m =og+rr¤,
=m¤¤r, onr ar; =rlr¤+ +rr¤ =
çt +¸e ¤r¤n l+nr ¬r =+nr çl
==r; + +rrln+ ¤+r¤ = nç ¤r¤n
çr¬ ¤rer qr¬ ¬çt çl
+rr ln+ =rrr nr alrr¬=ªr
¤ç¸n çt erct ‘rl¬ çl m o=r ;çr
ç¸, nt¬r ‘r;t;r +r +ro +; l¬=¬
arrmr +r ¢rl¤r+ ¤ +r’r o =r
lenr, a= l¤ee ¬-m +r qr¬ ¤ .
r¤n çr ¬rnr çl q= ¤+r; arrmr =
l¬n¬r ¤mrc =+¤-rr çrmr, a=t
+ a¬¸=r; a= l¤ee +q ¬-mr
+r qr¬ çr¬r =++r¤ çl q= ¤+r;
çmr; rrm +r ¤¸¬¬-m +r l=çr-n
+rt +rrln+ =¤ = =rnrl¤n l+nr
¬r =+nr ç l ar¬ m ; mrrnm = ¬r
+¸e çr ;çr ç, ¤ç q’¤; +t +¸¤r
ar; m¸=o¤ + ar’rt¤ro +r ¤l;¤
rrm çl ¤r;++r = e+; m; ¬t¤¬ +
al-nm n+ + ¤r; m m¸=n-m¸=n
=+rt +rnr +r =¤”c aro’r, a=
¤;m =rrr ¬ o lonr çl m =¤mr¤r
¤¸ ¤r =¤ = ar’¤=n ç¸ l q=+
aer¤r ¤ç ¤¸¤r =rrr ¤m-¤m ¤;
¤¸ ¤r =¤ = m ;r ¤ªr ¤ o’r ¬ +; çt ç l
m¸q = ¬¸s¬ ¤re ermr = =+¤-rr
=ªrrl¤n +;¬ ¤re =+rt l¬qr=¸
er mr m +rt ¤ç =rlr¤+ +;¤c
23
23 137
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
‘r-o +t ar¤ln mr> a= ¤;m
=rrr +t o¬ çl ç; a¢r; l+=t ¬
l+=t ‘rl¬ +r =¤=¤ çl =r;t
‘rl+nnr m¬¸”n + ‘r;t; m l=ªrn
çl ç; ‘rl¬ +r a¤n¸¬ =ªrr¬ çl
an· a¤n¸¬ m> +r ¬¤ a=+
=ªrr¬ l¤’r ”r ¤; rnr¬ + lqn +;+
+;¬ ¤; l¬l’¤n =mn m ¤ç ‘rl¬
a¤’n ¤n¬ çr ¬rnmtl çmr; rrm
+t m¸=-l’r”n ¤;+¤;r q= ¤; l¤=.
nr; = ¤+r’r srent çl
¤ n¬ m¸ = = ¬r m > ¤ r¤n
l+nr ¬rnr çl a= m> +r l=ç
+;¬ +t l’r”n +r +rq ar’n+nr
¬çt çrntl ¤-o lo¬r m ¤ç ‘rl¬
a¤¬t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln +;r¬ emnt
ç l l¬= ·nl¬ ¬ ¤ n¬ m¸ = =
ot¢rr et ç, ar; ‘rl¬ ¤rn + gr;r
m¸= a¤¬t nr+n a= o +; mnr
ç, +¤e ¤çt m> ot¢rr o¬ +r
alrr+r;t çl e=r ·nl¬ ¬¤ m>
ot¢rr onr ç nr ¤ç ‘rl¬ mr¬¤ +
''m> ‘rl¬ '' ¤;
q= n¸m + mr¬¤ +r l¤’¤r= +nr =rrm
+rnr¤r çn¸ +rn +;nt çl ¤;-n¸
am; m > ot¢rr o ¬ ¤rer m¸ = ¤ n¬
¬çt ç nr a= m> +t ‘rl¬ ++rt
+rt ¤+c ¬çt çrmtl am; alrr+
+”cr + +r;¤r e+rm nr alrr+ ç¸ q
nr er+r + =ªrr¬ ¤; çrl¬ çr¬ +t
alrr+ =++rr¤¬r ç, +nrl+ ¬¤
¤ç ‘rl¬ ¤n¬ çrmt nr =¢rm m¸=
+ ar’rt¤ro + a+rr¤ m m¬¸”n
a=+t nr+n +r =ç¬ ¬çt +;
=+mr ar; a¬+ ¤+r; +t mr¬.
l=+ ¤ lomrmt ¤tmrl;nr em¬ +t
çt =++rr¤¬r alrr+ ;çmtl
am; ¤n¬ m¸= ¬ m> ot¢rr
ot ç nr ¤ç ‘rl¬ +rq +rt çrl¬
¬çt ¤ç¸ ¤r =+nt ç l ar¬+e er m
¤¸=n+r = m> +r qr¬ ¤r¤n +;+
a=+r ¬¤ +;n ç l ¤ç l¬¬t ¤
m> ¬ çrl¬ ¤ç¸¤r =+nr ç ar;
¬ çt er+rl q= ¤+r; e+¤ =mn
n+ ¬¤ +rq arr; ¬çt lmenr nr
erm nç mr¬ en ç l+ m>-n>
+t ¤rn q¸ot ar; +rr¤l¬+ çl
q== mr¬¤ +r +rer ¤¸;r +¸e +rt
çr¬r =++r¤ ¬çt çl +nrl+ =r.
lr¤+ ¬mng + m¸ =ar +r l¬nr-n
a+rr¤ çl an· nç ‘rl¬ er¤ çr
¤et çl ªrrs ¤ç¸n n¸·e ¤rm mrmt
a¤r=+ +çt -+çt a¤¬t nrml=+
‘rl+nnr +r çr+r ¤¸ r+r ¤mr+r;
lo=rr +;, ==r; + a¬l+rq er.
mr +r om ;ç çl +nrl+ =rlr¤+
‘rl¬ nr mr¬¤ +r ¤¸;r +;¬ +t
‘rl¬ ¬çt ;=rnt, a= nr q’¤; ¬
mr> +rerq +;¬ +t ‘rl¬ ¤or¬
+t çl
n ¤rm mrmt nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr
+ a¤r=+ l+=t ¤¤len =rlr¤+
‘rl¬ + ¬rm = a¤¬r rr-rrr ¤er
;ç çl q= ¤+r; m>, n>, ¬ro¸
cr ¬r, nr¤t¬, m sr arlo ¬rmr
+ mrrnm = ermr +r om ;ç çl
+nrl+ q= n¸m m q-çt ermr +r
¤re ¤rer ç, an· ¬rm =r¸mr;t +t
138
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t;rmere¬t l=nrm

l+=t mçr¤¸=”r ¬ +çr ç, 'l+=t +rt ·nl+n ¬ q’¤;-¤¸> + mrrnm l¤¬r
q’¤; +r =r¢rrr+r; ¬çt l+nr çl' ar; nç +ªr¬ a¢r;’r· =rn çl q’¤;-¤¸> +
alnl;+n çm q’¤; +r ar; +çr o=rm? nç =¤ ç l+ m¸qm ar; n¸mm, çmm =
l¬rr¬ = +rt l¬rr¬ ar; çt¬ = +rt çt¬ ·nl+n m +rt ¤;m’¤; l¤omr¬ ç, a=+r
¤lnl¤+¤ mr¬¸o çl ¤+r’r +t mln =¤> ç, a=+r =¤-o¬ =¤·nr¤t ç, l+-n¸ a=
o=r¬ + lee ot¤ ¬er¬ +t ar¤’n+nr çrnt çl ¬mng +r =¤·nr¤t q’r +rt
n¤ n+ o¸l”cmr¤; ¬çt çrnr, ¬¤ n+ n mçr¬g ‘rl+n’rret ot¤+, n q’ro¸n,
n a=+ =o’r¤rç+ ar; a¤nr;, n ¬;-¬r;rn¤r a= a¤¬ m ¤lnl¤l+¤n ¬çt
q’ro¸n + l¤¬r =r¢rrr+r; =+r¤ ¬çt
=¤rmt l¤¤ +r¬.
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
= =r; +r +r q +rt +m e =r
¬çt ç ¬r or”rn¸¬ ¬ çrl ç; +rm
m m¸¤r ar; or”r e= le¤c ;çn ç,
l+ a¬+r aem +;¬r a=++r¤
çl q= ¤+r; ==r; m l¤¤;¤r +;¬
¤rer mr¬¤ ¤r¤ = ¤¤ çt ¬çt =+nr
çl q= n¸m + rrmr¤rn ¤r¤ ar;
¤¸¤n +t l¬= ¤+r; ·nr=nr +;+
¤r¤ = ¤¤¬ + l¬n¬ a¤rn a¤¬t
¤¸lç ¤rn¸n = ¤nrn ç, a¬= +¤e
q¸ ot =r r¤¬r + aer¤r +r q ¤rnor
¬çt çl q= ==r; m l¤¤;¤r +;n
ç¸ e, ¤r¤ +mr = ¤¤¬r a=++r¤
çl +rm¤r¬g +¸”¤r ¬ mtnr m =¤”c
+çr ç·-
=ç¬ +m +r-nn
=or”rml¤ ¬ rn¬ngl
=¤r;++rr lç or”r¤r
rr¸m¬rl·¬l;¤r¤¸nr·ll
'' ç +¸-nt ¤¸>, or”r n¸¬ +rt
=¤r+rrl¤+ +m +r ¬çt rnrm¬r
¤rlçe +nrl+ rr¸e = al·¬ + =o¸’r
=¤ çt +m or”r = ar¤¸n çl e=t
l=ªrln m ¤r¤ = ¤¤¬r =++r¤ ¬çtl
m¬¸”n l>m¸¤rmnt mrnr + ¤’rt+r¸n
çr +; ç; +rm m +nr +rr¤ ;=rnr
ç l nçt +nr +rr¤ m¬¸ ”n +r e+ mr>
‘r>¸ çl q=t + +r;¤r ¬t¤ l¬;-n;
¬-m-m;¤r + ¤++; m ¤= +;
o¸·=r +rrm ;çr çl q= =+¤-rr m
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr m =¤”c
+çr ç·-
q’¤;· =¤+r¸nr¬r
pc’rs¬¸¬ ln”olnl
+rrmn-=¤+r¸nrl¬
n->r=crl¬ mrnnrll
¤r¤r = m¸l¬
+¤e q’¤; +t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln = çt =++r¤ çl
ç a¬¸ ¬l ‘r;t; =¤ n-> m
ar=c ç¸ e =+¤¸ ¤r ¤ rl¤rnr +r
a-nnrmt ¤;m’¤; a¤¬t mrnr =
+r;mrnr ç¸ar, =¤ +r¸n ¤rl¤rnr +
pon m l=ªrn çl
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ a¤n¸¬
‘er+ m =¤”c ¤nr lonr l+ ¤r¤
rt mr> +r +r;mrnr ç¸ar, m a¤¬t
q·er = ¤er ;çr ç¸l qn¬ ¤; +rt
¬t¤ mrnr + ¤+ = l¬+e ¬çt
¤r ;çr çl n¸m + m¸¤r rrm + +r;¤r
nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +r qn¬r ¤¤e
¤+rr¤ çr ¤er ç l+ l+=t +r =çt
;r=nr ¬¬; çt ¬çt ar ;çr çl
nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr ¬ e =
a==n nªrr+lªrn arnrrm¤rot
=-n =rlr¤+nr +r +r”r ¤¬r +;
¤er ;=r ç l+ ¤ l+=t +r =çt
lo’rr =rr¬¬ +r a¤+r’r çt ¬çt
¤r¬ onl l¬;-n; q’¤; +t ars m
¬q n+ ¤¸lç gr;r ¬q-¬q ·nr=nr
mc +;, ermr +r +rlmn +; ;ç çl
+rm¤r¬ ~t +¸”¤r l¬+¬ ‘er+ m
=¤”c aro’r on ç, ¤;-n¸ rrm m¸=
q= +rt nrs-m;rs +; e=t ·nr=nr
+; on ç l+ l+=t +r =·¤r mrm
lo=rrq ¬çt o¤-
=¤rrmr-¤l;rn¤n
mrm+ ‘r;¤r ¤¬l
aç r¤r =¤¤r¤+nr
mr¢rln”nrlm mr ‘r¸¤·ll
=¤ rrmr +r rnrm +; +¤e
e+ m;t a¬-n ‘r;¤r +r ¤r¤n çr,
m n¸q =¤¸¤r ¤r¤r = m¸¬ +; o¸mr,
n¸ ‘rr+ mn +;l
qn¬ =¤”c ar’¤r=¬ + ¤r.
¤¬¸o ==r; +r ¤r¤rt a-rr+r; m
+rc+ ;çr çl q=t lee ~t a;l¤-o
¬ =¤”c +çr ªrr l+ ¤rlªr¤ ¤n¬r
m a= ¤;m=rrr +r a¤n;¤r çt
e+ mr> a¤rn ç , l¬== = =r;
+r a-rr+r; lmc =+nr çl ¤r+t
=r;t ‘rl¬ nr a=¤e çr ¤¸+t çl
a-çr¬ =¤”c +çr ªrrl ~t lne+,
or=, l¤¤+r¬-o - q¬m = +rq
+rt =rrrr;¤r m¬¸”n ¬ ªrr, el+¬
q¬+ çrn ç¸e +rt nrm=g ¤¬r ç¸ar
çl'' ~t a;l¤-o ¬ =¤”c +çr ªrr
''+rm¤r¬ +t q·er ç l+ ''+rr;n,
=¤m¸¤ +rr;n ¤¬, nr;r¤ +t +r¤¬
+r¤t ¬çtl n¸m a¤¬ a-o; =m=n
‘rl¬ + =rrn +r =rr¬ l¬+rer,
l¤; n¸ +çr;t =m=n ¢r >r m l¤¬n çt
l¤¬n çrmt''l l¤; +rt +rq rrm m¸=
¤n¬ ¬çt ç, a= ¤;m =rrr = ¬¸s
l¤¬r ¤n¬nr a=++r¤ çl
+¤e ¤o’r¬, ‘r-o¬re ar;
n+ ‘rr=> = +rm ¤e¬ ¤rer ¬çt
l m ;t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ lnnr + arrrr;
¤;, m q= +rn +r ¤ç¸n ar=r¬
ar; =++r¤ mr¬nr ç¸l m; m¸=o¤
+ ar’rt¤ro + +r;¤r, a¬+ =¤m.
¤r= + ¤ro, m¸q= ¬¸s¬ ¤re =+rt
l¬qr=¸ ·nl¬ nr +r nç er+r
lme¬r ¤r;++r çr mnr çl m¸q ¬r
+¸e q= ==r; +r +rm =r¤r mnr
ç, a=+ a¬¸=r; nr ~t a;l¤-o
+t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr =rn çrnt ¬¬;
ar ;çt çl
m ; ¬ = =rrrr;¤r m¬¸ ”n +r
q= ¤+r; +t ‘rl¬ q’¤; ¬ +nr
139
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
140
‘rrl-n ar; ar¬-o m¬¸”n +r
pon = ¤r¤n çrnr çl +rrln+ =.
=rrr¬r = q=+r +rq =+¤-rr ¬çt
çl a-n; ar; ¤r@ m ¬¤ n+ ¤¸¤r
=rm¬=n ¤or ¬çt çrmr, ==r; +
mr¬¤ +r =·¤t ‘rrl-n ar; ar¬-o
lme¬r a=++r¤ çl ~t a;l¤-o ¬
=¤”c +çr ç l+ ''¤l’¤m + erm
+rrln+ ¬t¤¬ +r a=+t ¤;m =tmr
n+ ¤ç¸ ¤r ¤¸ + ç , a¤ +rr;n +r +rm
‘r¸= çrnr çl a= q¬ =¤ ¤t¬r +r
arnrrm ‘rl¬ + arrt¬ +;+
rr;nt ¤; =¤m ¤=r¬r çl çmr; rrm
m¸= ==r; + =rm¬ ¤rç l+n¬r çt
lccr;r ¤tc, ¤;-n¸ q= =mn +rr;n
+ arrnrlrm+ ¬mng m l¬n¬r
a-rr+r; ç , ¤çe ++rt ¬çt ªrrl q=
=+¤-rr m ~t mr ¬ =¤”c +çr ç
''+rr;n + a-o; =r; ==r;
+t =m=nre +l-qn çr mq ç ar;
a¬+ çe çr¬ ¤; =r; ==r; +r
+rr; çr+r çr ¬rnmrl'' nç e+
+c¸ =rn ç l+ q= =mn +rr;n m
nm=g ==r; +r; = alrr+ ç ar;
ermr +r q= ¤rn = +rr;t o¸·=r çr nr
çr mr, m¸ q nr q== =r¸ ’rt ç l ç; ¤=n¸
+r e+ l¬l’¤n =tmr + errrn çt
=¤ ¤l;¤lnn çr ¬rnr ç, çm mre¸m
ç l+ ¬¤-¬¤ çt q= +r¸-=r¤s ¤;
;r¢r=r +r ¤¸¤r arlrr¤rn ç¸ar ç,
q’¤; ¬ ;rm ar; +¸”¤r + =¤ m
a¤nl;n çr +;, ;r¢r=r +r mr;
+;, ¤¸ª¤t +r +rr; çr+r l+nr çl
+rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r ¬ q= =+¤-rr
m mtnr m =¤”c +çr çl ·-
l¤’¤ +r =·¤t ‘rrl-n ar;
ar¬-o +rr;n = çt lmemrl
nor nor lç rrm=n
·erl¬+r¤ln +rr;nl
a+n¸rªrr¬mrrm=n
norrmr¬ =¸¬r+nçmgll ¡·:ll
¤l;>r¤rrn =rrr¸¬r
l¤¬r’rrn ¤ o¸”+¸nrmgl
rrm==ªrr¤¬rªrrn
=+rr¤rlm n¸m n¸m ll ¡·sll
~t a;l¤-o +t +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt ç l+ ·- z¡ ¬¤+¤; tszc +r ~t
+¸ ”¤r +r ¤¸ ª¤t ¤; a¤n;¤r ç¸ ar ªrrl
~t+¸”¤r alnmr¬l=+ ¤+r’r ¬çt
çl ~t +¸”¤r + a¤n;¤r +r aªr ç,
alrrmr¬l=+ o¤ +r a¤n;¤r ¬r
¬mng +r alnmr¬= ar; ar¬-o
+ lee n nr; +;n ç l ~t+¸ ”¤r ar¬.
-omn çl ¤ alnmr¬= +r a¤¬
ar¬-o +t ar ; aog¤¸ ç +;+
l¤+r= +r =mªr ¬ ar ; = ¤re¬
+;n ç, ¤¸¤r =rn çl
aet¤¸ ; ¬ e m +rm¤r¬g ¬
~t a;l¤-o +r =¤”c aro’r lonr
ªrr ''m q= o’r +r a¤¬r =o’r
¤ er¬ + lee aor ;çr ç¸ , nç = o ’r
a= =¬rn¬ rrm +r =o’r ç l¬=
n¸m a+rt n+ ¬çt ¬r¬n ªr, ¤;
a¤ ¬r¬ mn çrl n¸m ¤rç; ¬rar
nr a¤¬ o’r¤rl=nr = +ç¬r l+
n¸m =¬rn¬ rrm + lee ao ;ç çr,
n¸ +ç =¤rªr l=lç + lee ¬çt , al¤n¸
==r; + lee aornr ¬r ;çr çl
¬¤ +çr ¬rnr ç l+ +rr;n ¤”r
mçr¬g ç, nr a=+r mne¤ ç l+
=¬rn¬ rrm mçr¬g çl m¬ n¸+ç
lo=rr lonr l+ m =¤ ¬mç ar; =¤
m mr¬¸o ç¸l ¬r o’r + lee es ;ç
ç, a-çt m ¬çt, o’r + l¤;rlrrnr
m +rt, m çt +rm +; ;çr ç¸l ¬r¬ nr
a¬¬r¬, ¤rn¢r =¤ = =çrn+ çr
+; nr l¤;rrr +;n ç¸e, =¤ m;r çt
+rm +; ;ç çl m;t ‘rl¬ +rm +;
;çt ç ar ; ¤ç lo¬ o¸ ; ¬çt ¬¤ +rm
m =¤enr ¤¤n çrmtl'' +rm¤r¬ ~t
+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr m ¬r ·nr=nr +t ç,
~t a;l¤-o +r lon a¤n¸¬ aro’r
= ¤¸¤r =¤ = me =rrnt çl mtnr m
+rm¤r¬g ¬ =¤”c +çr ç ·-
q’¤;· =¤+r¸nr¬r
pc’rs¬¸¬ ln”olnl
+rrmn-=¤+r¸nrl¬
n->r=crl¬ mrnnrll
==r; + =+rt rrmr + =nr ¬
m¸ =nnr ; ¤; e+ çt +rl¤”n¤r¤rt
+t ç l+ ¤ç ‘rl¬ +rr;n + arr;t
+rrm m mr¬¤ + =¤ m a¤n;ln
çrmtl =+rt +r mn ç l+ q= =ot +
a-n n+ ¤ç a¤¬ +lm+ l¤+r=
+ =rªr ==r; + =rm¬ ¤+c çr+;
¤¸; l¤’¤ +r =¤rlen +;¬ emmtl
m;t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln + a¬¸=r; ¤ç
¤¸¤r =rrr =¬g tss: n+ +rr;n m
a¤¬r ¤¸¤r ¤+r’r ¤er omtl
q=+ ¤ro =ot + a-n n+
= =r; +t =r;t +rr ln+ =rrr +r a¤¬
arrt¬ +;+ a=+r =¤re¬ +;¬
emmtl q= ¤+r; +len¸m +r an
çr +; = =r; m ¤¸ ¤r =rlr¤+ ‘rl+nnr
+r, e+ e> =rmr¤n =ªrrl¤n çr
¬rnmrl q= n;ç ¬¤ +rrln+ =rrr
+r =trrr =¤re¬ arrnrlrm+ =rrr
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
= =r; +r ç; ¤l;¤n ¬ ¤¸ ¤
l¬rrr l;n ç , q=t ¤ +r; ¤ rn +
¤r¤rt +r ¬-m = m¸rn¸ ¤n-n =r;r
¬t¤¬ ¤¸¤ l¬rrrl;n ·n¤=ªrr gr;r
=¤rlen çrnr çl ¤ç ¤;m =rrr
¬t¤ +r +r;mrnt ç¸q a¤¬t q·er
= ¤ernt çl +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r ¬
mtnr m q= =-o+r m =¤”c +çr
ç ·-
q’¤;· =¤+r¸nr¬r
pc’rs¬¸¬ ln”olnl
+rrmn-=¤+r¸nrl¬
n->r=crl¬ mrnnrll
q= =+¤-rr m +rm¤r¬g
+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr m =¤”c =¤ = ==r;
+t ·nr=nr +;n ç¸e +çr ç ·-
+rersl=m er+¢rn+¸r¤¤¸çr,
er+r-=mrçn¸lmç ¤¤¸rr·l
>nsl¤ nr ¬ +rl¤”nl-n =¤,
ns¤l=ªrn· ¤rn¬t+”r¸¬rrrr·ll
n=mrr¤m¸lrr”o n’rr e+r=¤,
l¬r¤r ‘r>¸-n¸sg.¢¤
;r¤n =m¸çmgl
mn¤n l¬çnr· ¤¸¤m¤,
l¬lmrrmr> +r¤ =·n=rl¤¬gll
qr¤r ¤ +rt”m ¤ ¬nqªr ¤,
+¤r nªrr-nr¬l¤ nrrr¤t;r¬gl
mnrçnr=r¤¬lç mr ·nlªr”or,
n¸rn=¤ ¬nrl= ;¤r =¤r¬r¬gll
mtnr + a¤n¸¬ ‘er+r = =¤”c
çr ¬rnr ç l+ a= ¤;m =rrr +t
q·er + l¤¬r ==r; m ¤rrr +rt
¬çt lçe =+nr çl m¸q ar;rrr¬r
+ or;r¬ e=t a==n rrc¬rar
+r ¤¸ ¤r +rr= ç¸ ar ar ; =+rt +rr ln+
=¤ = =rnrl¤n ç¸ql ¤ç¸n =t e=t
rrc¬re ¬r a¤¬ n+ m; ¬t¤¬
o¸·=r-=¸=r +t a¬¸+r¸ln çt ¬t¤¬ çl
m rrct t , m ;r rnr alrr+
ar+l”r n l+nrl m¸ q l+=t +rt
rrc¬r + rrc¬ +r l¬l’¤n =mn
¬çt ¤nrnr ¬rnr ªrrl +¤e arm
rrc¬ ¤ret rrc¬r +r =çt o¸ ’n c e.
tl¤¬¬ +t n;ç lo=rr lonr ¬rnr ç l
e=t rrc¬re, ¤¸¤ ¬-m nªrr q=
¬-m, or¬r = =+¤l-rrn çrnt ªrtl
l¬qr=r¤’r m¬ a¬ rrc¬rar +r
=mn ¬r¬¬ + lee rnr¬ +r +.
l-qn +;+ ar;rrr¬r ¤ r;++r +; otl
¤-o lo¬r m arr; lmer l+ ¬r
çr¬r ç, ¤¸¤ l¬l’¤n ç a=+ lee
=mn ar ; ‘rl¬ +r o¸ =¤nr m +nr
+; ;ç çr? =¸=r-o¸=r +t a¬¸+r¸ln
çt nr ¬t¤¬ çl ¬t¤¬ m çr¬ ¤ret
=+rt ¤rn =¤”c mre¸ m çr ¬ ¤;
=¸=r-o¸·=r +t a¬¸+r¸ln =rrm çr
¬rnmtl q= ¤+r; ¬t¤¬ ¤¸¤r=¤
= ¬t;= çr ¬rnmrl q= ¤+r; a=
m¸er¤t ¤o +t l=ªrln (çc¬ +t¸
çr ¬rn mtl an· nç l¬;ªr + ¤ nr=
+nr +; ;ç çrl an· m¬ l¬l’¤n
=mn mre¸m +;¬ +r ¤nr= ¤-o
+; lonrl = =r; e+ =¤¤¬ ç l
o¸ ·=r-=¸ =r +t a¬¸ +r¸ lnnr mr>
l>m¸¤rmnt mrnr +r =re çl q=
==r; m l¤¤;¤r +;n ç¸e +rq +rt
¬t¤ q=+ ¤+rr¤ = ¤l¤n ¬çt ;ç
=+nrl
q’¤; +t q= mrnr = +rq
+rt ¤r¤rt ¤¤ ¬çt =+nrl ¤;-n¸ ¬r
¬t¤ =n =ogm¸= +t ‘r;¤r m ¤er
¬rnr ç, a=+ ¤-rr¬ rrt;-rrt;
+c¬ emn çl mrnr +t ¤+s =
¤ç ¬t¤ e+ çt ¬-m m e¸c+r;r ¤r
+; arqr¤+ +r +ro +; =rrer+
m a¬rnr= çt ¤ ¤ ’r +; ¬rnr
çl q= n;ç + ¬t¤ +r ==r; +
o¸·=r-=¸=r alrr+ ¤+rrl¤n ¬çt
+; =+n çl +nrl+ ¤ç ¬t¤ mrnr
+ ¢r> +r errr ¬rnr çl q=lee
mrnr +rt a=+t ¤;t ¤¬+; a=+r
;r+¬ + =ªrr¬ ¤; a¤; +t n;¤
ar;r ç¤r +;¬ m moo +;nt ç l = n
=ogm¸= gr;r ¤r¤n l+e ç¸e ¤+r’r
¤ o ‘r-o + =çr; ¤ç ¬t¤ l¬l¤r¬,
l¬;-n; a= ¤;m=rrr + ¬¬ot+
¬rnr ;çnr çl q= ¤+r; = ==r;
+ a= =n ¬t¤, ¬-m-m;¤r + ¤+
= e¸c+r;r ¤r ¬rn çl
~t a;l¤-o ¬ =¤”c +çr ç
''e+ =+¤¸ ¤r arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ m
ç; ¤=n¸ + lee a¤+r’r çrnr çl
an· q= n¸m + rrm m¸=ar gr;r
=rt¤t mq +rr¤l¬+ e¢m¤r ;=rr
e+ +r m ç , =¤m -¬;+, ¤r¤-¤¸ ¤n,
=çt-men +t ·nr=nr ==r; +
¬t¤r +r +rlmn +; ;çt çl
mtnr +r =çt aªr a¬¸¬ =
¤c +; l+=t +r mre¸ m ¬çt çr
=+rl +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r ¬ a¤¬
m¸=r = ¤¸¤r +ro ¤nrn ç¸e, a¤¬t
lo·n o¸ l”c o +; a¤¬ l¤;rc
=¤=c +r o’r¬ +;rn ç¸e, ==r;
+r ¤¸¤r ar; =·¤r qr¬ a¬¸¬ +r
¤nr lonr ªrrl
mtnr +r a¤o’r =mr¤n çr¬
¤; a¬¸¬ ¬ ¬r +¸e l+nr, ¤çt
mtnr +r =çt aªr çl a=m rnrm,
n¤=nr, or¬, rrm , ¤r¤-¤¸ ¤n,
arlo arrr¸l¬+ m¸=ar +r +r¬=r
a¤o’r =l+mlen çl a¬¸¬ ¬ ¬r
+¸e l+nr, ==r; + rrm m¸= q=
23
23 141
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+l·¤oqr¬=mrç·
¤¬”c=n rr¬¬nll
q= ¤+r; mtnr =¤t qr¬ o¬
+ ¤ro +rm¤r¬g ¬ a¬¸¬ = ¤¸erl
q= ¤+r; ¤¸e ¬r¬ ¤; a¬¸¬ ¬
=¤”c +çr ·-
¬”cr mrç· =m¸lne-rrr
r¤r¤=ror-mnr·n¸nl
l=ªrnr•l=m mn=oç·
+l;”n ¤¤¬ n¤ll
q= ¤+r; +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r
gr;r lonr mnr mtnr=¤t qr¬
+rt q= n¸m + ¤+rr¤ = ¬çt ¤¤
=+rl q= n¸m + rrm m¸= mtnr +t
·nr=nr q= ¤+r; nrs m;rs+;
+; ;ç ç l+ a=+r =¤=¤ ot+
arcr ¤¬r lonrl q=m çm l+=t
+r or”rt ¬çt ¤¬r =+nl
+nrl+ +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬
=¤”c +çr ç l+ m ==r; + ¬t¤r
+r +r;mrnr ç¸ar a¤¬t q·er +
a¬¸ =r; ¤er ;çr ç¸ l a-rr ; +
l¤¬r a¬re +t +tmn mre¸m ¬çt
çr =+ntl o¸ ·=r + l¤¬r =¸ =r
+ ar¬-o +r ar+rr= ¬çt çr
=+nrl q= =mn ==r; m ¤er
rrr; a-rr+r; =¤”c ¤nr ;çr ç l+
a= ¤;m =rrr +r ¤+r’r ==r; m
¤+c çr¬ çt ¤rer çl q= =+¤-rr
m mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬ =¤”c +çr
ç·- ''¤ç qr¬ l¬= >l”rnr ¬
¤rnr ªrr, l¤; = ar ;çr ç, a=
çm =r; ==r; +r o¬r çrmrl'' q=
¤+r; +rr;n +r ==r; m ‘rrl-n
=ªrrl¤n +;¬ ar ; =¬rn¬ rrm +r
¤ ¤r;-¤ =r; +;¬ ç n¸ a¤’n =rsr
çr¬r ¤smrl
m;t =¤n +t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr
23
23 142
çmr; +q = nr ¬ q ’¤; + ¬rm
+t mlçmr +t ç l a¤¬t-a¤¬t
a¬¸+r¸ln + a¬¸=r; =+rt ¬ a=
¤;m =rrr + ¬rm +t mlçmr +r
m¸ ¤rmr¬ l+nr ç l = n =ogm¸ =
¬r¬+ o¤ ¬t ¬ q= =+¤-rr m
+çr ç ·-
''+rrm rrn¸;r ¬r¬+r ,
an; ¬rn ¤;+rrnl
¬rm =r¸mr;t ¬r¬+r,
¤ct ;ç lo¬ ;rrrll
= n =ngm¸ = +¤t; ¬ +rt ¬rm
+t mlçmr +;n ç¸e +çr ç ·-
''¬rm ame an; ¬ +rrql
ar; ame le¬-le¬ l¤c an;,
¬rm ame lo¬ ¤c, =¤rnrl''
q= =+¤-rr m nt’r¸ + ¤;m
l’r”n nç¸-¬r ¬ +rt q= =+¤-rr m
=¤”c +çr ç ·- ''nç e+ arnl;+
ar¬ o ç , ¬r =+rt =·¤ l¤’¤rl=nr
''¬rm =r¸mr;t''
+ =+¤-rr m mtnr +nr +çnt ç?
+ pon m ¤¬r ;çnr ç, =r=rl;+
ar¬-o + =mr¬ nç arnr-¬rnr
¬çt çl a=+r ar¬-o ¤¸¤r ç, ¤ç
çmr; ponr + +cr;r +r ar¬-o
= n¤ n+ +r;nr ç, ¬¤ n+ ams
¬ ¬rnl''
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ +rt mtnr
+ :¤ arnrn + zt ¤ ‘er+ m q=
''a¢rn ar¬-o'' + ¤r; m +çr ç
·-
¤r@=¤’r”¤=¬ rrmr
l¤-ornrrml¬ nr=¸=rmgl
= ¤gnrmn¸¬ rrmr
=¸=rm¢rnm’¬¸nll ztll
''¤rç; + l¤”rnr m ar=l¬
;lçn a-n·+;¤r ¤rer ¤¸ =”r
a-n·+;¤r m ¬r +rm¤ng rnr¬
¬l¬n ar¬-o ç , a=+r ¤ r¤n
çrnr çl ¤ç ¤¸=”r =l·¤or¬-o rr¬
¤;¤g ¤;mrrmr=¤ nrm m e+t.
+rr¤ = l=ªrn ç¸ar, a¢rn ar¬-o
+r a¬¸+r¤ +;nr çl''
¤;-n¸ q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ q=
a=++r¤ mr¬nr çl n¸m + m¸¤rrrm
¬ ==r; m qn¬r rrr; a-rr+r;
·nr¤n +; ;=rr ç l+ =¤ +t ¤¸lç
+rlmn çr ;çt çl a¤¬ çt rrm +
=nr +t ¤rn ¤; ermr +r l¤’¤r=
¬çt çr ;çr çl m ¬¤ ¬rm =r¸mr;t
+t ¤rn +çnr ç¸ nr er mr +r
l¤’¤r= ¬çt çrnr çl
m o =r ;çr ç¸ l+ m ; =rªr
arrnrlrm+ =r= m +;¬ ¤re
ermr +r q= a¢rn ar¬-o +t
a¬¸ +r¸ ln ¤-o lo¬r m çt çr ¬
emnt çl =r=rl;+ =+rt ¬’rr +r
ar¬-o q=+ =rm¬ n¸·e çl
an· =+rt ¤+r; + ¬’rr =
çm ’rr-çm ’rr + lee e¸ c+r;r lme
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
z¡ .:. tsss

=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
çm o =r ;ç ç , ç; rrm m
q ’¤; + ¤ ln l¬;r’rr ar ; l¤m¸ =rnr
q= =mn ¤;m =tmr n+ ¤ç¸ ¤ ¤¸ +t
çl ==r; + =+rt rrmr + ermr ¬
e+ ¤+r; = rrm m¸=ar = l¤qrç
+; lonr çl +rrln+ o¸l”c+r¤r =
l¤¤r; +; nr çm ¤rnm l+ q=m ¤
erm or”rt ¬çt ç, l¬¬+r l¤’¤r=
rrm = ao mnr çl n¸m + m¸¤rrrm
+ +r;¤r ==r; + =+rt rrmr +
rrmr ¤rn a¤¬t arrnrlrm+ ‘rl¬
=rr ¤o çl ¤ =¤n ¤n¬ ¬çt çl
a¬+r =¤n +r =+¤-rr a=
¤;m =rrr = ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = e¸ c ¤¸ +r ç l
a¤¬t q= +m¬r;t +r le¤r¬ +
lee, q-ç n;ç-n;ç + =¤r m ;¤¬
¤s ;ç çl +q ¤+r; + ¤o’r¬r,
‘r-o ¬re ar ; n+ ’rr=> +r =çr;r
e¬r ¤s ;çr çl l¬= ¤+r; l¬¬t¤
¤r¤rt a¤¬r +¸e +rt ¤+rr¤ ¬çt
lo=rr =+nr ç, ot+ a=t ¤+r;
q= n¸ m + rrm m¸ =ar + =+rt
l¬¬t¤ +m +r¤s ¤l;¤rrm ;lçn
çr¬ + +r;¤r, ==r; + ermr m
a= ¤;m =rrr + ¤ln l¬;r’rr ¤er
;ç çl
q== nr am; ¤ a¤¬t
+m¬r;t +r =r¸e =¤ m =¤t+r;
+; e nr ==r; + ermr +r q=
l¬;r’rr = ¤¤rnr ¬r =+nr ç l
¤;-n¸ l¬n¬r ¤ a¤¬t +m¬r ;t
+r le¤r+;, q¸o + =çr; a¤¬
rr-rr +r ¤er¬ +r ¤nr= ar; ço
rrlm nr +;n ç , l¤qr ç l¬;-n; n ¬
==r; + erm
arnrrm = l¬;r’r ar; l¤m¸=r +nr?
çrnr ¬r ;çr çl q= ¤+r; nç ¤rn
ar¬ =+rt rrmr ¤; erm¸ çr ;çt çl
arnrrm¤ro ¤¸¤r=¤ = ¤l;¤rrm
;lçn çr ¤¸+r çl e=t l=ªrln m ¬¤
mr¬¤ +r ¤rªr¬r +r +rq ¤rn¢r
arr; ¬çt lmenr ç nr a=+r
l¤’¤r= =rrm çr ¬rnr çl
'm¸ =', q ’¤; ar ; ¬t¤ +r
¬rs¬ ¤rer 'nr;' çrnr çl am;
nr; +cr ¤cr ¬çt ç ar; ¤ç a=
¤;m=rrr = ¬¸sr ç¸ar ç nr ¬r +rt
¤r¤rt a== ¬¸smr, a=+ a-o;
a= ¤;m=rrr +r ¤+r’r ç¸e l¤¬r
¬çt ;ç =+nrl e+ ¤r; ¤ +r’r
ç¸ ar l+ ¬t¤ ¤ n¬ çr ¬rnr ç ,
q= ¤+r; e+ ¬enr ç¸ar ot¤+
a==n ot¤ ¤¤¤len +;+ ==r;
= arr+r; o¸; +; =+nr çl
=+rt rrm m¸ = +çn ç l+
q ’¤; rrc-rrc +r ¤r=t ç , q=
¤+r; ==r; + =+rt ot¤+r m ne
ar ; ¤rrt ç , a= mr> ¤ ¤¤len
+;¬ +t o ; ç , =r;r = =r; a= ¤;m
=rrr + ¤+r’r = ¬mmmr aomrl
¤çer ot¤+ çt ¬e¬r +lo¬ çl
e+ ¤¤¤len ot¤+ ¤¸; ==r; +
ot¤+r +r ¤¤¤len +;+ ==r;
+ a rr+r; +r +rmr¬ m =¢rm
çrnr çl
an· e+ çt ¤ n¬ = n =ogm¸ =
¤¸ ; = =r; + ¬t¤r +r ¤ n¬ +;
=+nr ç l = n =ogm¸ = +r =+¤-rr
a= ¤;m=rrr = =trrr ¬¸sr çrnr
ç , an· a== ¬¸ s ¬ ¤re =+rt
¬t¤r m a= ¤;m=rrr +r ¤+r’r
¤ ¤¤len çr ¬rn mrl e = = n =
¬¸s ¬ ¤; am; ¬t¤ a¤¬ ¤r¤r
+r amt+r; +;+, a-ç rnrm¬
+t, q’¤; = +=¤r ¤rªr¬r +; nr
nr+re ¤mr+r; çrnr çl
e = ·nl¬ + a-o; =
a-rr+r; nrl¬ nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr
nr+re çm ’rr çm ’rr + len
l¤or çr+; a¬+r =ªrr¬ =rlr¤+
¤¸lrrnr e emtl q= ¤+r; e+ çt
¤n¬ =n =ogm¸= = ¤n¬ ¬t¤ =
¬¸s¬ ¤re =+rt ¬t¤, ¤n¬ çrn çt
¤e ¬rnml ¬¤ nç ar¬-o e+
¤r¤rt m ¤+c çr ¬rnr ç nr ¤¸;
==r; + ¤rl¤rnr m ¤+c çr¬ m
+rq =mn t emnrl
==r; m n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ a-n
+re = ¤er ar ;çr ç l nç
+re¤+ ¬ ++rt =+r ç ar; ¬
=+mrl l¬= ¤+r; ;rn + ¤ro lo¬
ar; lo¬ + ¤ro ;rn arnt çt ç,
a=t +m = n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +rt a=
¤;m =rrr gr;r l¬rrrl;n =mn ¤;
çrmr çtl +rq +rt ¬t¤ ¤r¤n ‘rl¬
ar ; alrr+r; +r =¤ ·er = er s¬r
¬çt ¤rçnr çl
q=t ¤+r; nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr
+rt a¤¬t l=ªrln ==r; m ¤¬rn
;=r¬ + lee = rr”r +;nt ç , ¤;-n¸
¤l;¤n¬ ar¬ n+ ++rt ¬çt =+rl
''nr; ++rt ¬çt ¤rçn l+ =¸nron
çr ar ; a¬+t =rrr a¬+ nªr.
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

23
23
143
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+re¤+ a¤rrr mln = l¬.
;-n; ¤enr çt ;çnr ç l nçt
+r;¤r ç l+ ==r; +t ç; ¤=n¸ m,
¢r¤r-¢r¤r m ¤l;¤n¬ çr ;çr çl
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr + ¤rªr
arnrn + ¤r¤¤ ‘er+ m a¬¸¬
= =¤”c +çr ç·-
¤ç¸l¬ m ·nntnrl¬
¬-mrl¬ n¤ ¤r¬¸¬l
nr-nç ¤o =¤rl¤r
¬ r¤ ¤rªr ¤;n¤ll :ll
ç a¬¸¬l m; ar; n; ¤ç¸n =
¬-m çr ¤¸ + ç l ç ¤; n¤ a¬ =¤ +r
n¸ ¬çt ¬r¬nr ç, m ¬r¬nr ç¸l
a¬r•l¤ =-¬·nnrrmr
+r¸nr¬rmt ~;r•l¤ =¬gl
¤+¸ln =¤rmlrr”orn
=+r¤r+nrmmrnnrll cll
(m ¸ al ¤¬r ’r t =¤=¤
a¬-mr çr ¬ ¤; +rt, =¤ +r¸ n
¤ rl¤rnr +r q ’¤; çr ¬ ¤; +rt,
a¤¬t ¤ +¸ ln +r arrt¬ +;+
nrmmrnr = ¤+c çrnr ç¸l
nor nor lç rrm=n
·erl¬+r¤ln +rr;nl
a+n¸rªrr¬mrrm=n
norrmr¬ =¸¬r+nçmgll :ll
ç +rr;nl ¬¤-¬¤ rrm +t
çrl¬ ar; arrm +t ¤¸lç çrnt ç,
n¤-n¤ çt m a¤¬ =¤ +r ;¤nr
ç¸l
¤l;>r¤rrn =rrr¸¬r
l¤¬r’rrn ¤ o¸”+¸nrml
rrm==ªrr¤¬rªrrn
=+r¤rlm n¸m n¸mll sll
arªrr¬ ar; ¤n¬
¤+¸ln +r ace l¬nm çl
=rrr¸ ¤¸=”rr +r açr; +;¬
ar ; o¸ l”rn +m +;¬ ¤rer +r ¬r’r
+;¬ + lee, nªrr rrm =ªrr¤¬r
+;¬ + lee m n¸m-n¸m m ¤+c
çrnr ç¸l
a¤n¸ ¬ ‘er +r = =¤”c
çrnr ç l+ =ngn¸m, >nr, gr¤;
ar; +len¸m +t ar¤¸ln a¬rlo
+re = ¤et ar ;çt çl ¤ç¸n ¤r;
lç;¤n+”n¤, ;r¤¤r ar ; + =
arlo ¬-m ¤¸+ çl ar; ¤ç¸n ¤r;
q’¤; a¤nl;n çr ¤¸+ çl nç +m
a¬rlo +re = l¬;-n; ¤er ar
;çr ç l q= ¤ +r; ¤r;r n¸ mr +t
ar¤¸ln ¤ç¸n ¤r; çr ¤¸+t çl
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸ ”¤r + nç
+ç¬ +r l+ m; ar; n; ¤ç¸n =
¬-m çr ¤¸ + ç , +r =¤”c aªr
l¬+enr ç l+ e= mçr+rr;n n¸ç
¤ç¸n ¤r; çr ¤¸+ çl q== mçl”r
~t a;l¤-o +t nç +rl¤”n¤r¤rt
=rn ¤mrl¤rn çrnt ç l+ ·- ''z¡
¬¤+¤; tszc +r ~t +¸”¤r +r ¤¸ª¤t
¤; a¤n;¤r ç¸ar ªrr''l
ç; n¸m + an m ¬¤ rrm +r
=¤ l¤+¸n çr ¬rnr ç ar; ==r;
a rr+r; = c+ ¬rnr ç nr ¤ç
¤;m=rrr =¤n ¤+c çr+; ==r;
= nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr +r ¬r’r +;+
a¤¬t =rlr¤+ =rrr =ªrrl¤n +;+
¤¸¬· a¤¬ er+ m ¤l¤”c çr ¬rnt
çl nç +m ==r; m l¬;-n; ¤enr
;çmrl ~t a;l¤-o ¬ =¤”c +çr
ç l+ ''~t+¸”¤r ar¬-omn ç ¤
alnmr¬= +r a¤¬ ar¬-o +t
ar ; aog¤¸ ç +;+ l¤+r= +r
=mªr¬ ar; =¤re¬ +;n ç''l
q= n¸m + =+rt rrmr + rrmr¤rnr
¬ +rrln+ ar; arrnrlrm+ ¢r>r
+r aem-aem ¤rc ;=rr çl e+
+¸l>m e¢m¤r ;=rr gr;r or +rrmr
m ¤rc lonrl e+ ¢r> +r o¸=; m
ç=n¢r ¤ ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = ¤l¬n +;
;=rr çl +rrln+ l¤qr¬ + ¬¬+,
arnrrm l¤qr¬ ¤; e = ¤m ¬
a¤¬r alrr+r; =ªrrl¤n +; ;=rr
ç ¬r l+ q=+r +¸e +rt qr¬ ¬çt
;=rnrl q= a¬lrr+¸n aln+m¤r
¬ çt ==r; +r mç¬ arr+r; m
sre ;=rr çl q= n¸m m +rrln+
=¤ = ¤¸¤r l¤+l=n o’rr m +rt
e = nªrr+lªrn rrm m¸ =ar +r
=rmr¤n çl
rr¬ + ¤oe m ç; ¤r¤ =
m¸l¬ ¤r¤n +;¬ + ¤mr¤r ¤> n+
lon ¬r ;ç çl q= ¤+r; ==r; +r;
+ =rrr¸ ¤¸=”r +rn+; +”c m ¤=
¤¸ + ç l e =r emnr ç , +rm¤r¬
~t+¸”¤r ¬ l¬= =mn a¤¬ ¤+c
çr¬ +r ·-
nor nor lç rrm=n ·erl¬+.
r¤ln +rr;nl +ç +; ¤nrnr ç, ¤ç
¤ç¸ n l¬+c ç l = =r; m ¬r ¬;
= çr; ar ; +rn +; =¤ = nrm.
l=+ ¤¸lnnr +r e+ e> ‘rr=¬
çr ¤er ç, =¤”c +;nr ç- l+ ¤ç
¤;m=rrr ¤+c çr¬ çt ¤ret çl
q= =+¤-rr m ==r; + a¬+ =n
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +; ¤¸+ çl
23
23
144

=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q= =mn +rr;n m arrnrlrm+
¬mng m ¤¸¤r =¤ = a-rr+r; çl
¬¤ n+ +rr;n +r arm ¬rml;+
a¤¬t q= +m¬r ;t +r loe =
=¤t+r; +;+ o¸; +;¬ +r =rm¸.
lç+ ¤nr= ¤r;++r ¬çt +;nr ç,
nç +rn+; a-rr+r; lmc¬ ¤rer
¬çt çl çm +rr;ntnr m nç +mt
ç l+ çmr;t +m¬r;t +r =¤t+r;
¬çt +;nl a= le¤r¬ + lee n+
‘rr=> + =çr; a¬ + q¸ o n+
o+; q¸o +r =rn ¤mrl¤rn +;¬
+r ¤ nr= l¬;-n; +;n ;çn ç l q=
¤+r; çm¬ =·¤rq + =ªrr¬ ¤;
q¸o + a+¤r; emr lee çl
çm arrnrlrm+ o¸l”c = ¤¸¤r
=¤ = =rr=re çr ¤¸+ çl ¬¤ n+
çm q= =·¤rq +r =¤t+r; ¬çt
+;n ç, çmr;t l=ªrln m +rq +rt
¤l;¤n¬ ar¬ ¤rer ¬çt çl
+rr;n + a-rr+r; + ¤r; m
mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬ +çr ç ·- ''nç
+q +r;¤rr = ç l lç-o¸ =nr¬ m
a m ¬r + ar¬ = ¤çe çt nrml=+
¤¤¸lnnr ar; le-¬-l+r-¬ +;¬
¤ret ‘rl+nnr +r ¬r; çr ¤er ªrrl
a¬+ ar¬ ¤; mr¬r =r;r nrm=g
or= ¤¬+; nçr ¬m mnr çl +¸e
¤r=nl¤+ +rm çr¬ = ¤çe nç
¬=;t ç l+ nçr ¬rm¸ ln arn l
lne+, or=, l¤¤ +r¬-o q¬m
+rq +rt =rrrr;¤r aromt ¬ ªrr,
e+¬ q¬+ çrn ç¸e +rt nrm=g
¤¬r ç¸ar çl q= =+¤-rr m '~t
mr ' ¬ +rt +çr ç ·- ''+rr;n +
a-o; =r; = =r; +t =m=nre
+rr;n m arrnrlrm+ ¬rm¸ln
+l-qn çr mq ç, ar; a¬+ çe
çr¬ ¤; =r; ==r; +r +rr; çr+r
çr ¬rnmrl'' a¤n¸¬ nªnr m ¬¤
n+ ar¤ +rr;ntn, =r¸e loe =
=¤t+r; +;+ , =·¤rq +r mrm
¬çt =rr ¬r m , a-rr+r; lmc¬
¤rer ¬çt çl
¬çr =·¤rq çrmt, ¤çt q’¤;
+t ‘rl¬ ¤ rn¢r =¤ = +rn +; mtl
q’¤; +¸¤r =, mr¬¤, mr¬l=+,
‘rr;tl;+ ar ; arlªr+ o¸ l”c =
=+¤-¬ ar ; =¸ =r ‘rrl-n +r ¬t¤¬
l¤nrnr çl çmr; o’r +t ol;qnr,
m;t¤t, ç; ¤=n¸ +r a+rr¤, lç=r,
rr¸ ¤rr, g ”r, +¸ ;nr arlo =¤”c
o’rr nt ç l+ nçr arrnrlrm+
o¸l”c = ¤¸¤r =¤ = a-rr+r; çl
+ ¤e +r lmn +;¬ ¤re a¤o ’r
n;ç-n;ç + =¤rm ar; ¤o’r¬
‘r-o ¬re ar ; n+ ‘rr=> =
=m=nr +r =mrrrr¬ çrnr nr a¤
n+ ¤n¬r ++rt +t ar mq çrntl
¤;-n¸ q¬ =¤ + ¤en
a-rr+r; lo¬r lo¬ or= çrnr ¬r
;çr çl çm q= =··rrq +r =¤t.
+r; +;¬r çrmrl q= =+¤-rr m
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o ¬t ¬ aml;+r
= ¬r ¤> le=r +; +rr;n +r¬,
a¬= l=ªrln ¤ç¸n =¤”c çr ¬rnt
ç l =¤rmt ¬t ¬ am=n tss: m
aml;+r = ~t arerl=m ¤=me
+r ¤> le=rr ¤ç q= ¤+r; ç ·-
''¤r=n¤ m +rr;n ¬ m; lee ¬r
l+nr ç, a== +çt alrr+ m¬
+rr;n + lee l+nr çl ¤çr nr m¸q
;rct + e+ c¸+s + len slenr
+r; mrlenr lment çl m +çt +rt
+nr ¬ ¬ra, ¤+r¸ m; lee +rm
+;¬ ¤rer +, oe + oe +r¬ onr
çl ¤ erm +rr;ntn l’r”nr +t n;ç
¬çt ç , a¤¬ m¸ = + lee ¤ r¤rr n+
+t ¤r¬t emr o¬ +r ¤=n¸n çl
¤r’¤rrn o ’r m ¤ +r¸ +nr +;¬r
¤rçn ç , nç n¸ m lç-o¸ ar +r +¸ e
çt ¤”rr m o=r¬ +r lmemrl n¸m
er m ¤ r¤t¬ +re + nç¸ lonr ¬ =
çr ar ; n¸ +çr;t l=ªrln ¬r o m e c
ç¸ e +¸ rr +t n;ç ç , ¬r ¬ =r¸ o =rrnr
ç ar ; ¬ o¸ =;r +r çt =rr¬ o ¬r
¤rçnr ç l n¸ m er mr m l+=t ¤ +r;
+t rrrlm+ +rr¤¬r ¬çt ç l ;=r q çt
n¸ +çr;r q ’¤; ç nªrr ç lsnr ¤n ¬
n¸ +çr;r ‘rr=>l a¤¬t n;ç a= =n
=-nr¬r r¤ro¬ m çt n¸ +çr;t ‘rl¬
+r ¤l;¤n lmenr ç l'' a¤n ¸ ¬
n=¤t; çmr; arnrrm¤ro +r =¤”c
+;nt ç , l¬=+ o++r ¤; çm ¤¸ e
¬r ;ç ç l
q=t =+¤-rr m =¤rmt ¬t ¬
e+ ¤> at l=n+¤; tss: +r ¤ l;=
= le=rr ªrrl a= ¤> m çmr;
arnrrm¤ro +t a=et n=¤t;
¬¬; arnt ç l =¤rmt ¬t ¬ le=rr
ç ·-''m ¬=r +rr;n +r ç¸, ¤= çt
=mm ¬mng +r +rt ç¸l q= l¤”rn
+r e+; m¬mr¬t ¤rn ¤¬r¬r l¬.
;ªr+ çl m¸q= ¬çr n+ çr =+nr
ªrr, m ¬ n¸ m er mr +t =çrnnr
+t ç, a¤ n¸+ç =¤n çt a¤¬t
=çrnnr +;¬t ¤rlçel
e=r +r¬ =r o’r ç, ¬r l+
m¸ q ¤; l¤’r ”r alrr+r; ;=rnr
23
23
145
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+ m¸ =r nr¤¸ ¤r l¬o ’rr¬¸ =r;
¤e¬r çr mr? +nr n¸ +ç e¤¬r ¬çt
arnt? m a¬ ermr +r l+= ¤rn
+r >¤rt ç¸? +nr m a¬+t ¤’r=r
+t +rq ¤;¤rç +;nr ç¸ nr a¬+t
l¬-or = s;nr ç¸l ¤·¤, m e+ e=
l¤l¤> =¤+rr¤ +r ·nl¬ ç¸ l+
m¸q ¤ç¤r¬¬r n¸m ermr + lee
+rt a+rt =+r¤ ¬çt çl n¸m a¤¬
+rn +;n ;çrl ¬çt +; =+n nr
¤¸ ¤¤r¤ ¤ o ¬rar l a¤¬t m¸ =r nr +
¤e ¤; m¸q = a¤¬t q·er¬¸=r;
+rn +;r¬ +t ¤”cr ¬ +;rl
m¸ q l+=t +t =çrnnr +t
ar¤’n+nr ¬çt, ¬t¤¬ +r; m çt
o¸=;r +t =çrnnr +;nr ;çr ç¸l
~t ;rm+¸”¤r ¤;mç= + +rnr m
=çrnnr ¤or¬ +;¬ + lee ¬çr
+ l¬¤rl=nr m or-¤r; =¤n +rt
e+> +;¬ +t ‘rl¬ ¬çt ç, ¤
er m emrnr; ·nªr +t ¤rn ¤¬r ;ç
ç ar; a= ·nl¬ ¤; a¤¬r ç¸+m
¤er¬r ¤rçn ç , l¬=+ lee a-çr.
¬ ++rt +rt +¸e ¬çt l+nr, ¤rn¸n
l¬=¬ a¬ ermr + lee ¬çr n+
çr =+nr ªrr, =¤ +¸e l+nrl
¬mng e =r çt a+¸ nq ç l
+nr n¸ m nç +ç¬r ¤rçn çr l+ e =
¬rln+r o ¬¬ l;n +¸ = =+r;n¸ +n
onr ;lçn, +¤ct, ¬rl=n+ +rn;r
m = ¬r +¤e l’rl¢rn lç-o¸ar m
çt ¤rn ¬r =+n çl e+ ¤¬ +;
¬t¬ m;¬ + lee m ¤or ç¸ar ç¸l
m +rn;nr +r rr¸¤rr +t ql”c =
o=rnr ç¸l +rn; nªrr ;r¬¬tln+
m¸ =r nr¤¸ ¤r ¤+¤r=r + =rªr, m
a¤¬r =+¤-rr ¬çt ;=r¬r ¤rçnrl
l+=t ¤+r; +t ;r¬¬tln m m¸q
l¤’¤r= ¬çt çl q’¤; nªrr =rn
çt ¬mng m e+ mr> ;r¬¬tln
ç , ¤r+t =¤ +¸ s r-+;+c ç l''
m¸q, a= ¤;m=rrr ¬ arrnrlrm+
¬mng +t ¬r ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln +;¤rq
ç, ¤ç a¤n¸¬ nªnr = =rnrl¤n
çrnt çl ¬¤ n+ çm q¸o o++r +r
rnrm+; a= ¤;m=rrr = ¤r=¤ln+
=+¤-rr =ªrrl¤n ¬çt +;m, +rm
¬çt ¤¬mrl q¸o + ¤; ¬çt çrnl
arl=r; çm o’r¤rl=nr +r l+n¬
lo¬ rrr=rr o =+m? +re +t mln
¬ l+=t +r mr¤ ¬çt l+nr, ¤s t =
¤s t nrml=+ =rrr +rt a=+ =rm¬
¬çt lc+ =+tl +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r
¬ +çr ç·-
+rersl=m er+¢rn+¸r¤¤¸çr,
er+r-=mrç n¸lmç ¤¤¸rr·l
>nsl¤ nr ¬ +rl¤”nl-n =¤,
ns¤l=ªrn· ¤rn¬t+”r¸ nrrrr·ll
¤çt ¤;m=rrr ==r; m a¤n.
l;n çr ¤¸+t çl l¬=+t +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt ==r; + ¤ç¸n = =n +; ¤¸+
23
23
146
=¬rn¬ rrm + =¤rrrm mªr
mtnr m +rm¤r¬g ¬ ¤¸¬¬-m +t
=¤”c ·nr=nr +;n ç¸e +çr ç ·-
‘r;t; no¤r¤¬rln
n·¤r¤n¸r+rmnt’¤;·l
m¸çtr¤nrl¬ =nrln
¤rn¸m-rrrl¬¤r’rnrngll t: · sll
¤rn¸, m-rr + =ªrr¬ = m-rr
¬= (mç¤r +;+ e ¬rnr ç ¤=
çt¸ oçrlo+r +r =¤rmt ¬t¤rrmr
+rt l¬= ¤çe ‘r;t; +r rnrmnr ç,
a== m¬=lçn ql-qnr +r mç¤r
+;+ l¤; l¬= ‘r;t; +r ¤ r¤n çr nr
ç, a=m ¬rnr çl
¬¤ n+ çm mtnr m ¤l¤rn
a¤n¸ ¬ =·¤rq +r = =r; + =rm¬

¤¸¬¬-m +r ¤mrl¤rn +;¬r aln ar¤’n+
¤mrl¤rn ¬çt +; =+m, +rq +rt
·nl¬ çmr;t ¤rn +r +nr mr¬ mr?
a¤n¸¬ =·¤rq +r ==r; + =mr¬
¤ mrl¤rn +;¬r aln ar¤’n+
+rn çl ªrrªr ¬tln + l¤”rn m
a¤o’r = a¤ +rm ¬çt ¤emrl
+rm¤r¬g +t a¤n¸ ¬ ·nr=nr
+ a¬¸ =r ; ¬¤ n+ m¬¸ ”n
a-nm¸ =rt çr +; ¬t¤rrmr = =+¤+
+;¬ +t l=ªrln m ¬çt ¤ç¸¤nr ç,
q=+r =mrrrr¬ a=++r¤ çl q=
¤ªr m ¤çe =ªr¸e ‘r;t; m l=ªrn,
=¸ ¢m ‘r;t; = =r¢rrr+r; +;¬r
¤smrl q=+ ¤ro =¸¢m ‘r;t; +r
+ro +; +r;¤r ‘r;t; = =r¢rrr+r;
+;¬r çrmrl l¤; ¤nr çt +r;¤r
‘r;t; +r +r o¬ ç¸ ar l+ arrmr
= =r¢rrr+r; çr ¬rnmrl arrmr
¤ r;++r = e +; =+rt ¬-mr +r qr¬
+;¤r¬ m =¢rm ç l q=t ¤ +r;
mçrrmr ¤¸ç +r a¬+ ¬-mr +r
qr¬ ¤r¤n ç¸ar ªrrl nç nr ç¸ar
¤tn =mn +r qr¬l ¤;-n¸ ¬t¤rrmr
¤;mrrmr +r çt a ’r ç l ¤ç am; ç ,
a=m ar; +rm¤r¬ m +rq a-n;
¬çt çl an· ==r; m arm çr¬
¤ret ¤rnr +r +rt qr¬ çr ¬r =++r¤
ç l çm ¤ç ‘rl¬ ¤ r¤n +;¬t ç l a¤
a:.a:.tsss
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q= =mn ==r; + =+rt rrmr
m e+ ¤m l¤’r ”r a¤¬ ar¤ +r
rrm +r o + or; rrr l”rn +; ¤ or
çl =+rt rrmr m e=t ·n¤=ªrr ¤¬r
;=rt ç l+ a¬+t arqr + l¤¬r
q’¤; = lme¬r a=++r¤ çl =+rt
rrrlm+ m-ªr q= mr¬¤tn ·n¤=ªrr
+r =r¸er l¤;rrr +;n çl +rm¤r¬g
~t+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr + ¬¤ arnrn m
=¤”c +çr ç ·-
al¤ ¤r=¸o¸;r¤r;r
+r¬n mrm¬-n+rr+gl
=rrr¸;¤ = m-n·n·
=+n··n¤l=nr lç =·ll :a ll
nlo aln’rn o¸ ;r¤r;t +rt
a¬-n +rr¤ = m ; +r +r¬nr ç ,
¤ç =rrr¸ çt mr¬¬ nr ·n ç , nªrrªr
l¬’¤n ¤rer ç l
l¢r¤ +r¤ln rrmrrmr
‘r’¤·erl-n l¬m·elnl
+r-nn ¤ln ¬r¬tlç
¬ m +r¬ · ¤¤r’nlnll :tll
(¤ç¸ ‘rtrr çt rrmr rmr çr
¬rnr ç l (ar ;¸ =or ;ç¬ ¤ret
¤;m’rrl-n +r ¤ r¤n çr nr ç l ç
a¬¸¬l l¬’¤n -¤¸¤+ =rn ¬r¬,
m;r +r¬ ¬”c ¬çt çrnr çl
mr lç ¤rªr ·n¤rl~rn,
n•l¤ =n¸· ¤r¤nr¬n·l
l=>nr ¤’nr=nªrr ‘r¸qr=n•
l¤nrl-n ¤;r mlnmgll :zll
+nr l+ ç a¬¸ ¬ =>t, ¤ ’n
(ar ;¸ ‘r¸ qrlo+ nªrr ¤r¤nr l¬¤re
+rt ¬r +r q çr ¤ ¤ +rt m ; ‘r;¤r çr +;
¤;m mln +r ¤r¤n çrn çl
l+ ¤¸¬¤rg¤rr· ¤¸¤nr
¬rln ¤rln ¤¸e ¬r +rq,
+r¬ r ;r¬”rn=nªrrl
al¬rnm=¸=r er+lmm
¤r¤n +r¬=¤ mrmgll ::ll
l¤; +nr +ç¬r ¤¸ ¤n ‘rte
¤ rg¤r¬¬ nªrr ;r¬l”r +r¬ ¬¬
¤r¤n çrn çl q= lee =¸=r ;lçn
¢r¤r+rm¸; q= m¬¸”n ‘r;t; +r ¤r¤n
çr+; m;r çt +r¬¬ +;l
mtnr + a¤n¸¬ ‘er+ =¤”c
+;n ç l+ q ’¤; +r +r q +rt o + or;
¬çt çl ç; ¤r¤rt + lee ¤+r¸ + gr;
=r¸ e ç l ¤;-n¸ l¤; +rt n¸ m + m¸ ¤rrrm
+ +r;¤r ==r; m qn¬r a-rr+r;
¤e mnr ç l+ l+=t +r =çt ;r=nr
¬¬; çt ¬çt arnrl q= n¸m m erm
+rlmn +;¬ ¤re q¸or =¤rm ;¤+;
¤o’r¬ +;¬ ¤re crmt ermr +t
n;¤ alrr+ ar+l”r n çr n ç l a¤¬
l¤¤+ = +rq ¤e¬ +t l=ªrln m
¬çt çl +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ =¤”c
+çr ç ·-
=rmr•ç =¤+r¸n”r¸
¬ m g”nr•l=n ¬ l¤n·l
n +r¬l-n n¸ mr +r+rnr
mln n n”r¸ ¤r¤nçmgll zcll
m =¤ +r¸ nr m =m+rr¤ = ·nr¤+
ç¸, ¬ m;r (+rq¸ al¤n ç, ¬ l¤n
ç, ¤;-n¸ ¬r m; +r ¤m = +r¬n ç,
¤ m; m ar; m +rt a¬m (縸l
qn¬r çr¬ ¤; +rt q= =mn +
rrm m¸= =¤rªr¤’r, q=t ¤l¤> m-ªr
+t ·nr=nr nrs- m;rs +; +;n ç
l+ er m +r lmn çr ¬rn ç l ¤r¤-¤¸ ¤n,
rr m -arr m , rnr m-n¤=nr ,
or¬-¤¸ ¤n, =¤m -¬;+ arlo +t
·nr=nr q= ¤+r; +;n ç l+ erm
+rn+rtn çr +;, a¤¬t =ç¬ ¤¸ lç +rt
=rr ¤ on ç l q= ¤ +r; = =r; + +rr e
+rre ermr +r rrm +t ars m om¬
+r ·nr¤r; =¤> ¤er ç¸ar çl q=
=+¤-rr m =¤rmt ~t l¤¤+r¬¬o
¬t ¬ q¬ nªrr+lªrn rrm m¸=ar +r
¤c+r;n ç¸e +çr ªrr ·-
''n¸m ermr m l+=t ¤+r; +t
rrrlm+ +rr¤¬r ¬çt ç , ;=r q çt
n¸+çr;r q’¤; ç nªrr çlsnr ¤n¬
n¸+çr; ‘rr=>l =¤rmt ¬t ¬ ==r; +
rrm m¸ =ar +r =çt l¤> ¤ =n¸ n l+nr
çl q= =mn ==r; +r; + =+rt rrmr
+ rrmr¤rnr ¬ rrm +r ¤c = ¬rs
;=rr çl ¤c + lee =¤ +¸e +;¬
+r nnr; çl
¤nr-¤nr q¬+r l¤;rrr ¤cnr
mnr, q-çr ¬ +rt a¤¬ = mo¬
¤¬r+; a¤¬t =¸;¢rr +r ¤¸;r ¤¤-rr
+; lenrl e+ ¤+r; = o¸=;r =mr¬
¤;r¤; =mlon +;+, ç; m¸+r¤e
+t nnr;t +;etl q= =mn rrm,
+rn, ere¤, ¤er+r¬ ar; rrr=r =
l==rrnr ¬rnr çl ¤m, =og+rr¤,
~çr, l¤’¤r= ¬rm +t +rq ¤=n¸,
q= =mn ¬çt lmemtl +¤e +rlmn
ar; +rn+rtn +;+ rnrm n¤=nr,
or¬-¤¸ ¤n, =¤m ¬+ arlo +t
+rr¤l¬+ ·nr=nr +;+ l¬n¬r
alrr+ omr ¬r =+, l¬;-n; nçt
¤nr= ¤e ;çr çl nç l=ªrln a¤
¤;m =tmr ¤; ¤ç¸¤ ¤¸+t çl
a¤ ==r; + erm arm om
¬r¬ + lee n nr; ¬çt ç l nçt
+r;¤r ç l+ =+rt rrm + morrrt’r
q= =mn al-nm =rr”r m em ç¸e

=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
23
147
çl; +r +r¬ =r çl; +r çr.
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
148
= =r; +t nç +çr¤n l+
q’¤; +t q·er + l¤¬r ¤rrr +rt
¬çt lçenr, ¤¸ ¤r =rn ç l +rm¤r¬g
~t +¸”¤r ¬ tt ¤ arnrn m =¤”c
+çr ç ·-
+rersl=m er+¢rn+¸r¤¤¸çr,
er+r-=mrçn¸lmç ¤¤¸rr·l
>nsl¤ nr ¬ +rl¤”nl-n =¤,
ns¤l=ªrn· ¤rn¬t+”r¸ nrrrr·ll
n=mrr¤m¸lrr”o n’rr e+r=¤,
l¬r¤r ‘r>¸-n¸sg.¢¤ ;r¤n =m¸ç
mgl
mn¤n l¬çnr· ¤¸¤m¤,
l¬lmrrmr> +r¤ =·n=rl¤¬gll
qr¤r ¤ +rt”m ¤ ¬nqªr ¤,
+¤r nªrr-nr¬l¤ nrrr¤t;r¬gl
mnrçnr=r¤¬lç mr ·nlªr”or,
n¸rn=¤ ¬nrl= ;¤r =¤r¬r¬gll
(m ¸ er +r +r ¬r’r +;¬
¤rer ¤cr ç¸ar mçr+re ç¸l q=
=mn er+r +r ¬”c +;¬ + lee
¤¤¸n ç¸ar ç¸, ¬r ¤ln¤l¢rnr +t
=¬r m l=ªrn ç¸e nrçrerm ç, ¤
=¤ m; l¤¬r +rt ¬çt ;çml q==
n¸ =rsr çr ar; n’r +r ¤r¤n +;
‘r>¸ar +r ¬tn+; rr¬-rrr-n =
=+¤-¬ ;r¤n +r +rr ml nç =¤
(’r¸;¤t;¸ ¤çe = çt m; gr;r mr;
ç¸e çl ç =·n=rl¤¬ +¤e (n¸¸
l¬lmrrmr> çt çr ¬rl
qr¤rr¤rn ar; +rt”ml¤nrmç
nªrr ¬nqªr ar; +¤r nªrr ar;
+rt ¤ç¸n = m; gr;r mr; ç¸e ‘r¸;¤t;
nrrrrar +r n¸ mr;, +rn mn +;,
l¬·=-oç (n¸¸ n¸ç m ¤l;nr +r
¬tnmr, q= lee n¸ç +;l
==r; +r ç; ¤l;¤n¬ ¤¸¤ l¬l’¤n çl
+rm¤r¬g + a¤n¸¬ a¤o’r
= =¤”c çrnr ç l+ nç =r;r ==r;
e+ çt ¤;m=rrr +r l¤=n¸n =¤=¤
ç l ¬t¤, = =r; + ç; +rn m l¬lmn
mr> çl q’¤; +t l>m¸¤rmnt mrnr
¬t¤r +r +r;mrnt ç¸q a¤¬t q·er
= ¤er ;çt çl ¬t¤ a-rr+r; ¤’r
q¸o açmg m ar+; ¬¤;o=nt
+nr ¤¬ ¤onr ç ar; q= ¤+r;
nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr + ¤++; m ¤=
+;, ¬-m-m;¤r + ¬re m ¤=r
ç¸ar, o¸·=r +rrm ;çr çl l=ªrln +r
ar; =¤”c +;n ç¸e +rm¤r¬g ¬ts
¤ arnrn + ct ¤ ‘er+ m +çr
ç ·-
q’¤;· =¤+r¸nr¬r
pc’r•a¬¸¬ ln”olnl
armn-=¤+r¸nrl¬
n->r=crl¬ mrnnrll ctll
ç a¬¸ ¬l ‘r;t; =¤t n->
m ar=c ç¸e =+¤¸¤r ¤rl¤rnr +r
a-nnrmt ¤;m’¤; a¤¬t mrnr
= +r;mrnr ç¸ar, =¤ +r¸n ¤rl¤rnr
+ pon m l=ªrn çl
e=t l=ªrln m +rt ¬t¤ a¤¬
a-o; l¤;r¬mr¬ a= ¤;m=rrr
+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r;
+ a+rr¤ m ¬-m-m;¤r + ¤++;
m ¤= +; +rn+; o¸·=r +rrm ;çr
ç l q= n¸ m m =+rt ar;rrr¬re
¤lçm¸=rt ç, e=t l=ªrln m q’¤;
+r o’r ¬ ar ; ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln a=+.
+r¤ çl nrn +t n;ç rrrlm+ m-ªrr
+r ;c¬ = +¸e +rt er+r çr¬ ¤rer
¬çt çl ¬¤ n+ ¬t¤, nr¤ = a=
¤;m=rrr +r ¬çt ¤ç¤r¬nr ç , +¸ e
+rt er+r çr¬r a=++r¤ çl mtnr
=¤t qr¬ + am¸ n +r +rt ¤r¬
+;¬ +t l=ªrln m ¬t¤ ar¬ ¬çt ç
e=t l=ªrn =¤”c +;nt ç l+ ==r;
¤¸¤r =¤ = nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr = lrr;
¤¸+r çl =rlr¤+ ¤¸lrrnr +r er¤
¤rn· çr ¬r¬r =¤”c =+n ç l+
==r; m arm¸e¤¸e ¤l;¤n¬ çr¬
¤rer çl nç l=ªrln =¤”c +;nt ç
l+ a¤ ==r; = nrml=+ ¤¸lrrnr
+r a-n çr ¬ ¤rer ç l l¬n¬
arrnrlrm+ m¸=, q= =mn ==r;
m ç, ¤çe ++rt o=r¬-=¸¬¬ m
¬çt arnl ¤;-n¸ a¬+ ;çn ç¸e
+rt = =r; m a-rr+r; l¬;-n;
or= çr+; ¬m ;çr çl e=t l=ªrln
m ==r; +r mr¬¤ q¬ m¸=ar ¤;
¤ ’¬¤r¤+ l¤çg¬ emrn l¤¬r
¬çt ;ç =+nrl
¤ ¤r; =+rt rrm m¸ =, n¸ m +
m¸ ¤r rrm ar ; +re +t mln +
¤¤rç m e= ¤= ç¸e ç l+ ¤ a¤¬
ar¤+r ¤¤r¬ m a=mªr çl s¸¤n
ç¸e ·nl¬ +t n;ç arc =trr çrªr
¤r ¤ mr; ;ç ç l qlnçr= ¤nrnr
ç l+ ==r; m ¬¤-¬¤ +rt e=t
l=ªrln ¤or ç¸q çl a= ¤;m=rrr ¬
a¤nl;n çr+; ¬t¤r +r +rnr¤r
l+nr çl
q= ¤r; m +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r
¬ mtnr + ¤rªr arnrn + c ¤
ar; s ¤ ‘er+ m =¤”c rrr”r¤rr
+t ç ·-
nor nor lç rrm=n
·erl¬+r¤ln +rr;nl
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+rm¤r¬ ~t +¸ ”¤r ¬ mtnr +
ta ¤ arnrn + :: ¤ ‘er+ m =¤”c
+çr ç·-
n·¤rl¤ =¤+r¸nr¬r
¤t¬ noçm¬¬l
¬ nol=n l¤¬r nr=nr-mnr
+r¸n ¤;r¤;mll ::ll
''ar; ç a¬¸¬l ¬r =¤ +r¸nr +t
ar¤lrr +r +r;¤r ç, ¤ç +rt m çt ç¸l
+nrl+ ¤ç ¤; ar; a¤; +r¸n ¬çt ç,
¬r m ; ;lçn çr ¤ l q= ar ; =¤”c +;n
ç¸e ¡z¤ ‘er+ m +çr ç ·-
aªr¤r ¤ç¸¬e¬
l+ qrn¬ n¤r¬¸¬l
l¤”c+nrçlmo +¸r=¬m+r’r¬
l=ªrnr ¬mngll ¡zll
''aªr¤r ç a¬¸ ¬l q= ¤ç¸ n
¬r¬¬ = n;r +nr ¤nr¬¬ çl m q=
=+¤¸¤r ¬mng +r e+ a’rmr> =
rrr;¤r +;+ l=ªrn ç¸l'' e=t l=ªrln
m ==r; m ¬r +¸e çr ;çr ç, a=+r
or”r l+=t +r +rt o¬r ·nªr çl ¤ç
¤;m=rrr =¤ +r¸n ¤rl¤rnr +r +r;mrn
ç¸e a¤¬t q·er + a¬¸=r; ¤er ;çt
ç l q= =+¤-rr m mçl”r a;l¤-o
+r +rm¤r¬g ¬ aet¤¸; ¬e m ¬r
aro’r lonr ªrr, a== =¤”c çrnr
ç l+ q’¤; +rr;n m l¬l’¤n =¤ =
a¤nl;n çr ¤¸+ çl
+rm¤r¬g ¬ +çr ç ·-''m q=
o’r +r a¤¬r =o’r ¤er¬ + lee
aor ;çr ç¸, nç =o’r a= =¬rn¬
rrm +r =o’r ç l¬= n¸m a+rt n+
¬çt ¬r¬n ªr, ¤; a¤ ¬r¬ mn çrl
n¸m ¤rç; ¬rar nr a¤¬ o’r¤rl=nr
= +ç¬r l+ n¸m =¬rn¬ rrm + lee
ao ;ç çr, n¸+ç =¤rªr l=lç + lee
nç =+¤¸¤r ==r;
e+ çt ¤;m=rrr +r l¤=n¸n =¤=¤ çl
¬çt , al¤n¸ = =r; + lee aornr
¬r ;çr ç ''l ~t a;l¤-o +r lon
a¤n¸¬ aro’r = mre¸m çrnr ç l+
¤ç ¤;m=rrr q= o ’r m a¤nl;n
çr+; ==r; +r; m ¤¸¬· =¬rn¬ rrm
+t e+ mr> =rrr =ªrrl¤n +;+ n¸m
¤l;¤n¬ +;¬r ¤rçnt çl q=rq rrm
+ =nr +t nç +rl¤”n¤r¤rt ç l+ ·-
''¤t=¤t ‘rnr-ot + a-n n+ ¤¤r +r
al=nr¤ lmc ¬rnmr''l
nt’r¸ ¬ a¤¬ al-nm lo¬r m
=¤n a¤¬ l’r”nr = +çr ªrr ·- m
n¸ +ç =·¤rq ¤nrnr ç¸ l nç n¸ +çr; lee
er+rorn+ ç l+ m n¸+ç ers +; ¬r
;çr ç¸l nlo m ¬ ¬ra nr ¤ç =çrn+
n¸+çr; ¤r= ¬çt aremrl ¤; nlo m
¬ra nr a= n¸+çr; ¤r= +r¬ o¸mrl
¬¤ ¤ç ar ¬remrl nr ¤ç ==r; +r
¤r¤, rrrlm+nr ar; -nrn + l¤”rn
m or”rt oç;remrl ¤r¤ + l¤”rn m
q=lee l+ ==r; + ermr ¬ m¸q ¤;
l¤’¤r= ¬çt l+nrl
rrrlm+nr + l¤”rn m q=lee
l+ m l¤nr + ¤r= ¬r ;çr ç¸ ar; n¸m
m¸q l¤; ¬ o=rrml -nrn + l¤”rn
m q=lee l+ q= ==r; +r ‘rr=+
or”rt oç;rnr mnr çl m¸q n¸m= ar;
+rt ¤ç¸n =t ¤rn +ç¬t ç, ¤; a+rt
n¸m a-ç =ç¬ ¬çt +; =+nl ¬¤
¤ç, =rn +r arrmr, aremr n¤ ¤ç
=+¤¸ ¤r =rn m n¸ +çr;r mrm o’r ¬
+;mrl ¤ç a¤¬t ar; = +¸e ¬çt
+ç mrl ¬r ¤rn ¤ç =¸ ¬ mr, ¤çt +ç mrl
¤ç çr¬ ¤ret rrc¬rar + l¤”rn m
n¸ +ç ¤neremrl ¤ç m ;t mlçmr +; mr
+nrl+ ¤ç m;t ¤rn mç¤r +;mr ar;
n¸+ç ¤nremrl ¬r l¤nr ç, ¤ç m;r ç
q=lee m¬ +çr l+ arrmr m;t ¤rn
mç¤r +;mr ar; n¸+ç ¤nremr''l
nç ‘r-o l+ ''¬r l¤nr +r ç ¤ç
m;r ç'' =¤”c +;nr ç l+ ¬r ‘rl¬
a¤nl;n çrmt, a=+r =trrr =+¤+
a= ¤;m=rrr = çrmrl +nrl+ arm
çr¬ ¤ret ¤rn q’¤; + l=¤rn +rq
+rt ¬çt ¬r¬ =+nrl +rm¤r¬g ¬ ta
¤ arnrn + :¡ ¤ ‘er+ m =¤”c
+çr ç ·-
m¸rn¸· =¤ç;º·rç
m¸ç¤º¤ +rl¤”nnrmgl
+tln· ~t¤r+¤ ¬r;t¤rr
=m¸lnmrrr rr¸ln· ¢rmrll :¡ll
m =¤ +r ¬r’r +;¬ ¤rer, m¸rn¸
ar; arm çr¬¤rer +t ar¤lrr +r
+r;¤r (縸 nªrr l=>nr m +tln ~t,
¤r+g, mrrr, rr¸ln ar; ¢rmr ç¸l
a¤n¸¬ ‘er+ m +rm¤r¬g ¬
+çr ç l+ ==r; m arm çr¬ ¤rer
+t ar¤lrr +r +r;¤r +¤e ¤çt çl
nt’r¸ +r nç +ç¬r ç l+ ¤ç =rn
+t arrmr ''ar¬ ¤ret ¤rn n¸ +ç
¤nremr'' =¤”c +;nr ç l+ ¤ç ¤¸¤r
=rrr çt m¬¸”n + =¤ m a¤nl;n
çrmtl q=t ¤+r; ==r; + a¬+ =n
a= ¤;m =rrr + a¤nl;n çr¬ +t
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +r¤t =mn = +;
;ç çl
t:¤t ‘rnr-ot m l¤c¬ +t e+
mlçer ¬ rrr”r¤rr +t ªrt l+ ''¤t=¤t
=ot + arl=r;t or o’r+r m =r;r
= =r; m ç n¸ ç +t e¤ c m ar+; +rr;t
¬¬-rr¬ +t çrl¬ aoremrl a-n m
za¤t =ot + arl=r;t o’r+ m +rr;n
+ arr;t lç== m e+ e =r m¬¸ ”n ¤ +c
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

23
23
149
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m¬¸ ”n nr l¬, ¤ r¤rrrrl;nr m
=¤r rrm nr l¬ ç l m¬¸ ”n ‘r;t;, q ’¤;
+r =¤r rrm =¤=¤ ç l + ¤e q=t
nr l¬ m q ’¤; +t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln
ar; =r¢rrr+r; =+r¤ çl ar; q=+
l¤¬r mr¢r a=++r¤ çl +¤e mr¢r
çt ¬t¤¬ +r arl=r;t ac ’n ç l
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ =¤”c +çr ç
l+ nç m¬¸”n ‘r;t; =¸=r;lçn ¢r¤r
+r m¸ ; ç l + ¤e q ’¤; ¤ rl¤n = çt mr ¢r
ar; ¤;mr¬-o +t ¤rl¤n =+r¤ çl
q= =+¤-rr m +rm¤r¬g ¬ mtnr +
¬r¤ arnrn + :z¤ ar; ::¤ ‘er+
m =r¤ +çr ç ·-
mr lç ¤rªr ·n¤rl~rn
n•l¤ =n¸· ¤r¤nr¬n·l
l=>nr ¤’nr=nªrr
‘r¸qr=n•l¤ nrl-n
¤;r mlnmgll :zll
l+ ¤¸¬¤rg¤rr· ¤¸¤nr
+r¬ r ;r¬”rn=nªrrl
al¬rnm=¸=r er+lmm
¤r¤n +r¬=¤ mrmgll ::ll
+nr l+ ç a¬¸ ¬l =>t, ¤ ’n
‘r¸qrlo+ nªrr ¤r¤nrl¬ ¤re +rt ¬r
+rq çr¤ ¤ +rt m; ‘r;¤rrmn çr +;
¤;mmln +r ¤r¤n çrn ç, l¤; +nr
+ç¬r çl ¤¸¤n ‘rte ¤rg¤r¬¬ nªrr
;r¬l”r +r¬ ¬¬ (¤;mmln +r ¸
¤ r¤n çr n ç , q=lee =¸ =r ;lçn
¢r¤r+rm¸; q= m¬¸”n ‘r;t; +r ¤r¤n
çr+; m;r çt +r¬¬ +;l ¤;-n¸ çm
o=r ;ç ç, +rm¤r¬g ¬ mtnr m =r;t
l=ªrln =¤”c +; ot ç l¤; +rt ==r;
+r mr¬¤ +rlmn ç¸ar, al¤’¤r=t
¬l=n+r +t n;ç +rc+ ;çr çl nr
l¤; erc-erc o¤nrar nªrr ¤nr +
=rm¬ ¬nm=n+ ç¸ar, +rn+; +”c
+rrmn ç¸e ¬”c çr+; arrrmln +r
mr¢r +t ¤rl¤n
+¤e +¸”¤r a¤r=¬r = çt =++r¤ çl
¤r¤n çr ;çr çl e+ nr +len¸m +
+r;¤r ==r; m ¤¸¤r =¤ = nrml=+
‘rl¬ nr +r =rmr¤n ar; l¤; e=t
l=ªrln m l>m¸¤rmnt, nrmmrnr +
¤++; = l¬+e¬r, q= n¸m m ¤sr
+lo¬ ç l + ¤e +rm¤r¬g +t a¬-n
‘r;¤r = çt +rm ¤¬¬r =++r¤ çl
q= =+¤-rr m +rm¤r¬g ¬ =rn¤
arnrn + t¡¤ ‘er+ m =¤”c +çr
ç ·-
o¤t @r”rr m¸¤rmnt
m mmrnr o¸;rnnrl
mrm¤ n ¤¤o-n
mrnrmnr n;l¬n nll :·t¡ll
+nr l+ nç aer l++ l>m¸ ¤
rmnt m;t nrmmrnr ¤st o¸=n; ç,
¬r ¤¸=”r m; +r çt l¬;-n; +r¬n ç,
¤ q= mrnr +r arerr¬ +; ¬rn
çl e=t l=ªrn m q= n¸m m ¤¤len
ar;rrr¬rar = mr ¢r ¤ r¤n +;¬r
a=mªr ç l = =r; + =+rt ¤ r¤rt l>m¸ ¤
rmnt mrnr + ¢r> +t ‘rl+nnr +r
çt mr¢r o¬ ¤ret =rrr =mq +;,
a¬+ ¤++; m +rlmn çr ;ç çl q=
=+¤-rr m mtnr + aro¤ arnrn +
tc¤ ‘er+ m l=ªrln +r =¤”c +;n
ç¸e +rm¤r¬g ¬ +çr ç ·-
ar¤g+r¸¤¬rrer
+r· ¤¸¬;r¤ln¬r•a¬¸¬l
mrm¸¤rn n¸ +r-nn
¤¸¬¬-m ¬ l¤onll tcll
ç a¬¸ ¬l ¤ ger + = e +;
=¤ er+ ¤¸¬;r¤nt =¤+rr¤ ¤re çl,
¤;-n¸ ç +¸ -nt ¤¸ >l m¸ q+r ¤ r¤n
çr+; ¤¸¬¬-m ¬çt çrnr çl q= ¤;
+rt +re + m¸¤r rrm + +r;¤r ermr
+t mln e =t +r lmn çr ;çt ç l+ ¬-m
m;¤r + ¤++; m sre¬ ¤ret ‘rl¬
nr = çt erm mr¢r +t a+mto +;
;ç çl +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r ¬ mtnr +
aor;ç¤ arnrn + cc¤ ‘er+ m
=r¤ +çr ç ·-
=¤rrmr-¤l;rn¤n
mrm+ ‘r;¤r ¤¬l
aç r¤r =¤ ¤r¤+nr
mr¢rln”nrlm mr ’r¸¤·ll ccll
=¤rrmr +r rnrm+; +¤e e+
m¸q ¤;mrrmr +t ‘r;¤r +r ¤r¤n çrl
m n¸q =+¤¸¤r ¤r¤r = m¸¬ +; o¸mr,
n¸ ‘rr+ mn +;l q=+ ¤r¤¬¸o ==r;
+ ¤r¤rt a= =¬rn¬ =rrr +r ers
mrnr +t n;¤ ar+l”rn çr ;ç çl
= =r; m nrml=+ ¤¸ lnnr +r e+ e>
=rmr¤n =ªrrl¤n çr ¤¸+r çl
+rr;n m nr nç a-rr+r;
=¤rlrr+ or= ¤¬+; ¬m ¤¸+r çl
¬¤ arrnrlrm+ m¸= +rrln+ l¤qr¬
+t =·¤rq + l¤=ç ¤¤r; +;n ç
nr m¸q +rr;t o¸·=r çrnr çl e= crmt
erm a¤¬r ¬t¤¬ nr l¤mrs çt ;ç
ç, +rre+rre ermr +r rrm +t ars
m +rr;t =+c m sre+;, +rr;t ¤r¤
+ +rrmt ¤¬ ;ç çl
e=t l=ªrln m am; +rr;n +
lç-o¸ l+n¬r çt ¤nr= +;, ==r;
+ ermr +r ¤+rrl¤n ¬çt +; =+ml
+rr;n m q= =mn ¬ rrm ¤¤r ç, ¬
=·¤rq ar; qmr¬or;t ¤¤t ç ar;
¬ çt ;r”c¸tnnrl ¬¤ n+ çm q= +c¸
=rn +r =¤t+r; +;+, ¤tmr;t +r
qer¬ ¬çt =rr¬m, çmr;r +rnr¤r
a=++r¤ ç l lne+-er¤ +;¬ , +¤s
;m¬, n¬ ;m¬ = +rm ¤e¬ ¤rer
¬çt çl nç ;rm nr m¬ ;m¬ = çt
ot+ çrmrl +nrl+ nç m¬ çt =r;r
¤¤¤ çm = +;¤r ;çr çl mt;r ¤rq
¬ ot+ çt +çr ç ''a¤¬ çt ;m m

=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
23
150
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
= =r; +t ç; ¤=n¸ ¬r’r¤r¬ ç ,
¤;-n¸ q ’¤; +rl¬ +r ¤e ++rt +rt
¬”c ¬çt çrnr çl ¤ç ç; ¬-m m
l¬;-n; ¤cnr çt ¬rnr çl q=+
¤r; m a¬¸¬ ¬ +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r
= ¤¸er ·-
anln· ~çnr¤nr
nrmr·¤lenmr¬=·l
a¤r¤n nrm=l=lç
+r mln +¸”¤r m·elnll cll
ç +¸ ”¤rl nr m = ¤ernmr¬ çr
mnr ç m¬ l¬¬+r, e=r l’rlªre
nr¬ ¤rer ~çrn¸¬ ¤¸=”r nrm
l=lç +r ¬ ¤r¤n çr+;, l+= mln
+r ¤r¤n çrnr çl q= ¤; +rm¤r¬g
~t+¸ ”¤r ¬ a¬¸ ¬ = +çr l+ ç
a¬¸¬ ·-
¤rªr ¬¤ç ¬rm¸>
l¤¬r’r=n=n l¤onl
¬ lç +rnr¤r+¸r+rº¤og
o¸mln nrn m·elnll ¡a · cll
ç ¤rªr , a= ¤¸ =”r +r ¬ nr q=
er+ m (ar;¸ ¬ ¤; er+ m çt
¬r’r çrnr ç, +nrl+ ç ¤nr; +rq
+rt ‘r¸+r +m +;¬ ¤rer o¸mln +r
¤r¤n ¬çt çrnr çl
¤r¤n ¤¸¤n+¸nr
nr+r¬¸l”rr¤r’rrº¤nt· =mr·l
‘r¸¤t¬r ~tmnr mç
nrm+r”cr•l+r¬rnnll ¡t · cll
nrm+r”c ¤¸=”r ¤¸¤n¤r¬r +
er+r +r ¤r¤n çr+;, ¤ç¸n ¤”rr
n+ ¤r= +;+, ‘r¸ç ar¤;¤r¤re
~tmr¬g ¤¸ =”rr + rr; m ¬-m
enr çl
aªr¤r nrlm¬rm¤
+¸e +r¤ln rrtmnrmgl
=rlr¤+ ar;rrr¬r +r ¤e ++rt ¬”c ¬çt çr.
enlç o¸e+rn; er+
¬-m notc’rmgll ¡zll · cll
aªr¤r qr¬¤r¬g nr lmnr
+ çt +¸ e m ¬-m e nr ç l q=
¤+r; +r ¬r nç ¬-m ç, ==r; m
l¬·=-oç aln o¸e+r çl
n> n ¤¸lç=nrm
e+rn ¤r¤olç+mgl
nnn ¤ nnr +r¸n·
=l=çr +¸=¬-o¬ll ¡:ll· cll
¤çr a= ¤çe ‘r ;t ; m
=rrr¬ l+n ç¸e ¤¸lç + =nrm +r
a¬rnr= çt ¤r¤n çr ¬rnr ç, ar;
ç +¸=¬-o¬l a=+ ¤+rr¤ = l¤;
+rm¤ng ¤ rl¤n + l¬lmrr nr¬
+;nr çl
¤¸¤r+nr=¬ n¬¤
lpnn @¤’rr•l¤ =·l
l¬qr=¸;l¤ nrm=n
‘r-o ¤grln¤nnll ¡¡ll · cll
¤ç l¤”rnr + ¤’r m ç¸ ar
+rt a= ¤lçe + a+nr= =
çt l¬·=-o ç +rm¤ng +t ar ;
ar+l”rn l+nr ¬rnr ç l =mr¤¤¸ lç
=¤ nrm +r l¬qr=¸ +rt ¤o m +ç
ç¸ e =+rm +mr + ¤e +r are rr¬
+; ¬rnr çl
¤nr¬ronmr¬=n¸
nrmt =’r¸ç l+r¤”r·l
a¬+¬-m=lç=nnr
nrln ¤;r mlnmll ¡: l · cll
a¬+ ¬-mr = a-n· +;¤r
+t ‘r¸lç =¤ l=lç +r ¤r¤n ç¸ar
ar; aln ¤nr¬ = a+nr= +;¬
¤rer nrmt, =¤¸¤r ¤r¤r = a·et
¤ +r; ‘r¸ ç çr +;, a= =rrr¬ + ¤ +.
rr¤ = ¤;m mln +r ¤r¤n çrnr çl
n¤l=¤+nr•lrr+r nrmt
qrl¬+nr•l¤ anr•lrr+·l
+lm+n~rlrr+r nrmt
¬=mrormt +r¤r¬¸¬ll ¡cll
nr mt n¤l=¤nr = ~ ”o ç ,
ar ; ‘rr=> + qr¬¤rer = +rt
~ ”o mr¬r mnr ç , =+rm +m
+;¬ ¤rer = (+rt¸ nrmt ~”o ç,
q=len ç a¬¸¬ (n¸¸ nrmt çrl
nrlm¬rml¤ =¤”rr
mqn¬r-n;rrm¬rl
~çr¤r-n¬n nr mr =
m n¸¬ nmr mn· ll ¡:ll · cll
=¤¸¤r nrlmnr m +rt ¬r ~ç
r¤r¬g nrmt m; m em ç¸e, a-n.
;rrmr = m ; +r l¬;-n; +r¬nr
ç, ¤ç nrmt m¸q ¤;m ~”o mr-n
çl''
+rm¤r¬g ¬ a¤n¸¬ aro’r
= nç =¤”c +; lonr l+ ar;rrr¬r
+r ¤e mr¢r ¤n-n ¬”c ¬çt çr.
nrl e+ ¤r; ¬¤ nç +m ¤r;++r çr
¬rnr ç nr ¬-m o; ¬-m q=+r
=n; a¤; aonr çt ¬rnmr, ar;
q=+r al-nm e¢n mr ¢r çr.
mrl ++rt-++rt çm nç o=r +;
ar’¤n çr nr ç l+ +r q mr¬¤
a¬rnr= =rrrr;¤r =n; = ¤ç¸n
a¤; ao+; 'arrnrlrm+ ‘rl¬'
+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln +;¬ emnr çl
e =t l=ªrln m çm =mq
e ¬r ¤rlçe l+ a=+ ¤r¤ +m
¤¸¤r =¤ = ¬”c çr ¤¸+ ç, ar;
¤¸¤ ¬-m + =l¤n ‘r¸+r +mr +r
+m¤e lme¬r ¤r;++r çr mnr çl
e=t l=ªrln am; ¬¤r¬t m çt çr
23
23
151

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m¬r =ogm¸= nrl¤ ‘rrrr¸l¬ ¤rçll
¤ç ·nl¬ ¤¸ me=rr ; ¬çt
çrnrl a=+ a-n;m m +rm +r.
r¤¬r ¬çt çrntl ¤ç m¸=r= ¤re
mn ‘r-or +r ¤=r çt ar¤;¤r +;¬
m =+n çrnr çl ç m¬ q¬ e¢r¤
rr = n¸¬ ·nl¬ +r çt =ogm¸=
=mq¬r ¤rlçel
¬¬t +r¬ qr¬t l¤¤+t l¤;rmtl
+¸¤re¸ m¬=¤t ¢rmr¤n nrmtl
¤+r¸o¢r ·n¸r¤-¬ ¤rn¸n ¬r¤rl
rnr¤l¬ nrm =mrrrr¬ ¤r¤rll
¤ç =ogm¸= ¤o +r alrr+r;t
+r¬ çr nr ç ar ; l¤¤ + ¤ ;r·n
=+¤-¬, +¸¤re¸ m¬=¤t ¢rmr’rte,
nrmt, =mªr, arn-n =r¤rrr¬,
·n¸ r¤-¬ (¤ rn¸ r¤-¬mln¤rer¸
¤rn¸n=+¤-¬ nªrr =mln +;¬ ¤;
=mrrrr¬ +t ¤rl¤n +;r+; =mrrr.
r¬t ¤¬r¬ ¤rer çrnr çl
¬·ç nl¤ ¬re ¬= nl¤ arel
+er erme =¤¬¬r¤l¬ ¤rell
al¬¤r·n n ¤r·n ¤r¤ ¤or¤l
m¬r =n ar¬n ‘rrrrtn ¬r¤l
¬r ¤çe ¬çt ªrr, ¤ç çr mnr
- =¤=¤ +r ¤rrr ¤çe ¬çt ªrr,
¤ç çr mnrl ¬r ¬çt arnr ªrr, ¤ç
=mrrrr¬ ar mnrl ¤ gqr¬ =
¤¸¤r =¤=¤r¬-o +r +rrm +;¬ =
=mrrrr¬ l¤rr m ¤r= +;¬ emnr
çl mç¬ ¤or-n ¤r+nr +r ¤rrr ¬r
=¤=¤ +r =+n lonr +;nr ªrr,
¤ç ¤çe ¬çt =mqnr ªrrl ¤ç
¤rrr mçr¤r+n (nr¤ml=¸ arlo
+r aªr =ogm¸=o¤ + +¸¤r ¤¤¬r
= =ç¬ çt arrm=rng çr ¬r¬ =
=mq m ar¬ emrl
¬r ¤g l¬m¸¤r l¬;r+r; ar;
¤r¤rt = ¤; al¬¤¤¬tn ªrr, ¤çt
23
23
152
q= n¸ m m arrnrlrm+ =r= m
+r =çt aªr ¤rn· e¸¤n çr ¤er çl
+r¬¬, +tn¬, +ªrr, a¤o’r arlo
=r= m + +q ¤ +r;, q= =mn
= =r; m ¤ ¤len ç l =r= m +r
=trrr =rrrr aªr ç, =rn +r =rªr
+;¬rl + ¤e q ’¤; çt =rn ç ¤r+t
o¸’n ¬mng =r;r ¬r’r¤r¬ çl an·
l¬=+ =m + +r;¤r a= ¤;mnr¤
¤;¤g ¤;mrrmr, =l·¤or¬-orr¬
+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r;
çr ¬rn, ¤çt =·¤r =ng= m ç l q=
=mn ==r; = q’¤; nr¤ ¤rn· ¤¸¤r
=¤ = er¤ çr mnr çl
q= =mn a= nr¤ +t
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln mr> +r¤¬r +r
l¤”rn ;ç mnr çl a= ¤;mnr¤ +
er¤ çr¬ + =+¤-rr m =mªr m¸=
=¤rmt;rmor= ¬t mçr;r¬ +çn
ç·-
''ln-çt er+ ¬ªr¸¬
l¬mr¤r ¬rel
nnr o¤;rnrl= +r¤rt ¬ ¤rel
¬mt ªrr;ero¤ nr ¤r;er=
m¸=¤t¤r nr =¤ªrrçt ¬ ot¤nll''
''nt¬r er+-+r¸er+, o¸er +,
¤rnreer+ ¬çr = ar¤-¬ ç¸e a=
=¤~”o ¤;¤g o¤rlrro¤ ~t;rm
+r +rq ¬çt +çnrl ¬m m, =¤r.
rrm o¤ ¤¸;rnr mnr çl a=+ ¤r;t
çr ¬r¬ + ¤ro, ¤ç lo=rrq ¬çt o
;çr çl a= =¤ o¤rlrro¤ +t ¤r;t
+t nr mq ç l+-n¸ =om¸==¤t m¸.
¤n¤; +t =çrnnr + l¤¬r ¤ç ¬çt
lo=r =+ mrl'' ¤;-n¸ q= n¸ m m = n
=ogm¸= lme¬r ¤ç¸n çt +lo¬ çl
q= =+¤-rr m =mªr m¸=o¤ +çn
ç ·-
m¸= ¤rçnr ¤rçnr e¢r +rctl
arrnrlrm+ =r=m?
¤ç¸=re m>r¤et ‘rl¬ mrotl
m¬t +rm¬r ¤c+ rrrnmrnrl
¬¬t·nªr ; nr ¬·ç m¸l¬ ornrll
''m¸=ar +r o=rn-o=rn nr
er=rr-+;rsr m¸= lmeml ¤ ¤ç¸n
¤”rr n+ m> gr;r ¤n¸;rq = a¤¬
+rtn; ¬ro¸m;t +t ¤st ‘rl¬ gr;r
+rm¬r-¤¸ln +; ermr +r a¤¬
¤m¸e m l¤-nrml¤r =o¸’r a¤¬t
m-> ’rl¬ + ¤+rr¤ = çt ¤=rn
l¤;n çl
e = er m ·nªr çr n ç l ¤
mr ¢rornr-=ogm¸ = ¤o ¤r¬ +
alrr+r;t ¬çt çr n ''l arm e =
m¸ =ar + lee =mªr m¸ = +çn
çl ·-
''¬·ç ¤c+t ¤re+¸ q·n+rro¸l
¬·ç l¬o+¸ mr== +rl¬ mo¸l
¬·ç a-mn¸ ¤=¬t =m¤rrr¸l
¬mt qrl¬nr nrl¤ =rrr¸ amrrr¸ll
¬r ¬ro¸ +;¬ ¤rer çrnr ç,
ermr + =+m¸=r ot¬nr lo=rr+;
arçgero ar¤-¬ +;¬¤rer nr
lmªnr ¤’r=r +;¬¤rer çrnr çl
nªrr a¤¬ =rrr¸r¤ +r ¤o’r¬ +;
ermr = ¤=r e¸c¬¤rer q·ner+rt
çr nr ç , ¤ç =ogm¸ = ¤o +r alrr+.
r;t ¬çt çrnrl''
''¤ç l+=t +t l¬-or ¬çt
+;nr l+=t = mr=n t ;=rnr,
a-mrr ¬çt çr nr, ·n=¬t ¬çt çr nr
nªrr ¤¸;t =mln m ¬çt ;çnr ¬r
¤¸;t =mlnnr m ¤rrrr sre¬¤rer
qr¬ =+¤-¬ çrnr ç, ¤çt amrrr.
qr¬t ·nl¬ =rrr¸ çl e=r ¬r¬¬r
¤rlçel
¬·ç ¤rsmt ¤rç¸ct +rm ¤rctl
l+n¤t¤r ¤r¤ren nl¤ mrctll
m¸=r ¤rlernr=rl;=r ¤renrçl
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
am; arrnrlrm+ =r= m
¤rn¢r ¤l;¤rrm ¬ o nr a= =r=m
¬çt +çr ¬r =+nrl +¤e l¤’¤r=
= +rm ¬çt ¤e =+nrl l¬=
¤+r; m¸s =rrn çt m¸ç m lmor=
¤or çr ¬rnr ç, ot+ ¤=r çt ¤l;¤
rrm =r=m +r çr¬r ¤rlçel q=+
l¤¤;tn =+rt +m +r¤s ar ; ¤ o’r ¬
çl =mªr m¸= =¤rmt ;rmor= ¬t
mçr;r¬ ¬ ¬r =n =ogm¸=o¤ +t
¤ç¤r¬ ¤nrq ç, ¤=r çt 'm¸= =r.
=m' + nr·n çrnr çl
==r; + ¤rn· =+rt rrm ==r;
+ =¤+r¸nr (¬s ar; ¤n¬¸ +t
ar¤lrr ‘r-o = mr¬n çl =+rt rrm
+çn ç l+ ¤ç ‘r-o '¤+r’r¤o'
ç l =¤ ¤ ªrm ‘r-o ar ; ¤ +r’r
= qr¬ +t ar¤lrr çrnt ç, l¤;
= ¤¸ ¤r ¤ gr¤s ar ; l>m¸ ¤rmnt
+t ar¤lrr çr nt ç l l¤; l>m¸ ¤
rmntmrnr a¤¬ ¬¬+ '‘r-o' ar;
¤+r’r (¤+r’r¤o’r-o ¸ +t ¤;¤
rr = ==r; + =¤+r¸nr +t ;¤¬r
+;nt çl ==r; +r nç =r;r ¤¤¤
a=t ¤ +r’r¤ o ‘r-o +t o ¬ ç l
o¸=; ‘r-or m nç =r;r ==r; e+
çt ¤;m=rrr +r l¤=nr; mr> çl =n
=ogm¸ =o ¤ l¬;r+r; ¤ g +r =m¸ ¤r
=r+r; =¤=¤ çt çrnr çl
an· =n =ogm¸=o¤ gr;r ¤.
r¤n ¤+r’r¤o ‘r-o +t rrr; + =çr;
a= lo·n ¤+r’r + ar¬-o ar;
;r’r¬t m a= ¤ªr ¤; ¤e¬r =++r¤
ç ¬çr = arlo m ¤ç ¤+r’r¤o
‘r-o ¤+c çrnr çl a=t +r ae=r
er+ + a¤; ¤rer, amm er+
= nr ¬ ¤r;+¤r; +ç +; ¤¤r ¬ l+nr
çl a= er+ m ¬rn çt ¬t¤rrmr
a¤¬ ¬¬+ ¤;mrrmr m ¤¸¤r =¤
= et¬ çr ¬rnr çl q=t +r ¬rm
'mr¢r' çl ¤+r’r¤o’r-o + lo·n
¤+r’r = m¬¸”n +r a¤¬ a-o;
a= lo·n ar¬-o +t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln
çr ¬ emnt ç l l¤¬r a= ar¬-o +t
¤ rl¤n + m¬¸ ”n +r mr ¢r +r aªr çt
=mq m t ar =+nrl
¬¤ n+ =n =ogm¸=o¤ +t
+¸ ¤r = a= lo·n ar-nl;+ ar¬-o
+r =¤ro m¬¸”n ¤=r ¬çt enr,
a= mrnr + ¤+rr¤ = ¤rç;t +rr .
ln+ =¸=r çt ¤+rrl¤n +;n ;çn
çl ¤ç ¤r;+¤r; nçt +çnr ç l+
+nr ¬=;n ç mr¢r +t? ==r; +
q= ar¬-o +r ers +; mr¢r +r
¤nr= m¸=rnr çl +nrl+ a=¬ a=
lo·n ar-nl;+ ar¬-o +r =¤ro
¤=rr çt ¬çt çl q= lee ¤ç =r=r.
l;+ =¸=rr m ar; lo·n ar-nl;+
ar¬-o m +r o =mq çt ¬çt =+nr
ç lnç =r;r ¤ ¤ ¤ + ¤e a¤o ’r,
¤o’r¬ ‘r-o¬re ar; o’r¬ ‘rr=>
+ m-ªrr arlo = =mq m ¬çt ar
=+nrl
n =¤ m¬¸ ”n +r ¤¸ lç +t
+=;n mr> +;¤r +; qr¬t ¤¬¬
+r +rm çt ¤or +; =+n çl q=
=mn ==r; m nçt +rm =r¸er l¤+
;çr ç l arnrrm qr¬ + ¬rm = nç
==r; m =¤> a¤e-rr çl +nrl+
nç qr¬ +rq ¤rn¢r ¤l;¤rrm ¬çt
onr ç, q= lee ==r; + n¸¤r ¤m
+r l¤’¤r= q== =rrm çr ¤¸+r
çl m¸rn¸ + +;t¤ ¤ç¸¤ ç¸e ‘rl¬
çt¬ =>t-¤¸=”r çt ¬t¤¬ m l+n
ç¸e +rm +r nro +;+ a¤¬t çt
n=¤t; = +rn+rtn çr+; q= ¤r¬
+r ¤nr= +; ;ç çl +nrl+ +rn
+ +r;¤r ¤¸lç +¸l¤on çr ¬rnt ç,
an· ¤ a=-n¸len ¤r¤rt +¸e +rt
¤r¤n ¬çt +; =+nl
arnrrm +r ¤n¬ a= =mn
¤ r;++r ç¸ ar, ¬¤ rrm m¸ =ar ¬
q=+r =+¤-rr ¤c = ¬rs lenrl
ar¬ =+rt rrmr + rrmm¸=ar +r
¬tl¤n ;ç¬ + lee ço rrlmnr =
arnrrm ¤; ¤e¬r ¤s ;çr çl e=r
+;¬r a¬+t m¬¤¸ ;t ç l q= çorrmt
¤¤¸ln ¬ ==r; + ermr +r l¤qrçt
¤¬r lonrl q= ¤ +r; arnrrm
e+ nmr’rr ¤¬ ¤¸+r çl =¤ +r¸nr
+ ¬¬+ arlo +r;¤r + ¤ln e=r
+rr¤ ¤l;¤n¬ l¤’r”r +r orn+ çl
nç ¤ qrl¬+ =·¤rq ç l+ ¬¤
l+=t ¤rn +t aln çr ¬rnt ç nr
a=+r a-n çr ¬rnr çl e=r çr¬r
al¬¤rn +rt ç l +nr l+ a¬rlo
+re = arªrr¬ ar; ¤n¬ +r nç
+m ¤er ar ;çr çl
==r; +r a-rr+r; a= lo·n
qr¬ ¤nr ln + aon ç¸ e l¤¬r çc¬r
a=++r¤ çl ¤çer ot¤+ ¬e¬r
çt +lo¬ çrnr ç, a=+ ¤ro nr
ot¤+ = ot¤+ ¬e¬ +t ¤l+nr +
a¬¸=r; ¤¸; l¤’¤ m ¤+r’r ¤e¬
m o; ¬çt emmtl ¬¤ nç mrr¸;
=¤; eç;t ==r; + ¤rn¸ m¤se
m n;lmn çr¬ emmt nr arm ¤r¤
rt q== ¤+rrl¤n ç¸e l¤¬r ¬çt ;ç
=+nrl q= ¤+r; nç lo·n ¤+r’r,
¤+r’r +t mln = +rt n¬ ¤¸; ==r;
m ¤e ¬r¤mrl ¤ln;rrr+ ‘rl+nnr
=+re +rt ¬çt ¤remtl ¤;-n¸ q=+r
nç mne¤ ¬çt l+ ¤ l¤¬r l¤;rrr
+ ’rr-n çr ¬remtl a= ¤;m=rrr
+r ==r; = a¬+r =¤rnr +;¬r
çl an· a= l¤+¸ln + =¤rn +
lee a-rr; ar; a¬re +r =rr”r
al¬¤rn çl q=+ l¤¬r ¤¸¤r ‘rrl-n
a=++r¤ çl nç +m a¬rlo+re
= ¤er ar ;çr çl ¤r¤ +r a-n
+¸=¢r> m çt çrnr çl mçl”r ~t
a;l¤-o +t nç rrr ”r¤rr l+ ¤ç
¤;m=rrr +rr;n +t +r¸ lm ¤; z¡
¬¤+¤; tszc +r a¤nl;n çr ¤¸+t
ç, men ¬çt çl a=+ a¤nl;n
çr¬ +r =¤”c aªr ç a-rr+r; +r
=¤rnrl e=r a¬rlo +re = çrnr
arnr çlçm qlnçr= +r rnr¬ m
;=rn ç¸e e= =rr”rr = rr¤;r¬r
23
23
153

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¬¤ ¤r¤rt ==r; m ¬-m enr
ç nr ¤ç =r=rl;+ qr¬ = ¤¸¤r =¤
= a¬l+rq çrnr çl ¤ç =¤¤ªrm
a¤¬ mrnr l¤nr = +rrln+ ¬mng
+r qr¬ ¤ r¤n +;nr ç , a=+
¤ªrm m¸= a=+ mrnr l¤nr çrn
çl q=+ ¤ro l¤oren m ¬r+;
+rrln+ l¤or +r qr¬ ¤r¤n +;nr
çl q=+ ¤ro ¤ç +rrln+ ¬mng
+r qr¬ l¤or m¸= = l¤oren m
¤r¤n +;nr çl q=+ ¤ro ¤nr ¤nr
a=+r qr¬ ¤cnr ¬rnr ç, a=
arrnrlrm+ ¬mng, a¤¬t n;¤
ar+l”rn +;¬ emnr çl ¤ç rrt;
rrt; arrnrlrm+ qr¬ ¤r¤n +;¬
+t ¤”cr +;nr çl q= ¤+r; a=
¬=r arrnrlrm+ m¸= lmenr ç,
a=t =n; +r qr¬ ¤r¤n +;+, a=
¤ªr ¤; ¤e¬ emnr çl
o¤nrm = am; ;r=nr =çt
lme ¬rnr ç nr +¸e ço n+ a¤¬
¬t¤¬ m =¤enr ¤r¤n +; enr çl
am; =trrr ;r=nr t lmenr nr
¤l;¤rrmr + a+rr¤ m m¬¸”n +t
ar=ªrr rrm ¤; = çc ¬rnt ç, ¤ç
q= ¤m l¤’r”r +t ¬tl¤+r ¤er¬
+r ·nr¤r; mr> mr¬ +;, q= ¤ªr
= l¤m¸=r çr ¬rnr çl q= ¤+r; =.
=r; m e = +r lmn er mr +r =rm r¤n
=ªrrl¤n çr ¬rnr çl q= ¤+r; q=
·n¤=rn m em rrm m¸ =, n¸ ·eor¬
mrm +; l+=t ¤+r; a¤¬r ¬t¤¬
¤er¬ +r l¤¤’r çr ¬rn çl
q= ¤ +r; + arrnrlrm+
m¸=ar +t o’rr o=r+; ==r; +
ermr + loe m rrm + ¤ln ·er¬t
arl=r; çm m¸= +t ar¤’n+nr +nr
¤or çr ¬rnt çl ¬¤ ==r; m nç
l=ªrln ¤;m =tmr ¤; ¤ç¸¤ ¬rnt
ç, n¤ +rm¤r¬g +r a¤nr; e¬r
¤snr çl nç ¤çt l=ªrln çrnt ç,
l¬=+r ¤¤r ¬ +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸ ”¤r ¬
mtnr + ¤rªr arnrn m q¬ ‘r-or
m l+nr ç· -
nor nor lç rrm=n,
·er¬t+r¤ln +rr;nl =¸¬r+nçml
a+n¸rªrr¬mrrm=n
norrmr¬ =¸¬r+nçmll ¡·:
¤l;>r¤rrn =rrr¸¬r
l¤¬r’rrn ¤ o¸”+¸nrml
rrm ==ªrr¤¬rªrrn
=+r¤rlm n¸m n¸mll ¡·sll
q= =mn ==r; m rrm +=t
l=ªrln m ¤ç¸¤ ¤¸+r ç, q== arm
+r ¤ªr çt ¤o çr ¬rnr çl an·
q ’¤; +r a¤nr; çr ¬ +r nç
a¤n¸+n =mn çl ==r; +r; +
¤rn· =+rt =nr ¬ a= ‘rl+n +
¤ +c çr ¬ + = + n o lon ç l mçl”r
a;l¤-o ¬ nr +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r
+ a¤nr; e¬ +t l¬l’¤n lnlªr
+t rrr”r¤rr +; ot ªrtl
~t a;l¤-o + a¬¸=r; ¤ç
‘rl+n a¤¬ +lm+ l¤+r= +
=rªr =¬g tss:-s¡ n+ ==r; +
=rm¬ ¤+c çr+; a¤¬ n¬ = ¤¸;
¬mng +r ¤+rrl¤n +;¬ emmt l
q= ¤+r; zt ¤t =ot m ¤¸; ==r;
m e+ mr> =¬rn¬ rrm +t r¤¬r
¤ç;rnmtl 'l¬= ·nl+n m q’¤;
+¸¤r = ar; m¸= + ar’rt¤ro =
¤ç arrnrlrm+ ¤+r’r ¤+c çr
¬rnr ç, e=r ·nl+n =r; ==r; +r
¤n¬ +;¬ m =¢rm çrnr çl qº¤;
++rt ¬-m ¬çt e nr ç , e = çt ¤ n¬
·nl+n + mrrnm = a¤¬t ‘rl+n
+r ¤o’r¬ +;nr çl' q= ¤+r; +
= n =ogm¸ = + ¤ +c çr ¬ ¤; = =r;
+r a-rr+r; o¸; çr¬ m +rq =mn
¬çt emnrl + ¤e =¬t¤ ar ; ¤ n¬
‘rl+n çt = =r; +r +rer +; =+nt
ç l ''q ’¤; + rrrm +r ;r=nr m¬¸ ”n
‘r;t; m = çr +; çt ¬rnr ç l''
çmr; =+rt =n +ç me ç l+ ¬r
¤gr¤s m ç, ¤çt l¤¤s (‘r;t;¸
m çl an· a-nm¸=rt ç¸e l¤¬r a=
¤;m=rrr = =+¤+ ar ; =r¢rrr+r;
a=++r¤ ç l ~t a;l¤-o ¬ +rt +çr
ç,''lç-o¸ rrm + ‘rr=>r m ¤nrq
mq l¤lrr =, m¬ a¤¬ a-o; çt
a= ¤r¤¬ ¤ªr ¤; ¤e¬r ¤r;++r
+; lonr ç, l¬= ¤; ¤e+; a=
¤;m=rrr = =r¢rrr+r; =+r¤ çl
e+ mrç + ªrr s =mn m
çt ‘rr=>r m ¤l¤r n a¬ =+rt
arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+nnr = =r¢rrr+r;
çr¬ emr ç, ¬r a= ¤;m=rrr n+
¤ç¸¤r¬ m =¢rm =çnrmt çl q=
¤+r; m¸q ¤¸¤r l¤’¤r= çr mnr ç
l+ m a¤¬ aogo’n m a¤’n
=¤enr ¤ r¤n +; =+¸ mrl ot+
q=t ¤+r; q=t ;r=n = ¤e+;
¤¸¤r =rrr = =+¤+ ar; =r¢rrr+r;
l+nr ç¸ ar ¤ n¬ ·nl+n çt m¸ = ¤o
+r alrr+r;t çrnr çl e=r ¤n¬
=n =ogm¸= çt ==r; +r +rnr¤r
+; =+nr çl
a== ¬¸s¬ ¤re ·nl+n +r
a= ¤ªr ¤; ¤e+; a¤¬ ¤;m
23
23
154
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
e¢n n+ ¤ç¸ ¤¬ m =¤e
çrn çl çmr; ‘rr=>r + a¬¸=r;
m¬¸ ”n ‘r;t; m e·¤+ çr n ç l
l¤¬r ¤n¬ m¸= + =;¢r¤r +, +rq
·nl+n arrnrlrm+ ar;rrr¬r ¤.
r;++r +;nr ç nr =¤enr =lo·rr
çr nt ç , a= a¤¬t ar;rrr¬r
m¸ errrr; = ¤ r;++r +;¬t çr nt
çl a= =ªrr¬ = ¤e+; eo ¤+
n+ ¤ç¸¤¬ m, a= +q mrnr¤t
l=lçnr = =+¤+ +;¬r çrnr çl
n ‘rl+nnr qn¬t ¤¤e çrnt ç l+
¬t¤ +r a¤¬t =tmr = ¤rç; ¬çt
¬r¬ ont çl am; l+=t ¤+r; ¬t¤
aonr-¤s nr ¬rl+r ¤+ m ¤ ¤ ’r +;
+rt ¬rnr ç nr a== ¤r; l¬+e¬r
a=++r¤ çl
q= =mn =r;r = =r; q=t
¤+ +t ‘rl+n + q’rr; ¤r; ¬r¤
;çr çl q= ¢r> m ¤n¬ + =+rt
=rrr¬ ¤¤¸; mr>r m a¤e-rr çl
q= ‘rl+n + +r¤;¬re m ¤=+;
¬t¤ a-n =mn m +rr;t ¤º¤rnr¤
+;nr çl
¤+¤nt ;r¬mr ¤rer¤rn ¬t
= ¤>+r;r ¬ a-n =mn m +¤e
e+ çt ¤’¬ ¤¸er ªrrl ''ar¤ +rr;n
m =¤r·¤ ;r¬¬tln + l’r=r; n+
¤ç¸¸¤ ç¸e ¤çe ·nl+n çl
ar¤ e+ mr> +rr;ntn ç ¬r
¤rn=;rn ers + ¤o ¤; ar=t¬
ç¸e l a¤ ==r; = l¤or çrn =mn
ar¤+r +=r em ;çr ç? ;r¬r¬t
¬ an; lonr -''m; q= al-nm
=mn m , ¬¤ m , m ; ¤¸ ; ¬t¤¬
¤; ¬¬; srenr ç¸ nr m¸q +rr;t
¤º¤rnr¤ çrnr çl m o=r ;çr ç¸,
m; ¬t¤¬ +t +mrq +r e+ m-or
;r¬¬tln +r rrrrrr m; çrªr m çl
m¸q q= mo rrrrr +r e+; arm
+t nr>r ¤; ¬r¬r ¤smr, nç o=r
+; m¸q +rr;t ¤o¬r çr ;çt çl m¬
am¸rn m¬¸”n ¬t¤¬ ·nªr çt m¤r
lonr, q=+r m¸q +rr;t ¤º¤rnr¤
çr ;çr ç''l ;r¬r¬t ¬= ·nl+n +t
a¬¸+r¸ln = +rt l+=t ¬ =¤+ ¬çt
lenrl ==r; +r; + =+rt rrmr¤rn
ar ; nªrr+lªrn arnrrm¤rot
;r¬¬tln +t rr¸;t +, nr¤+ ¤¬
+; ¤++; emr ;ç çl ;r¬r¬t +
a¬¸=r; a=t m-o rrrrr = mr¢r
¤rl¤n +t ¤rªr¬r +; ;ç çl ¤ç
m-or rrrrrr l+= =ªrr¬ ¤; ;çnr
ç ar; a=+ +nr m¸¤r rrm ç?
=¤ l¤lon ç l +ç¬ +t ar¤’n+nr
¬çt, n arrnrlrm+ m¸= ==r; +r
l+= lo’rr m e ¬r¬ +r ¤nr= +;
;ç çl
~t a;l¤-o +t +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt + a¬¸=r; ''l¬= =mn ;r¤n
=rrr, arnrrm =rrr + arrt¬ çr
+; a=+ l¬o’rr¬¸=r; +rn +;¬
em mt, rr;r ¤; =¤m an; aremrl''
çm o=r ;ç ç, q= =mn arct
mmr ¤ç ;çt çl e=t l=ªrln m =.
=r; +r +rnr¤r a=++r¤ çl ¤n¬
=n =nm¸= ¬r l+ =+rt mrnr¤t
‘rl+nnr +r ¤;rl¬n +;+ 'amm
er+' +t =rrr = ¬¸s ¤¸+r çrnr ç,
==r; +r +rnr¤r +;¬ m =¢rm
çrnr çl eo ¤+ nrl¬ arqr¤+
n+ =r;r ¢r> mrnr +r ¢r> ç,
q= ¢r> +r l¤¬r =n =nm¸= +t
+¸ ¤r + , ¤r; +;¬r a=++r¤ ç l = n
=nm¸= +nrl+ mrnr antn ¤;m
=nr = =trrr =+¤+ ;=rn ç q=
lee mrnr¤t ‘rl+nnr, a¬+ arm
+;¤ç =rst ;çnt ç l q= ¤ +r; ¬r
¬t¤ e = ¤ n¬ = n =nm¸ = +t ‘r;¤r
m ¤er ¬rnr ç, a¬rnr= =¤n·çt
mrnr¤t ¢r> +r ¤r; +; enr çl
q= ¤+r; a=+t ¤;m e¢n n+
¤ç¸¤¬ +t nr>r =trrr arqr¤+
+r +ro +; ¤r;++r çrnt çl m¸=
+¸¤r = ¤nr çt arqr¤+ +r +ro
+; ¬t¤ mrnr¤t ‘rl+nnr = l¬+e
¬rnr ç, a=+ ¤n¬ + =r; ;r=n
a¤=ç çr ¬rn ç l + ¤e e+ ;r=nr
¤;m rrrm +r =r¸er ;ç ¬rnr ç,
l¬= ¤; ¤e+; ¤;m=rrr m et¬
çr ¬ ¤; ar¤rmm¬ = e¸ c+r;r lme
¬rnr çl
q= ¤ +r; =¬rn¬ rrm m
m¸= ¤o +t ¬r mlçmr mrq mq çl
¤¸¤r =rn çl l¤¬r m¸= + ar;rr
r¬r +;¬ ¤; mrnr + ¢r > +t,
+rrln+ ¬mng +t =r;t =¸=r =¸l¤r
rre lme¬r =++r¤ ç, ¤;-n¸ mr¢r
=++r¤ ¬çt çl mr¢r nr mr> =n
=nm¸= +t ‘r;¤r m ¬r¬ = lmenr
çl e+ ¤r; mrnr¤t ‘rl+nnr +
¤++; m ar ¬r¬ + ¤ro a=+r
¤n¬ a¤’n +rr¤t ç l q= ¤ +r;
a==n ¬-mr n+ a¤; ao ao
+;, lm;nr ;çnr ç ar; l¤; m¸err
rr; = ¤crq ¤r;++r +;¬t ¤snt
23
23
155
‘rtrr çt ¤n¬r + ar¤er+ = e+ +rrm¤n-’rl+n +r a¤n;¤r çrmr, ¬r
¤¸ª¤t ¤; =ªrrl¤n ''m¸rn¸'' ar; ''a=rn'' + ;r¤n +r =mr¤n +;, nçr +rt
''+rm¤r¬g'' + ;r¤n +t =ªrr¤¬r +;mtl''

~t a;l¤-o
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
çmr; rrm’rr=>r m 'm¸=' +t
¤ç¸n mlçmr mrq mq çl m¸= +r
¤o q’¤; = +rt ¤s r mr¬r mnr
çl q=lee ¤or-n rrm +r mr¬¬
¤re , ar¬+e = =r; + er m l¬-ç
lç-o¸ +ç +; = ¤r lrrn +;n ç , m¸ =
l’r”n-¤;+¤;r +r ¤ç¸n mçr¤ on
çl çmr;t q=t mr-nnr + +r;¤r
+¸ e ¤n¸ ; er mr ¬ q= ¤o ¤; e+rlr
r+r; +; lenr çl
e+ ¤m l¤’r”r + rr; m ¬-mr
¤·¤r, ¬-m = çt m¸= ¤or çrnr
ç l rrm ar ; m¸ =¤o +r l¬n¬r
o¸ =¤nr m q= n¸ m m çr ;çr ç , ar¬
n+ ++rt ¬çt ç¸arl m¸=ar +t e+
¤+r; = ¤rc ar mq çl m¸=-l’r”n
+r =+¤-rr, q= n¸m m ¤¸¤r =¤ =
arlªr+ arrrr; ¤; lc+r ç¸ar çl
ar¬ +r m¸= ¤¸; ¤l;¤r; +r
=¤n· m¸= ¤¬ ¬rnr çl nç =+¤-rr
arlªr+ ‘rr”r¤r ¤¬¤r ;çr ç, an·
çm q= =+¤-rr m mç;rq = l¤-.
n¬ +;¬ +t ar¤’n+nr çl çmr;
‘rr=>r m m¸=¤o +t ¬r mlçmr +t
mq ç, ¤ç men ¬çt çr =+nt,
l¤; q= ¤o +t o¸mln +nr çr ;çt
ç? çm q= ¤rn +t a=lenn +r
¤nr emr¬r ¤rlçe l+ arl=r; m¸=
¤er +nr ç? e= çt m¸=ar +r
çmr; ‘rr=>r m m¸¤rmr¬ l+nr mnr
ç ? çmr; = nr ¬ m¸ = + ¤r; ¬r +¸ e
+çr ç , a-çt m¸ ¤r rrm +r ¤ r¤rt m¸ =
+ç¬ nr·n çl =n +¤t; ¬ m¸= +t
mlçmr +;n ç¸e +çr ç l+ -
+¤t;r rrr;r amm +t,
m¸= +nr ç?
=ogm¸= oq e=rrnl
aec nrlç ¤lce =or,
=¤rmt =m emrnll
q=+ aer¤r =+rt = nr ¬
m¸= +t e+-o¸=; = ¤c-¤c+;
mlçmr mrq ç
''m¸= mrl¤-o or¬r =rs,
l+=+ erm¸ ¤rnl
¤leçr;t m¸=o¤ +t,
mrl¤-o lonr lmernll''
a¤n¸+n ¤rnr = nçt ¬nt¬r
l¬+enr ç l+ l¬=m mrl¤-o =
lmer¬ +t ‘rl+n ç, mr> ¤çt m¸=
+çer¬ +r alrr+r;t ç, m¸= ¤o
+r alrr+r;t çl nç +rm ¬r ¬çt
+; =+nr, a= +m = +m m¸=
+çer¬ +r nr alrr+r; ¬çt ç,
¤r+t ¤ç +¸e +rt ¤¬ =+nr çl
m¸= e+ ¤o ç l q= ¤; ¤ç¸¤¬ +
lee +q ¤rnr +t ar¤’n+nr çl
¬= +rrln+ ¬mng + ¤or + lee
l¬rrrl;n +rrln+ qr¬ +t ¬=;n
ç, a=t ¤+r; q= ¤o ¤; ¤ç¸¤¬ +
lee arrnrlrm+ qr¬ +t ¬=;n
ç , +nr l+ nç ¤o arrnrlrm+
çl
l¬= ¤+r; erç m l¤l+r-¬
¤ +r; +t l+nrar m = m¸ ¬;¬
+ ¤ro ¤¸ +¤+tn ar+”r ¤r ¤ or
çrnr ç, ot+ a=t ¤+r; m¬¸”n
mç¬ arrnrlrm+ ar;rrr¬rar
= m¸¬;nr ç¸ar, a¤¬ =n =nm¸=
+t ‘r;¤r m ¬rnr çl m¸= am; ¤r>
=mqnr ç nr a¤¬t ‘rl+n¤rn
a= l’r”n m +; onr ç, ¬r l+
¤¸¤r =¤ = =ml¤n çr ¤¸+r çrnr çl
q= ¤+r; +t ‘rl+n¤rn = m¬¸”n
'lg¬' ¤¬ ¬rnr çl q= ¤+r; ¤ç
m¸= ¤o +r alrr+r;t nr çr ¬rnr
ç, ¤;-n¸ a= ¤ç ¤o n¤ n+ ¤r¤n
¬çt çrnr, ¬¤ n+ a=+r m¸= ¤¤
+rrln+ ‘r;t; m ;çnr çl ¤nr lç
m¸= +r ‘r;t; ‘rr-n çrnr ç, ¤ =+rt
arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+nnr a= l’r”n
+ ‘r;t; m ¤l¤”c çr ¬rnt ç l q=
=r;t l+nrar +r qr¬ +¤e m¸=
+r çt çrnr çl
l¬= l’r”n m ‘rl+n¤rn l+nr
¬rnr ç, ¤ç m¸= + ;çn ç¸e a¬l.
+rq çt ;çnr çl ¤nr çt m¸= +r
‘r;t; ‘rr-n çr¬ ¤; =r;t ‘rl+nnr
a=m ¤l¤”c çr+; +rrln+ ¬mng
m a¤¬r ¤ +rr¤ lo=rr¬ emnt ç nr
rrt;-rrt; a= ar+rr= çr¬ emnr
çl q= ¤+r; l¬= a¬+ ¬-mr +
+m ¤e + ¤+rr¤ = q’¤; +¸¤r
ar; m¸= + ar’rt¤ro = m¸= ¤o ¤ .
r¤n çrnr ç ¤çt =·¤r arrnrlrm+
m¸= çrnr çl l¬= ¤+r; +m¤e +
a¬¸ =r; l¤’r ”r nr ·nnr ¤r¬ + ¤ro
+rrln+ ¤o +t ¤rl¤n çrnt, ot+
a=t ¤ +r; arrnrlrm+ m¸ = +r ¤o
¤r¤n çrnr çl +rrln+ ¤o +r =mn
l¬rrr l;n ç ¤;-n¸ arrnrlrm+
¬mng +r m¸ =¤o ¬t¤¬ +r; + lee
¤r¤n çrnr l
e =r m¸ = +rr ln+ ¬mng m
a¤¬r +rn ¤¸¤r +;+ ¬¤ a¤¬
al-nm =mn + ¤r= ¤ç¸¤ ¬rnr ç
nr a= lo·n o¸l”c ¤r¤n çr ¬rnt çl
23
23
156
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤rçnr çl a¤¬t arrnrlrm+
‘rl+n + ¤e = a= a¤¬ ¤r=
¤¸ er+; =m¤ ¤r +;¤rnr ç ar ;
l¤; ar’¤=n çr+; ¤+r¸ + rnr¬
m et¬ çr ¬rnr çl q= ¤+r; l¬=
·nl+n +r m¸ = ¤o ¤ r¤n l+nr ç¸ ar
çrnr ç, q=m m¬¸”n +r ¤nr=
alrr+ =çrn+ ¬çt çrnrl =·¤r
m¸ = ¤çt çr nr ç ¬r ¤¸ ¤r =¤ =
¤n¬ çr ¤¸+r çrnr ç, a=+r =tr
rr =+¤-rr q’¤; = çrnr ç l
q=lee ¬r ¤ r¤rt e = m¸ =
= ¬¸ s ¬rnr ç , a= nr+re
arrnrlrm+ a¬¸ +r¸ lnnr çr ¬
emnt çl arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+nnr
a=+r +rr ln+ ¬mng m ¤ªr
¤o’r¬ +;¬ emnt çl q= ¤+r;
¤ç ¤ r¤rt +rr ln+ nªrr arrnrlrm+
=¤ = ¤ç¸ n a¤; ao ¬rnr ç l nrm.
l=+nr a== +r=r o¸; +rrmnt çl
q= ¤+r; ‘rr-n, l=ªr; ar; l¬+.
rn, ¤ç ¤r¤rt a¤¬r çt ¬çt ==r;
+ a¬+ ¬t¤r +r +rnr¤r +;nr
ç¸ ar, a¤¬ ¤;m e¢n +r ¤ r¤n +;
enr çl nç çrnr ç arrnrlrm+
= n =ogm¸ =o ¤ +t +¸ ¤r +r ¤ +rr¤l
e=r =n ¤¸=”r ¬r m¬¸”nr +r lg¬
¤¬r¬ +t l=ªrln m ¤ç¸¤ ¬rnr ç,
m¸= +çer¬ +r alrr+r;t çrnr
çl m¸= ¤o +rq =r;tot ¬r¬ ¤ret
¤=n¸ ¬çt çl nç ¤o ¬ l+=t ¬rln
l¤’r”r m ¬-m e¬ = ¤r¤n çrnr
ç, ¬ +¤s ;m +; =¤rm ;¤¬ =,
¬ l+=t ‘rr=> + arnn¬ = l
nç nr m¬ ;m¬ +t ¤rn çl q’¤;
+;rsr =¸nr = +rt alrr+ a¬r +r
¤¸¬ ç, e=t ¤;m=rrr = ¬¸s¬ +
+r;¤r, m¸ = ¤r;= ¤¬ ¬rnr ç l an·
¬r m¬¸”n q= ¤r;= + =+¤+ m
arnr ç, =r¬r ¤¬ ¬rnr ç l e=
m¸¤r rrm + l¤¬r l¬n¬ +rt m¸=
==r; m l¤¤;¤r +; ;ç ç, =+rt
¬ a¤¬ ¤c + lee l¤l+r-¬ =¤rm
;¤ ;=r çl ==r; + +rre ¤rl¤rnr
+r +r;mr+; a¤¬r =¤rªrl=ç +;
;ç çl arrnrlrm+ ¬mng m rr¬
+t m¸=n +r¸lm+r ¬çt çrntl nç
nr ~gr, l¤’¤r=, ¤m, onr ar;
=m¤¤r +r ¬mng ç, rr¬ +t +r¸.
lm+r q= ¬mng m mr¤r çl =·¤r
=n =ogm¸= +rr·n = çt lmenr
ç, q=m mr¬¤tn ¤nr= alrr+
=çrn+ ¬çt çrn çl
23
23 157
¬rln = ¤rg¤r çr¬r ar;
m¸ ¤rr = ¤ rg¤r çr ¬r-n or
l+r-¬ ¤rn çl +rr;n m ¤rg¤r
+¸e m ¬-m e¬ = çt +rq
¤rg¤r +çer¬ emnr ç, ¤;
¤lº¤m m nlo +rq ¤rg¤r
m¸¤r = n¸+n çr nr a= ¤rg¤r
mr¬¬r ¤rlçel l¬= ¤ +r;
=r¤, ;¬, nm nt¬ m¸ ¤r ç ,
a=t ¤+r; e= m¸¤r ç l¬¬=
n¸+n çr¬ ¤;, m¬¸¤n ¤rg¤r,
¢rl>n ,¤ºn ar; ºr¸q çrnr çl
o¸+rr·n¤ºr ar¬ q= oºr m
¢rr> e¤ ¤ rg¤r m¸ ¤rr +r ¤n¬
çr ;çr ç, ¤; ¤lº¤m + oºrr
m er m ¢rl>nr¤ n+ ¤ç¸ ¤
¤¸+ ç, ar; ¢rl>nr¤ = e+
=tctarm çt nr ¤rg¤rr¤ çl
=¤r mt l ¤¤ +.
a¬m = +q er mr ¬ nr ¤ rg¤r
+çer¬ +t nr·nnr +rt ¤r¤n
+; et çl
+nr ¬r =¤+rr¤ = =rlr¤+
ç, ¤ çt ¤rg¤r ç?
l¬lº¤n =¤ =, ¬= ç;
e+ ·nl+n m =r¤, ;¬ ar;
nm, nt¬r çt m¸¤r -n¸¬rlrr+
aºr m ¤nmr¬ ç, a=t ¤+r;
¤ rg¤r e¤ ¢rl>n arlo + m¸ ¤r
+rt =¤ m¬¸¤nr m ¬-m¬rn çt
-n¸¬rlrr+ mr>r m l¤omr¬
;çn çl =mn =mn ¤; a¬m
= e+ ¬ e+ m¸ ¤r alrr+
¤ ¤e çr +;, a¬+ +rn +er¤r
m ¤ +c çr nr ;çnr ç l ar¤
m¬¸ ¤n +r o l¬+ ¬t¤¬+m
e-¬¤ ¤ç aªr-¤rl¤n + lee
l+=t +t =¤r +;nr ç nr ¤ç
ºr¸ q çr nr ç , ¬¤ ¤ç =¤n a¤¬
+rm + lee +rq +n-l¤+n
+;nr ç nr a=+t ¤ºn =qr
çr ¬rnt ç, ¬¤ ¤ç a-nrn +
l¤=ç a=> aornr ç nr a=m
¢rr>+rr¤ =¤r ¤l; çr nr ç , ar ;
¬¤ ¤ç q º¤; l¤-n¬ m emnr
ç, +rm¤r¬g +r +tn¬ +;nr
ç nr ¤rg¤rr¤ +r ¤r¤n +;
enr çl nç =¤¤c ç l+ m¬¸¤n
+ lee e+ ¬rln = o¸ =;t ¬rln
m ¤er ¬r¬r = +r¤ ç l nlo ¬çt
nr l¤º¤rlm> ¤rg¤r += ¤¬
=+ , ar ; ¤;ºr¸ ;rm ¢rl>n + =


nt¬ ¬rlnnr-=rrrm¸¤rt, ;¬rm¸¤rt ¤ nmrm¸¤rt
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+çr ¬rnr ç l+ ¬¤ m¸= ¬r¬.
+o ¤¬t mçr;r¬ qçer + rnrm
+;¬ em nr a¬= ¤¸er mnr l+
ar¤+t mogot ¤; +r ¬ ¤ o mr?
¤rç; ¤ç¸ n ¬r ; +r n¸ ¤r¬ ªrrl mçr¬
arrmr + l¤e¸ s n =mn ¤ +¸ ln
q=t n;ç l¤¢r¸-rr çr aont çl m¸=
¬r¬+o¤¬t a¤¬ l’r”nr = lrr;
ç¸e, e+ ¤s + ¬t¤ ¤o ªrl ‘rrm çr
¤¸+t ªrt ar; ¤ o=r ;ç ªr l+ ¤e
+r¸=r-¤nr= çl
a-çr ¬ a¤¬ ¤ cr ~t¤-o
ar; e¢mt¤-o = +çr , '' ¬rar,
=rr¬r =rr¬ erarl'' ¤r¤ nr ¤s
arrnrlrm+ ¤¸ =”r ªr , ¤; ¤ cr
+r nç m¸¤r e¸ n+ ¬çt mnr ªrrl
a-çr¬ =r¤r, '' +nr =¬+t ¤r¤l
arrrt-mç m +rt +rer +rq =rr¬r
ner’r +;¬ + lee ¬r =+nr ç?
a-çr¬ ¤r¤ +r m¬r+ asrnrl a¤
¬r¬+o ¤¬t e+ l’r”n +t ar ; m¸ s ,
¤ç a-rr +r+n ªrrl a=¬ arqr
mr¬ et ar; ¤¸er, ''m l+= n;¤
¬ra m¸ =o ¤?'' ¬r¬+o ¤¬t ¬
+çr, '' çm l¬= ¤s + ¬t¤ ¤o
ç, ¤= a=t = =rr¬r mrm erl ¤ç
=¤ +¸e o =+nr çl'' +çr ¬rnr ç
l+ l’r”n ¬ e=r çt l+nr ar; =¤
er mr + lee +r;¤ c lmorq lme mq l
a¤ ¬r¬+¬t mçr;r¬ a¤¬ l’r”nr
+ =rªr rr¸m¬ l¬+el ;r=n m a-ç
e+ m¸or lmerl a-çr¬ a¤¬ ¤cr =
+çr, '' ¤er q=m m¸ç mr;rl'' ¤cr
+r a¤ ¤r¤ + ¤rme çr¬ m ¬;r +rt
‘r+r ¬ ;çt, el+¬ l’r”n l¤r+¸e
nnr; ªrrl a=¬ ¤= qn¬r çt ¤¸er,
''l+= ar; = ‘r¸= +=? l=; =
nr ¤; =? ¬r¬+o¤¬t a=+t ~çr
= ¤¸;t n;ç =n¸”c çr me ar; a¤¬
¤ cr +t ¬mç a= a¤¬r arr;rlrr+.
r;t ¤¬rnrl
e =t ¤t;nr¤¸ ¤r arrnrlrm+
~çr ç; l+=t + +rrm m ¬çt arnt
l ç; e+ rrm ¬ a¤¬t +lo¬ =rrr¬r
+ lee q= ar¤’n+ ¤nrnr çl ç;
e+ mçr¬g +rn + lee ~çr ¤çet
ar¤’n+nr çl nç +ç¬ m ¬;r +rt
aln’rnr l+n ¬çt ç l+ ~çr ¤çrs r
+r lçer =+nt ç, =rm;r +r ¤t;
=+nt ç, =¸n = çrªr lmer+; ar
¬rnt ç l ~çr çt = +r¤-’rl+n ¤re
l¤¤r;¤r¬g ermr +r =¤ ¤+r; +t
a==n +lo¬rqnr +r ¤r; +;¬
+r rrt;¬ ¤or¬ +;nt çl ¤ mçr¬g
+rn +t alnm =¤enr + ¤r; m
l¬l’¤n çrn ç ar; ¤rç l+n¬t +rt
¤s t +lo¬rqnr +nr ¬ are, a¬+t
¤;¤rç l+e l¤¬r çt arm ¤cn ¬rn
çl =+rt mçr¬g arrmrar m ~çr
+t o¸l”c =¸o¸; +rl¤”n m ¤¤’r +;+
a=+r¤ +r =+r¤ ¤¬r ont ç, ems
+r ¤çrs errr =+nt çl +rr;n +t
=¤n>nr + =mn ¤rn+ +rr;ntn
m ac¸c ¤ =·¤t ~çr ªrr, =r¸ot;rm
¤r= ¬ ts =re +t a¤=ªrr m +rr;n
mr + lee a¤¬r ¤leor¬ o lonrl
¤rn+ ;r¬¬tlnq, ;r¬¬tln+ ¬
çr+; arrnrlrm+ ªrl ¬¤l+ ar¬
+¸e ermr +r ers+; ¤n+rr¬ ;r.
¬¬tln m ~çr +r ¬rmrl¬’rr¬ çt
lmc mnr çl nlo =r; ;r¬¬tlnq
a¤¬t mrn¸ +r¸ lm + lee, a¤¬t
¤+r = rr¬ l¬+re o nr o’r e+
lm¬c m =r¬ +t l¤lsnr ¤¬ ¬rel
;r¬¬tln+ ¢r > m ¬¤ +r¤¬r
-qlnçr= + ¤ +r’r m +rn +;nt ç ,
e+ ;r¬¬tlnq ¤¸ ¸ ¤r arrnrlrm+ ¤¬
+rn +;nr ç nr ~çr ¤or çrnt çl
q ’¤; + ¤ ln =·¤t ~çr + +r;¤r çt
q =r-m=tç =¸ et ¤; ¤c me, +¤t;,
n¸e=t,mt;r, ;or= arlo am; çr
me ¤= ~çr +r +r q mr¤-nr e
¬çt çrnrl ¤= =+¤¸¤r =m¤¤r ar;
=ogm¸ =o ¤ + ¤ ln =·¤t ~çrl ar¬
o’r + arªrr¬ + lee, +rr;n +r
l¤’¤ m¸= + ¤o ¤; ar=t¬ +;¬
+ lee =·¤t em¬ ar; ~çr +t
¬=;n çl
¤;m ¤¸ ¤n =ogm¸ =o ¤ ~t
e=t ¤t;nr¤¸¤r arrnrlrm+ ~çr (spiritual faith) ç; l+=t + +rrm m ¬çt arntl ç;
e+ rrm ¬ a¤¬t +lo¬ =rrr¬r + lee q= ar¤’n+ ¤nrnr çl ç; e+ mçr¬g +rn + lee
~çr ¤çet ar¤’n+nr çl nç +ç¬ m ¬;r +rt aln’rnrl+n ¬çt ç l+ ~çr ¤çrsr +r lçer
=+nt, =rm;r +r ¤t; =+nt ç, =¸n = çrªr lmer+; ar =+nt çl ~çr çt =+r¤-’rl+n ¤re
l¤¤r;¤r¬g ermr +r =¤ ¤+r; +t a==n +lo¬rqnr +r ¤r; +;¬ +r rrt;¬ ¤or¬ +;nt çl
¤ mçr¬g +rn +t alnm =¤enr + ¤r; m l¬l’¤n çrn ç ar; ¤rç l+n¬t +rt ¤st +lo¬rq
+nr ¬ arn, a¬+t ¤;¤rç l+e l¤¬r arm ¤cn ¬rn çl =+rt mçr¬g arrmrar m ~çr +r
mçr¬ m¸¤r çrnr çl ~çr +t o¸l”c =¸o¸; +rl¤”n m ¤¤’r +;+ a=+r¤ +r =+r¤ ¤¬r ont ç,
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
~çr
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
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What does Yoga mean?
Yoga means a union of
the soul with God or the uni-
versal consciousness force.
In modern times, Yoga is
erroneously associated with
physical exercise. Sadhana
(practice) includes meditation
that brings about Yoga.
What is Siddha Yoga?
The word ‘Siddha’ means
that which is empowered.
Guru Ram Lalji Siyag, through
years of tapasya and sadhana
(concentration and practice)
has become the master of
certain Siddhis (powers) that
make him a Siddha Guru. As a
Siddha Guru, Guru Siyag has
the power to enlighten those
that seek his blessings.
Guru Siyag has simpli-
fed the process of achieving
good health and enlighten-
ment by devising a simple
and easy-to-follow method
of meditation and chant-
ing.
What does the practice of
Siddha Yoga involve?
The practice of Siddha
Yoga involves: meditation and
chanting of a mantra given by
Guru Siyag during a Diksha
(initiation) program.
Meditation before being
initiated
INTRODUCTION TO SIDDHA YOGA
Those who haven’t re-
ceived Diksha from Guru Si-
yag can practice meditation by
concentrating on Gurudev’s
photograph and chanting si-
lently any mantra or holy
or spiritual word such as
“Om”, “Shiv”, “Guru”,
“Allah”, “Krishna”, “Jesus”
etc. Read in detail about the
method of meditation on
Guru Siyag’s website: www.
the-comforter.org The
meditation is to be done for
15 minutes at any time of
the day and in any seated
position.
Meditation after being initi-
ated
Guru Siyag initiates a
seeker as his disciple by giv-
ing him/her a mantra — a di-
vine word — to chant silently.
Daily meditation is to be ac-
companied by chanting of the
mantra. The mantra is to be
chanted even when not medi-
tating, preferably throughout
the day.
Impact of meditation
During meditation, many
practitioners experience yogic
postures and body movements
happening automatically.
The practitioner can neither
start, stop nor control these
yogic Kriyas (body move-
ments) willfully. These Kri-
yas are specifcally unique
to each practitioner like a
custom-made program. This
is because the divine force
that is at work here through
Guru Siyag’s spiritual powers
knows exactly which specifc
posture the practitioner needs
to undergo to rid himself of
body and mental ailments,
and to progress on the spiritual
path. The yogic postures un-
der Siddha Yoga are therefore
not standardized nor are they
orchestrated willfully like
those in a conventional yoga
school. An observer watching
people meditate is often as-
tonished to notice that almost
each participant undergoes
different yogic postures. Most
practitioners also experience
a sense of exhilaration and
joy during meditation that
- Gurudev Shri Ram Lalji Siyag
PHILOSOPHY OF SIDDHA YOGA
RELIGIOUS REVOLUTION IN THE
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
HOW TO GET INITIATED
INTO SIDDHA YOGA
Guru Siyag initiates seek-
ers into Siddha Yoga by giving
them a divine mantra. There
are four different ways to re-
ceive the divine mantra from
Guru Siyag: In person, televi-
sion broadcast, video-CD and
over email.
Please Note:
• The mantra is given
through the above-mentioned
four methods only by Guru
Siyag.
• It is Guru Siyag’s voice
that has an effect on the lis-
tener.
• Guru Siyag’s voice
comes from an enlightened
body and that is why it has an
effect on the listener.
• The mantra given by
Guru Siyag through each of
the above-mentioned means
is the same.
• The mantra is the same
for all individuals and does
not change each week.
Each of the four mantra
diksha methods are described
in detail below:
Method 1: In Person from
Guru Siyag
Guru Siyag initiates peo-
ple into Siddha Yoga through
a Diksha (initiation) pro-
gram. The process of initia-
tion is called Shaktipat, which
means awakening of Shakti,
the feminine divine Kundalini
or the cosmic energy force in
the seeker through a process
developed by the Guru.
Diksha programs are or-
ganized only on Thursdays
in a city or town where Guru
Siyag is camping at a given
time. The initiation is done in
mass for a large public gather-
ing. The Diksha programs are
conducted entirely in Hindi
as Guru Siyag speaks only
in Hindi. However, in ex-
ceptional cases or for foreign
nationals who require transla-
tion from Hindi to English,
initiation is done individually
in a private session. A Diksha
program typically lasts for an
hour. There is no dress code
for the participants in the
Diksha programs, which are
open to all irrespective of their
gender, age, race, religion or
nationality. A typical Diksha
program consists of the fol-
lowing standard procedure:
Guru Siyag briefy out-
lines the Vedic philosophy on
which Siddha Yoga is based.
At the close of this presenta-
tion, he gives the participants
a ‘Divine Mantra’ and briefs
them how to meditate daily.
This is followed by a 15-
minute meditation session for
all the participants present.
Method 2: Watching Guru
Siyag’s mantra diksha pro-
gram on TV
Guru Siyag’s mantra dik-
sha program is telecast on the
television channel Zee Jag-
ran. This telecast is currently
available only in South-East
Asia. Since program schedul-
ing is subject to change please
check Guru Siyag’s website
regularly for updated program
information.
Method 3: Watching
GSSY mantra diksha pro-
gram on Video-CD
If your cable operator
/ package does not provide
Sadhana TV and Zee Jagran,
you can order a Video-CD of
the mantra diksha program by
calling the AVSK center clos-
est to you or the AVSK ashram
in Jodhpur.
Alternatively, if you or
any of your friends, family
and acquaintances have the
mantra diksha CD, copies
of the CD can be made and
distributed among those in
need of it. The CD can be
played for the non-initiated
on any day, any time and
any place at a time suitable
to all participants.
Benefts of Siddha Yaga
Brief Bachground
Diseases that humans
suffer from are classifed by
modern medical sceince into
two broad categories -physi-
cal and mental . Indian yogis
however learned that beyond
physical and mental afflic-
tions lies spiritual diseases .
In other words, the spiritual
Law of Karma — actions of
the past resulting in diseases
and other forms of suffering in
present life — governs human
existence, life after life in a
never-ending cycle.
In his treatise ‘Yoga
Sutra’, Indian sage Patanjali
classifed the diseases into
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three categories – physi-
cal (Aadhidehik), mental
(Aadhibhautik) and spiri-
tual (Aadhidaivik).
A spiritual disease needs a
spiritual remedy. Only regular
practice of yoga under the
guidance of a spiritual master
like Guru Siyag can help the
practitioner find a spiritual
remedy for all his/her affic-
tions. It is only a Siddha Guru
who can help a disciple to cut
through the web of Karmic
past, to get rid of diseases and
to realize the true purpose of
his life through self-realiza-
tion.
Guru Siyag has proved
in a number of cases that the
practical application of yoga
can indeed heal and even
cure chronical ailments such
as arthritis and diabetes,
and terminal diseases such
as cancer and HIV/AIDS.
Countless patients, practi-
cally given up for dead by
doctors, have not only sur-
vived and regained good
health but are also leading
normal lives after seeking
Guru Siyag’s blessings as a
last resort and getting initi-
ated into Siddha Yoga. Siddha
Yoga takes over and succeeds
where modern medical sci-
ence reaches its fnal limita-
tions in fnding lasting relief
or cure for a disease.
Our body is the medium
through which enlighten-
ment can be achieved. Yo-
gic philosophy therefore
emphasizes the need for
the practitioner to be com-
pletely healthy if he / she
wants to progress on the
path of spirituality. This
can be explained with an
example from everyday life:
We need to travel from point
A to point B. If the vehicle is
in optimum working condi-
tion, it will get us to point B
not only faster but also more
effciently than if the vehicle
was in a bad shape. In short,
to progress spiritually one
frst needs to be completely
healthy. Regular practice of
Siddha Yoga does just that.
What are the benefts of
Siddha Yoga?
• Siddha Yoga heals,
cures or frees the body from
any physical illness – AIDS,
various forms of cancer,
diabetes, arthritis, asthma
and even genetic diseases
like hemophilia.
• It frees the practitioner
from any kind of addiction
such as drugs, alcohol, ciga-
rettes or an unnatural depen-
dency on any substance such
as food, and even feelings of
power and success. The prac-
titioner is freed from the ad-
diction without experiencing
any withdrawal symptoms.
• Corrects any mental
disharmony brought on by
psychological or emotional
disorders.
• Siddha Yoga relieves
stress caused by work, family
problems, education etc.
Freedom from physical dis-
eases
• Practice of Siddha
Yoga awakens the Kundalini.
Once awakened, the Kund-
alini brings about yogic kriyas
which in turn free the body
from all kinds of diseases.
• Only that part of the
body experiences kriyas
which is diseased. For in-
stance, if you are experiencing
problems in the shoulder or
neck you may undergo yogic
kriyas in that area. Once the
Kundalini fortifes and tones
up that area, kriyas cease to
take place.
• In the case of a disease
such as AIDS, which attacks
the entire body, the patient
may experience internal kri-
yas such as sensations of heat,
electricity or tingling.
• Regular practice of
Siddha Yoga strengthens the
immune system.
• The Kundalini acts as
a protective shield of the im-
mune system and wards off
the onslaught or recurrence of
any disease.
• Positive effects begin
to show between two to 15
days of regular meditation and
chanting.
• The impact of Siddha
Yoga is completely based on
the practitioner’s sincerity
and dedication toward the
practice. The more sincerity
the practice is done with, the
faster the disease is cured.
Freedom from addictions
• Practitioner does not
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have to make the effort to
leave the substance.
• Siddha Yoga destroys
the desire within the person
to consume a particular sub-
stance.
• The practitioner there-
fore does not experience any
withdrawal symptoms.
• As the person was not
forced to leave the substance
he / she does not relapse into
the habit again.
• Guru Siyag sums up
freedom-from-addiction
quite simply: “You need not
to give up the things, the
things will give you up.”
• Similarly, with food
too, Siddha Yoga destroys
the desire within the person
to consume certain foods that
may cause obesity or illness.
An obese practitioner thus
begins to lose weight without
having to go on a diet.
• Many organs of the
body damaged by the intake
of a substance are healed. For
instance, the intake of ciga-
rettes or alcohol damages the
lungs and liver respectively.
Siddha Yoga heals these or-
gans within a short span of
practice.
• Some addictions are
so deeply assimilated in our
system that it is diffcult to
recognize them. Addiction to
power, success and control
are not easily identifable but
their debilitating effect can be
felt only when the person is
deprived of them.
• The practice of Siddha
Yoga frst makes the person
aware of such an addiction
and then helps him / her over-
come it.
Freedom from mental disor-
ders and stress
• Siddha Yoga frees the
practitioner from stress and
psychological disorders such
as insomnia, phobia, schizo-
phrenia, OCD etc.
• Siddha Yoga corrects
disharmony of the body and
mind.
• It destroys negative
energies that cause mental
disorders or stress.
• Siddha Yoga heightens
the practitioner’s intuition and
gives him / her sudden premo-
nitions about various events in
life. It also gives knowledge
to deal with particular situa-
tions.
• The practitioner sees
the cause before the effect and
is therefore not disturbed by
events.
Other Benefts
• Siddha Yoga is espe-
cially benefcial to students
as it improves their concen-
tration, grasping ability and
retention power.
• Guru Siyag says that
the practitioner can experi-
ence both material and spiri-
tual progress simultaneously
through Siddha Yoga.
• The benefts of Siddha
Yoga can be experienced with-
out changing your lifestyle.
• Once you begin sur-
rendering to the Kundalini, it
begins to guide you and brings
about positive changes in your
life.
Points to Remember
Indian Yogic Philosophy
holds no disease (physical
or mental) as incurable. The
Mantra given by Guru Siyag
to his disciples is a Sanjeevani
Mantra, which means that
even a person who is on the
brink of death can be freed
from the disease if he/she
chants the Mantra and medi-
tates sincerely with complete
faith. While Guru Siyag does
not impose any restrictions on
practitioners, and does not ask
them to change their lifestyle
in any way, he has found that
if a practitioner observes the
following guidelines he / she
will be freed from a problem
very quickly:
• The practitioner should
chant the Mantra round-the-
clock that is, as much as pos-
sible.
• The practitioner must
meditate at least two times
a day for 15 minutes each
time.
• The seeker must avoid
wearing talismans or any
such objects thought to have
magical powers. They must
also get rid of any other spiri-
tual, religious or ritualistic
objects on their body such as
holy threads, rings, pendants,
stones, bangles and brace-
lets.
• During the day and
also during meditation, the
seeker should pray to Guru Si-
yag for freedom from disease,
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that the physical body
is not the Guru. The Guru’s
energy / power is omnipres-
ent, it is also within you.
Whenever you wholeheart-
edly invoke this power to help
you, it will immediately come
to your aid.
• It is not Guru Siyag’s
physical body that cures dis-
eases or gives freedom from
addiction and stress. It is the
Shakti (energy) or Guru with-
in each person that gives them
this freedom. The practitioner
must surrender more and more
to the Shakti each day.
• After receiving the
mantra, the practitioner should
refrain from following any
other Guru or chant any man-
tra other than the one given
by Guru Siyag. If the patient
follows other rituals or prac-
tices along with Siddha Yoga,
his / her faith and energy is
divided among all those prac-
tices. They then will not be
able to practice Siddha Yoga
with the kind of intensity that
is required for the curing of
diseases or freedom from ad-
diction and stress.
• If the seeker is on med-
ication, he / she can continue
the intake of medicines until
they either develop enough
confidence toward Siddha
Yoga or feel the dependency
on medicines reducing.
• The more the seeker
meditates and chants the Man-
tra dedicatedly, the faster the
body will be free of diseases.
However, if the seeker stops
meditating and chanting the
mantra, the illness will resur-
face.
Please remember:
Freedom from disease, addic-
tion or stress depends com-
pletely on the sincerity and
dedication with which Siddha
Yoga is practiced. In his /
her conscience every seeker
knows how truthfully they
are practicing Siddha Yoga.
PHILOSOPHY OF
SIDDHA YOGA
Brief background
Sidha Yoga is based on
the philosophy of Yoga as
propounded by ancient sage
Matsyendra Nath and codi-
fied later by another sage,
Patanjali, in a treatise titled
'Yoga Sutra' several thousand
years ago. Mythology has it
that Matsyendra Nath was the
frst human to learn of Yoga
from Lord Shiva, who is the
embodiment of the eternal
supreme consciousness, in
the latter’s celestial abode in
the Himalayas. The sage was
asked to gift the knowledge
of Yoga to mankind for its
"salvation." The knowledge
and wisdom contained in Yoga
was handed down from ages
to ages in the time honored
Guru-Shishya (master-disci-
ple) tradition. Guru is there-
fore an institution in the Yoga
tradition, which is central to
the practice of Yoga.
What is Yoga?
Yoga is a union with the
Divine. Yoga is considered an
integral tool of the vast body
of Vedic (Hindu) literature
that covers the whole gamut
of Indian spirituality. The
'Yoga Sutra', containing
just 195 aphorisms, lucidly
elucidates the eight stages
of the 'Ashtang' (eight-fold)
Yoga, which a seeker passes
through as he progresses
along the spiritual path.
Yoga is immensely ben-
efcial in curing bodily and
mental diseases and restoring
and harmonizing the psycho-
physical balance in a human
body. However, using it for
this purpose alone is to leave
out its sole aim — liberating
the seeker from the bondage
of Karmas (actions), which
tie him down to the peren-
nial cycle of life and death.
Yogic philosophy recognizes
the subtle link between the
human body and the cosmic
Supramental Consciousness,
which is responsible for the
body's very creation. A po-
tent force lies dormant at the
base of the spinal column in
every human body. Because
it is coiled around the base
of the spinal column in three
and a half spirals, the ancient
sages called it ‘Kundalini’, the
coiled one (like a snake).
Shaktipat Diksha
Awakens the Kundalini
shaktipat is a sanskrit
term which combines two
terms- shakti (feminine divine
energy) and pat (passing of, or
transmission of). It literally
means transmission of femi
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nine divine energy from
one person to another. How-
ever, this meaning is not cor-
rect when the term Shaktipat
is used in the Siddha Yoga
system. This is because it is
an acknowledged fact in the
yogic scriptures that feminine
divine is present in every hu-
man body though it lies dor-
mant. So there is no question
of shakti being passed from
one person to another.
Shaktipat is therefore a
process by which a siddha
guru (a spiritually empowered
master) awakens this dormant
Shakti in a seeker's body.
The awakening of this shakti,
which is called Kundalini,
marks the initiation of a seeker
into Siddha Yoga. A seeker
who is so initiated then be-
comes the disciple of the guru
who awakens his Kundalini.
Guru Siyag therefore says that
a guru does not give or pass
on a spritual consciouness
to his disciple. A guru doing
shaktipat is like a lighted
lamp which lights another
lamp, which has got all the
necessary fttings ready and is
waiting for a catalyst to light
it up. So guru here becomes
the catalyst who lights the
spiritual lamp in a disciple and
shows him the true path lead-
ing to his (disciple's) spiritual
evolution to the fullest.
A siddha guru can car-
ry out the shaktipat process
through any of the following
four methods:
Physical touch:
A siddha guru can awaken
Kundalini by simply touching
a seeker. A guru may do this
by placing his hand on the
head or by touching the cen-
tre of the seeker's forehead.
According to the mythologi-
cal text Mahabharata, Lord
Krishna initiated his fa-
vourite devotee Arjuna, the
warrior Pandava, into yoga
by hugging him and holding
him close to his heart for a
moment. Krishna initiated
another legendary devotee,
Dhruva by lightly touching
his (Dhruva's) cheek with his
conch, say the Puranas.
By sight:
A guru may initiate the
seeker by simply looking into
the eyes of the seeker with the
intention of awakening his
Kundalini. Indian spiritual
literature is replete with an-
ecdotes about various Siddha
Gurus awakening their follow-
ers' shakti by merely looking
at them with compassion.
Divine word:
A guru may awaken a
seeker's Kundalini by giving
him a divine word or a mantra
to chant. Here the word is di-
vine because it is charged with
the cosmic consciouness em-
bodied by Guru. The mantra
acts as a trigger to awaken the
dormant Kundalini and prods
her constantly to rise through
the seeker's body, purify it and
make it ready for his further
spiritual evolution.
Making a resolve:
This is the rarest mode of
Kundalini awakening because
here the initiative lies with
the seeker and not with the
guru. A seeker in this method
doesn’t approach the guru for
a formal initiation for Kund-
alini awakening. He merely
makes a rock-solid resolve,
described as Sankalpa, to get
initiated by the guru he wishes
to follow. Since the guru is
the very embodiment of di-
vine cosmic consciousness,
the seeker’s strong resolve is
instantly received by the guru.
Sankalpa is the manifestation
of the seeker’s total devotion
or surrender of his ego to
Guru. Since this kind of devo-
tion is the prime qualifcation
for receiving divine grace, the
guru in this case is duty-bound
to initiate the seeker making
such a sankalpa. The Mahab-
harata makes a mention of a
rare case in which Eklavya,
the legendary archer, got
initiated into yoga by merely
making a resolute plea before
an inanimate idol that he had
made in the likeness of his
Guru Dronacharya to favor
him with initiation. Eklavya's
plea was so intensely sincere
that Guru Dronacharya's cos-
mic conscious had to respond
positively to it though he was
not present there in person.
Some yogic systems also treat
this method as another form of
meditation.
The Guru Siyag system
combines divine word (man-
tra) and sankalpa (resolve) to
initiate seekers into Siddha
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Yoga
Importance
of Mantra Japa
All the major religions
in the world, despite their
intrinsic mutual differences,
hold a unanimous view that
the entire universe with
its animate and inanimate
parts was created out of a
divine word. “In the begin-
ning was the word, and the
word was with God, and the
word was God. The same
was in the beginning with
God. All things were made
by Him, and without Him
was not anything made that
was made. In Him was life,
and the life was the light of
men,” says the Bible.
The Hindu or Vedic re-
ligion is no exception to this
concept of God being the
divine word of our origin.
It acknowledges Om as the
sacred syllable — the divine
sound out which God created
this universe. Out of this di-
vine word evolved variations
of potent vibratory sounds
capable of connecting with
specific planes of cosmic
consciousness on subtle level
for which they were created.
Each of these sacred vibratory
sounds was called “Mantra”
in the scripture as it originated
from the Tantra, the technique
of specifc ways of pronounc-
ing the divine word to achieve
specifc results. The mantras
therefore form the very basis
of the Indian spiritual disci-
pline. However, this knowl-
edge is secret because of the
great potency of each mantra
to impact the physical as well
as the spiritual world posi-
tively or negatively. Under the
spiritual discipline, a mantra is
potent only when it is given by
a spiritual master to someone
whom he has been accepted
as a disciple.
The repetition of mantra,
called Japa, results in full uti-
lization of its potential. Mere
reading of a mantra from the
text would be an exercise in
futility as the word would lack
the divine vibratory sound
which only a guru, well-
versed in spirituality, can give.
Even an illiterate person, lack-
ing knowledge of scriptures
or philosophy, can therefore
experience full potential of a
mantra if he receives it from
the guru, and practices it un-
der his guidance.
When mantras are di-
rected to lower levels of con-
sciousness they often end up
as spells with destructive or
protective powers. However,
when they are used for reach-
ing the higher planes of con-
sciousness, they can take the
practitioners to greater heights
of spiritual awakening and
eventual freedom from the
cycle of birth and death.
The silent repetition of
the mantra is called Naam
Jap. After continuous chanting
of the mantra for over a fort-
night or a month, the disciple
doesn’t have to make an effort
to chant; the chanting hap-
pens automatically on its own
whether he/she is awake or
sleeping. This state is known
as Ajapajap (roughly trans-
lated as involuntary chanting).
When chanting of Mantra is
accompanied by regular medi-
tation, it slowly unleashes a
wave of Ananda (bliss), which
is so soothing that the disciple
feels he/she is on a high, and
doesn’t want to come out of it.
Indian saints have described
this state of Ananda as intoxi-
cation without drugs.
The Ananda brought on
by the Mantra and meditation
is incomparable to the calming
effect of any addictive drug
because it doesn’t depend on
any external inducement and
lasts forever. This is the reason
why a disciple initiated into
Siddha Yoga by Guru Siyag
is freed from drug-addiction
completely and irrevocably.
Given below is an excerpt
from the book Sri Aurobindo
or The Adventure of Con-
sciousness by Sri Aurobindo’s
disciple Satprem. Guru Siyag
often cites this section to ex-
plain the power of mantras:
“There exists in India a
secret knowledge based on
sounds and the differences of
vibratory modes according to
each plane of consciousness.
If we pronounce the sound
OM, for example, we clearly
feel its vibrations envelop the
head centers, while the sound
RAM touches the navel center.
And since each of our centers
of consciousness is in di
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rect contact with a plane,
we can, by the repetition
(japa) of certain sounds, make
contact with the correspond-
ing plane of consciousness.
This is the basis of an en-
tire spiritual discipline, known
as “Tantric” because it de-
rives from sacred texts called
Tantra. The fundamental or
essential sounds, which have
the power to make contact, are
called mantras.
The mantras, always se-
cret, and given to the disciple
by his guru, are of all kinds
(there is a multitude of degrees
within each plane of con-
sciousness), and may serve the
most contradictory purposes.
By combining certain sounds,
one can at the lower levels of
consciousness, generally the
vital level, make contact with
the corresponding forces and
acquire quite strange powers:
there are mantras that can kill
(in fve minutes, with violent
vomiting), mantras that can
strike with precision a par-
ticular part or organ of the
body, mantras that can cure,
mantras that can start a fre,
or protect, or cast spells. This
type of magic, or chemistry of
vibrations, simply proceeds
from the conscious handling
of lower vibrations. But there
is a higher magic, which also
proceeds from the handling
of vibrations, but on higher
planes of consciousness: this
is poetry, music, the spiritual
mantras of the Upanishads
and the Vedas, the mantras
a guru gives his disciple to
help him consciously make
direct contact with this or
that plane of consciousness,
this or that force or divine
being. Here, the sound holds
in itself the power of the ex-
perience and realization-it is a
sound that makes us see.”
‘Kundalini’ the Shakti
‘Kundalini’ is considered
the feminine divine, ‘Shakti’,
which, according to Vedic
scriptures, is the very cosmic
energy force responsible for
the manifestation of the physi-
cal/material world. Since
‘Kundalini’ is the cosmic
energy that originates from
the Supramental Conscious-
ness, it is an omniscient force,
which enables the Yoga prac-
titioner to realize his true self.
Once this self-realization is
achieved, the Yoga practi-
tioner is led to Moksha, the
fnal liberation from worldly
existence and its attendant
miseries.
There is a close link be-
tween ‘Kundalini’ and an
intricate network of 72,000
‘Nadis’, vein-like structures
that exists in the whole of the
human body. Three of these
‘Nadis’ are like arterial ways
that spiral upwards from the
base of the spinal column
all the way to the roof of the
brain, called ‘Sahasrahara’.
The middle artery, also con-
sidered the major pathway,
is known as ‘Sushmana’.
The other two arteries on
either side of ‘Sushmana’ are
called ‘Ida’ and ‘Pingala’.
Six ‘Chakras’ and three
‘Granthis’ — consciousness
centers or cosmic energy hubs
are located vertically above
one another at brief intervals
in ‘Sushmana’.
This entire network of
‘Nadi s’, ‘Chakras’ and
‘Granthis’ exists, in another
dimension not known to sci-
ence, in so subtle a form that
no high-tech laboratory gad-
gets can ever detect its pres-
ence. However, when ‘Kun-
dalini’ is awakened through
chanting of divine mantra and
meditation, it rises through
‘Sushmana’ to reach ‘Sahas-
rahara’, its fnal destination
where it’s Master — ‘Param
Shiva’ — the eternal supra-
mental consciousness resides.
As it spirals upwards through
‘Sushmana’, ‘Kundalini’ en-
ergizes the whole network
of ‘Nadis’ and pierces the
‘Chakras’ one by one.
The awakened ‘Kund-
alini’ gets connected di-
rectly to the Supramental
Consciousness through the
‘Sushumana’ pathway. As
a result of this, every pore
and cell in the human body
is purifed and purged of its
bodily and mental affictions,
making the Yoga practitioner
energized and ready for the
onward spiritual journey. The
outward manifestations of this
cleansing process are Yogic
‘Kriyas’ or involuntary body
movements that occur
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AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
during Siddha Yoga med-
itation. Swaying from side to
side, rapid movement of the
head, clapping and uncoordi-
nated movement of hands are
some of the most typical of
these ‘Kriyas’.
Impact of Kundalini awak-
ening
To an untrained or un-
initiated observer, these may
look bizarre or even alarming.
But they are neither abnormal
nor do they cause any bodily
harm. ‘Kundalini’, being an
all-knowing energy force, is
aware of which body part or
organ is in acute need of healing
or cleansing. So, the ‘Kundalini’
makes the practitioner perform
‘Kriyas’ that are specifc to his
needs. With this cleansing, the
practitioner is cured of all kinds
of chronic and even terminal
diseases such as HIV, AIDS,
cancer, arthritis etc., and genetic
disorders like hemophilia, men-
tal affictions too are completely
cured and stress is completely
relieved.
Also, the piercing of dif-
ferent consciousness centers
equips the practitioner with
Siddhis (powers) such as in-
creased intuition, the ability to
see unlimited past and future
and perceive the existence of
worlds beyond the physical one
that we live in. When the ‘Kund-
alini’ reaches ‘Sahasrahara’, the
prac-titioner’s spiritual journey
is complete as it is here that
he realizes his true self. This
realization releases him from
the bondage of Karmas, which
is the root cause of all human
miseries. It is also here that the
seeker realizes that he is him-
self the Brahman, the eternal
Supramental Consciousness,
the state which also known as
'Moksha.'
What are Gunas and their
effects?
The Vedic scriptures ac-
knowledge the interplay of
Brahman, the formless, limit-
less, eternal and never-changing
Supramental Consciousness on
one hand and its manifestation
as the consciousness in the
ever-changing material world.
The consciousness in the mate-
rial world, which impacts all
animate and inanimate objects,
is made up of a combination of
three Gunas (qualities) — Sattva
(lighted, pure, intelligent and
positive), Rajas (passionate and
energetic) and Tamas (negative,
dark, dull and inert).
Sattva is the force of equi-
librium. Sattva translates in qual-
ity as goodnes and harmony, and
happiness and light. Rajas is the
force of kinesis. Rajas translates
in quality as struggle and effort,
passion and action. Tamas is
the force of unconsciousness
and inertia. Tamas translates in
quality as obscurity, incapacity
and inaction.
All humans possess these
Gunas. However, no existence
is cast in the single mould of
any of these three modes of the
cosmic force. All the three quali-
ties are present in everyone and
everywhere. There is a constant
combining and separating of the
shifting relations of these quali-
ties. They constantly struggle
to infuence or dominate each
other. This is the reason why no
person is consistently good or
bad; intelligent or dull; active
or lethargic.
When Sattvic quality in
dominant in a person, it propels
him toward seeking greater con-
sciousness so that he could free
himself from Karmic bondage
and return to the Supramental
Consciousness to which he
originally belongs. Domination
by either Rajasic or Tamasic
quality leads the person onto
an unending cycle of pleasure
and pain and life and death.
The practice of Siddha Yoga
leads to the ascent of Sattvic
qualities and eventual progress
to Moksha, the fnal spiritual
liberation.
What are Vrittis?
Each person has certain
tendencies, called Vrittis that
guide his overall behavior. Ten-
dencies are in turned infuenced
by the three gunas of Sattva,
Rajas and Tamas. Each of these
Gunas can be elevated or sup-
pressed through the practice of
Yoga, according to The Geeta
and ‘Yoga Sutras’. Lord Krishna
tells his chosen disciple Arjuna
in the epic Mahabharata that
meditation can help the prac-
titioner develop and strength-
en Sattvic or pure tendencies
while suppressing Rajasic and
Tamasic tendencies so that he/
she can gain lasting health and
true higher knowledge and self-
realization.
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AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
and actions, but also his
dietary preferences or the
choice of food and drinks he
will consume. The Bhagwat
Gita (Chapter 17; stanzas-8.9
& 10) describes what type
of food a person with each
dominant quality- Sattvic or
Rajasic or Tamasic will prefer
to eat:
“The foods which pro-
mote life, vitality, strength,
health, joy and cheerfulness,
which are sweet, soft, nour-
ishing and agreeable are dear
to the Sattvic.” (B.G. 17:8)
“The foods that are bit-
ter, sour, saltish, very hot,
pungent, harsh and burning,
producing pain, grief and
disease are liked by Rajasic.”
(B.G. 17:9)
“That which is spoiled,
tasteless, putrid, stale, re-
fuse and unclean is the food
dear to the Tamasic.” (B.G.
17:10)
However, the 10th stanza
in the 14th Chapter of the Gita
says that these tendencies can
be positively infuenced by
invoking and chanting of
the divine word or mantra
given by a Siddha Guru or
spiritual master. The regular
chanting of a mantra subdues
or suppresses the Rajasic
and Tamasic qualities, and
elevates the Sattvic quality
and eventually consolidates
it permanently. The domi-
nance of the Sattvic quality
in turn propels orientation of
the person’s inner tendencies
toward positive, conscious,
intelligent and pure thinking
and actions. So does his pref-
erences of food and drinks.
The overall result of this
change is that whatever that
is negative and detrimental
to the person’s physical and
mental wellbeing and spiri-
tual evolution leaves him of
its own accord—without the
person’s conscious efforts to
make this happen. Thus, if
the person is afficted with
addiction to drugs, alcohol or
smoking, the addiction will
leave him like the false skin
falling off a tree automati-
cally or if he is attached to the
kind of food that is harmful
to his health, he will gradu-
ally develop a natural dislike
for it and turn to the palate
that is healthy because of the
change in his inner qualities
and tendencies brought on
by the chanting of the mantra
and meditation.
According to Vedic scrip-
tures, only a Siddha Guru, an
empowered spiritual master,
with an altruistic aim can
bring about a positive change
in human Gunas and Vrittis
by initiating a spiritual seeker
into Yoga. Since Sattva is
a force of equilibrium that
ushers in true wisdom, its
elevation on mass scale can
transform the entire mankind
by eliminating conficts and
discords, and bind the whole
humanity together with peace
and harmony.
This is the mission —
spiritual transformation of
mankind — that Guru Siyag
has undertaken by promoting
the practice of Siddha Yoga.
Guru Siyag has pro-
claimed, “I have set out
alone to elevate the Sattva
Guna in mankind and to de-
stroy all its Tamsic tenden-
cies completely. No single
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AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
nor-nor lç rrm=n
·erl¬+r¤ln +rr;nl
a+n¸rªrr¬mrrm=n
norrmr¬ =¸¬r+nçmgll
¤l;>r¤rrn =rrr¸¬r
l¤¬r’rrn ¤ o¸”+¸nrmgl
rrm ==ªrr¤¬rªrrn
=+r¤rlm n¸m n¸mll (¡·:-s¸
+rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r ¬ mtnr +
¤rªr arnrn m a¬¸¬ +r n¸m n¸m
m =¤n ¤+c çr¬ +r =¤”c =+n
l+nr çl ==r; m ¬¤ rrm +r er¤
çr ¬rnr ç, n¤ +rm¤r¬g o¸”cr +r
l¤¬r’r +;¬ ar; =n ermr +r
+rnr¤r +;+ ¤¸¬· ==r; m rrm
=ªrrl¤n +;¬ + lee n¸m-n¸m m
a¤nr; en çl
¤m+¤; nrl¬ =n erm ==r;
m ¤+c çr +; a¤¬t arrnrlrm+
‘rl¬ ar; rnrm + gr;r =rlr¤+
¤ n¬r ¤ er¬ +r +rn +;n ç l = nr
+ a¤o’rr = ¬¤ +rm ¤e¬r ¤-o
çr ¬rnr ç ar; ==r; m ¤¸¤r =¤
= nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +r =rmr¤n
=ªrrl¤n çr ¬rnr ç, e=t l=ªrln
m +rm¤r¬g a¤nr; en çl ==r;
+r; = ¤¸¤r =¤ = nrml=+ ‘rl¬
nr +r =¤rnr +;+ ar; =rlr¤+
‘rl¬ nr +r e+ e> =rmr¤n =ªr.
rl¤n +;+ =¤n a¤¬ rrrm +r
¤rrr; ¬rn çl ==r; m ¤¸¤r ‘rrln
ar; =rlr¤+ ‘rl¬ nr +r =rmr¤n
+rm¤r¬g + a¤nr; + l¤¬r =+.
+r¤ ¬çt çl =¤n a¤nr; e¬ =
¤çe +¸e e= =nr +r +r¬n ç ¬r
+rm¤r¬g + a¤nr; + =+¤-rr m
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +;n çl ot+ q=t
¤ +r; +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr = =r;
+r; + l¤l+r-¬ rrmr + =n +r¤t
=mn = +;¬ em çl mrc nr; ¤;
=+rt e+ çt ¤rn +çn ç l+ ¤ç
‘rl¬ +rr;n + arr; +rrm = ¤+c
çr+; a¤¬ +lm+ l¤+r= + =rªr
q= =ot + a-n n+ ¤¸; ==r; +r
a¤¬t n;¤ ar+l”rn +; emtl
==r; +r; + =+rt rrmr + erm
a=+t n;¤ qn¬ ar+l”rn çrm
l+ =¤+r rnr¬ a= ‘rl¬ ¤;
+l-qn çr ¬rnmrl =r; ==r; +
erm a=+ aro’rr +r ¤re¬ +;¬
emml
q= ¤+r; zt ¤t =ot m ==r;
+r; m q= ‘rl¬ + ¤+rr¤ = =r.
lr¤+ ‘rl+nnr +r =rmr¤n =ªr.
rl¤n çr ¬rnmr ar; +rr;n ¤¸¬·
a¤¬ ¬mogm¸= + ¤o ¤; ar=t¬
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t
¤sror(m¸¬;rn¸ + mçr;r¬r
=nr¬t ;r¤ mrn+¤rs , ~t a;.
l¤-o + =rªr e+ = ¤+ +t n;ç
¬çt, =¸po lm> +t n;ç ·n¤çr;
+;n ªrl e+ lo¬ mçr;r¬r rrrs ¤;
=¤r; çr+; =; + len l¬+el ~t
a;l¤-o +rt a=t lo’rr m ¬r ;ç ªrl
;r=n m e+ ¤¸lcnr lmet ¬r mr¤;
+r cr+;r len =rst ªrt, a= a¤;
aor¬r ¤¸lcnr + ¤= +r +rm ¬ ªrrl
¤¸ lc nr ¬ =rm¬ = arn ç¸ e rr¸ s =¤r;
+r o =rr ar ; ¤r et, 'e +rrq , ¬;r m ;t
cr+;t aor o¬rl' =nr¬t ;r¤ rrrs
¤; = +¸o ¤s ar; ¤¸lcnr +t cr+;t
a=+ l=; ¤; ¤cr ot ar; ¤ç a-ç
+rr·n + ¤ln l¬”or¤r¬
l¬çr;nt ç¸ q ¤et mnt, e l+¬ a=+
¬r¬ = ¤çe mçr;r¬r ¬ a=+r
anr-¤nr ¤¸e lenrl
mçr;r¬r ¬ ¤te m¸s+; o=rr
nr ~ta;l¤-o a¬+t n;¤ o=r+;
m¸ =+;r ;ç ªr l mçr;r¬r ¬ +r;¤r
¤¸er nr a-çr¬ +rq ¬¤r¤ ¬ lonrl
a-çr¬ l¤; =¤re l+nr nr a¬+r
armç o=r+; ~t a;l¤-o ¬ +çr,
''m q= ¤rn ¤; m¸=+;rnr l+ ¤sror
+ mçr;r¬r +r m;t¤r ¤; +rr; ¤cr¬r
¤rlçe nr anr;¬r?'' mçr;r¬r,
a¬+r aogo’n nrs mn ar; o¸=;
lo¬ =¤; çt =¤; ¤¸lcnr +r o;¤r;
m ¤¸ernr mnrl ¤ç çr¤nt-+r¤nt,
s;t ç¸q o;¤r; m ¤ç¸¤t nr o=rr l+
+e +r rr¸s=¤r; nçr l=çr=¬ ¤;
¤or çl mçr;r¬r ¬ ¤s ¤m + =rªr
a== ¤rn¤tn +t, a=+t l=ªrln +r
¤nr l+nr ar; a=+ ¤re¬-¤r”r¤r
+t al¤n ·n¤=ªrr +; ot ar; a=+
len e+ m+r¬ +rt ¤¬¤r lonrl
e+ =mn ªrr ¬¤ ;r¬¬tlnq
er m =rm¬ ¤re +t +rr¤¬r +r
¤;=r e n ªr ar ; ar¬ l=ªrln
l¤e+¸e l¤¤;tn çl ¤rç l+n¬r çt
‘rr; m¤rar, +rq ¬çt =¸¬nr çl ¤
¬r +; ;ç ç, a== a¬+r +rq s;
¬çt ç-+rn =çt ç nr menl a¤
arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r çt =¤¸¤r mr¬¤
¬rln m ¤l;¤n¬ er =+nt çl
23
23
183
''+rr;n +r +rr·nron çr¬ çt ¤rer çl''
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q=
=mn = =r ;
+r; + =+rt rrmr +
rrmr ¤rn + ¤e ¤ o’r ¬, ‘r-o ¬re,
n+ ’rr=> ar ; a-rr l¤’¤r= +
=çr; er mr +r arnrrm¤ro l==rr
;ç ç l ‘r-o ¬re ar ; n+ ‘rr=>
+ =çr; rrm +t ·nr=nr, q=
¤ +r; nr s -m;r s +;+ +; ;ç ç
l+ rrm e+ ¤ r¤rçt¬ m¸ or erºr
(’r¤¸ mr> ;ç mnr ç l l¬”¤ r¤r
rrm +rnr¤r l+= ¤ +r; +; =+nr
ç ?
=+rt rrmr + rrmr ¤rnr ¬ rrm
+r e+ ·n¤=rn mr> ¤¬r lenr
ç l rrm + =çr; arlªr+ nªrr
;r¬¬ ln+ er+r aornr ¬r ;çr
çl e=r em ;çr ç, mr¬r ==r; +
=+rt rrmr¤rnr +r ¤++r l¤’¤r=
çr mnr ç l+ q’¤; ¬rm +t +rq
‘rl¬ ==r; m ç çt ¬çtl nç
+ ¤e +rr¤l¬+ rrr;¤rr er mr
m ¤erq ç¸q çl q= q¸ot rrr;¤
rr + =çr; l¬n¬r ¤rçr ¤rl¤rnr
+r ‘rr ”r¤r +; =+n çr l e =r
emnr ç, +¸e m çt +rrm ¤s mq
ç l =+rt rrm e+ çt ;r=n ¤; ¤e¬
em çl
=+rt rrmr¤rn ame ¬-m
m lme¬ +r q¸ or qr =r o +;
= =r; +r e¸ c ;ç ç l rr¬ +
arrrr; ¤; ¤r¤ mr¤t +r ¤mr¤r
¤> n+ o¬ em çl
q== rrr; a¤.
;rrr +nr çrmr?
am; e=t l¤”rn
l=ªrln m +rt +rm.
¤r¬g a¤nr; ¬çt e n
ç nr =mq e ¬r ¤rlçe l+
¤en +r =mn ¤ç¸n =l-¬+c çl
ar¬ ==r; m rrm + ¬rm ¤; e¸c
a-nrn ar ; arnr¤r; l¬n¬r
¤¬¤ ;çr ç , an¬r ¤çe ++rt
¬çt ç¸arl çmr;r qlnçr= ¤nrnr
ç l+ ¬¤-¬¤ çt e =t l=ªrln
¤or ç¸q ç, +rm¤r¬g ¬ a¤nr;
lenr çl
rrm +t ·nr=nr +;n =mn
çmr; >l”rnr ¬ =¤”c +çr ç l+
rrm ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ; =r¢rrr+r;
+r l¤”rn çl ¤o’r¬, ‘r-o, ¬re,
n+ ‘rr=> ar; a-rrl¤’¤r= =
q=+r o¸; +r +rt =+¤-rr ¬çt çl
l¤eet =ot m =¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o
¬t ==r; m e+ arrnrlrm+ =n
+ =¤ m ¤+c ç¸el aml;+r m
a-çr¬ rrm +t ·nr=nr +;n ç¸e
+çr ªrr ''l¤l+r-¬ mn mnr-n;r
nr l=çr-nr ¤; l¤’¤r= +;¬
+ ¤nr¬ lç-o¸ rrm m ¬çt ç,
¤;¬g lç-o¸ rrm nr ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln
nr =r¢rrr+r; +r rrm çl +¤e
l¤’¤r= +r ¬rm lç-o¸ rrm ¬çt
ç, lç-o¸ rrm +r m¸e m> nr 'm'
arrmr ç¸ nç l¤’¤r= çr¬r ar;
'nq¸¤' ¤¬ ¬r¬r çl''
q=t =o+r m =¤rmt ¬t ¬
e+ +om ar; arm ¤c +; +ç
srer l+·- ''a¬¸+r¸ln-a¬¸+r¸ln
+t nç mçnt ‘rl¬ mnt ¤r¤rt
+rr;n + çt arrnrlrm+ mm¬
m¤se = arl¤+r¸ n ç¸ q ç l e+ mr>
çmr;r ¤ lo+ rrm çt ç , ¬r ¤r;+¤r;
+çnr ç , q ’¤; + o’r ¬ +;¬ çr m ,
a=+t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln +;¬t çr mt,
n+rt m¸ l¬ = +r¤ ç l nr n +t n;ç
+¸ e ‘r-o ;c e ¬ = +rm ¤e çt
¬çt =+nrl'' =¤rmt ¬t ¬ +çr ç
rrm m ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ¬ çr nr ¤ç
¤r=n¤ m rrm +çer¬ nr·n ç
çt ¬çt''l +nr q= =mn ==r;
+ l+=t +rt rrm +r rrmr ¤rn
a¤n¸+n ¤rn orç;r¬ +t l=ªrln
m ç? q= =mn nr q’¤; ar;
rrm +t a¤¬t-a¤¬t n+ ¤¸ lç +
a¬¸=r; a¬t¤-a¬t¤ ·nr=nr
+;+ rrmr¤rn ==r; + ermr +r
+rlmn +; ;ç çl
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln nr =r¢rrr+r;
+t ¤rn +;¬ n+ +r =rç= l+=t
m lo=rrq t onrl q= =mn
==r; m m¬¸”n ¬rln m e+ e=r
l¤’r ”r ¤m ¤ or çr mnr ç ¬r q ’¤;
nªrr rrm +r, e+ mr> o+or;
a¤¬ ar¤ +r rrrl”rn +; ¤or
ç l am; ar¤+r arrnrlrm+
¬mng m ¤¤’r +;¬r ç nr a=+
¤ mr¤r ¤> + l¤¬r +rm ¬çt
¤emrl a¤¬ ¤mr¤r ¤> +t ¤ç
+r;¤¸; +tmn e+; ar¤+r l¬=
;r=n ¤; ¤e¬ +r aro’r omr,
a=t ¤; ar¤+r ¤e¬r çrmrl ¬r
mr-nnre a= ¤m l¤’r”r ¬ ¤¬r
;=rt ç, ¤çt rrm =+mn ç, ¤r+t
a: ¬¸ erq zaaz + ¤ro l¬= n¸ m +t ‘r¸ =arn çr mt, a=m ar=¸ l;+ =+¤or
+ erm =¤n· rr;r’rrnt çrn ¬reml -- =¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o ¬t
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
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184
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q= n¸ m m , = =r ; m
arnrrm¤ro +t l¬n¬t o¸mln çr
;çt ç, ¤çe ‘rrno çt ++rt ç¸q
çl l¤l¤>-l¤l¤> ¤+r; + ¤+¸ln
l¤;rrrt ar¤;¤rr ¤; ¤e¬r ar¬ +
arnrrm¤rot, =¤enr +r ¤nt+
mr¬n ç l + ¤¬ ar ; +rlm¬t +t ¬r
o¸o’rr, q= n¸m + arnrrm¤rot
+; ;ç ç, ¤ç ¤st a¬t¤ ¤rn çl
¬mng ¬¬¬t ¬r ;t +r
arnrrm l¤;rrrt e=r +rn+; =¤
¤ol’rn l+nr ¬rnr ç, l¬= o=r
+; ‘rm = l=; q¸+ ¬rnr çl am;
¬r;t ¬ çr nt nr ¤ nªrr+lªrn
rrrlm+ m¸ = +çr = ¤ or çr n ?
rrrlm+ mªrr +r n+ ¤¸lç + gr;r
nrs-m;rs +; e= ¤=n¸n l+nr
¬rnr ç l+ ¤ ¤¸¤r =¤ = l¬¬t¤
ar; l¤+¸n çr ¬rn çl or¬, ¤¸¤n,
rnrm, n¤=nr, ¤r¤ arlo +t e=t
¤l;+rr”rr +t ¬rnt ç l¬== aªr
+r a¬ªr çr ¬rnr çl
aorç;¤r + nr; ¤; mtnr +r
çt etl¬el q= ¤; a¬+ ermr ¬
ct+re le=rt çl mçl”r a;l¤-o
¬ = ¤-o arnrrm¤rlonr +r
ers +; =+rt ¬ mtnr gr;r rnrm,
n¤=nr, or¬, ¤¸ ¤n arlo +t l’r¢rr
=rt¤nr¬ +; loe¤r¬ +r ¤nr¬
l+nr ç l mtnr e+ e =r m ªr ç ,
¬r ¬t¤¬ + ç; ¤çe¸ ¤; ¤+r’r
srenr çl
l¬= ¤¢r +r l¤¤ ¤¬ l+nr
mnr ç , a=+t ¤¸ ¤r mç;rq n+
¤ç¸¤r çl q¬ ¤rnr +r nrs-m;rs
+; arrnrlrm+ ·n¤=rqnr +
q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ ''arnrrm'' = l¤m¸=r
lo’rr-l¬o’r ¤; m¬mr¬ cm =
mtnr +t ·nr=nr +;+ =trr-=rrr
er mr +r +r lmn +;¬ +r =¸ l¬nr l¬n
c m = ¤ nr= l+nr ç l mtnr ¬ = m ªr
+r +rt o¸=nrm +;¬ m, n nªrr+.
lªrn arnrrm¤rot ¬çt ¤¸+l
mtnr =¤t mªr +r mlo; ¤¬¬
+ ¤ro ¬¤ a=m m¸ln =ªrrl¤n çr
¤¸+t nr a¬¸¬ ¬ ¬r +rn l+nr,
mtnr +r =çt aªr ¤çt ªrrl a¬¸¬
¬ ¬r +¸ e l+nr, a=m , rnrm,
n¤=nr, or¬, ¤¸¤n, ¤r¤ arlo ¬r
a¤o ’r arrr¸ l¬+ arnrrm¤rot
mtnr = loe¤rn ç, q== +r¬=t
qe+ lment ç? a¬¸¬ ¬ nr nçt
+çr l+ rrm + ¤r; m ¬r +rrlnnr
m¸q m ªrt, ¤ =+rt lmc ¤¸+t çl
a¤ m l¬+r n çr +; n¸ ç
+= mrl q=t ¤ +r; =¸ l¬nr l¬n c m
= =+rt rrrlm+ mªrr +r men aªr
l¬+re +; ar¬ + arrnrlrm+
·n¤=rnt ar; m¸=, +rret +rret
¬¬nr +r rrm +t ars m ‘rr”r¤r
+; ;ç çl +¤¬ ar; +rlm¬t +r
¤r¤r +t ¬s ¤nr +;, =¤n ¤r;t
le¤ a=+r a-rrrrr¸ rr o¸ =nr m
+; ;ç çl
arnrrm¤rlonr +t q¬ men
ç;+nr + +r;¤r ar¬ + =mr¬
m rrm l¤;rrrt ermr +t ¤rc ar
mq çl
arrr¸l¬+ m¸=ar ¬ rrm +r
=+¤-rr ¤ c = ¬r s lenr ç l
n¬-+¬-¤+;¤r¬, rrm +t ars
m arlªr+ ‘rr ”r¤r + ¬n -¬n n;t+
a¤¬r +; ermr +r rrm = l¤m¸=r
+; ;ç çl ==r; +r; + =+rt rrmr
= ermr +t ar=ªrr =rrm ç¸q ç,
a=m m¸=n çrªr q-çt rrm m¸=ar
+r çl +re ¤+ a¤rrr mln = ¤e
;çr ç l q=t + a¬¸ =r; = =r; +t ç;
¤=n¸ mln’rte ç, ¤;-n¸ ar¬ +r
arnrrm¤rot, 'nªrrl=ªrln' ¤¬rn
;=r¬r ¤rçn çl +re ¤+ a¤¬t
mln m +rq +rt =+r¤c ¤;orºn
¬çt +;nrl q=+t mln m =+r¤c
sre¬ ¤rer ar¬ n+ +rq ¬çt
¤¤r ç, l¤; q¬ ¬+et ermr +t
+nr ar+rn ç? q= n¸m +r ¤¸lç
¬t¤t ar; n+‘rte m¬¸”n ç; +rm
+r ¤l;¤rrm ¤rçnr çl
''a¤ q= n¸ m +r mr¬¤ + ¤e
‘r-o ¬re ar ; a-rrl¤’¤r= =
+rlmn çr¬ +r nnr; ¬çt çl ¤ç
¤l;¤rrm + l¤¬r +¸e +rt mr¬¬
+r nnr; ¬çt çl nçt +r;¤r ç,
q= n¸m + ¤¤¤¬r ar; +ªrrar
m alrr+n; ¤ çt =>t-¤¸=”r ¬¬;
arn ç , ¬r a¤¬ ¬t¤¬ + arl=r;t
lç== m ¤ç¸¤ ¤¸+ çl m¸rn¸ a-ç
=rm¬ =rst ¬¬; arnt ç, e=t
l=ªrln m ¬t¤¬ m ¬r ¤¸ ; +rm l+n
¤ =¬t¤ çr +; =rm¬ ¤ +c lo=rrq
o n ç l a¤¬t çt q= +rnr¬+
ar+¸ln = +rn+rtn, n erm +nr
ar;rrr¬r +;m?'
q’¤; + ¤r= ¬r¬ = nr ç;
¤ +r; +r +rn o¸ ; +rrm ¬rnr ç l
an· n =+rt =>t-¤¸=”r a¤¬ ¤r¤
=¤t ;r¢r=r = +rn+rtn çr +; q¬
nªrr +lªrn arrnrlrm+ m¸=ar
+t ars e+; ¤¤¬ + lee a¬+
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185
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤ç¸n a·er ‘rr”r¤r +;n çl
q= n¸m m ==r; +r; + rrm m¸=ar
+t mr> nçt =r¸;r+ ¤¤t çl n q=
l=ªrln +r +r;¤¸; er+r aor ;ç çl
¤;-n¸ q= n¸m +r n¸¤r q¬ m¸=ar
+t nç ¤re alrr+ lo¬, a¤
¬çt ¤e¬ omrl ''e=t l=ªrln m
arnrrm ¬mng m ¬r =ªrr¬ l;+n
çrmr, a=+t ¤¸ln + lee +rq e=t
‘rl¬ a¤’n ¤+c çrmt, ¬r q=
=rret =ªrr¬ +t ¤¸ln +;mtl'' q=
¤+r; q¬ nªrr l=ªrln ¤rot ¬+et
m¸ =ar +r a-n çr +; ‘r¸ ç ar ; =r.
lr¤+ arrnrlrm+ ‘rl¬ +r aon
çr mrl nç =¤ +¸ e +re¤+ +
¤+rr¤ = çrmr, l¬== ¬ ar¬ n+
+rq ¤¤r ç ar; ¬ arm ¤¤mrl
~t a;l¤-o ¬= a¬+ =r.
lr¤+ =nr +t +rl¤”n¤r¤rt ++rt
men ¬çt çr =+ntl ~t a;l¤-o
+ a¬¸ =r; ''¤ç alnmr¬l=+
o¤ a¤nr; e ¤¸+r ç, an· ==r;
m a-rr+r; +r a-n ¤ç¸n l¬+c
çl''
''= =r; m ç; ¤ +r; +t a-¬ln
m , n¸ ¤r ‘rl¬ +r çt m¸ =n nr mor¬
;çnr ç l ç; qr¬ +t l’r¢rr +r =mn
l+’rr; ar; n¸¤r a¤=ªrr çrnr çl
an· +rrln+ l¤or + =rªr-=rªr
arrnrlrm+ l¤or +r +rt arnn¬
q=t am m çr ¬r ¤rlçel çmr;
‘rr=> ¤nrn ç , ¤ r¤t¬ +re m
e=r çt çrnr ªrrl ¤;-n¸ q= n¸m
m arnrrm¤ro + er ¤ çr ¬ +
+r;¤r, q= ¤¢r +t l’r¢rr ¤-o çr
mql q= ¤+r; +rrln+ l¤qr¬ nr
a¤¬t a-¬ln + l’r=r; ¤; ¤ç¸¤
mnr, ¤;-n¸ arnrrm l¤qr¬ +
m¸=ar + +lm+ çg;r= + +r;¤r
a=+r er ¤ çr mnrl '' +rr ln+ =rrr
¤; ¬¤ n+ arrnrlrm+ =rrr +r
a+¸’r ¬çt emnr, +rrln+ l¤qr¬
+r a¤nr m =¸ =r ar ; ‘rrl-n + lee
¬çt l+nr ¬r =+nrl nçt +r;¤r
ç , = =r; +r; + +rr ln+ =¤ =
a-¬n o’r q= ‘rl¬ +r a¤nrm
mr¬¤ ¬rln + =çr; + =¤ m +;
;ç çl
~t a;l¤-o ¬ +çr ç - = =r;,
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ + ¢r> m, a¤¬
a-¬ln + l’r=r; ¤; ¤ç¸¤ ¤¸+r ç,
a¤ arnrrm l¤qr¬ +t a-¬ln +r
¬+¤; çl el’rnr, '¬mng-pon'
+t ‘rrl-n +r ;=r¤rer çl ¤ç ao
;çr ç, ¤ç lo¬ a¤ o¸; ¬çt, ¬¤
el’rnr ==r; +t +rrln+ ‘rl+nnr
+r a¤¬t arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+nnr +
arrt¬ +;+, ==r; m =¸=r ‘rrl-n
+r ;r¤n =ªrrl¤n +;mrl q= +rm
m +rr;n +t +r¸lm+r m¸=n çrmtl
q= ¤ +r; +rr ln+ ar ; arrnrlrm+
23
23
186
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
==r; m ¬r a’rrl-n, g
”r, lç=r, rr¸¤rr arlo nrml=+
¤ ¤¸ lrrnr ar ; le-¬ l+r-¬
+;¬ ¤ret ‘rl+nnr +r ¬r;
çr ¤er ç, a=+ +q +r;¤r
çl a¬m = e+ +r;¤r ¬r;t
¬rln +r ‘rr ”r¤r, a¤mr¬ ar ;
ln;=+r; çl ar¬ +r mr¬¤
nrml=+ ¤¸ lrrnr = +rn +;
lrr;¬ + +r;¤r a¤¬r l¤¤+
¤¸¤r =¤ = =rr ¤¸+r çl
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ +t ¤mln
¬ q= n¸m + mr¬¤ +r qn¬r
+r lmn +; srer ç l+ ¤ç
a¤¬t ar¤lrr + +r;¤r +t +rt
rrr; a¤¢rr +; ;çr çl a¤¬t
¬¬¬t + ¤ln a¤¬ +n·n +r
¤¸¤r =¤ = +r¸e ¤¸+r çl ==r;
+r mr¬¤ ¬¤ n+ ¬mng
¬¬¬t +r ‘rr ”r¤r, a¤mr¬
ar ; ln;=+r; =rrm t +;nr
ç, ==r; m ‘rrl-n +t +r¤¬r
+;¬r çt +r¸e çl
mr> =¬rn¬ rrm çt q=
rrr ; a-rr+r; +r ¤ +r’r m
¤oe =+nr ç ar; +rq ;r=.
nr ¬çt çl m¬ ar¬ = a=
¤+r’r +r ==r; m ¤er¬ +r
l¬¤rn +; lenr çl =¤enr,
a=¤enr ar ; l¤;r rr +t +r q
l¤-nr ¬ +;n ç¸e ¬t¤¬ +r;,
m q= ¤r¤¬ +rn m emr ;ç¬r
¤rçnr ç¸ l a=+r =çt l¤>
=n +¤t; + q= orç = =¤”c
çrnr ç·-
''+l¤;r 'rrr;r' amm +t,
=ogm¸= oq e=rrnl
aec nrlç ¤lcn =or,
=¤rmt =m emrnll''
mr> a¤n¸+n aro’r +
+r;¤r ¤e ¤sr ç¸l ==r; +r
mr¬¤ ¤rç +¸ e +rt =mq , m¸ q
a= =¤‘rl+nmr¬g ¬ =¤”c
¤nr lonr ç l+ =¬g tss: n+
m a¤¬ ac ’n m =¤enr
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
¤l;¤n¬ +r
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
187
¬-m ar ; m¸ rn¸ ¬t¤¬ + or
ace ¤çe¸ çl l¬=¬ ¬-m lenr ç,
a=+t m¸rn¸ l¬l’¤n çl +rq ¬-mn
çt m; ¬rnr çl +rq : ¤”r ¤ro, +rq
za, :a, :a nr taa =re ¤ro, arl=r;
m;¬r çt ¤snr ç
el+¬ ¤nmr¬ +t ar¤rrrr¤t
¤ +rrmm-+rrm +t l¬-omt m mr¬¤
a¤¬t +rn ¤¤rret = ¤r=rer =r
mnr çl ¤rn-¤rn ¤; ¤re aonr çl
'ç +rm¤r¬lg mrn ol'
¬¤ ¬t¤¬ + =rm¬ +lo¬rq nr
+ ¤çrs =rs çrn ç, ¤r;r ar; =
l¬;r’rre rr ; e nt ç , +r q +rt =çnr m
+r n nr; ¬çt çr nr ç nr arlªr + n mt
= ¬ ¸ q¬ emnr ç , nr ¤;t¢rr + =mn
e¢n = l¤orlªrnr +r +m =¤enr
lment ç l ¤ln-¤r¬t +r qms r,
l¤nr-¤¸ > +r qms r nr ¬t¤¬ +
l+=t +rt ¤çe¸ +r çe n¸;-n ¬çt
l¬+e, nr ar¬ +r a+rrmr mr¬¤
a=+r çe arrmçrnr m c¸cnr çl
ar; a¤¬t qç eter +r =mr¤n +;
onr çl
a¬ =¤+r m¸ =n +r;¤r ç 'aq.
r¬nr ¤ arrnrlrm+ ¤n¬r +t +mtl'
nlo mr¬¤tn =ogm¸¤rr m ¤n¬r +t
a·¤n; ‘rl+nnr ¤;¤r¬ ¤; çr nr
¬t¤¬ +r ç; +rn =;e ¤ =¸mm ¤¬
¬rnr çl ¤ç m;¬ +t ¤¬rn ç; +l.
o¬rq +r çe a¤¬ aªr+ ¤nr=r =
c¸c çt enr ç, el+¬ çr;nr ¬çtl
¤lo+ o’r¬ + a¬¸=r; =¤rrrm
¤ ¤¸¤r ¬t¤¬ +t ¬t¤ =ogm¸= +¸¤r =
çt ‘r¸ = çr nt ç l m¬¸ ”n =¤n ¤;mrrmr
ç, ¤ç +¤e +lo¬rqnr qe¬ çt
q= = =r; m ¬çt arnr ç ¤lr+
a¤¬ ar¤+r l=ç +;¬ arnr ç l+
'm¸rn¸' +lo¬rqnr +r çe
¤ç e+ l¤’rre =m¸q +t ace ¬ot
ç ¬r ¤r¤= =m¸ q m lme mtl ¬t¤¬ +t
ç; =m=nr +r =mrrrr¬ +rr ln+ ‘r;t;
+ ;çn ç¸ e çt l+nr ¬r =+nr ç l m;¬
+ ¤ro =m=nr ¤nr +t rnr çt ¤¬t
;çnt çl ¤lo+ o’r¬ + a¬¸=r; e+
¬t¤¬ m =¤rrrm l¬=rr; =ogm¸=
+=¤rr = çt = +r¤ ç l ar¬ m¸ rn¸
¬ mçrnr¤s¤ m¤r ;=rr çl 'm¸rn¸'
+ =¤rr m '~t mr ¬ ¬t¤¬' ¬rm+
¤¸=n+ + ¤¸”o :t ¤; ¤ç¸n çt a·e
cm = =mqrnr ç l+ m¸rn¸ ¬t¤¬ +t
+lo¬rqnr +r çe ¬çt çl
~tmr + çt ‘r-or m ''m¸ rn¸ +r q
çe ¬çt ç -l¤r+¸ e ¬çt ç l m¸ rn¸
al=nr¤ + a¬ n ¤+r m +rogo ar ;
nr l>+ c m = ¤r¤= ar¬r ç l ¬r ¤t¬
n¸m e+ ¬t¤¬ m l=ç ¬çt +; ¤rn
a= n¸+ç o¸=; ¬t¤¬ m, =rrrr;¤rn·
+çt alrr+ +lo¬ ¤l;l=ªrlnnr m
l=ç +;¬t çrmtl
m¸rn¸ ¤ç l¤r+¸e ¬çt ç ¬r n¸m
a= =mqn çr l n¸ m ar’rr +;n çr l+
m¸rn¸ = l¬’¤n¬ l¤~rm +t nc=ªr
‘rr ln lme mtl e l+¬ e =r l¤~rm ¤r¬
+ lee n¸+ç nnr;t +;¬t ¤smtl
m;+; n¸m +¤e a¤¬r ‘r;t;
çt =rrn çr, ar; a=+ =rªr çt +rr.
ln+ ¬mng + =rªr =¤rr ar; a=
¤; l+nr +;¬ +t ¢rmnr +rt ¤et
¬rnt ç, ¤; +rrln+ q·n + =mr¤n
çr¬ + =rªr ¤r¤rmn ¬mng +t =¤
¤t¬ ¬¤c ¬çt çr ¬rntl n¸+çr;t =+rt
q·ere , ar=l+nnr , ere=re , =+rt
¤¬t ;çnt ç ar; a¬+ =rªr +¸¤or
ar; l¬;r’rr ;çnt ç ar; n ¤t¬ n¸+ç
a¤l¢rn ‘rrln ¬çt ¤r¬ ontl ‘rrn
ar; rrc¬r-’r¸-n, m¸rn¸ +r ar¬-o
e¬ + len n¸+ç nnr;t +;¬t ¤smtl
q·erar +r a-m¸ e¬ çt e+mr>
¤+rr¤’rret nnr;t çl ¬¤ n+ çmr;r
‘r;t; ç, çm l+nr’rte ;ç¬r çt çr.
mr, +¸e +rm +;¬r çrmrl am; çm
+n ·n =mq+;, ¤l;¤rrm +t ere=r
+ l¤¬r, a= e=r nr ¤=r =¤ o¬ +t
q·er + l¤¬r, +rm +;n ¤e nr çm
an;rrr; a¬r=+n çrn ¬rn ç ar;
q= n;ç a¤¬-ar¤+r l¤~rm¤¸¤r
m¸rn¸ + len nnr; +;n çl
~t mr ¬ arrmçrnr + =¤rr m
¤st l¤l¤> ¤rn le=rt ç ¬r ar¬ +
=mn +t +rn+; =m=nr çl-
''nç l¬l’¤n =¤r = ¬r¬r
l+ m¬¸ ”n l¬n¬ m¸ =r nr¤¸ ¤r +rm
+; =+nr ç , a¬m =¤= ¤c +;
m¸=rnr¤¸¤r ç 'arrmçrnr' ‘r;t; +r
an, ¤n¬r +r an ¬çt çl ¬r ¤t¬
n¸+ç ¬tn ¬t n+et¤ o ;çt ªrt, ¤ç
m;¬ + ¤ro +rt n+et¤ ont ;çmtl
¬tn ¬t m¬ +r l+=t ar; lo’rr m
mrs¬ +t =+rr¤¬r ;çnt ç, m;¬ ¤;
¤ç +rt ¬çt ;çntl''
¤rt¤¬ ar ; m¸ rn¸ +r ;ç=n
=ogm¸= +¸¤r = çt =mq m arnr çl
m¸rn¸ +nr ç? q=+t ¬tn ¬t ¬r¬+.
r;t çr ¬rnt ç l ¤¸ ¤n =ogm¸ =o ¤
~t ;rmere¬t l=nrm + mrrnm
= +rr;ntn l=çnr m o’r ¬ ¤ ag
n¤ro, m¸n=¤r e ;çr çl nlo ar¬
+t mr¬¤-¬rln q= ¤;m ;ç=n ¤
l=çnrm o’r¬ +r a¤¬ ¬t¤¬ m
anr; nr ar¬ +t l¤+c =m=nrar
= e¸c+r;r ¤rnr ¬r =+nr çl
'mr n', ¬n l=; = ¬-m¬r
çl mrn, mrn m an; ç, e+ mrn
¤r;-¤r; ¬-m-m;¤r +r ¤+ ¤ernt
ç , nr o¸ =;t ¤-rr¬ +rc o nt ç l
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
a= mr n¸ -pon ¬ a=
aer l++ rrr¤ m lo·n ¤;¤rç
+ =¤r m a¤¬ ¤¸ > mr ¤re +r
¤rnrl a=+t arrmr ¬r n->¤ng
çt =r =rl;+ ¤orªrr m , a=+t
arrmr ¬r o¤t ar+r’r m l¬;-n;
m s;rnt ç¸ q l+=t +rt, er l++ ¤=n¸
+ =+¤+ = =¤=rlen çr =+nt
ªrt, ¤ç mr¬r q= ¤re+ m a¤¬
lee e+ er l++ ar~n ¬rm mntl
+¤e nçt e+ ¤t¬ ªrt, l¬= ¤;
¤ç a¤¬r =m=n er l++ =¸ =r
e¤ a¬¸;rm +l-qn +; =+nt ªrtl
a=+r ¤rn+ l¤¤r;, ¤rn+ =¸=r
ar; a=+r ¬t¤¬ n+, +nr a=
¤re+ + lee çt ªrr, l¬=+ +r;¤r
¤ç a¤ +rt ¬tl¤n ªrt?
¤”rr n+ e+ mr +t mmnr
+ =rªr ¤ç ;r ¬ a¤¬ ¤·¤ +r
lo¬-lo¬ ¤c n ç¸ e o =rnt ;çtl
ar ; ¬¤ ¤ç =+¸ e ¬r¬ ern+
çr mnr ç , a= a¤ +rt a=+t
¤crq-le=rrq +r =rmr¬ ¬¸cr¬
+ lee l+n¬r +lo¬ ~m +;¬r
¤snr çl çrerl+ n =¤ =rmr¬
¤ç¸n ªrrs = ªrl a= o’r m ¬çr
+ erm lmcgct + ot¤+ + ¤+r’r
m +¸’r-+r= +t ¤crq ¤; l¬;-n;
l¤orrnn¬ +;n ç¸e =-nr”r¤¸¤+
=r;r ¬t¤¬ l¤nr o n ç , ¤çr
e+ l¤orªrt +t ar¤’n+nre çt
l+n¬t ;çt çrmt? l¤; +rt +¸e nr
ªrt çt, ¤; qn¬ = ¬¸mrs + lee
+rt ¤¤r;t mr +r +q lo¬r n+ rrr;
¤l;~m +;¬r ¤snr ªrrl mr¤re +
=·¤r ¤m
l¬=+r +rq ¬çt, a=+r ¤r
lee e+ rrr nt, e+ ¤ro; ar ; ¤crq
+r ¤=nr, l¬=m le=r¬ +r a¤¬r
nrs-¤> ar; =;+¤s +t +em
=m c+; ¤ç ¤c ¬ + lee ¤ro’rrer
¬rnr ªrr, ar; =nrçt-o¤rn q¬
=¤ +r =r;to¬ + lee a= a¤¬
¤;=r ¤; +q-+q lo¬r n+ +rm
+;¬r ¤snr ªrrl
e+ ‘r¸+r lo¬, mr¤re ¬ ¬¤
¤çe-¤çe le=r¬ +r ~tm¤r’r
l+nr, a= =mn +r, a=+r ar¬.
-o + ¤e e+ mr +r pon-e+
m;t¤ mr +r pon-çt ¬r¬ =+nr
ç, a= ¬t¤¬ orln¬t mr + pon
m a¤r; =r¸ºrt ªrtl
el+¬ ar¬ a=+ m¬ ¤;
e+ o¸l’¤-nr ernt ç¸q çl mr¤re
+r a+e ¬me m = çr+; ¬r¬
m s; em ;çr çl q=+ ¤çe ++rt
a= a¤¬ ¤rr·n +t, a¤¬ e+r.
+t¤¬ ar; l¬rr¬nr +t a¬¸+r¸ln
qn¬ +c¸ =¤ m ¬çt ç¸q ªrtl e+
¢r¤r + lee a=+ =rm¬ +¸ e
a-rr+r;mn çr mnr, l+-n¸ n+rt
a= ¤+r¸ + ‘rr’¤n ar’¤r=¬ +r
=m;¤r çr arnr l+ '¬r =¤ l¤-nre
rnrm+; m; ‘r;¤rrmn çrn ç, m
a¬+t =m=n ar¤’n+nre ¤¸¤r
+; onr ç¸l' ar; q= ar’¤r=¬ m
¤¸¤rnnr l¤’¤r= +;¬ ¤rer m e+
a=+t +rt arrmr ªrtl
an· mrnr ¬ a¤¬ ar =¸ ¤r e
len ar; a¤¬ ¤·¤ = +çr l+
s;r ¬çtl ¤rme m m;r e+ o¸=;r
¤cr ;çnr ç ar; mrn ¤;rnr çl
a=+r +rt ¬rm mr¤re çl ¬¤ +rt
n¸+ç ¬me m ¬rn =mn s; em,
a¤¬ +rnr +r ¤¸+r; lenr +;¬rl
¤·¤r +rt nr arl=r; a=t mr
+r ¤cr ªrr, a= l¤’¤r= çr mnrl
+rq n+ ¬çt, ¤lr+ ¤¸¤r l¤’¤r=,
a=+r ¤r¬ +r nçt nr =·¤r ;r¬
çl
a=t lo¬ ¤ro’rrer = rr; er.
cn =mn ¬me m ¬¤ mr¤re +r
s; emr, ¤= a=¬ a¤¬ ¤;¤rç
+rrq mr¤re +r ¤¸+r;r, 'mr¤re
+rnrl +nr n¸m nçt çr? mr ¬ +çr
ªrr l+ n¸m çr ar; m n¸+ç ¤¸+r; e¸l
m a+e s; ;çr ç¸l' ar; ¤sr +
¤te = e+ ar¤r¬ arnt, 's;r mn
erc +rnr, m nçt ç¸, l¬+rn çr+;
rr; ¤e ¬rarl
q= n;ç ;r¬ ¤ç ¤re+ ¤¸+.
r;r +;nr ªrr ar; ;r¬ ¤çt ar¤r¬
a= arr; ont ªrtl mr ¬ nç =¤
ar’¤n e¤ ¤m + +rr¤ = =¸¬r
ar; mr¤re +r =erç ot l+ a¤
+t ¤r; ¤ç a¤¬ ¬me ¤re +rrq
+r =rm¬ ar¬ + lee +çl
o¸ =; lo¬ ¬¤ ¤ç ¤re+
¬me = m¸¬; ;çr ªrr, a=¬ a¤¬
+rrq +r ¤¸+r;rl =or +t +rrln çt
ar¤r¬ arntl e l+¬ ¤re+ ¬
+rrq = +çr l+ ¤ç =rm¬ arnl
a= ar¤r¬ ¬ arr; lonrl 'ar¬
m ¤ç¸rr ·n=n ç¸ +rnr, ¬çt ar
=+nrl' e l+¬ ¤re+ ¬ ço
l+nr, n¤ ¤ç ¤sr +t ernrar =
e+ ·¤re + ¤’r m l=; ¤; mr;¤=r
23
23
188
+ ç .
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤c n , ¤e-¤¸ e ¤cr ;n ,
¤ro’rrer ¬r¬ m o ; çr mntl
n¤ al¬·er¤¸¤+ ¤re+ mr¤re
¤ro’rrer + lee ¤e ¤srl ¤çr
a= a¤¬r +rq ¤ro nro ¬ ;çr,
+nrl+ a=+r m¬ nr q=m emr
ªrr l+ +¤ ¤ç ¬ me m ¬r+;
a¤¬ +rrq + =rªr =rel q=t n;ç
mçt¬r ¤tn mnl
mr ¤¤r;t nç =¤ ;r¬-;r¬
=¸¬nt ªrt ar; q’¤;+¸¤r + ar¬.
-o m a¤¬r ¤rr·n, a¤¬t m;t¤t
=¤ +¸e +r¸e ¬rnt ªrt, ar; ç¬r;
¤r; a¤¬t l¬rr ¬nr +r rr-n
mr¬nt ªrtl q=t ¤ro’rrer +
m¸ =¬¬r + a¤¬ l¤n;r + =+mr¬r.
ªr +¸e rrrlm+ +¸rn +;¬ ªrl q¬
m rm-l’r¢r+r +r , ¬r l¬·’r¸ r+ =¤r
= +¸e ¤re+r +r q+cgor +;+
¤ro’rrer ¤ern ªr, =r¤ + lee
nªrr¤=; ¤r¤n çr¬ ¤ret +rcr ¤;
çt l¬+r; ;ç¬r ¤snr ªrrl
¤rn+ l’r”n +r +rc m rr¬
aªr¤r ¤=n¸e er¬t çrnt ªrtl ar;
l¤rr¤r¤¸ > a¬rªr mr ¤re +r ? o¸ =;
es+ ¬¤ nç +çn l+ ¤ +rc m
+nr-+nr ernm, n¤ ¤ mr¤re
+ ¤ln ln;=+r; = m¸=+;rnr +;n
ªrl
a= ;rn mr¤re +r m¬ ¤ç¸n
+rr;t ªrrl a=¬ a¤¬t mr = m¸=¬t
+r +rc m o¬ + lee +¸e mrmrl
el+¬ ¤¤r;t mr + ¤r= +rer +nr
;=rr ªrr? el+¬ a=¬ çm’rr +t
n;ç q= ¤r; +rt a¤¬ mr¤re ¤;
çt l¬+r; ;ç¬ +r l¬’¤n l+nr,
ar ; a¤¬ ¤¸ > = ¤r et l+ ¤ç
¤¬¤r=t a¤¬ +rrq = m¸= +r +rc
o¬ + lee +¸e mrml
o¸=; lo¬ =or +t +rrln ¬¤
mr¤re ¬me m a¤¬ ¤;¤rç +r.
rq = lmer ar; ¬¤ ªrrst o; n+
=r e-+¸ o ¤¸ + , n¤ mr ¤re ¬ a¤¬
+rrq +r ¤nrnr l+ a= +nr o¸·=r
ç? ar; a¤¬ m¸=¬t +r o¬ lee
+rq +rc mrmtl ¤;¤rç ¤re+ ¬
+çr, '+rnr mr¤rel n¸m nr ¬r¬n
çt çr l+ m e+ mrm¸et ¤;¤rçr ç¸
ar; m; ¤r= rr¬ ¬çt ç, el+¬
nç m+=r¬ +t çlsnr n¸m en
¬rar ar; a¤¬ m¸=¬t +r +rc
+; orl' mr¤re q= ¤rn = ¤ç¸n
=r¸’r ç¸ar l+ a¤ a=+ ¤r= +rt
m¸=¬t +r +rc o¬ + lee +rq
¤t¬ çr mnt ç, el+¬ q= ¤rn
+t a= ar; +rt =r¸’rt ªrt l+ nç
+r c a= a¤¬ ¤¬¤r=t +rrq =
¤r¤n ç¸q çl
¤ç =r¸ ’rt-=r¸ ’rt m¸ = ¬t +
rr; +t n;¤ ¤cr ar; ¬çr ¤ç¸n =
es + m¸ =¬t +r a¤¬t-a¤¬t +r c
o ;ç ªr, ¤çt =¤= ¤te ar=¸+nr
= =rsr çr mnrl =¤+ ¤r= +rc
o¬ +r l¤l+r-¬ ¤+r; +t a¬+
¤=n¸e ªrtl ar; l+=t +r +rt ¤¤r;
a¬rªr ¤re+ +t +r c +t n;¤
o=r¬ n+ +t ¤¸;=n ¬ ªrtl ¤ç
a¤¢rr arn-n a=@ ªrtl mr¤re
+t ar=rr m ar=¸ ar mnl n+rt
=r+rr·n = m¸=¬t +t o¸l”c a=+t
ar; mntl a-çr¬ mr¤re + çrªr
= m+=r¬ +t çr s t e et ar ;
a= e+ ¤s ¤;n¬ m aser ar;
¤ç l¤; +r; mntl ar; q= n;ç
= çrnr mnrl ¬¤ n+ ¤ m+=r¬
ase+; =rret +; l+ ¤ç l¤;
+r; ¬rnt ªrtl
q== =+rt erm ¤l+n ;ç
mnl n¤ m¸=¬t ¬ a¬rªr ¤re+
+r mro m aor lenr ar; m+=r¬
+t çrst + ¤r; m ¤¸erl mr¤re ¬
a¤¬ ¤¬¤r=t ¤;¤rç +rrq + ¤r;
m =¤ +¸e ¤nr lonr l+ += ¤ç
a=+t ¤¸+r; +r ¬¤r¤ lonr +;nr
ªrr, += ¤ç a=+ =m =rer +;nr
ªrr ar; a-n m ¤nrnr l+ +=
a=¬ m+=r¬ +t çrst ot?
m¸=¬t ¬ mr¤re = +çr l+
¤ç a= ¬ me m e ¤e, a¤¬ +rrq
+r lo=rern l mr ¤re + lee q==
¤c+; =r¸’rt +t ¤rn ar; +nr çr
=+nt ªrt?
a=¬ a¤¬ +rrq +r ¤¸ +r;r l+
¤ç =rm¬ arel el+¬ a= lo¬
arr; m +rq ar¤r¬ ¬çt arql
a=¬ +q ¤r; ¤¸+r;rl +rq arr;
¬çtl ar; ¤ç ¬me m a¤¬ +rrq
= ¤rn +;¬ + lee rr¸=rl a= +rn
ªrr l+ a=+ m¸=¬t +çt a= q¸or
¬ mr¬ el n¤ ¤ç¸n o¸; = ar¤r¬
arql
'mr ¤rel n¸ +çr;t mr ar ; n¸ +ç.
r; ¤m e¤ l¤’¤r= + +r;¤r çt m
n¸m ermr + ¤r= arnr ªrr, el+¬
a¤¬ m¸=¬t = +ç or l+ a-ç
a+rt ¤ç¸n lo¬r n+ qn¬r; +;¬r
çrmrl'
e l +¬ ar ¬ ¤ç l ¬m¸ ¤r
l¬;r+r; +r =m¸ ¤r =r+r; =¤
=ogm¸ = rr;nt ¤; ç l ¬r a¬+r =r.
l¬rn er+r ¤r¤n +; ;ç ç, ¤ rr-n
çl =·¤r ¤m çt oc ¤;¤g n+ e
¬rnr çl =¸l”c+re = mrn+re
n+ nr ¤ç ‘rl+n l¤;er +r çt
o¸; = ar¤r¬ ont nr a¬+r o’r¬
ont ªrtl el+¬ ar¬ ¤r l¬+c =
ar¤r¬ o ;çt çl nlo +rq a¬+r
¤¸+r;l
23
23
189

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
‘rrl=>n mçl”rnr ¬ mrc nr; = nt¬ ¤+r; +t l=lçnr ¤nrq çl çm a¬ nt¬r +r
nmrm¸¤r-l=lç, ;¬rm¸¤r-l=lç e¤ =nrm¸¤r-l=lç + ¬rm = =mq =+n ç·-
t .met(nmrm¸¤rt¸ ¤ç ç, ¬r a’r¸lç ¤n,m> nr q¤ gr;r ¤r¤n +t ¬rnt çl q= met-l=lç
¬r¬¬ ¤rer +r nlo =¬r¬ +;¤r +; ‘r¸l¤ ar; ¤l¤> ¤¬r lonr ¬rn nr ¤ç a¤¬t l=lç ¬çt
+; =+nrl ¬¤ ¤ç çrªr nr ¤; mer +;nr ç, n+rt l=lç +r ¤o’r¬ +; =+nr çl nç l=lç
o¸=;r +r al¬”c +;nt ç,l+=t +r mme ¬çt +; =+ntl
z. m>-l=lç ¤ç ç,¬r o’r ar; +re +t a¤¢rr ;=r+; l+=t e+ o¤nr +r e¢n +;+
m>¬¤ = ¤r¤n +t ¬rnt çl nç l=lç l¬=+r ¤r¤n çr, ¤ç o¤nr +r =m;¤r nr m>¬¤ +;+
çrªr m ¤e, lmorq e¤ =r¬-¤rot + ar+r¸”r¤r qrnrlo ernr ç nr +rq ¤=n¸ e+ =ªre = o¸=;
=ªre ¤; =+lmn +;nr ç nªrr ar; +rt +q ¤+r; + ¤mr+r; lo=rr =+nr çl q= ¤+r; +t
l=lçnr lo=rr¬ = erm ar+l”rn çrn çl e=t +¸l>m ;tln = lmet ç¸q ¢r¸q l=lçnr ¤nror
=mn n+ t lc+ntl
:. a”cr mnr m +;¬ = ¬r = nml=lç ¤ r¤n çr nt ç , ¤ç nr m l=lç ç l nç =rn ar ; ‘rrl=>n
l=lç çl
¡. ¤rªrt l=lç l>m¸¤rrntn a= ¤;m=rrr +t ç, l¬= mçrl=lçnr l>m¸¤rrntn l=lç +çn
çl nç ¤ç l=lç ç, ¬r çm’rr q’¤; + aro’r = çt +rn +;nt çl a= ¤;m l=lç + arrt¬
aro ¤+r; +t ‘rl+nnr çrnt ç, l¬¬+r ¤¤r¬ ¤rn¬le nrmo’r¬ + l¤+r¸ln¤ro + ¡: ¤ =¸>
m l¬+¬ ¤+r; = l+nr ç·-
''nnrl¤rmrlo¤ro¸+rr¤·+rn=+¤rrçmr¬l+rrrrn’¤ll :·¡:ll
a=(+r¸n¬n¸ = al¤rmrlo aro l=lçnr +r ¤+c çr¬r +rn=+¤rr +t ¤rl¤n ar; a¬
+r¸nr + rrmr = ¤rrrr ¬ çr¬r (n nt¬r çrn ç¸
• al¤rmr·- a¤r¸ + =mr¬ =¸¢m =¤ rrr;¤r +; e¬rl
• elrrmr·- ‘r;t; +r çr+r (+rr;çt¬¸ +; e¬r l
• mlçmr·- ‘r;t; +r ¤sr(l¤’rre+rn¸ +; e¬rl
• ml;mr·- ‘r;t; +r +rr;t +; e¬rl
• ¤rl¤n·- l¬= l+=t ql·en +rrln+ ¤orªr+r =+r¤mr> = çt ¤r¤n +; e¬rl
• ¤r+r+n·- l¤¬r =+r¤c +rrln+ ¤orªr =¤rrt q·er +t ¤¸ln a¬rnr’r çr ¬r¬rl
• ¤l’rr¤·- ¤r¤r +r¸nr +r ar; n¬-n ¤orªrr +r ¤’r m çr¬rl
• ql’rr¤·- a¬ +r¸n ar; +rrln+ ¤orªrr +r ¬r¬r =¤r m ar¤-¬ +;¬ ar; a¬ ¤; ‘rr=¬
+;¬ +t =rmªn ¤r¤n +;¬rl
l=lçnr
¬¤ =rrr+ nrm =rrr¬r m arm ¤cnr ç nr a=+r ar;rrr¬r +re m a¬+
¤+r; +t l=lçnr ¤r¤n çrnt çl l=çnrlmnr ¬ q¬ l=lçnr m ¬çt ¤=¬ +t
¤rn +çt çl =ogm¸=o¤ ¬ a¤¬t +; +me +t e=r¬t = le=r+; nç ¤rogn
=rmmt q= ¤¸=n+ m er¤¬ +r aroºr lonr ªrrl

23
23
190
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
a-rr ;r ar ; a¬rer or ¤ m.
e ¤=n¸ e ç l n or ¬r e+ =ªrr¬ ¤;
¬çt ;ç =+nl ¤+r’r l¬+rnnr,
¬nr ¬r’r ar; ¤n¬nr ¤or¬
+;nr ç, ¬¤l+ a-rr;r +rn,
l¬;r’rr ar ; a¤ n¬nr +r ¤ nt+
çl or¬r e+ o¸=; = l¤¤;tn m¸¤r
rrm +t ¤=n¸e çl q=tlee =+rt
rrrlm+ m -ªrr ¬ nrml=+
‘rl¬ nr +t n¸e¬r, a-rr; =
+t mq ç ar; =rlr¤+ ‘rl¬
nr +t a¬re = l nrml=+
‘rl¬ nr ==r; m lç=r, rr¸¤rr,
q”nr, g”r arlo l¤¬r’r +r;t
‘rl¬ nr +r ¤=r;-¤¤r; +;nt
ç , ¬¤l+ =rlr¤+ ‘rl+nnr
alç =r, ¤ m, onr, =o+rr¤
arlo =¸ ¬¬rrm+ =rrr +r
¤¤r;-¤=r; +;¬ m l¬;-n;
emt ;çnt çl
n¸m + m¸¤r-rrm +t ¤rr.
r¬nr + +r;¤r q= =mn = =r;
m nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +r ¤re
¤rer çl =rlr¤+ ‘rl¬ nr ¤¸¤r
=¤ = mr¤r çr ¤¸+t çl
m +ç ¤¸ +r ç¸ l+ m¸ q
¤;m=rrr ¬ ¬r ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln
+;¤rq , a=+ a¬¸ =r; =r.
lr¤+nr + ¤¸ ¤r ¤ rn· pr= +
=rªr-=rªr nrml=+ =rrr +rt
arl=r;t =r = e ;çt ç l a=+ ¤¤
=r¸¤ ‘rl¬ çt¬ ¤’r¬ l¬nr-n
l¬;r’rr + +rr¤ m s¸¤ ç¸e, lm¬
¤n¬ ‘rl¬ = ¬¸s l¤¬r, ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
ar; =r¢rrr+r; a=++r¤ çl
lm¬ +; a¤¬ al-nm lo¬ l¤nr
;ç çl nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr +t nç
l=ªrln =¤”c rrr”r¤rr +;nt ç
l+ a= ¤;m =rrr +r ==r; m
a¤n;¤r çr ¤¸+r ç, ¤nr-¤nr
==r; + =rm¬ a= ¤;m =rrr
+ ¤+c çr¬ +r =mn ¬¬ot+
ar ;çr ç, n ¤¤t-=r¸¤t ‘rl¬
çt¬ nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr n¬ mln
= m¸rn¸ +t n;¤ ¤c ;çt çl nt’r¸
ar; mrç+mo ¬r +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr
+;+ mn ç , a== q¬ or ¬r
rrmr + rrmr¤rnr m +rr;t arn+
ernr ç¸ar çl =+rt +r e+ çt
l¤-nr =rrn ¬r ;çt ç l+ rrm
+ ¬rm ¤; a;¤r =r;¤r =¤nr
+r rr¬, ¤¤r ar; ml=¬or m
ar ;çr ç, am; ¬q ‘rl¬ +
¤+c çr¬ = ¤ç ¤-o çr ¬rnr
ç nr a= ¤; ¤e¬ ¤re +;rsr
ermr +r +nr çre çrmr? çm
o=rn ç m¸rn¸ a¤’n+rr¤t ç,
+re ¤+ +t mln + =rªr-=rªr,
ç; ¤=n¸ ·n¤=ªrr, =+nnr arlo
=+rt +r a-n =¸ l¬l’¤n ç l
l+=t +t rr¤;rçc ar ; l+=t
+t =r¸’rt = +re¤+ ¤¸¤r =¤ =
a¤+rrl¤n çl n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +
=rªr-=rªr ¤ç¸n l¤’rre ar;
¤ +rr¤’rret ‘rl+nnr çm ’rr
çt =mr¤n çr nt ar ;çt ç l
mr¬¤tn ·n¤=ªrr q= ¤¤r¬
m ¤¸¤r =¤ = a=mªr çl
mr¬¤tn ¤nr= mr> s¸¤n
ç¸ e +r ln¬+ +r =çr;r çt
=rl¤n çr mrl l¬= ¤;m=rrr
+ a¤n;¤r +t mçl”r a;l¤-o
¬ rrr”r¤rr +t ç, m; ¬t¤¬ +
¤ r;++r +re = çt ¤ç =rrr
¤;r¢r-a¤;r¢r =¤ = m; qo
lmo a¤¬t a¤l=ªrln +r +rr¬
l¬;-n; +;rnt ¤et ar ;çt çl
m aqr¬¤’r +¸e +rt =mq
¬çt ¤r ;çr ªrrl m +rt =r=rl;+
¬t¤r +t n;ç nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr
= arnlrr+ ¤+rrl¤n ªrrl =¬g
tsc: m a¤r¬+ m¸ q emrm emr
ot mql a= =mn nr m +¸e ¬çt
=mq =+r, ¤; a¤ a·et n;ç
=mq ;çr ç¸ l+ ¤çe m l¤¤;tn
lo’rr m ¤e ;çr ªrr, ¤;-n¸ e+
çt qc+ m a=¬ m;r m¸ç a¤¬t
23
23
191
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr a¬rnr=
çt =r¢rrr+r; m ¤oe mq l
¤ rn¢r aror¬-¤ or¬ + ¤r¤¬¸ o
m¸= + a+rr¤ m, ¬r +¸e çr ;çr
ªrr, a=+ ¤r; m , m +¸ e +rt
¬çt =mq =+rl ¤nr çt m¸=o¤
+t ¤;¤r;¬ mrªr ¤; emt, e+
om +rnr çt ¤ec mql m a+rt
= +re çt ¬çt ¤rnr ªrr l+ m¸ =o ¤
l¤;r=n m =¤ =rrr =r¤ +; ¤e
lon l +;t¤ or =re n+ m¸ q
+¸ e +rt çr ’r ¬çt ;çrl q=+
¤ro rrt;-rrt; ¬¤ =r;t l=ªrln
= a¤mn +;rnr mnr nr m +¸e
=mq =+r ç¸l
nçt +r;¤r ç l+ m-''m¸=
mrl¤o or¬r =rs, l+=+ erm¸
¤r ¤l ¤leçr;t m¸ =o ¤ +t mr l¤-o
lonr lmern'' ¤ret ¤rn ¤;
alrr+ +r;r=r +;nr ç¸l nç =.
=r; e+ çt ¤;m =rrr +r l¤l¤>
=¤ çl e= l¤’rre =¤=¤ m a=
¤;m =rrr = =r¢rrr+r; +;r¬ m
+¤e =n =ogm¸= çt =¢rm çl
m¸= +¸¤r l¤¬r nç +rn ¤¸¤r =¤
= a=++r¤ çl 'm¸=', q’¤; +r
çt =rlr¤+ =¤=¤ çl oc amm
= arq ç¸q arrmr çt m¸= ¤o ¤;
¤ç¸¤ ¤rnt çl q= ¤+r; + ¤n¬
m¸= +r ar’rt¤ro ¤r¤n çrn çt
¬t¤¬ m ar¬-o +t eç; ors¬
emnt çl nr+re =nger+ +t
l¤l+r-¬ =rlr¤+ ‘rl+nnr +t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸lnnr çr¬ emnt ç,
¬t¤ mrnr +t ¤l;lrr +r a¬rnr=
m¸=-+¸¤r = errr ¬rnr çl q=+
¤ro +lm+ l¤+r= + =rªr
amm +t n;¤ ¤cnr ç¸ar, ¬t¤
e+ çt ¬-m m a= ¤;m =rrr m
et¬ çr ¬rnr çl q= ¤+r; m¸=
+¸ ¤r = ¬t¤ e+ çt ¬-m m
¬-m-m;¤r + ¤++; = e¸c +;
mr¢r ¤r¤n +; enr çl m ¤çe
çt +ç ¤¸ +r ç¸ l+ =rlr¤+nr
ar ; nrml=+nr or l¤¤;tn
‘rl¬ nr çl or¬r e+ =ªrr¬ ¤;
¬çt ;ç =+ntl mrc =¤ = ;rn
ar; lo¬ + aorç;¤r = =mqr
¬r =+nr çl =¸n +rm¤r¬g +
aon çrn çt a-rr;r +rrm ¬rnr
ç, q= ¤+r; =n =ngm¸= +
¤;¤rr m =ml¤n çrn çt a-r
r+r; +rrm ¬rnr çl m; a¬¸+r¤r
= mre¸m ç¸ar l+ m¸= + ¤;¤rr
m ¤o +; =+rt nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr
+ a mt+r; + =rªr-=rªr a¬+r
rnrm¬ +t ¤rªr¬r al¬¤rn çl
¬t¤ =¤n a= l=ªrln m ¬çt çr.
nr l+ ¤ç a+er amt+r; ar;
a¬+r rnrm +;¬ m =¢rm çrl
nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr ¬ ¬t¤ +r e=r
mrnr ¬re m ¤=r ;=rr ç l+ ¤ç
a¬+ ¤’rt+r¸ n çr +;, ¬r +¸ e +rt
+; ;çr ç, a= -nrn =mn ar;
ot+ =mqnr ç, m¸= + =rl¬rn
m ¬rn çt nrml=+ +rr¤¬re ¤¸¤r
=¤ = o¸; +rrm ¬rnt ç, ¤;-n¸
q=+ lee ¤¸¤r =m¤¤r al¬¤rn
çl =m¤¤r + l¤¬r +¸e +rt ¬çt
lme =+nrl ¤nr çt m¸= + ¤ln
=ml¤n ç¸ar l+ nrml=+ =rrr
+ ¤rr¬ =r¸e ¬rn çl ¬t¤ ¬r
+¸e +; ;çr ç, a=+ +re ¤¸;
+r nr+re qr¬ çr ¬rnr ç l
e =t l=ªrln m ¤¸ ¤r a mt+r; =;e
ar; =++r¤ çr ¬rnr çl ¤;-n¸
+¤e amt+r; = +rm ¬çt ¤¬
=+nrl nrml=+ ‘rl¬ nr ¤ç¸n
¤¤e çrnt ç, ¤ l¤; ++rt o¤r¤
=+nt çl an· amt+r; + =rªr
a¬+rr¤r + rnrm +t +rt ¤rªr¬r
m¸ = + =rm¬ +;¬t ar¤’n+ ç l
m¸ = ¤;m onre¸ çr n ç l q= ¤ +r;
amt+r; ar; rnrm +t ¤rªr¬r
nr+re =¤t+r; +; en çl
qrr; m¸= ¬ +=¤rr +;+
¬t¤ +t ¤rªr¬r =¤t+r; +t, ar
r; a=+t +rnr m nrml=+nr
+r =ªrr¬ =rlr¤+nr e e nt
ç l q= ¤ +r; ¢r¤r +r; m m¸ =
+¸¤r = nrml=+nr = =ç¬ çt
çm’rr-çm’rr + lee ¬t¤ +r
e¸c+r;r lme ¬rnr çl
e rm l¬= +rn +r +q
¬-mr m çr ¬r a=++r¤ ¤nrn ç ,
m¸= +¸¤r = ¤ç ¤l;¤n¬ ¢r¤r+r;
m çr ¬rnr çl m¬ q= ¤+r; +
¤l;¤n ¬ ¤ rn¢r çr n o =r ç l
m¸q ¤;m =rrr ¬ =¤”c ¤nrnr
l+ l¬= ¤+r; ¤r¤e +t çrst
m = e+ ¤r¤e +r or¬r e+;
o =r¬ = =+rt ¤r¤er + ¤+¬ +r
qr¬ çr ¬rnr ç , a=t ¤ +r; =+rt
=ml¤n ermr + amt+r; ar;
23
23
192

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m > l¤or çmr; o ’r m arl.
o+re = ¤et ar ;çt ç l ‘r-o =
=¸l”c +t ar¤lrr + l=çr-n ¤; çt
çmr; >l”rnr ¬ m> +t ;¤¬r +t çl
'‘r-o¤g' = '¤;¤g' +t ¤rl¤n +r
çmr; o’r¬ +r l=çr-n ¤¸¤r=¤ =
=rn çl nç çmr; o’r¬ +r a·¤nm
lo·n l¤qr¬ çl m> l¤or +r ¤n¬
¬+et m¸=ar + +r;¤r ç¸arl l¤¬r
m¸= ot¢rr + +rq m> l=ç çr çt ¬çt
=+nrl m¸=o¤ + mrrnm = ¬r ¤l.
;¤n¬ mr¬¤nr m ar ;çr ç, ¤ç mr>
m> ‘rl+n +r çt ¤+rr¤ çl ‘r-o ¤g
= ¤;¤g +t ¤rl¤n + l=çr-n +r
çt m¸=o¤ ¤¸¤r =rn ¤mrl¤rn +; ;ç
çl erm +çn ç, l¤qr¬ + q= n¸m
m m> +t ¤rn +¤e a-rrl¤’¤r=t
erm çt mr¬n çl
m¸=o¤ + ‘r-or- ''m nr ¤¸¬rnt
+ =rªr +çnr ç¸ l+ m nr l¤qr¬ +
‘rrrr+nrar = lme¬ çt ==r; m
l¬+er ç¸l +nrl+ q= =mn ==r; m
¤¸¤r = nrml=+ ¤¸lrrnr +r =rmr¤n
ç, q=lee q¬ ¤¸lrrnr + =rrr+ çt
==r; m ¬¬; ar ;ç çl e= erm
¬rc+ lo=rr+; ermr +r ar+l”rn
+;n ç , ar¬ +t +rr”rr m a-ç ¬ro¸ m;
+çn çl n erm mr> ¤n¤¸¬+ çrn çl
q=t +r;¤r ar¬ m > =¤t mçrl¤qr¬
= ermr +r l¤’¤r= ao mnr ¬¤l+
l¬n¬t ‘rl+n m> m ç, a=+ =mr¬
o¸l¬nr +t +rq ¤=n¸ ‘rl+nmr¬ ç çt
tl''
mçl”r a;l¤-o ¬ q=t lo·n m >
+ ¤r; m +çr ç-
''¬¤ e+ mçr¬ ¬¬-=m¸orn
rr¸e m = ao =rsr çrnr ç nr +r¬=r
m > = ¬t¤¬t m > ç aªr¤r a= ¤¸ ¬¬t .
l¤n +;¬ ¤ret +r¬=t ‘rl+n ç?
+rr;n m or mçrm> ç -e+ nr ¤-o
mrn;mg +r m> ç ¬r mrn¸+r¸lm +
¤ln ¬¬nr + ¬rmn ¤m +t =r¤+rrm
¤¸+r; ç ar; o¸=;r ar; alrr+ m¸¤n
ar ; ;ç=n¤¸ ¤r ç ¬r a+rt aogrrrlcn
¬çt ç¸ar çl'' m¸=o¤ ¤çt lo·n m>
a¤¬ l’r”nr +r on ç l¬= a;l¤-o
¬ m¸¤n +çr ªrrl
m> +r ;ç=n n+rt =mq m ar
=+nr ç , ¬¤ m¸ =, l’r”n + =ogm¸ ¤rr
= =n¸”c çr ¬rn çl ¬¤ 'm¸=' ,pon
= ¤=-¬ çrn ç, n+rt m> +r ;ç=n
=rren ç, ar; 'm>' m¸l+n onr ç,
''m¸= =nr”r mr>¤r a-nªrr ¬çtl''
q=t +r;¤r ar¬ m¸ =o ¤ +t m >
ot¢rr mr¬¤nr m ¤ç¸¸n ¤sr ¤l;¤n¬
er ;çt çl
m> +r ¤+rr¤-
+rr;n¤”r m e+ m¸ @ l¤or
l¤omr¬ ç l¬=+r arrrr; ç ¬ro nªrr
¤n¬r-=n;r + a¬¸=¤ =¤o¬-l¤lrr
+ l+r-¬-l+r-¬ n;t+ l aorç;¤
rn· nlo çm ar mg r¤l¬ +r e+
er+l¤’r”r + =rªr =trrr =¤rr çr¬
+ +r;¤r, +¸e r¤l¬nr +r ¬¤ +;+
m¬¸”n a=+ =m=¤ ¤n¬r-=n;r +
=rªr =¤rr =ªrrl¤n +; =+nr çl
e+ = ¤¸ ¤r arrnrlrm+ a¬¸ ’rr=¬
q=t nªn ¤; arl~n çl ¤ç 'nrl>+'
+çernr ç +nrl+ n> ¬rm+ ‘rr=>
= a=+t ar¤lrr ç¸q çl n arrrr;+r¸n
nr m¸e r¤l¬nr, l¬¬m =¤rr =ªr.
rl¤n +;¬ +t ‘rl+n l¬lçn ;çnt
ç m> +çernt çl ''mr> m¸= gr;r
çt l’r”n +r a¤lo”c n m>, =or
mr¤¬tn çl m> ¤ç¸n n;ç + çrn ç
(¤n¬r + ¤rn+ =n; +t ¤ç¸n =t
+r lcnr ç ¸ ar ; =¤ ªrr l¤¤;tn e¢nr
+ lee q¬+r ¤nrm çr =+nr çl''
+¸e l¤l’r”c r¤l¬nr + =l+m~¤r g
r;r m¬¸”n ¤n¬r + l¬+¬ =n;r ¤; ,
¤ç¸rrr ¤r¤r-=n; ¤;, q¬= =m=¤
‘rl+nnr + =rªr = ¤+ ¬r s +;,
a¬+ ¤+r; +t ¤st l¤l¤> ¢rmnre
¤r¤n +; =+nr ç- e= m> ç ¬r
rrrn+ l=ç çrn ç (¤r¤ lm¬c +
ao; +rn+; ¤m¬ çr¬ emnr ç¸,
ot+-ot+ l¬’rr¬r ¤¬r +; ¤ ‘r;t; +
l+=t +rt +rrm ¤;, l+=t a ml¤’r ”r ¤;
¤çr; +;n ç, l¤; ;rm +r a¤’rm¬
+;¬ ¤re, arm emr o¬ ¤re, ;¢rr
+;¬ ¤re, mrç¬t’rl+n sre ¤’r m
+;¬ ¤re +rt m> çrn çl
q= n;ç +r ¬ro¸-cr¬r nr nç
=¤o-;=rn¬ e+mr> l¬+¬-=¤or
+ =¤n¬ ¤nrm +r ¤l;¤rrm çrnr
ç l+-n¸ e+ a·¤n; ¬ro¸ ç ¬r l+
çr nr ç =¤ or + çt ·n¤çr; gr;r
l=ç, l+-n¸ ¤n¬r + ar¤ =n;r ¤;-
+r·n, =mtn, ¤or nªrr a¤l¬”ror +
arrnrlrm+ m> aªr¤r ¤ =¤ m>
l¬¬+r +rq m¸= a¤¬ l’r”n +r,
¤n¬r + l+=t l¤’r”r =n; + =rªr,
l+=t l¤’r ”r ‘rl+n aªr¤r lo·n
=rrr + =rªr, =trrr =¤rr =ªrrl¤n
+;¬ + lee =çrnnr +;¬ + ac’n
= a¤o ’r +;nr ç l a¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ;
l=lç +t ‘rl+n =¤n q= r¤l¬ m çt
l¤omr¬ ;çnt ç -nç e =t r¤l¬ çr nt
ç ¬r çm ano¸l”c ¤or¬ +;nt çl
a=n¸ , +r·n ar ; = mtn, ¬r
l+ a¬¬r¬ m q¬ ao¸’n =¤or +r
a¤nrm +;n ç, ¤n¬r +r =rre¬
+r ¤¤e =rrr¬ ¤¬ =+n ç, e=r
mr¬r ¬rnr ç l nlo çm e+ ¤ ¤¸ ç
23
23
193
m> e+ mçr’rl+n, mçr.
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+ lee m >=¤ +r·n aªr¤r
=mtn +r ¬-m o =+l +nrl+ =·¤r
+r·n çr nr ç e+ a¤+;¤r, ¤ç
¤n¬r + ao; ¤o, lrr; ç - l¬¬m
= çr+; lo·n=rn çmr; ao; ¤¤’r
+; =+- ¤ç ar¤ =rn +r m> ç,
a¤¬n¬ +rn çl ¤lo+ >l”rnr nªrr
a¤l¬”ror + =rn-q”crar ¬ a¤¬
m>r + gr;r, l¬¬+ l+ ao; qr¬r.
lrr+r;t +t ¤nr ln ¤ or¬ +;¬ +t
‘rl+n ç , nçt +rn l=ç l+nrl a¤¬
m-ªr ¤n¸¤; ¤rec¸t m ~t a;l¤-o ¬
nç ¤t¬ =rre+; =mqrnt ç ar;
a¤¬ mçr+r·n =rl¤>t m a-çr¬
nç +rn =+¤-¬ l+nr çl
m> aªr¤r a·¤+rlc + +r·n
ar ; a·¤+r lc + = mtn +t, ‘r-o¤ g
+t =¤ ar¤lrr, alrrmr¬= = çrnt
çl
m> mçrl¤qr¬ ç-
¤ n¬r + l¤l+r-¬ =n;r +r + ¤e
¤ +r’r-=¤ or + nt¤ nr-+r o = çt
¬çt ¬r¬r ¬rnr, ¤ ~¤¤r =¤or nr
nrer +t l¤l+r-¬nr gr;r +rt ¤ç¤r¬
¬rn ç, l¬-ç m¬¸”n n+rt =¸¬ ¤rnr
ç nlo ¤ç a= -~r > + ~r >' =
n¸ +n çr , l¬=+r l+ ¤ o m ¤¤r ¬
çl =¤ çr nr r¤l¬nr, ¤+r’r çr nr
‘rl+nnr aªr¤r çr =rrre, =¤ a=t
¤;m=rrr + aem-aem ¤çe¸ ç,
¬r l+ =n;-+ro + a¬¸=r; l¤l¤rr
nt¤ nrar m ar ; l¤l¤rr ¤ +r; = ¤ +c
çr ;çt çl
¤ n¬r +t =tc t ¤; ¤nr -¤nr ¬t¤
an;n ¬rn, rnr-rnr ~¤¤r-=¤o +rt
¤nrlnnr, =rrrar ar; ‘rl+nnr +t
çt n;ç =rs-=rs çrn ¬rn çl aor.
ç;¤rrn· ¤r¤r er+ m =r¤+rrm ¬t¤¬
+ a·e ¸ =re, ++ ’r, r¤l¬-=¤ o,
ar+¸l¤n aªr¤r ¤l;¤¸rr =¤;=nrm
=¸¬¬ m areml
¤r¤rer+ = l¬·=¸n +q =mtn
nªrr q= =n; + +rq-+rq l¤> nr
¤o q=t cm + ;çn ç ar; ¤ =+rt
q= aln;l¬n, +r·¬nre +r =r+r;
+;n çl l¤; ¤nr-¤nr a¤; aon
¬rn ç , ¤ ¤;=¤; = ¤ç ;çn ç ,
mr¬r =¸eq ç¸e nn¸ +t n;ç =r¸en
¬r ;ç çrl ¤tªrr¤¬ e+ ¤l=ç ¬m¬
=mtn+r; ;l¤n n>t-¤n¸”+r + +¸e
am; =¸;r +t m¤r¬r q=t +rlc m ç-
e=r emnr ç l+ ¤ çm l¤’r¸ç ¤nrln
+ ¤m¤mrn a-¬n l’r=r;r ¤; qn¬t
q¸nmln = =rt¤ lee ¬r ;ç çr l+
m¬¸”n +r om ¤¸e¬ emnr ç, ¤ç
a¤¬t =¸rr-¤¸rr =rr ¤onr çl a¤
‘rl+n +r e¢r¤r l¤¤¸ enr nr ; mr
+t ns+-+rs+ ¬çt ;çt, ¤ç a¤
e+ a·¤+rlc + arnl;+ ¤+”r m
·n+n çrnt çl =¤o¬ +r ¤¤e ¤m
q-qrr¬¸”r + ;mr +r ame-rr¤e m
¤l;¤lnn +; onr ç, ¤ç çrnr ç e+
a·¤ =n; l¬=+t arnn nt¤ mln
a= mr¬r a¤e ¤¬r ;çt ç, a= ¤;
mr¬r ‘rr’¤ng +t mrç; em mq çr,
e+=¤ r¤l¬-¤nrln-’rl+n, ¬=r
l+ =+r¤n· +rr;ntnr +r ¤l¤> ¤o
'armg' ç- ar¤rl·¬ + ao; le¤r
ç¸ar ¤;m ¬rol arlo m ªrr ''’r-o¤.
g'' ¤ç ‘rr=> +r +ªr¬ çl
+rr;n¤”r m e+ m¸ @ l¤or
l¤omr¬ ç , l¬=+r arrrr; ç
¬ro nªrr ¤n¬r- =n;r + a¬¸=¤
=¤lon-l¤lrr + l+r-¬-l+r-¬ n;t+l
aorç;¤rrªr· nlo çm 'armg' r¤l¬
+r a·¤r;¤r +; n¤ çm =¤”c a¬¸ +r¤
çrnr ç l+ nç m¸rrr + +-qr +r rr;
ent çl q=+ l¤¤;tn ';' r¤l¬ ¬rl+.
r+-q +r =¤’r +;nt çl çmr;t ¤n¬r
+ ¤rn+ +-q +r e+ er+l¤’r”r +
=rªr =trrr =¤rr çr¬ + +r;¤r, +¸e
r¤l¬nr +r ¬¤ +;+ m¬¸”n a¬+
=m=¤ ¤n¬r =n;r + =rªr =¤rr
=ªrrl¤n +; =+nr çl
e+ = ¤¸ ¤r ar r nr l r m+
a¬¸’rr=¬ q=t nªn ¤; arl~n ç¸q
çl ¤ç 'nrl>+' +çernr ç +nrl+
n> ¬rm+ ‘rr=> = a=+t ar¤lrr
ç¸q çl n arrrr;+r¸n nr m¸e r¤l¬nr
l¬¬m =¤rr =ªrrl¤n +;¬ +t ‘rl+n
l¬lçn ;çnt ç, m> +çernt çl mr>
m¸= gr;r çt l’r”n +r a¤lo”c n m>,
=or mr ¤¬tn ç l m > ¤ç¸ n n;ç + çr n
çl ¤n¬r + ¤rn+ =n; +t ¤ç¸n =t
+rlcnr ç ar; =¤ªrr l¤¤;tn e¢nr
+ lee q¬+r ¤ nr m çr =+nr ç l +¸ e
l¤l’r”c r¤l¬nr + =l+m~¤r gr;r
m¬¸ ”n ¤ n¬r + l¬+¬ =n;r ¤;, ¤ç¸ rrr
¤ r¤r-=n; ¤;, q¬= =m=¤ ‘rl+nnr
+ =rªr =¤+ ¬rs+;, a¬+ ¤+r;
+t ¤st çt l¤l¤> ¢rmnre ¤r¤n +;
=+nr ç-
m> +r ¤¸=n+ = ¤c +; l¬n¬r
+rt ¬¤ l+nr ¬rn, a¬+r +¸e +rt
¤+rr¤ ¬ çrmr, a¬m 'l+nr ‘rl+n'
¬ çr mt ¬¤ n+ ¤ =¤n m¸ = gr;r
a¤lo”c ¬ çrl nr nç =¤o-;=rn¬
e+mr> l¬+¬-=¤ or + =¤ n¬ ¤ nr m
+r ¤l;¤rrm çrnr çl l+-n¸ e+ a·.
¤n; ¬ro¸ ç ¬r l+ çrnr ç =¤or +
çt ·n¤çr; gr;r l=ç, l+-n¸ ¤n¬r
+ ar¤ =n;r ¤;- +r·n, = mtn,
¤or nªrr a¤l¬”ror + arrnrlrm+
m> aªr¤r ¤ =¤ m> l¬¬+r +rq
m¸= a¤¬ l’r”n +r, ¤n¬r + l+=t
l¤’r ”r =n; + =rªr, l+=t l¤’r ”r
‘rl+n aªr¤r lo·n =rrr + =rªr,
=trrr = ¤ rr =ªrrl¤n +;¬ + lee
=çrnnr +;¬ + ac’n =, a¤o’r
+;nr ç l a¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ; l=lç +t
‘rl+n =¤n q= r¤l¬ m çt l¤omr¬
;çnt ç - nç e =t r¤l¬ çr nt ç ¬r çm
ano¸l”c ¤or¬ +;nt çl
23
23
194
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
l+ a o; qr¬rlrr+r;t-a¬
¤ro+r +r, ¬r ==+¸n + q¬ m¸e
¤ror +r +¤e a¬¸¤ro =¤ m ¤c
=+n ç, çm ¤nr¬r ¤rçm l+ r¤l¬
+t =r;t ¤m+ e¸¤n çr ¬remtl l¤;
+rt are=r¬tn ç l+ am; +rq q¬
==+¸n + ¤ror +r a·¤r;¤r l+=t
qr¬t = =¸ ¬ nr ¤ç l¤¬r ‘r-or
+r aªr ¬r¬ +rt aerl++ ¤+r’r
alrrmn +; =+nr ç l¬¬+r ¤nrln,
¤or¬ +;¬ +t ‘rl+n ç, nçt +rn
l=ç l+nrl
a¤¬ mªr ''¤n¸=; ¤rec¸t'' m
~t a;l¤-o ¬ nç ¤t¬ =rre +;
=mqrnt ç ar ; a¤¬ mçr+r·n
=rl¤>t m a-çr ¬ n +rn = ¤-¬ l+nr
ç l m > aªr¤r a·¤+r lc + +r·n
ar; a·¤+rlc + =mtn + ‘r-o¤g
+t- =¤+t ar¤lrr =¸¬¬rrm+ nªrr
arrnrlrm+ +rn +er¤ +r m¸ er.
ommg nçt ç q¬ +rnr m ¤;=¤;
+r q +r o ¬çt l+nr ¬r =+nr +nr l+
¤¸lç + =¤ =¸l¬l’¤n l¤+rrm a=
arer+=ªre m l¤et¬ çr ¬rn ç,
¬çr l+ =¤ ¤;m¤¸¬tn ç ar; l¬=
çm er l++ nr a¤l¤> mr¬n ç ,
¤çr n+ ¬çr ¤¸ ¤n=¤ çr nr ç =r
a¤ çm nç ¤nr¬ +t ¤”cr +;m l+
alrrmr¬= + =¤o nr =¤;¤¤rç +t
l¬¬t l¤’r”rnr +nr ç?
=¤= ¤çet ¤rn nç ç l+ ¤rç
+rq +l¤ çr nr e=r+ aªr¤r çr
+er+r;, ¬r +rt q¬ ar¤ er +r
+ =rªr +¸e +m nr alrr+ =¤n¬
=¤ m a¤¬r =¤+ ¬rs¬ +t ¢rmnr
;=rnr ç, a= =¤n· nç =¤”c ¤nr
¤enr ç l+ ¤n¬r + e+ =n;l¤’r”r
+r ¤r; +; ¬r¬ ¤; l¤; l¤¤r; ¬çt
;çn l¬-ç l+ m¬¸”n o=r nr =r+r;
+;¬ +t ¤ ”cr +; l ¤ç =¸ ¬nr ç l
=¤o, n;m, =¤;¤¤rç a= a¢r;’r·
ar rr;n ç, a= ¤; er ¬rn ç ar;
l¤; a¤n;¤r + or;r¬ ¤ çt ‘r-or,
l¤¤r;r, =mtn ar; ;mr +r =¤ en
ç l l+-n¸ ‘r-o nr l¤¤r;, = mtn
aªr¤r ; m nr çr nr ç ¤e, o¸ =;r
¤l;¤rrm- ¤ =¤ nr +¤e ¤r@ =¤
çrn ç a= arlo-=¤o +r l¬=+t
+t a¤¢rr ¬çt +t ¬r =+ntl ar;
nlo e+ +l¤, +rq =·¤r +l¤, e+
çt ¤t¬ +r ¤r;-¤r; le=rnr ç, l¤;
+rcnr ç, nr ¬=r l+ erm =mqn
ç, ¤ç a=+r =¤ =¸rrr;¬ nr alrr+
=¸o; cm = +ç ¤r¬ + lee e=r ¬çt
+;nr, ¤lr+ a= ¤t¬ +r ¤+s¬ +
lee ¬r lmªr+ ;çt çrnt ç- ar; nlo
¤r=nl¤+ =¤o a=m ¬ ;ç nr =r;t
m>’rl+n ¬rnt ;çnt ç, a=t n;ç
¬= m>r +r a’r¸ç a·¤r;¤r l+n
¬r¬ ¤; nq l¬”¤e ;çnr çl
nlo ¤n¬r ¤r;o¸’n çr nr r¤l¬
=¤”c çr ¬rnt ç, nlo a¬¸l¤n ¬ çr
nr +ç =+n ç l+ nç r¤l¬ o¸l”c
= n¸ +n çr nt ç , e+ r¤l¬-l¤>,
r¤l¬-;m nr r¤l¬-l¤¤r; çrnr ç ¬r
~¤¤r +r o’r¬ nªrr l¤n¬ + =rªr
e+ çt +rr=¤; =¤ m e =r m¸ ªr ;=rnr ç
l+ a-ç ¤¸ ªr+g +;¬r = +r¤ ¬çt l e+
e+r+t =¤o m =¤ +r;r çrnr ç, a=t
m =¤ =mrl¤”c ;çnr ç l mrn¤nt =n.
;r ar¤-mr¬¤, aog+rrl=n mr¬=,
a-n¤rrrt mr¬= ¤; n =¤o ¤rn·
l¤+r+n ;çn ç-¤t¤-¤t¤ m rrr;re
ar; ;e = arn ç, =¤¸;¤r çrn ç-
¬¤l+ alrrmr¬¤ m =¤o l¤=n¸n çrn
ç, =nn ar; =¤n· ¤+r’r¤r¬g çrn
ç, aorç;¤r =¤=¤ ¤tªrr¤¬ =mtn
+t ar+¸”c r¤l¬nrl
a¬+r ¬ arlo çrnr ç ¬ an,
e =r ¤ ntn çr nr ç l+ ¤ a¬ n-a=tm
= l¬+en ç ar ; a=t m =mr ¬rn ç l
¤ +çt '¬-m' ¬çt en, ¤ nr çmr;t
¤n¬r + ao; e+ l¤;n¬nr +t er¤
=t lee ¤e arn ç , l¬=+t l+ m¸ ¬r;
¤çe çt ‘r¸= çr ¬rnt ç ar; ¤te +rt
l¤;+re n+ ¤¬t ;çnt çl mr¬r q=
nr>r + ¤te ¤e¬ ¤ret l+=t a-n
nr>r + ¤ªr +t et+ l=r ¤t ;ç mq çr l
a¤ +çt +l¤nr a¤¬ a=et +rm
¤; l¬n¸ +n ç¸ q , ¬r l+ l¤¬r o-=rmm t
¤¬¬r ¬çt ¤lr+ q= ==r; +r a=
¤;m =rn = alrr+rlrr+ ¤¸¤r +;+,
arr;rrr; =rn ¤¬r¬r çl
nlo çm rrml¬”o çr nr çmr;
lee q= er+ + ¤r=t o¤t-o¤nrar
+r +rt o’r ¬ = +r¤ ç l =rrre çr
aªr¤r ‘rl+nnr nr ¬ro, ¤+r’r ar;
eo, =+rt =rn ç, =¤ l+r-¬-l+r-¬
=¤ ç a=t e+ ¤;m nr¤ + ¬r l+
¤¤r ¬rntn çr n ç¸ e +rt qr¬rntn ¬çt ,
l¬= l+ çm +rm¤r¬g ¬rm = ¤¸+r;n
ç- çm¬ +rm¤r¬g +t +r¤¬r +t,
o¤mlo; =rs l+n, l=çr-n ¤¬rn,
+l¤nre ;¤t, n =¤ ¤ nr= ç a= e+,
e+r+t =¤¸;¤r ¤; alrr+r; ¤¬rn
;=r¬ +r ¬r çmr; +rtn; a¬rer +;nr
ç l+-n¸ ¤ ¬r·erlon l= rr¸ nc + ¤ ¤ s
¤rn =o¸’r =or =¤·eo çl
= +r¤ ç l+ çm = mtn er + m +rt
¬r ¤ç¸¤, ¬r l+ ¤=n¸n· o¸=; er+r =
l+r-¬ ¬çt ç, a=t al¬¤¤¬tn mç.
r=¤o +r ¤ç e+ l¤l’r”c =¤rn;¤r
çl ar; nlo çm e+ ¤r;, +¤e e+
¤r;, ¤rç =r; ¬t¤¬ m +¸ e ¢r¤rr + çt
lee +nr ¬ çr, a= lo·n =mtn +r,
a= ¤;mrrer= +r =¸¬ ¤rn, l¬=+r
mr¬ ¤çr a¤; ¤e ;çr ç , n¤ çm ¤nr
¤e l+ ¤tªrr¤¬ ar; ¤r=r +r +nr
=¸ ¬rq o nr ªrr? +nr l+ l¤; çm =¤n
+rm¤r¬g +r =¸¬ el çm ¤;m ar;
lo·n l¤’r”rr +r ¤nrm çt n¤ ¤o +;
o m , + ¤e nç ¤r rr çm ¤¬r ;ç mr l+
23
23
195
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
nr l¤+¸n çr ¤¸+¬ + ¤ro, nçr
¬¤t¬ l¤¤r;r , =rmrl¬+ ¤l;¤n.
¬r =r;t ¤¸ª¤t +r ¤+rrl¤n +;¬ ¤ret
mçnt rrc¬rar +r =¤ ent çl
q= rr;rne ¤; +r q -+r q l¤;e ,
mr ¬r¤e ¤t nr mt +;¬ m =mªr çr n ç ,
¤ q¬+t ¬r s -nr s +;¬t ¬r¬n ç ar ;
¤¸ ª¤t ¤; q¬ ‘rl+nnr +r a=t n;ç
anr; e n ç l¬= n;ç o¸ =; er m +l¤nr
+ lee a¬ + r¤l¬nr +r m e lmernr
+;n ç l ‘rrno =·¤ aªr m +l¤ n çt
ç l a¬+r ¬t¤¬ ¬tnr-¬rmnr m>
çrnr ç ¬r a= =r=¤=¤ +r ¤¸ª¤t ¤;
=rt¤ ernr çl
m¸ =o ¤ ‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr m =rm¸.
lç+ =¤ = ¬rln-rrm nr =>t-¤¸=”r
+ +ro+rr¤ + l¤¬r m> on çl a=
m> + ¬¤ = o¸l¬nr m a=rrn +ç
¬r¬ ¤re esg= ¤ +=; =lçn =+rt
;rm ¤¸¤rn· ot+ çr ;ç ç nªrr ¬’r e¸c
;ç ç, l¬¬+ =¤+ªr¬ +m’r· çm’rr
çt çm q= ¤l>+r m on çl ar¬ +r
l¤qr¬ l¬=+r +;¬ m a¢rm çl ¤ç
arnrrm l¤qr¬ = ¤s =ç¬ =¤ m
çr ;çr çl +nrl+ =+rt rrm ‘r-o =
=¸l”c +t ar¤lrr +r mr¬n çl q=+r
=¤”c aªr ç l+ ''o¸l¬nr +t ar¤lrr
l¬= ‘r-o = ç¸q çl a=t m a=+r
=mrrrr¬ +rt =+r¤ çl''
m > e+ mçrl¤qr¬ + = ç ?
q=+r a=et ¤;t¢r¤r +;¬r ¤rç
nr m¸=o¤ = ‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr m>
e +; a=+r l¬nlmn ¬rm-¬¤ +; l
;ç=n =mq m ar ¬remrl nç e+
23
23
196
‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr + ¤¸¤ ar¤rn
=¤rmt l¤”¤r¸ ntªr ¤ e+ =¤¬¬
ar¤= m arrnrlrm+ ¤rn +; ;ç
ªrl ¤rn-¤rn m çt =¤¬¬ ¬ +çr l+
m; ¤c a¬¸¤m ¬ ar¤= ot¢rr et ç
n¤ = ¤ç =-nr= e¬ +t =r¤ ;çr çl
a¤ nr a=¬ ‘rrot +;¬ = +rt m¬r
+; lonr çl m a=+t arrnrlrm+
a-¬ln nr ¤rçnr ç¸ ¸ e l+¬ =rªr-=rªr
m m¸ç=ªrt +rt =+rre nr =rªr+ ¬t¤¬
çr mrl q= ¤; =¤rmt l¤”¤r¸ ntªr ¬
a¬+r ¤sr çt =ct+ ¬¤r¤ lonr-
çm¬ ¬ ++rt n¸+ç ‘rrot ¬çt
+;¬ +r a¤o’r lonr nªrr ¬ çt e=t
¤¸lç otl nç n¸+çr;t a¤¬t ¤¸lç +t
çt a¤¬ çl çm nr n¸m ¤ren¸ m çt
¤o¬rm +; çrl
l¤; a¬¸¤m +t n;¤ o=rn ç¸e
+ç¬ em, ''arnrrm m arm ¤c¬
+ lee a¬ +r¬ + =rcgc -mto
nªrr l¤n-al¤n a¬¸+r¤r m = çr+;
l¬+e¬r ¤snr ç, +nrl+ =l¤n =.
=+r;r nªrr ¤ r;-rr +r +r¤sr; arn-n
l¤’rre ç nªrr ==+r;r + ¤+r; +rt
a¬ +r¬ + ç l or+¤rn =¸ =r + = =+r;
+rt, er=rr-+;rsr ¬-mr + çl a¬m
arrnrlrm+ ¤ +rrln+ ¬t¤¬
= ¬r ¤r;-rr +r =¤ mç¤r +; ¤¸+ ç,
a-ç m¸ç=ªr m a¬r=+n e¤ +n·n
+rr¤ = +rrm+; çt =mr¤n l+nr ¬r
=+nr ç, q=lee n¸m çr nr ¬r, +¸e
+rt +;r, l+-n¸ n¸+çr;r ¤r;-rr n¸+ç
‘rrot +;¬ + lee l¤¤’r +; omrl
q= ¬-m m n¸m ¬ ‘rrot ¬ +;¬ +t
ço or¬ et nr ame ¬-mr m +rrm¬
+ lee, n¸ +çr;r ¤ r;-rr =¸ ;l¢rn ;ç mr,
al¤n¸ ar; +rt ¤¤e çr ¬remrl a+rt
n¸+ç arnrrm +r ¬nr-¬nr ¬’rr ç,
¬t¤¬ +r +¸e +rt a¬¸+r¤ ¬çt çl n¸m
nç =mqn çr l+ arnrrm + a¬-n
ar+r’r m asnr ¤er ¬ramrl ¬¤
n¸+çr;r arnrrm +r ¬’rr ªrrsr an;
¬remr nr n¸ +çr;r o¸ l”c+r ¤r nªrr
=r¤¬ +r cm +rt ¤oe ¬remrl =rr
r¬r m ç; +om ¤; l¤¤enrar nªrr
+lo¬rqnr +r =rm¬r çrnr ç nªrr
=rrr+ ar+r’r = ¬mt¬ ¤; ar ¬rnr
çl''
''ar¬+e +¸ e e =r l¤¤r;
l¤+l=n çr mnr ç l+ arnrrm
+ lee rr;-¤r; er s ¬r ar¤’n+
ç l e+r-n-¤r=, l¬;-n; =rrr¬r,
a=r¤s ¤¸ lnl a¤¬t = nr¬ +t
arnrrm m ªrrst =t +rt =l¤ o=r+;
mrnr-l¤nr l¤l-nn çr aon ç l+
+çt ¤r¤r¬t ¬ ¤¬ ¬rnl q= n¸m
m arnrrm +r aªr =-nr= lenr
¬rnr ç, ¬= ·nr¤çrl;+ ¬t¤¬ +r
arnrrm = +rq =¤rr çt ¬çt çr,
¬¤l+ ·nr¤çrl;+nr +r arnrrm =
¤¸ ªr+ l+nr çt ¬çt ¬r =+nrl m¸ ç=ªr
¬t¤¬ =¸ =r-o¸ ·=r =ç¬ +;¬ +t
‘rl+n ¤or¬ +;nr çl =nn m¸ç=ªr
¤ r;-rr ¢rt¤r +; m¬ l¬m enr +r
+r;¤r çl m¬¸”n +r arrrr mçrrmr nr
mr;-mr; +;, m¸ç=ªr ¬t¤¬ çt ¤¬r
onr çl m¸ç=ªr ¬t¤¬ +¤e l¤”rn
+rrm lee çt ¬çt ¤lr+ ¤;r·n +
a+nr= + lee çl''
''m¸ q +rt n¸ +çr; = =+r;r +r
o =rn ç¸ e e =r ¤ ntn çr nr ç l+
n¸+ç a¤’n çt ‘rrot +; e¬t ¤rlçe,
a-nªrr n¸+çr; ¤n¬ +r +rn çl''
¤nmr¬ m nrmr=c =rrr+r +
=rªr ‘r¸=arnt ar;rrr¬r m e=r çt
çrnr ç, a¬+ m¬ m ¤;r·n + a¬+
+rr¤ aon ç l e l+¬ =rrr+ +r l¤’r ”r
=r¤rrrl¬nr ;=r¬t ¤rlçel


AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
e+ l o¬ mçl ”r o¸ ¤r =r
o¸nrrrr¬ + nçr ¤ç¸¤ mel o¸nrrr¬
¬ a¬+r = ¤r-=r+r; l+nr,
l¬== ¤=-¬ çr+; ¤ç +q lo¬r
n+ a¬+ nçr =+ ;ç ¤;-n¸ ¬¤
¤ç ¬r¬ em nr o¸nrrr¬ = ¤;or¬
mrm¬ +r +çrl
o¸ nr rr¬ a¤¬ lee +¸ e ¬
mrm+; ¤re l+ ''mçl”r, ¤r¤s¤
çmr; ¤s +rrq ç ar; ¤ç +r+n+
¤¬ m l¬¤r= +;n çl m ¤rçnr
ç¸ l+ ar¤¬ ¬= m¸q a¤¬t =¤r
+r a¤=; lonr ç ¤= çt m; a¬
¤s +rrqnr +r +rt ¤rç e+ çt lo¬
+ lee a¤¬t =¤r +r a¤=; ol
¤;-n¸ ar¤ ¤çr a+e ¬çt a¤¬
=m=n l’r”nr + =rªr arlnªn
mç¤r +;, ar; ¤çr n¤ ¤ç¸¤ ¬¤
qr¤ot +rr¬¬ +; ¤¸+t çr, l¬==
m ; +rrqnr +r o ; n+ +r¸ =rr ¬
;ç¬r ¤sl
o¸ ¤r =r m¸ l¬ ¬ a=+t ¤rn
=¤t+r; +; et ar; o¸nrrr¬ +r
ar’rt¤ro o+; ¤e mnl
arr ; ¤r ¤s¤ o¸ nr rr ¬
+ +¤c-o¸ n = =¤ =¤ çr;+;
+r+n+ ¤¬ m l¬¤r= +; ;ç ªr
¤;-n¸ o¸nrrr¬ +r n¤ +rt ‘rrl-n
¬çt ªrtl ¤ç ¤r¤s¤r +r ¤¸;t n;ç
= ¬”c +;¬ ¤; n¸er ªrrl ¤r¤s¤
¬¤ ¤¬¤r= +r mn nr a¬+
=rªr a==n-¤rg¤r +rt ¤m¤’r
a¬+ =rªr ¤e mn ªrl ¤r¤s¤r
+ lee ¤¬ m +rr¬¬ +t ·n¤=ªrr
+; =+¬r, e+ ¤¤e =m=nr ªrtl
rrm;r¬ n¸lrrl”o; ¬ n¤=nr +;+
+rm¤r¬g ¤; ¤¸;r +r;r=r
=¸ n +rm¤r¬g +r ¤ =-¬ l+nr ar ;
=¸n ¬ n¸lrrl”o; +r e+ e=r ¤r>
lonr ªrr l¬=m +rr¬¬ ¤¬r¬ =
+rr¬¬ =mr¤n ¬çt çrnr ªrrl ¬¤
n+ qr¤ot +rr¬¬ ¬ +; e, n¤
n+ =ç=r ermr +r +rr¬¬ lonr
¬r =+mrl
o¸ nr rr¬ ¬ =r ¤r l+ mçl”r
o¸¤r=r ¬¤ ¤çr qr¤ot + +rr¬¬r.
¤;r-n ¤ç¸¤m nr ¤çr +¸e lmemr
¬çt , q= ¤; ¤ç +r lrrn çr +; ‘rr¤
o+; =+¤¸¤r ¤r¤s¤r +r ¬”c +;
oml o¸nrrr¬ +r emr l+ a=+t
¤r¤r amlenr rrt m çl
+¸e lo¬ ¤tn ¬r¬ ¤; o¸¤r=r
¬t +r n¸lrrl”o; + nçr ¬r¬ +t
¤rn +r =m;¤r çr arnrl ¤ç a¤¬
o= ç¬r; l’r”nr + =rªr ¤r¤s¤r
+t +¸ ct + =+m¸ =r ¤ç¸ ¤ mn l
rrm;r¬ n¸lrrl”o; ¬ a-n +rrqnr
+ =rªr ao+; mçl”r +r =r+r;
+; a-ç a·¤ ar=¬ ¤; ¤ornrl
mçl”r ¤rel çm =¤+r +r¸=r
em ;çt ç ar ; a+rt mrnrµ
=rnr +rt ¬çt +t çl ar¤ +rr¬¬
+t ·n¤=ªrr +; n¤ n+ çm erm
=¬r¬ e¤ = rnr +m = l¬¤¸ rr çr +;
erc ;ç çl''
n¸ lrrl”o; ¬nm=n+ çr +;
¤re- ''o¤ ar¤ ‘rtrr ¤rrr;, nç
nr açr +rr·n ç çmr;rl'' arr;
o¸ ¤r =r-l’r”nr =m n =¬r¬ +r mel
qrr; =+rt ¤r¤s¤ +rrq l¤l-nn çr
mnl qr¤ot = ¤¸er nr mre¸m ç¸ar
l+ ¤ç +rr¬¬ +; ¤¸+t çl =+rt
erm o¸¤r=r + =¤+rr¤ = ¤l;l¤n
ªr - a¤ +nr a¤rn l+nr ¬rn
q=t ¤; =r ¤-l¤¤r; çr ;çr ªrr
l+ qr ¤ot ¤r et- ''ar¤ l¤-nr
¬ +;, ‘nrm=¸-o; =r;t ·n¤=ªrr
+;ml''
n¸lrrl”o; ¤re- ''el+¬ ~t
+¸ ”¤r ¬¤ çr n n¤ nr l¤-nr ¬
+;n, ¤ç nr gr;+r ¤e çt me..
.........l''
qr¤ot ¬ +çr, ''’nrm=¸-o;
+çr ¬çt ç? ¤ç nr =¤q ar;
=¤ > ç l'' qn¬r +çn çt ¤ç
+¸lcnr m mq ar; mrr¸=¸o¬ +r
¤¸ +r;¬ emtl arr; ¤r¤s¤r ¬
o=rr l+ ¤r; ‘¤nrrrsr ¤rer e+
;ªr nt¤mln = arr; ar ;çr çl ¤ç
;ªr =trr a¬+ =rm¬ ar+; =+rl
~t +¸”¤r =trr +¸lcnr m ¤ç¸¤ ar;
¤re - ''m¸q +rr¬¬ or, ¤ç¸n ¬r;r
+t +r¸=r emt çl''
~t +¸ ”¤r +r =¤; =¸ ¬n çt
qr¤ot +r ¬¤¬t¤¬ lme mnrl ¤ç
n ¬t = aot,.... ''+rqnr, mçl”r +r
+rr¬¬l ....l'' ar; ¤ret
''m¸q +r¸=r emt ç-¤çe m¸q
or-nçr +r¸=r + mr; ¤¸;r çre çl''
+¸”¤r e+ +r¸=r +r al+r¬n +;
;ç ªrl
''¤;-n¸ m +rr¬¬ +; ¤¸+tl
=¸n +r lonr ¤r> =r¤ +; ¤¸+tl
¤r> =rret çr ¤¸+r, +rr¬¬ +çr
ç- a=t + lee nr n¸+ç ¤¸+r;nt
;çt?'' +¸”¤r o=r ;ç ªr, qr¤ot +t
l¤-nr +r ar; qr¤ot o=r ;çt ªrt
+¸”¤r + +rn¸+ +rl
q=+ ¤r o +r t +¸ ”¤r ¬
23
23
197
+çr¬t
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ç, o=rr nç lme mnr- q==
nr =r; l¤’¤ +t ¢r¸ rrr o¸ ; çr
¬rnmtl''
qr ¤ot ¬ o =rr l+ ‘rr+ +r ¤ç
c¸+sr m¸ç m sre +; ~t +¸”¤r ¤r.
e, 'l¤’¤rrmr q== n¸¤n çr ¬rn'
ar; ¤=, s+r; e etl
arr; =;r ¤; m =¬r¬ +;
;ç o¸¤r=r ar; a¬+ l’r”nr +t
l¤l¤> o’rr çr ¬ emtl =¤+r
s+r;-¤;-s+r; ar¬ emtl a¬+r
e=r em¬ emr l+ ¬= =¤+r ¤c
ar+o +r;r çrl o¸¤r=r ar; l’r”nr
+t e+ =mr¬ l=ªrln ªrtl o¸¤r=r
¬ +çr, '' ¤r¤s¤ ¤¬ m ç, a¬+
¤r= ¤ = çt +rr ¬¬ +t ¤; ’rr¬t
çl nçr çmr;r ar¬r çt a¬¸l¤n
ç¸ arl q= =mn nr +rr ¬¬ +t q·er
l¤r+¸e m; mql +rr¬¬ ¬çt +;m
nr a¬+r +rr¬¬ ¤+r; çr ¬rnmr,
q== a-ç +rrr arnmr-çm =¤
¤e m ¬”c çr =+n ç +nrl+ ¤
+rm¤r¬g + +r+n çl a¤ nr e+
çt a¤rn ç l+ nçr = ¤¸¤¤r¤ +rrm
¤e l'' o¸ ¤r =r ¬t a¤¬ l’r”nr
=lçn ¤çr = +¸¤+; mn ar; +çt
=+ n+ tl
~t +¸ ”¤r ¬ ‘rr+ +r ¤rn
=rr+; s+r; et - a¬+t +r¸ =r
‘rr-n çr ¤¸+t ªrtl a-çr¬ =ço¤
= mçl”r o¸¤r=r +r ¤¸er¬ +r¬rl
erc+; a-çr¬ ¤nrnr l+ mçl”r
e¤ l’r”nr +r +çt ¤nr çt ¬çt
¤erl ¤; o¸¤r=r nr ++rt +rt ar
=+n ç ? ~t +¸ ”¤r ¤r e l+ ''
a¤ o¸¤r=r qrr; ++rt +r¸e = +rt
¬çt areml a-ç o¸nrrr¬ ¬ ¤l;n
l+nr ªrrl''
=+c + ¤roe ¬¤ er ¬rn
ç nr +rrln+ ¬mng m e=r emnr
ç l+ n ++rt ecm ¬çt el+¬
l¬¬+r +r;r =r ç l+ l¤¤;tn ç¤rar
+r or; ¤en çt ¤roe ec ¬rnml
l¬¬+r =ogm¸=o¤ ¤; =¤¸¤r +r;r.
=rr çr nr ç a¬+ =rm¬ +lo¬rqnr
lçmren ¤çrs = +rt +q m¸ ¬r
23
23
198

''a¤ q= o’r +r, q= rrm +r, q= ==+¸ln +r arªrr¬ ‘r¸= çr
mnr çl çmr; ¤n¬ + +re +r >l”r-m¸l¬ ¬çt ;r+ =+, +nrl+
+re¤+ a¤rrr mln = ¤enr çl a¤ q= o’r¬ +r arªrr¬ ¤+ ‘r¸=
çr mnr ç, ==r; +t +rq ‘rl+n q=+ arªrr¬ +r ¬çt ;r+ =+nt
ç, l+=t m ¤r =rmªn ¬çt çl
~t a;l¤ o + a¬¸ =r;-''q= ;r +¬ +t +r¤¬r +;¬r çt ¤rme¤¬
çl''
''ar¬ nr çm¬ lço¸ rrm +r ¤ç¸n =+t¤r orn; m +o +; lenr
çl lç-o¸ nr ''¤=¸rr¤ +¸c¸+¤+'' + l=çrn m l¤’¤r= ;=rnr çl m¬¸”n
mr> +r q’¤; +t =nr¬ mr¬nr çl'' .
''lç-o¸ ++rt rrm ¤l;¤n¬ +t ¤rn ¬çt +;nr ç, ¤r nr m¬¸”n +
¤l;¤n¬ +t ¤rn +;nr ç ar; ¤l;¤n¬ çt ¬çt Transformation
=¬rn¬ rrm +r arªrr¬
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
207
'-rrq¤e +r nç arl=r;t
lç==r ¤r=n¤ m ¤rq¤e + ¤r¤r
ç l = c ¬r ç¬ e+ ¤ç¸ n ¤s mçr¬g
= n ªr l ¤ nt’r¸ + m¸ l+nornr
=ogm¸ = ªr l l¬= ¤ +r; çmr;r
qlnçr= ¤nrnr ç l+ +rm¤r¬g
~t ;rm ar; ~t+¸”¤r +r +rt m¸=
rrr;¤r +;¬ ¤s ªr l a¬+ m¸ =
a·et ¤+r; ¬r¬n ªr l+ n +rq
=rrrr;¤r mr¬¤ ¬çt ç, l¤; +rt
a-ç l’r¢rr-ot¢rr otl
q=t ¤+r; =c ¬rç¬ +r +rt
mre¸m ªrr l+ nt’r¸ +r¬ ªrr, ¤;-n¸
l¤; +rt a=¬ nt’r¸ +r ot¢rr otl
+nrl+ m¸= gr;r ot¢rr ¤r¤n l+n
l¤¬r m¬¸”n ''lg¬'' ¬çt ¤¬nr
ar ; lg¬ ¤¬ l¤¬r a= ¤;mnr¤ =
¬çt ¬¸ s =+nr ar ; ¬ çt a= lo·n
qr¬ +r ¤r¬ +r alrr+r;t ¤¬nr
ç l q=t ¤ +r; am; nt’r¸ = c ¬r ç¬
= ot¢rr ¬çt enr nr ¤ç +¸e +rt
+; ¤r¬ m =¢rm ¬çt çrnrl
q=rqnr m ar¬ +rt =c ¬r.
ç¬ gr;r ot ¬r¬ ¤ret '¤r¬t +t
ot¢rr' ¤ ¤len ç , +nr l+ nt’r¸
ot¢rr (¤¤ln=mr¸ ¬çt onr ªrrl
a= mre¸m ªrr l+ ¬r ot¢rr m o¸mr,
a= q= =mn mr¬¤ =ç¬ ¬çt +;
=+mrl q=tlee a=¬ +çr ªrr,
''m¸q n¸m= ¤ç¸n =t ¤rn +ç¬t
ç, ¤;-n¸ a+rt n¸m a-ç =ç ¬çt
=+nl''
nt’r¸ ¬ =¤”c ‘r-or m +çr
ç l+ lg¬ ¤¬ l¤¬r a= ¤;mnr¤
+r ¤r¤n çr¬r a=++r¤ çl a=¬
''=c ¬rç¬ + ¤+rl’rn ¤r+n''
=mªr =ogm¸ =o ¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t
+çr ç, l+ ''nlo +rq ¬n l=; =
¬ ¬-m nr ¤;m’¤; +r ;r¤n o=r
t =+nrl''
¤+rlºrn ¤r+n m +çr ç,
''nt’r¸ m=tç +r ¤+rl’rn ¤r+n,
¬r a= ¤;m’¤; ¬ q=lee lonr,
l+ a¤¬ or=r +r ¤ ¤rn, l¬¬ +r
‘rtrr çr¬r a¤’n ç, lo=rre, ar;
a=¬ a¤¬ =¤m o¸ n +r +r ¬+;
a=+ gr;r a¤¬ or= n¸ ç-¬r (= c
¬r笸 +r ¤nrnr''l
¬r +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr ¤rq¤e
m +t mq ç a¬ =¤+r, m¸n=¤
= rrc¬ = ¤çe çt lo=rrnr mnr
çl q== nç ¤mrl¤rn çrnr ç l+
¬r ¤rn çmr;r o’r¬ +çnr ç l+
al¬l’¤n+re n+ + +r¸ n-+rl¤”n
+r o=r¬r =¸¬¬r =++r¤ ç, ¤¸¤r
=rn çl ¤l’¤m +r nç qr¬ za
¤t =ot + a-n m lme mr, ¤r.
q¤e +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +r mr>
nçt aªr çl q=tlee nt’r¸ m=tç
¬ +rl¤”n¤r¤rt +t ç l+ ''ªrrs
lo¬r ¤ro n¸m ¤l¤>rrmr = (m¸
¤¤ln=mr (ot¢rr¸ ¤rarml''
rrrlm+ m-ªrr + a¤o’r
'¤ºnl-n ¤r¤rt' m lon ¬rn ç , ¤;-n¸
qr¬t = n ¤ºnl-n ¤r¤rt =mq
=+n ç , arm¬¬ ¬çt l q=lee a=
qr¬ +r ¤=r;t ¤r¤rt m le=r +;
= =r; + =+rt m¬¸ ”nr + lee e¤¤r
o n ç l ¤ºnl-n ¤r¤rt r¤l¬=¤
‘r-or ¤ret ''¤ =r;t-¤r¤rt'' =
ar; +rr¤rrm+ l¤¤r;-mnt ¤r¤rt
= +rt l¤e¢r¤r =¤rrml¤m’rmnt
a¬¸ +r¸ ln-=¤t ¤r¤rt ç , l¬=
+rr ln+ +rr”rr m ''aog¤¸ ç
+;¬r'' (Inspiration¸ +çr
¬r+; =mqr¬ +r ¤ nr=, +çr
¬r =+nr çl q=tlee =c ¬rç¬
¬ ¬mç-¬mç +çr ç, ''m ¤+r¸ +
lo¬ arrmr m ar mnr, m arrmr
m ¤çr mnr qrnrlo''l ¤l’¤mt
¬mng + er m mr> ¤ =r;t ¤r¤rt çt
=mqn ç, q=lee ¤ a¤;r l¤or
+ çt qrnr ç, +nrl+ a¤;r l¤or
+r qr¬ ¤=r;t ¤r¤rt m le=rr
¬rnr çl ¤rq¤e + +q =o+r e=
+rt ç l¬¬+r =çt aªr a-nm¸=rt
çr +; çt =mqr ¬r =+nr ç ,
ar; nç +rn ¤l’¤m + ermr +
=rmªn = ¤rç; çl
q= = ¤ rr m m¸ q e+ ¤rn nro
ar mq l ¤rq¤e +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr
+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln + =¤rr m, m¬
+rr;n l=ªrn +q = =ªrrar = = ¤+
l+nr ªrrl m ¬ a-ç ¤rq¤e m
¤l¤rn ar¬-o + ¤r; m ¤¸er ªrr,
l¬=+r ¤¤r¬ q= ¤+r; ç- ''nç
e+ ar-nl;+ ar¬-o ç, ¬r =+rt
=·¤ l¤’¤rl=nr + pon m arnr
ç, nç ar¬-o pon m ¤¬r ;çnr
ç, =r=rl;+ ar¬-o + =mr¬ nç
arnr-¬rnr ¬çt çl
a=+r (¤ +r¸ +r¸ ar¬-o ¤¸ ¤r
ç, ¤ç çmr; ponr + +cr;r +r
ar¬-o = n¤ n+ +r;nr ç, ¬¤
n+ ams ¬ ¬rel ¤+r¸ +r ar¬-o
¬r çmr; ponr m ¤çnr ç, çmr;
ponr = ams +; o¸=;r n+ ¤ç
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
208
ar¤ qr¬ ¤; n;= +rt arnrl
m ¤+rl’rn ¤r+n +t ¤-o ¤rn
¬r =c ¬rç¬ ¬ ¤ºnl-rr ¤r¤rt m
=¸ ¬t ªrt, nªrr¤n le=r ;çr ç¸ l +nr
q=rq ¬mng q¬+t =çt ·nr=nr
+;+ ¤mrl¤rn +;¬ +t l=ªrln m
ç? m a·et ¤+r; =mq ;çr ç¸
l+ nç +rn a-nm¸=rt ç¸e l¤¬r
a= +r¤ ç l = c ¬r ç¬ ¬ le=rr
ç- ''m nt’r¸ +t m¤rçt + +r;¤r
¤nm¸= ¬rm+ cr¤¸ m ªrrl ''l+ m
¤+r¸ + lo¬ arrmr m ar mnr ar;
a¤¬ ¤te n¸;çt +r =r ¤sr ‘r-o
nç +çn ç¸e =¸¬r l+ ¬r +¸e n¸
o=rnr ç a= ¤¸=n+ m le=r+;
=rnr +etl=nrar + ¤r= +r ¬ o l''
¬¤ n+ a-nm¸=rt çr+; a= ¤;m
=rrr = ¬çt ¬¸sn ¤rq¤e + e=
=o+r =mq m ar çt ¬çt =+nl
¤ +rl’rn ¤r+n t·tc ''¤ç
a¤¬ orlç¬ çrªr m =rn nr;
lee ç¸e ªrr, ar; a=+ m¸=r =
orrrr;t ne¤r; l¬+ent ªrt, ar;
a=+r m¸ç e=r ¤¤¤len ªrr, ¬=r
=¸n +st rr¸¤ m ¤m+nr çl z.tt
'' l¬=+ +r¬ çr ¤ç =¸¬ e l+
arrmr +etl=nrar = +nr +çnr
ç, ¬r ¬n ¤re, a¬+r o¸=;t m¸rn¸
= çrl¬ ¬ ¤ç¸¤mtl'' z·tc =r m¬
l¤;r, ¬çt nr m n; ¤r= ‘rtrr çt
ar+;, a¤¬ m¸=r +t ne¤r; =
a¬+ =rªr es¸mrl'' z·t: ¬r ¬n
¤re, a=+r m m¸ ¤n m-¬r m =
o¸mr, ar; a= e+ ¤rªr; +rt o¸mr,
ar; a= ¤rªr; ¤; e+ ¬rm le=rr
ç¸ar çrmr, l¬= a=+ ¤r¬ ¤re
+ l=¤rn ar; +rq ¬çt ¬r¬mrl''
z·t: ar; ¤ç erç +r ;r¬o¤s lee
ç¸e a¬ ¤; ;r¬ +;mr, l¬= ¤+r;
+¸+çr; + lmçt + ¤;n¬ ¤+¬r.
¤¸; çr ¬rn ç ¬= l+ m¬ +rt e=r
alrr+r; a¤¬ l¤nr = ¤rnr çl''
:·¡ ''¤; çr , =;ot= m n ;
nçr e= erm ç, l¬-çr¬ a¤¬
¤=> a’r¸ ç ¬çt l+n , ¤ =¤ n ¤=>
¤lç¬ m; =rªr rr¸mm, +nrl+ ¤
q= nr·n çl'' :·za o=rl m gr;
¤; =rsr ç¸ar =rc=rcrnr ç¸, nlo
+rq m;r ‘r-o =¸¬+; gr; =rremr
nr m a=+ ¤r= +rtn; ar+; a=+
=rªr +rr¬¬ +=mr, ar; ¤ç m;
=rªrl'' :·z: l¤; m¬ e+ =¤m o¸n
+r ¬t¤n ¤;m ’¤; +t m¸ ç; lee ç¸ e
¤¸;¤ = a¤; +t ar; arn o=rr,
a=¬ a¬ ¤r;r =¤mo¸nr =, l¬-ç
¤¸ª¤t ar; =m¸q +t çrl¬ +;¬ +r
alrr+r; lonr mnr ªrr, a¤ ‘r-o
= ¤¸+r; +; +çrl
¬¤ n+ çm a¤¬ ¤;m’¤; +
or=r + mrªr ¤; m¸ ç; ¬ emr o l n¤
n+ ¤¸ª¤t, =m¸q ar; ¤sr +r çrl¬
¬ ¤ç¸¤r¬rl''
¤ +rl’rn ¤r+n +t + ¤e
a¤n¸ +n ¤r n çt aer l ++
¬çt , q=+r nr =+¤¸ ¤r +rrm çt
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ; =r¢rrr+r;
+r l¤”rn çl q= ¤l¤> m-ªr m
l¤’¤r= ;=r¬ ¤re =r+rt ¤l¤>
arrmr ¤re ermr +r za =ot +
a n = ¤çe ¤rq¤e + =+¤¸ ¤
r ;ç=n +t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln e¤
=r¢rrr+r; çr ¬remr, +nrl+ ¤ç
¤l¤>rrmr nt’r¸ q=+t +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt +; mnr çl
m ¤l’¤m + ermr = armç
¤¸ ¤ + +ç¬r ¤rç¸ mr l+ rr¬¤e
+ =çr; l¤’¤ + m;t¤ ermr +r
‘rr”r¤r l+nr ¬r ;çr ç, a= ¤;
n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ + q= =lrr+re m
¤¸¬l¤¤r; +;, e=r ¬ çr l+ l¤;
¤enr¬r ¤sl m a-ç ¤rq¤e +
l-r+¬ =o+rr ¤; ;rn-lo¬ l¤-n¬
+;¬ +t =erç onr ç¸l çr =+nr
ç ¤+r¸ +t +¸¤r çr ¬rel =c mªn¸
ts·z: ¤ z¡ ''n¤ nt’r¸ ¬ a¤¬ ¤er
= +çr, m n¸m= =¤ +çnr ç¸ l+
rr¬¤r¬ +r, =¤m + ;r¤n m ¤¤’r
+;¬r +lo¬ çl
l¤; n¸ m= +çnr ç¸ l+ ¤;m ’¤;
+ ;r¤n m rr¬¤r¬ + ¤ ¤ ’r +;¬
l¤+r=-+m + =+rt =lrr ¢r¤rr m e= al¬¤rn =¤ = ¤+c çrn ç, a-ç ¤+¸ln a¤; ¤+ ont ç
nr ¤ a¤; = ¬t¤ an;n ar; ¬-m mç¤r +;n ç, l¤’r”rn· e=r n¤ çrnr ç, ¬¤ ¤+¸ln mç¬ ¤; rr=tc
+; ar; ;m+; ¤e¬r ¬çt, ¤lr+ eerm mr;¬r ¤rçnt çl ¤ ·nl+n ''¬n n¸m'' m mr¬¤nr +t =¤=
alrr+ =¤r +;m ¬r arrnrlrm+ l¤+r= +t mr¬¤ +t l¬nln ç, q=lee mçr¬g ar¤’n+nr =¤t+r;
+;ml ¤ l+=t l¤’r”r mn nr =¤ + ¤ln aor=t¬ çrm, ar; ermr +r a¬ mnr ar; =¤r +r =çr;r e
e¬ om, l¬¬+t ar; a¬+r ¤r+¸ln+ =qr¬ çl ~t a;l¤-o

l¤+r= +m
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
209
= =r; e+ ¤ç¸ n çt l¤l¤>
¤çet çl ¤;m=rrr ¬ a¤¬t l>m¸¤
rmnt mrnr + gr;r e=t ·n¤=ªrr
+; ;=rt ç l+ +nr -+rr+nr m
+rq +rt a-n; ¬ çrn ç¸e, a-n;
¬¬; ar ;çr çl q= n¸m m mr>
¬t¤+rr¤ çt ‘r ”r ¤¤r ç , arrm
+rr¤ e¸¤n ¤rn· çr ¤¸+r çl nçt
+r;¤r ç l+ ar¬ l¤’¤ m l¬n¬t
a’rr ln ¤ et ç¸ q ç , e =t ¤çe
++rt ¬çt ;çtl q= =mn l¤’¤ =
=nrm¸¤r e¸¤n ¤rn· çr ¤¸+r çl nçt
+r;¤r ç l+ ;¬rm¸¤r ¤;, ¤¸¤r=¤
= nmrm¸¤r +r ¤+r¸r¤ çl q=tlee
l¤’¤ + +¤rrrr; +rn = ‘rrln =ªr.
rl¤n +;¬ +r a=¤e ¤nr= +;
;ç ç l ¤ m+¤;¤rot a¤¬ arl¤
¤+ çlªrnr;r +r +rn lo=rr+;
¤nr-¤nr ‘rrln =ªrrl¤n +;¬ +r
¤nr= n¬ +; ;ç ç, a’rrln a==
+rt n¬ mln = ¤e ;çt çl ar¬
l¤’¤ m l¬;-n; ¬;= çr; çr ;çr ç ,
an¬r ¤çe ++rt ¬çt ç¸arl ar¬
=+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ +r :-s ¤r; ¬”c +;,
an¬ çlªrnr; ¤¬ ¤¸+ çl a¬=
+r q nç ¤¸ e ¤¸ ª¤t +r e+ ¤r;
-r”c +; or m , l¤; ¬¤ l¤’¤ m ¤ r¤
rrrr;t +rq ¤¤mr çt ¬çt nr ¤r+t
+r +nr çrmr? ¤+r¸ ¬ ¬r ‘rl+n
''=¸¬¬'' + lee ot ªrt, a=+r
a¤nrm ''l¤r¤’r'' m +;¬ ¤re
+nr ''=¬rar + nçr¤r'' + +r¤
= ¤¤ =+m? =¬rar +r nçr¤r
+nr +;mr? a-ç q= +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt +r ;r¬ l¤-n¬ +;¬r ¤rlçel
''= ¬rar +r nçr ¤r, a¤r¬+
çm =rn +t =rr¬ +;¬t çr.
¤roe m;¬rnr, +r¸lm +r ++¤rnr
ar; mçrr¤l¬ +;nr, ¤¤¤s; ar;
arrrt ¤ernr ar; ¬r’r +;¬ ¤ret
al·¬ +rs+rnr ç¸ar, a=+ ¤r=
aremrl'' n’rrnrç zs·cll +nrl+
l¤’¤ +r; m nrml=+ ¤¸ lrrnr +r e+
e> =rmr¤n ç, an· ¤ç ‘rl+n
mr¬¤ +r ‘rrln = ¤o +; =r¤¬
+r mr+r çt ¬çt ont çl ‘rrln ar;
a’rrln m¬¸”n + a-o; ç, arl¤
¤+ a=>-’r=> m ¬çt l a¬m
‘rrln c¸c¬r mr> m¸mml;l¤+r çl
+rn lml~n ‘rr ln, mr¬¤-pon
m ¬r ¤o¬r ¤or +;nt ç, a==
a’rrln ¤rm¸¤rt ¤cnt çl
l¤’¤-’rrln mr> rrm = çt
=+r¤ çl ==r; +r; + =+rt rrrlm+
m -ªr ar ; = nr +t ¤r¤rt ¬r =·¤rq
+ç ;çt ç , ¬¤ n+ çm =+rt a¬+t
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ; =r¢rrr+r; +;¬
+r ¤nr¬ ¤¸;t em¬ = ¬çt +;m,
‘rrln m¸mml;l¤+r çt ¤¬t ;çmtl
mr¬¤ ¬¤ n+ nç =mq +; l+
mr¬¤ mr> ¤;m’¤; +t =nr¬ ç,
ar¤;¤r ¬çt +;mr ‘rrln a=+r¤
çl mr> ‘rrln-’rrln l¤rer¬ =
+rq er+r ¬çt çrmrl ¬¤ n+ =.
=r; + er=rr +;r s r er m a nm¸ =rt
çr +; arrm-=r¢rrr+r; ¬çt
+;m, +rn l=lç a=+r¤ çl
¤or-n o’r¬ =¤”c ‘r-or m
+çnr ç- ''=¤ =rlr¤o ¤g''l
+rr;ntn o’r¬ + =+rt m-ªr e+
=¤; m +çn ç l+ a= ¤;mnr¤
+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r;
+¤e m¬¸”n nrl¬ m çt, a¤¬
a-o; çt +t ¬r =+nt ç l q=
=¤rr m +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ t: ¤
arnrn + zz ¤ ‘er+ nªrr ts ¤
arnrn + ct ¤ ‘er+ m +çr ç-
a¤q”cr¬¸m-nr ¤ +rnr
+rr+nr mç’¤;·l
¤;mrrmln ¤r”n¸+nr
oç•l=m-¤¸=”r· ¤;·llt:·zzll
¤r=n¤ m nç -''¤¸=”r q=
o ç m l=ªrn ç¸ ar +rt ''¤;'' (l>m¸ ¤
rrntn¸ çt çl (+¤e¸ =r¢rt çr¬
= 'a¤q”cr' ar; nªrrªr =+mln
o ¬ ¤rer çr ¬ = 'a¬¸ m-nr' (e¤ ¸
=¤+r rrr;¤r +;¬ ¤rer çr¬ =
'+rnr' ¬t¤=¤ = '+rr+nr' nªrr
¤grlo+r +r +rt =¤rmt çr¬ =
'mç’¤;' ar; ‘r¸ç =l·¤or¬-o
rr¬ çr¬ = '¤;mrrmr' e=r +çr
mnr çl'' a¤n¸+n ‘er+ = =¤”c
çr nr ç l+ m¬¸ ”n nr l¬ +r a·¤nm
l¤+r=, a= ¤;m=rrr + nq¸ ¤ çr ¬r
çl ¬¤ n+ l¤’¤ m e= l¤+l=n,
er=rr +;rsr erm ¤+c ¬çt çrm,
‘rrln a=++r¤ çl
q’¤;· =¤+r¸nr¬r
ç¸o’r•a¬¸¬ ln”olnl
+rrmn-=¤+r¸nrl¬
n->r=crl¬ mrnnrllts·ctll
'' ç a¤r¸¬l ‘r;t; =¤t n>
m ar=c ç¸e =+¤¸¤r ¤rl¤rnr +r
a-nnrmt ¤;m’¤; a¤¬t mrnr
= +rmrnr ç¸ar, =¤ +r¸n ¤rl¤rnr +
pon m l=ªrn ç l'' mr> a-nm¸ =rt
çr ¬ +t o ; ç , =+rt =m=nrar
+r =mrrrr¬ çr ¬rnr ç l ¤;-n¸
nç +rn m¸= + l¤¬r a=++r¤ çl
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
ot+ a¤n¸+n +rr”rr m çt
¤rq¤e ¤rent çl z +¸l;l-ªrnr
c·tc m +rm¤r¬g ¬ çt a¤¬
a¤n¸+n ‘er+ orç;rn ç¸e +çr
ç- ''ar; m¸;nr + =rªr ¤;m’¤;
+ mlo; +r +nr =¤rr? +nrl+
çm nr ¬t¤n ¤;m ’¤; + m lo;
ç, ¬=r ¤;m’¤; ¬ +çr ç l+ m
a¬m ¤=¸mr, ar; a¬m ¤erl¤;r
+= mr, ar ; m a¬+r ¤;m ’¤;
ç¸mr, ar; ¤ m; erml'' a¤n¸+n
‘er + = =¤”c ç l+ m¬¸ ”n nr l¬ m
q’¤; + o’r¬ =+r¤ ç, l¬= mr¢r
+çn ç, ¤rq¤e q= a¬-n +t
=qr ont çl ¤+rl’rn ¤r+n z·tt
m +çr ç '' l¬=+ +r¬ çr ¤ç =¸¬
e l+ arrmr +etl=nrar = +nr
+çnr ç- ''¬r ¬n ¤re, a=+r
o¸=;t m¸rn¸ = çrl¬ ¬ ¤ç¸¤mtl''
''’r-o'' = =¸l”c +t ar¤lrr
+r =+rt rrm =¤t+r; +;n çl ‘r-o
= ar¤-¬ ç¸ar ¤¸=”r ¤¸¬· ‘r-o +
=¤ m ¤l;¤lnn çr =+nr ç, nç
¤rn mr> ¤or-n o’r¬ çt +çnr
çl ‘r-o ¤g = ¤;¤g +t ¤rl¤n
+r l=çr-n mr> çmr; o’r¬ +t
çt o¬ çl l¤’¤ +r q= lo·n qr¬
+r or¬ +rr;n a¬rlo+re = +;nr
arnr ç, ar; +;nr ;çmrl =¸l”c
+t ar¤lrr + =¤rr m mtnr + t: ¤
arnrn + z: ¤ ‘er+ m +çr ç-
‚ nr=loln l¬o’rr
¤g¤rl=>l¤rr· =m¸n·l
-rrg¤rr=n¬ ¤or’¤
nqr’¤ l¤lçnr· ¤¸;rllt:·z:ll
''‚ nng =ng e= (nç¸
nt¬ ¤ +r; +r =l·¤or¬ o rr¬
¤ g +r ¬rm +çr ç , a=t =
=¸l”c + arlo+re m ¤rg¤r ar;
¤ o nªrr nqrlo+ ;¤ mn ç l''
q= =¤rr m ¤o =¤”c +çnr ç-
''arar a= ¤nrln m ¤ç¸¤, ¬r
=¤; er+ +t ç, a= ¤nrln m l¬=
+rq =r¤s-=r¤s ¬çt +; =+nr
çl'' q= ¤+r; çm o=rn ç ¤ç
''¤+r’r¤o -’r-o'' a¬;- am;
ç, a¬rlo a¬-n çl
¤rn¬le nrmo’r¬ m +rt
>l”r ¬ +çr ç- çl; ¬rm + ¬¤ +
l¤¬r + ¤rn¤o ¤ r¤n ¬çt l+nr ¬r
=+nr, nrm l=lç ¬çt çr =+ntl
=mrlrr¤ro + z¡ = zs n+ + ‘er.
+r m >l”r ¬ q’¤; +t ·nr=nr
+;n ç¸e a=+ ¬rm ¬¤ = l¤r¬r
+r a+rr¤ ar; arrm =r¢rrr+r;
+t ¤rn +çt çl >l”r +çnr ç-
''+e’r, +m, l¤¤r+ ar; ar’rn
-q¬ ¤r;r = ¬r =¤lrrn ¬çt ç
(nªrr¸ ¬r =m=n ¤¸=”rr = arrm
ç, ¤ç, ''q’¤;'' çl a= (q’¤;¸
m =¤qnr +r ¤t¬ (+r;¤r¸ aªr.
r ng qr¬ l¬;ln’rn ç l (¤ç q ’¤;
=¤+¸ ¤¸¤¬r + +rt m¸= ç, (=m
+ arlo m ar¤-¬ çr¬ + +r;¤r
=¤+r m¸= ¤gr +r mr¬r ¬rnr ç,
¤;-n¸ +re = a¤·eo çl mtnr
s·t:ll +nrl+ a=+r +re = a¤.
·eo ¬çt çl a= q’¤; +r ¤r¤+
(¬rm¸ ¤¤r¤ (‚¸ çl a= ¬rm
+r ¬¤ a=+ aªr =¤=¤ ¤;m’¤;
+r l¤-n¬ (+;¬r ¤rlçe¸ a+n
=rrr¬ = (q’¤; + ¬rm ¬¤ =¸
l¤r¬r +r a+rr¤ ar; a-n;rrmr
+ =¤=¤ +r qr¬ +rt çr ¬rnr
ç¸l''
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ +rt mtnr
+ ta ¤ arnrn + z: ¤ ‘er+ m
¬rm ¬¤ +r a¤¬r =¤=¤ ¤nrn
ç¸e, a= =¤rrrm nq +t =qr on
ç¸e =¤”c ‘r-or m +çr ç-
''nqr¬r ¬¤nqr•l=m''ll
ta·z:ll
mçr+rr;n m +rt çl;¬rm +
¬¤ +r =¤~”o rrm +t =qr on
ç¸e +çr ç-
¬¤=n¸,=¤rrrm+n·
¤;mr rrm a·nnl
alç=nr ¤ +r¸nr¬r
¬¤nq· ¤¤nnll
''=m=n rrmr m ¬¤'' =¤ ~ ”o
rrm ç , +nr l+ ¬¤-nq, l¤¬r
l+=t lç=r + ¤¸;r çrnr çl''
nç¸ lonr + '=¸ ”cgn¸ r¤lrr'
¤+;¤r m +rt +çr ç- ''=m¸q +
a¤;t ne ¤; a-rr+r; ªrr, ar;
q’¤; +t arrmr ¬er ¤; l¤¤;¤r
+; ;çt ªrtl ‘r-o + gr;r a=¬
=m¸ q +r a-nl;¢r = l¤+r+n
l+nr, l¬=+ ¤l;¤rrm =¤=¤ a¤
nçr or =m¸q ç, e+ ¤rlªr¤ ¬r
a nl;¢r + ¬t¤ ç , o¸ ¸ =;r o¸ er +tn
¬r anl;¢r + a¤; çl''
q =rqnr + ¤l¤> m ªr ¤rq¤e
m +rt (¬= mtnr m
‚ +r q’¤; +r ¤nt+ mr¬r
ç ¸ '’r-o' çt +r ¤;mrrmr +t
=qr ot mql =c ¬rç¬ t·t = ¡ m
+çr ç-
(t¸ arlo m ¤¤¬ (’r-o¸
ªrr, ar; ¤¤¬ (’r-o¸ ¤;m’¤;
+ =rªr ªrr, ar ; ¤¤¬ (’r-o¸
¤;m ’¤; ªrrl (z¸ nçt arlo m
¤;m’¤; + =rªr ªrrl (:¸ =¤ +¸e
a=t + gr;r ar¤-¬ ç¸ar, ar; ¬r
+¸e ar¤-¬ ç¸ar, a=m +rq +rt
¤=n¸ a=+ l¤¬r ar¤-¬ ¬ ç¸ql
a= (’r-o¸ m ¬t¤¬ ªrr, ar; ¤ç
210
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
l¤lrrnqr¤¬¤nqr
l¤l’r”cr o’rr+rm¸¤r·l
a¤r’r¸ =nr·enm¸¤r·
=ç=r mr¬=· =m¸n·ll
n ¤r+nqr’¤r¤r;rl¤lrr
nq =ml-¤nr·l
=¤ n ¬¤nq=n +er
¬rçl-n “rrs’rtmll m¬¸ =m¸lnl
''o’r ¤r¤rmr= =¤ +m nqr
+t a¤¢rr ¬¤ nq o= m¸¤rr ~”o
ç l a¤r ’r¸ -¬¤ =r m¸ ¤rr ar ; mr¬=
¬¤ =ç= m¸¤rr ~”o çrnr çl
+m nq + ¤r; ¤r+-nq çl ¤
¬¤-nq + =rçe¤ a’r + ¤;r¤;
+rt ¬çt çl''
q’¤; + ¬rm ¬¤ = ¬r lo·n
ar¬-o =rrr+ +r l¬;-n; arnr
ç , a= = nr ¬ a¤¬t +rr”rr m
''¬rm =r¸mr;t'' +t =qr ot çl q=
= ¤ rr m = n =ogm¸ = ~t ¬r¬+ o ¤
¬t mçr;r¬ ¬ +çr ç-
''+rrm rrn¸;r ¬r¬+r
an; ¬rn ¤;+rrn,
'¬rm =r¸mr;t' ¬r¬+r
¤lc ;ç lo¬ ;rnl''
= n ~t +¤t; or= ¬t mçr;r¬
¬ +çr ç-
'¬rm ame' an; ¬ +rrql
ar ; ame le¬-le¬ ¤lc
an;,
'¬rm ame' lo¬ ¤c =¤rnrl''
an· ¬¤ n+ nç ¬rm =r¸ mr;t
=+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ +r ar¬l-on ¬çt
+; ont, ‘rrln +¤e +r¤¬r çt
;çmtl
m¸ =-l ’r ” n ¤;+¤;r m
‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr +r arnlrr+
mçr¤ çl ‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr çmr;
o’r¬ +r a·¤rrm lo·n-l¤qr¬
çl nç m¸=ar gr;r ot ¬r¬ ¤ret
m¸ ¤not¢rr ç , ¬r arlo +re =
m¸=-l’r”n ¤;+¤;r m ¤et ar ;çt
çl m¸=, ‘rl+n¤rn gr;r =rrr+ +t
+¸¤sle¬t +r ¬rmn +; on çl
çmr; ‘rr=>r m q= ¬mng ¬¬¬t
+çr ç l ¬r ¤ gr¤s m ç , ¤çt l¤ ¤s
m çl nç lo·n qr¬ mr> çmr;
>l”rnr +t çt o¬ çl
oç=ªrr· =r·¤ l¤or’¤
oç=ªrr·=·¤ o¤nr·l
oç=ªrr· =·¤ ntªrrl¬
m¸= ¤r+n¬ e+nnll
¤gr¤s e¢r¤r =·¤
oç mrn ·n¤l=ªrnmgll
''qr¬ =+le¬t n->''
=rm; mlç ¤¸o,
¤¸o mlç =rm;l
+¤¤r¸ ¤¸q l¤lrr ¬r¤rll
--~t ¬r¬+ o¤ ¬tll
¤¸o =mr¬t =m¸o m,
nç ¬r¬ =¤ +rnl
=m¸o =mr¬r ¤¸o m,
¤¸q l¤;er +rnll +¤t;ll
çmr; >l”rnr ¬ m¬¸”n ‘r;t;
+r l¤;rc =¤=¤ ¤mrl¤rn +;+
a=+ a-o; =+¤¸ ¤r =¸ l”c +r
o=rrl q=+ ¬-m ornr ¤;m’¤;
+r =ªrr¬ =ç=r; m ar; a=+t
¤;r’rl+n (+¸sle¬t¸ +r =ªrr¬
m¸errrr; + ¤r= çl q-çt or¬r +
+r;¤r çt =+¤¸¤r =¸l”c +t ;¤¬r
ç¸ q l =rrr+ +t +¸ sle¬t ¤ n¬
çr+; =ç=r; m en çr ¬rnt ç,
a=t +r mr¢r +t =qr ot mq çl
q=t l=çr-n + a¬¸=r; =n
=ogm¸ = ‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr = =rrr+
+t +¸ ¤sle¬t +r ¬rm n +;+
=ç=r; m ¤ç¸¤rn çl ‘rl+n¤rn
= +¸¤sle¬t ¬rmn çr ¬rnt ç,
n¤ +nr çr nr ç , q= = ¤ rr m
+çr ç-
=¸¤n m¸= ¤=ro¬
nor ¬rmln +¸¤setl
nor =¤r¬t ¤¬rl¬
l+ronl-n m-ªrnr•l¤¤ll
''=¤rrmr;rm çonrm ¤lol¤+r''
''¬¤ m¸=+¸¸¤r = =¸¤n +¸s.
le¬t ¬rmn çr ¬rnt ç, n¤ =+rt
¤+r ar; ml-ªrnr +r ¤rr¬ çrnr
ç l'' ¬rm n ç¸ q +¸ ¤sle¬t, =¸ ”r¸ +¬r
¬rst m = çr+; ar¤ mm¬ +;¬
emnt çl ¤ç eç ¤+r-m¸errrr;,
=¤rlrr”or¬, ml¤r¤¸;+, a¬rçn,
l¤’r¸ ç e¤ arqr¤+ ar ; nt¬r
m l-ªrnr -¤ gm lªr, l¤”¤r¸ m lªr
e¤ =qm lªr +r ¤ rr¬ +;nt ç ,
ar; a-n m =mrlrr l=ªrln, ¬r
l+ =mr¤¤rrr +t l=ªrln ç, ¤r¤n
+;r ont çl
¤;-n¸ l¤’¤ +r +rq +rt o’r¬
l+nrrm+ cm = mr¢r ¤rl¤n +r
¤ªr ¤ol’rn ¬çt +;nrl nç alg
ntn lo·n qr¬ nr mr> =¬rn¬
rrm, ¤or-n o’r¬ +t çt o¬ çl
l¤’¤ + ¤r+t rrm ¤rlç+ n+ e¤
‘r-o ¬re + ¬ ¬re m ¤ =r+;
q’¤; +t =rrr +r ar+rr= loer¬
+r ¤ nr= mr> +;n ç l ¤ +r q
¤mr¤r ¬çt o =+nl
ot¢rr ¤r¤n l+e l¤¬r m¬¸”n
+r a= ¤;m=rrr +t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
çr çt ¬çt =+ntl q= l=çr-n
+r q =rq o’r ¬ +rt ¤¸ ¤r =¤ =
=¤t+r; +;nr ç l m¸ = = ot¢rr
e+; nt’r¸ lg¬ ¤¬r ªrrl q=tlee
a=¬ q¬;rqlenr + rrm m¸=,
l¬+¸ o m¸ = +r +çr- ''m n¸ q=
211
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
212

¬ ¬r ¤ªr ¤ o’r + nç¸ lonr
+r lonr, a= a-çr¬ =¤t+r; ¬çt
l+nrl q= ¤+r; ¤ mç¬ arr+r;
m ¤= ;çl ¬¤ nt’r¸ ¬ o=rr l+
q¬ ermr m l+=t ¤+r; +r =¸rrr;
ar¬ +t =+rr¤¬r ¬çt ç, n¤ a=
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt +;¬t ¤s t l+ ''m
l¤nr = ¤ rªr ¬r += mr ar ; ¤ç
n¸+ç e+ ar ; =çrn+ o mr, l+ ¤ç
=¤or n¸+çr; =rªr ;çl''
nç ¤rn qn¬t mç¬ ç l+
ar¬ q=rq q=+r aªr çt ¬çt
=mqn çl l¬= =çrn+ + +r¬¬
+t ¤rn +çt mq ç, ¤ç =¤l=ç
çrmr, ar; ¤ç ‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr =
a¬+t +¸ sle¬t ¬rm n +;+ , a-ç
=¤m ¬r¬ = ¤çe (m¸rn¸ + ¤ro
¤ret=¤ lo¬¸ a¤¬ l’r”nr =
lme+; a-ç arqr ot ''n=’re m
+r ¬ ersr, ¤;-n¸ l¤nr +t a=
¤lnqr + ¤¸;r çr¬ +t ¤rc ¬rçn
;çr, l¬=+t ¤¤r n¸m m¸q= =¸¬
¤¸+ çrl +nrl+ ¬rç¬ ¬ nr ¤r¬t
m ¤¤ln=mr lonr ç, ¤;-n¸ ªrrs
lo¬r ¤ro n¸m ¤l¤>rrmr = (m¸
¤¤ln=mr ¤rarml''
¤rq¤e m l¬= ar¬-o
+t ¤rn ¤l¤r n ç , ¤ç ar¬-o
¤l’¤m +r a= =çrn+ gr;r
‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr (Baptized
with the Holy Ghost¸ o¬
¤ro ar¬ emmrl a= ar¬-o +t
=r¸ mr;t + +r;¤r ¤ =rrr+ ç; =mn
q¸mn ;çm, ar; erm =mqm l+
a-çr ¬ ‘r;r¤ ¤t ;=rt ç l çmr; = nr
¬ l¬= ¬rm =r¸mr;t +t =qr ot ç,
a=t ¬rm =r¸mr;t + +r;¤r ¤ q¸m.
ml qr¬ + a+rr¤ m ermr +r +rm
çr ¬remr l+ a-çr¬ ¤t ;=rt çl
q=+r ¤¤r ¬ +;n ç¸ e ''¤ .
l;nr +r +rm'' z·t¡ = ts m le=rr
ç ''¤n;= a¬ ·nr;ç + =rªr =rs r
ç¸ar ar; a¤ ‘r-o = +ç¬ emr
l+ ç nç¸lonr ar; ç n=’rem +
=¤ ;ç¬ ¤rer, nç ¬r¬ er ar;
+r¬ emr+; m;t ¤rn =¸¬rl ¬=r
n¸ m =mq ;ç çr ,n ¬’r m ç ,
+nrl+ a+rt nr ¤ç; çt lo¬ ¤cr
ç l ¤;-n¸ nç ¤ç ¤rn ç ,¬r 'nr ee'
+rl¤”n¤+nr + gr;r +çt mq çl
¤;m’¤; +çnr ç l+ an + lo¬r
m e=r çrmr l+ m a¤¬r arrmr
=¤ m¬¸ ”nr ¤; as e¸ mr ar ; n¸ +çr;
¤c ar; n¸+çr;t ¤lcnr +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt +;mt ar; n¸+çr; ¬¤r¬ o’r¬
o=rm, ar; n¸+çr; ¤¸;l¬n (¤¸ç¸
=¤¤¬ o=rml ¤;¬g m a¤¬ or=r
ar ; a¤¬t orl=nr ¤; +rt a¬
lo¬r m a¤¬ arrmr m = ase¸mr
ar; ¤ +rl¤”n¤r¤rt +;ml''
¤rq¤e + a==n =o+r e=
ç l¬-ç =mq¬ + lee a-nm¸=rt
çr¬r ¤smr, n+rt a¬+r =çt aªr
=mq m ar¤mrl ¤+r¸ ¬ m¸q n¸m
¤l;¤n¬ + q= =lrr+re m =¤=
+lo¬ +rn =r¤r çl e=r ¬çt ç
l+ +rn +t +lo¬rq + ¤r; m, m
arr+r; m ç¸l m¸q a= ¤;m=rrr ¬
=¤ +¸ e lo=rr ar ; =mqr lonr ç l
a lnm ¬nt¬r ¤çt çr mr, ¬r ç; n¸ m
m çrnr arnr çl
¤ r;++r m ¬¤ ¤ ªrm ot¤+
¬enr ç nr e =r emnr ç l+
lcmlcmrnr ot¤+ l¤’¤ + a rr+r;
+r, ¬r l+ or= ¤¬+; ¬m mnr
ç, += o¸; +; =+mr? ¤;-n¸ ¬¤
ot¤+ = ot¤+ ¬e¬ emnr ç,
¬r ¬e¬ ¤re ot¤+r +t ==nr
m l¬= n¬ mln = l¬;-n; ¤¸lç
çrnt ç, a== ==r; m arr; +r
al=nr¤ çt =mr¤n çr ¬rnr ç l
= c ¬r ç¬ e+ a+r¸ n¤¸ ¤ lo·n
·nl+n ªrrl
m a=+ ¬t¤¬ +r nt’r¸ = +m
mçr¤ +r ¬çt mr¬nrl a= mçr¬g
arrmr ¬ +rt nr a-nrn + l¤=ç
ar¤r¬ aor+; a¤¬r l=; +c¤r
lenr ªrrl ç ;r o ’r a= =mn ¤r ªrrq
o’r +r ;r¬r ªrrl a=¬ a¤¬ +rrq
l¤le¤¤¸= +t ¤r¬t ç;rlonr= +r
;=r lenr ªrrl =c ¬rç¬ ¬ +çr
l+ a=¬ nç ¤r¤ l+nr çl q=
¤; a= ¬e m sre lonr ar; ¤ro
m a=+r l=; +c¤r lonr ªrrl q=
¤+r; a=¬ +rt nr nt’r¸ = ¤çe
rrm + lee a¤¬ ¤r¤rr +t ¤le
¤cr ot ªrtl
a=+ ¤+rl’rn ¤r+n m ¬r
+¸e le=rr ç a= ar¬ +r q=rq
¬mng =mq çt ¬çt =+nrl
¤rq¤e +r nç =+¤¸¤r arl=r;t
+rrm ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln
ar; =r¢rrr+r; +r l¤”rn çl an·
a-n;rrmr +t al+r¤¸ lç = çt
=mqr ¬r =+nr çl m ¤+rl’rn
¤r+n + +¸ e = o+r ¬t¤ le=r
;çr ç¸ , +nr q= ¤l¤> m-ªr +
mr¬¬ ¤re q¬+r aªr =mq¬ m
=¢rm ç?
¤ +rl’rn ¤r+n z·tc e¤ t:
''=r m¬ l¤;r, ¬çt nr m n; ¤r=
‘rtrr çt ar+; a¤¬ m¸ =r +t
ne¤r; = a¬+ =rªr es¸mrl t:.
l¬=+ +r¬ çr, ¤ç =¸¬ e arrmr
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+len¸m + m¸¤rrrm + +r;¤r
= =r; + =+rt rrmr + ‘rrl-rr,
¤ m,=çnr m,alç =r, +r rn¸ +rr¤,
mr¬¤nr arlo + l=çr-n ,l¬n¬
ar¬ ¤ +rr¤çt¬ ç¸ e ç , antn
m ++rt ¬çt ç¸ el l¤’¤ + =+rt
rrmr ¤rn ‘rrl-n-’rrl-n +t ;c
l¬n¬t n ¬ +;n ç , a’rrl-n
an¬t çt n¬t = ¤e ;çt çl an·
a¤ l¤’¤ + ¤¤¸ç ermr +r rrmr.
-rrnr ar ; rrrlm + +ç;¤¬ +r
lner¬et o+; ‘rr-n loe lomrm
= lme ¤o+; =r¤¬r çrmr, ar;
q= ¤+r; = ¬r mr¬¤tn rrm +r
=¤=¤ ¤+c çr+; l¤’¤ + =rm¬
ar¤mr, mr> ¤çt l¤’¤ ‘rrl-n +r
;¢r+ çrmrl
l¤’¤ +r; + nªrr+lªrn
=m-¤n¤rot er mr ¬ rrm ar ;
==+¸¸ln +t ars m l¤’¤ m lç=r,
rr¸¤rr, g”r ar; ‘rr”r¤r çt ¤ernr
çl nç =rn ¬çt nr ar¬ l¤’¤ +r;
m rrmr-rrnr ar; rrrlm+ +ç;¤¬
+ +r;¤r l¬n¬r ¬;= çr; çr ;çr ç ,
an¬r ¤çe ++rt +nr ¬çt ç¸ar?
==r; + =+rt rrmr +t mr-nnr ç
l+ q’¤; e+ ç,ar; =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤
+ mr¬¤ a=t ¤;ml¤nr ¤;m’¤;
+t =nr¬ ç, l¤; q’¤; ar; rrm
+ ¬rm ¤; l¤’¤ m ¬;=çr; +nr
çr ;çr ç ? ar¬ l¤’¤ +t ¬r
l¤=¤r c+ l=ªrln ç , ¤ç =¤”c
=+n o ;çt ç, l+ nlo rrm ar;
¬rln + ¬rm ¤; ¬r ¬;=çr; çr
;çr ç,¬çt =+r nr l¤’¤ +t +q
= =+¸ lnnr =rn; m ¤s ¬r¤ mt,
ar ; a¬+r al=nr¤ n+ ¤¤¬r
=m-¤n l+==
+lo¬ çr ¬remrl l¤’¤ +r; +t ;r¬.
l¬ln + +¤r rrr; +r;=+ ¤ nr= n ¬
+; ;ç ç, l¤’¤ m ‘rrl-n =ªrrl¤n
çr, ¤;-n¸ ¤nr-¤nr ¤ ‘rrl-n +r
¤nr= n¬ +;n ç, a’rrl-n a==
¤rm¸¬t ¤c ¬rnt çl e=t l=ªrln +
¤en l¤’¤ m ‘rrl-n a=++r¤ çl
rrc¬re l¬= n¸¤r¬t mln = mrs
e ;çt ç, a= rnr¬ = o=r nr nç
=+rr¤¬r alrr+ ¤e¤nt çrnt ç
l+ nç a’rrl-n a¤¬t ¤;m =tmr
+r ++rt +rt errr =+nt çl
m¸q +q rrrlm+ ¬nr +çn ç
l+ m ¤¸;¤ ar; ¤l’¤m m =m-¤n
=ªrrl¤n +;¬ +r ¤nr= +; ;çr
ç¸l m¸q a¬+t ¤rn =¸¬+; ¤ç¸n
çt ar’¤n çrnr çl =+rt rrm e+
n;¤ nr e+ çt ¤;m l¤nr +t = nr¬
çr¬ +t ¤rn +;n ç, o¸=;t n;¤
=m-¤n +tl l¤; =m-¤n l+==,
+nr ar ; + = ? çmr;r ¤ lo+ o’r ¬
=¤”c +çnr ç l+ ''=¤ =rlr¤o
¤g''l e= =m-¤n¤rot ermr ¬
=m-¤n +t ars m l¤rrc¬ çt
l+nr çl a-nªrr ==r; ar¬ l¬=
l¤=¤rc+ a’rrl-n + or; = m¸¬;
;çr ç, ¬çt m¸¬;nrl
rrm m lç=r +r =¤”c aªr
ç, ¤ç rrm ¤n¬ +t n;¤ ¤c ;çr
çl g”r, lç=r, rr¸¤rr ar; +rn ¤;
arrrrl;n +rq +rt rrm a¤¬ ¤n¬
+r ;r+ ¬çt =+nr çl e= rrm
+r ¤+r’r ¬¸m¬¸ ¬=r çt çrnr çl
l¬n¬t +rt +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr l¤’¤
+r; + +rl¤”no¸”crar ¬ +t ç,
a¬+r rnr¬ = o=r¬ = nr e+
çt =¤mr-n nªn ¤+c çrnr ç l+
+len¸m + ar;++r çr¬ + ¤ro =
==r; m l¬n¬ +rt rrm ¤+c ç¸e
ç, zt ¤t =ot m a¬+r al=nr¤ çt
lmc ¬r¤mrl ar¬ ==r; m =¤rªr.
-rr ermr +t ==nr qn¬t alrr+
¤c mq ç l+ =·¤rq ¬¬; çt ¬çt
ar ;çt çl +rre-+rre ermr +t
+rr¤¬rar +r +rs+r+;, e+ rrm
+ ermr = o¸=; rrm + ermr +r
esr+;, l¬or”r ermr +r ‘rr”r¤r
l+nr ¬r ;çr çl =m-¤n +t ¤rn
+;¬ ¤re ¤n¸ ;-¤rer+ er m,
=m-¤n +t ars m rrm + ¬rm
¤; er mr +r ‘rr ”r¤r +; ;ç ç l
l¤’¤ m =r=+¸ln+ aror¬-¤or¬
+ ¬rm ¤; ¬r +¸ e +rt çr ;çr
ç , am; a=m =·¤rq çr nt nr
a¤ n+ a=+ ¤l;¤rrm lme¬
ar;++r çr ¬rnl =·¤rq nr nç
ç l+ = r=+¸ ln+ aror¬-¤ or¬
+t ars m e+ o¸=; + rr; m =rr
emr¬ +r ¤ nr= çt l+nr ¬r ;çr ç l
am; nç a=rn ç nr =r=+¸ln+
aror¬-¤ or¬ l¤’¤ m +rrq ¤r;
+r mrr¸; =+¤rr =ªrrl¤n +;¬ m
a=¤e +nr çr ;çr ç? +c¸ =rn
nr nç ç l+ q= =mn =r=+¸ln+
aror¬-¤or¬ mr> e+ +¸c¬tln
çl
m nr mr¬¤ mr> m, ¬r e+ çt
‘rr’¤n-al¤+rr¤n =rrr +rn +;
;çt ç, a=t +t ¤rnr¢rr¬¸+r¸ln e¤
=r¢rrr+r; +;¤r¬ + lee l¤’¤
m l¬+er ç¸l ar¬ l¤’¤ m l¬n¬
+rt rrm, l¬= =¤=¤ m ¤e ;ç ç,
m a= =+t¤r orn; m +o çr¬
+r nnr; ¬çt ç¸l m; lm’r¬ +r
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
213
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
l¬= ¤+r; =¸n aon çr¬ ¤; a¤¬ ar¤ ¤+r’r =¤> ¤e ¬rnr ç, a=t ¤+r; ~ç
r çr¬ ¤; =+rt =rrr¬re, çrªr ¤rrr =¤r m a¤l=ªrn çrnt çl ~çr =rrr¬r =¤t +r¤¬
+t ¬t¤ çl ~çr pon +r ¤l¤> +rr¤ ç, ¬r a-n =+rt +rr¤r +r ¤+rrl¤n +;nr ;çnr
çl ~çr çr¬ ¤; l¤¤+ =¤t =rsgm =¤n· çrªr m ar ¬rnt ç, ¬r ¤r=¬r =¤t a=¸;
+r =çr; +;¬ m =mªr çrnt ç, ~çr e+ e=r a+ro +¤¤ ç, ¬r l¤”rnr + ar+m¤rr
= =rrr+ +t ;¢rr +;nr çl ~çr mr¬¤nr +r =¤r+rrl¤+ e¢r¤r çl ~çrl¤çt¬ mr¬¤
- =¤rmt
+rt m, ç¬r;r l’r”nr +r ¤n¬
+; ¤¸+r ç¸l nç ‘rl+n a¬m ¬r
=¤= a¤n¸ +n çr mr, a=+ mrrnm
= a¤¬r +rn =¸¤r= cm = l¬.
;-n; ¤re¸ ;=r mtl nç e+ e =t
‘rl+n l=ç ¬rªrnrlmnr ¬ ¤+c
+; ot ç, l¬= l¤’¤ +t +rq +rt
‘rl+n ¬çt ;r + =+ mt +nr l+
q=+r a¤nrm mr> =¸¬¬ m çt çr
=+nr ç l¤r¤= m ¬çtl q=lee
m l¤¬r l+=t ¤+r; +, lqq+ +
ç; rrm ar; ç; ¬rln + ermr +r
ot¢rr o ;çr ç¸l e+-e+ ·nl+n
+r ot¢rr o¬ = l¤’¤ =n; ¤;, q=
qr¬ +r ¤=r; a=+r¤ ç, an· m
=rm¸lç+ =¤ = ot¢rr onr ç¸l l¬=
qr¬ = lçn-alçn or¬r çr =+n
ç , a=+t ot¢rr =r ¤ =mq +;
o ¬t ¤s nt ç l m l¬n¬r alrr+ q=
qr¬ +r ¤ rcnr ç¸ , an¬t çt alrr+
=r+rªn ¤r¤n +;nr ç¸l
rrrlm+ ¬mng m or ¤+r; +
er m çr n ç -rrmr ªrt ¤ ;ç=n¤rotl
rrmr ªrt ·nl+n ¤çe l+=t rrm = rr
(=+¤ orn¸ m rrrlm + l’r¢rr m ç¤r
+;nr ç, ar; n¤ a=+r a+nr=
+;nr çl ¤ç =¤n + a¬¸+r¤r +r
a¤¬ l¤’¤r= +r arrrr; ¬çt
¤¬rnr ç, ¤;-n¸ ;ç=n¤rot =rrr+
=rn +r a-¤ ”r¤r ar;++r +;nr ç ,
¤çe a=+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln +;nr
ç l¤; a¤¬ mn +r =¸>¤ç +;nr
çl rrm =rr o¸=;r + a¬¸+r¤r +r
a¤¬rnr ç, ¤;-n¸ ;ç=n¤rot +r
a¬¸+r¤ a¤¬r çt çrnr çl rrm =rr
¤rç; = +rtn; +t ar; ¬r¬ +r
¤nr= +;nr ç, ¬¤l+ ;ç=n¤rot
+rtn; = ¤rç; arnr ç a¤;rl¤or
nr ¤ct-le=rt ¬r =+nt ç, ¤;-n¸
''¤;rl¤or'' al¬¤r ·n l¤”rn
çl nç +¤e ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar;
=r¢rrr+r; +r l¤”rn çt ç l q=
=mn l¤’¤ +r; m rrmrªrt ermr
+r e+ e> =rmr¤n çl çmr; o’r
m =mn-=mn ¤; ;ç=n¤rot =n
¤+c çrn çt ;çn çl ~t ¬r¬+
o¤ ¬t, +¤t;or= ¬t, ;or=¬t,
;rm+¸ ”¤r ¤;mç = arlo a¬ +
;ç=n¤rot =n çr ¤¸+ çl m +rt
e+ e = çt ;ç=n¤rot = n +r
l’r”n ç¸l
m; m¸l+nornr ¤gl¬”o =n
=ogm¸=o¤ ¤r¤r ~tmmrq ¬rªr
¬t nr mt +rt e = çt algntn
;ç=n¤rot = n ªr l m ; = n =ogm¸ =
o¤ +t a=tm açn¸ +t +¸¤r +
+r;¤r çt, m ; mrrnm = = =r;
+ er mr m a+r¸ n¤¸ ¤ , aog+r¸ n
¤l;¤n¬ ar ;çr çl
=¤rmt m¸+nr¬o ¬t ¬ ''+¸¤
sle¬t ¬t¤¬ +r ;ç=n'' m m¸ =¤o
¤ rl¤n +r l¤¤;¤r o n ç¸ e mtnr
+ t: ¤ arnrn + t: ¤ ‘er +
+r l¤¤;¤r on ç¸e +çr l+ q=t
¤;m ¤¸=”r + ¤=-¬ çr+; arqr
o¬ nªrr =n =ogm¸= + ¤=-¬
çr+; m¸=¤o =r¤¬ ¤; çt =rrr+
'm¸=' ¤¬ =+nr ç, a-nªrr ¬çtl
=¤rmt ¬t ¬ l¬= ;ç=n +r ¤+c
l+nr ç, ¤ç ¤rn ++rt ¤c¬ =¸¬¬
+r ¬çt lmetl q= ;ç=n +r qr¬
çr¬ + +r;¤r çt m =¤rmt ¬t +r
=·¤r =-nr=t mr¬nr ç¸l m; m ¬r
a+r¸ n¤¸ ¤ ¤l;¤n ¬ arnr ç , ¤ç
mr> =¤rmt ¬t + a¤n¸+n l¤¤;¤r
+ a¬¸=r; çt arnr çl mr> a=
¬te ¤¸=”r + ¤=-¬ çr¬ = m¸q
nç =rmªn ¤ rl¤n ¬çt çr ntl
¬te ¤¸ =”r + ¤ =-¬ çr ¬ ar ;
m; =ogm¸=o¤ + ¤=-¬ çr+;
m¸ =¤o =r ¤¬ = çt nç =rmªn
¤r¤n ç¸q çl
m m ; =ogm¸ =o ¤ +
aro ’rr¬¸ =r; =¬rn¬ rrm +r
=o’r =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ + =+r;rrm+
ermr n+ ¤ç¸¤r¬ l¬+er ç¸l m
mr¬¤ mr> +r nr m +r ¤ =ro ¤r c¬
==r; m l¬+er ç¸l nrmo’r¬ ar;
o’r ¬r +t n;ç l+=t ¤ +r; +r

214
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+l en¸ m + m¸ ¤r r r m
+ +r;¤r, ar¬ l¤’¤ +r; +
arnrrm-¬mng = =rn ¤rn·
er¤ çr mnr çl ar¬ l¤’¤ +
¤rn· =+rt rrmr + rrmr¤rnr +t
+ªr¬t ar; +;¬t m +rr;t an;
ç l nçt +r;¤r ç , ar¬ l¤’¤
+r; m alrr+n; ermr +r rr+r
¤; = l¤’¤r= ao ¤¸+r çl ¬=r
rrrlm+ çr¬ +r çm lccr;r ¤tc
;ç ç, ¤rn· l¤’¤ + =+rt rrmr
+ rrmr¤rn +rt ¤=r çt +; ;ç
çl ar¬ ==r; + a-o; l¬n¬r
‘rr; rrrlm+ ¬mng + erm m¤r
;ç ç, ¤=r ¤çe ++rt =¸¬¬ m
¬çt arnrl ar+r’r¤r¤rt ar;
o¸;o’r-r ¤; ¤rn· ;r¬ =¸¤ç ‘rrm
l¤’¤r= +;r, l¤’¤r= +;r +t
r¤l¬ = ¤rn¸mse m¸¬ aonr çl
q=+ l¤¤;tn l¤’¤ m a’rrl-n
l¬;n; ¤c ;çt çl l¤’¤ +t nç
a’rrl-n çm rrmr ¤rnr ¤;,
a¬+t l¤’¤=¬tnnr ¤; ¤ ’¬
l¤çg¬ emr¬ +r l¤¤’r +; ;çt
çl arl=r; ¤l;¤rrm ¬ lme¬ +
+r;¤r +r ¤nr emrn l¤¬r nr
=m=nr +r =mrrrr¬ ¬çt çrmrl
çm qlnçr= ¤; ¬¬; sre nr
o=rn ç l+ l¤’¤ +r; m a==n
=rrr¸-=nr ar; =·¤ ermr +r
l¤l+r-¬ ¤+r; +t nrn¬re ot
mql rrm +t lm;r¤c nçr n+ çr
mq l+ =·¤ ermr + ¤r¤r n+
e lee mel ¤;-n¸ =·¤ ermr
+r =rç= o=rr, m¸rn¸ +r =¤t.
+r; +; lenr, ¤;-n¸ =rn ¤;
alsm ;ç l o¸ =;t n;¤ q= n¸ m +
=rn +r =çr;+ n¸m
ermr +t lm;r¤c ¤;r+r”or n+
¤ç¸¤ mql =rn +ç¬ ¤; l¬=+t
çrnr +;n ç, m;¬ + ¤ro a-çt
çrnr;r + ¤ ’r¬ a=+r ¤¸ ¬n
çl mçr¬g arrmr nt’r¸ ¬ a=
=mn + rrmr ¤rnr +r +çr ç - 'ç
+¤ct ‘rrl=>nr ar; ¤;tl=nrl
n¸ m ¤; çrnl n¸ m +rl¤”n¤+nrar
+t +¤ =¤r;n çr ar; rrlmnr
+t +¤ ¤¬rn çrl'
+len¸m + m¸¤rrrm +r ¤+.
rr¤ =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ ¤; ¤rn· e+
¬=r çt ¤sr çl +¸; l¬ont ar;
=¤rªrt ¤¸ lrrnr qn¬t ¤ ¤e çr
mq ç l+ mr¬¤nr +r +¸¤en
ç¸e l+=t +r nl¬+ +rt onr ¬çt
arntl +rq +rt =n ¤¸=”r l¤’¤ m
¤+c çrnr ç nr a=+r ¤m-¤m
¤; a+r;¤r l¤;rrr çrnr çl =+rt
o¸”c ¤¸lrrnr lme+; a= +¸¤e¬
+r ¤nr= +;nt ç, a¬+r ¤’r
¤e¬ ¤; a= =rrr¸ ¤¸ =”r +t çrnr
n+ +; ot ¬rnt ç l ¤çt ¤¸ =”r ¬¤
¤ get¬ çr ¬rnr ç , nr ¤ ¤¸ lrrnr
lm;lmc +t n;ç ;m ¤oe¬ m
+¸e +rt =+r¤ ¬çt +;ntl q=
¤+r; a= +t rnrm, n¤=nr ar;
¤leor¬ +r +r;¤¸; er+r aornt
çl ¬r erm +lo¬ =mn m a=
=n +r =rªr on ç, a-ç o¸r+r;
+; o¸; +rmr ont çl
q= ¤ +r ; a= mçr ¬g
arrmr + ¬rm = ¬r lm’r¬
¤enr ç , a= ¤; ¤¸ ¤r =¤ =
a¤=;¤rot ermr +r +-¬r çr
¬rnr çl q= ¤+r; a==n =nr
+ ¬rm = ¤e¬ ¤re lm’r¬r ¤;
¤¸¤r =¤ = a¤=;¤rot ermr +r
¬mr¤sr çl m¸q +¸e lo¬ ¤¸¤
q =rq lm’r¬ +t ¤ ¤r; =rmm t +t
e+ ¤¸ =n+ m +¸ e ¤c ¬ +r lmerl
m¸q a= ¤c+; +rr;t ¤o¬r ç¸ql
e= =¸-o; cm = ¤¤r m =¤·er.
¤r;t ¬t¤¬ l¤nr¬ +t e¸c e et
ç, l¬= ¤c+; m ç;r¬ ;ç mnrl
arrr l”rn ¤r¤r +¤ro ¤; ¤or
sren ç¸e +çr ç- '¤;m’¤; +r
¤l;¤r; ¤rl¤nr = lme+; ¤¬r
çl nlo ar¤ ¤;m’¤; + ¤l;¤r;
+ ermr m ¤¸¤r nr em+rm ¤¸¤r
erm o=r¬ +t a¤¢rr +;n ç nr
ar¤+r l¬;r’r çr¬r ¤smrl' q=
¤cn çt ƒ +¸l;l-nnr + ‡·ƒe¤
„ ¤rn a¤r¬+ nro ar mq l
¤rn· =+rt rrmr + lm’r¬r ¤;
+len¸m +r ¤+rr¤ +mr¤’r e+
¬=r çt ¤sr çl m +nrl+ +rrr
mr> q’¤; +r çt mr¬nr ç¸, =.
=r; + erm nr a=+t +o¤¸net
ç, a-ç +rmrn ç¸e ¤ç ¤;m=rrr
a¤¬t q·er¬¸=r; ¬¤r ;çt çl
an· m l+=t rrm + rrmr¤rnr
+r or”r ¬çt onr ç¸l ¤= a¬+
¤l¤> =n ¤+c ç¸e çl ¤;-n¸ m,
mr> or e= mçr¬g arrmrar
+ ¬t¤¬ +re +r ¤¤r¬ +;¬r
¤rç¸mr, l¬-ç ar¬ =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤
~çr = ¤¸¬nr çl ¤ ç- mçr¬g
arrmr nt’r¸ m=tç ar; =¤rmt
l¤¤+r¬o ¬tl
mçr¬g arrmr nt’r¸ ¬ l¬=
¤+r; ¬tet en;t + ¬t¤ a¤¬r
=+¤¸¤r ¬t¤¬ +”c ar; nrn¬re
=ç¬ +;n ç¸ e l¤nrnr, e =
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
215
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
qn¬r çt ªrr l+ a=¬ =·¤t
¤rn +ç ot l+ 'm q’¤; +r ¤¸>
ç¸l' q’¤; +t arqr = çt m¬ n
¤mr+r; ¤¸¤r +rn l+el am;
m;t ¤rn a=rn ç nr ==r; +r
+r q rr+r m¸ = e = +rn +;+
lo=rr¤ l e+ mr> q= or ”r +
+r;¤r, a= =mn + rrmr¤rnr
¬ a= l¬or ”r ¤l¤>rrmr +r m¸ rn¸
o¤s loe¤r lonrl ar; ar¬,
a-çt rrmr¤rnr + ¤’r¬ +¤o
¤rs-¤rs +;, a= q’¤; +r
¤¸> =¤t+r; +; ;ç çl +nr e+
çt ¤r¤ +t or =¬r çr =+nt
çl q’¤; + rr; ¬ o; ç ar; ¬
a-rr;, ¤r¤ +r rrsr +r;¬ ¤; çt
¤¸cnr çt çl
nt’r¸ m=tç + a= =mn
+ rrmr¤rnr + =rªr += mrr¸;
=¤rr ªr, a=+t =·¤t n=¤t;
¤rq¤e + =c mªn¸ + „…·ƒ…
= …‹ +r o =r¬ = lment ç - 'ç
+¤ct ‘rrl=>nr ar; ¤;tl=nrl
n¸ m ¤; çrnl n¸ m m¬¸ ”nr + l¤;r rr
m =¤m + ;r¤n +r gr; ¤o +;n
çr, ¬ nr ar¤ çt a=m ¤¤’r
+;n çr ar; ¬ a=m ¤¤’r +;¬
¤rer +r ¤¤’r +;¬ on çrl
ç +¤ct ‘rrl=>nr ar ;
¤;tl=nr n¸m ¤; çrnl n¸m e+
¬¬ +r a¤¬ mn m er¬ + lee
=r; ¬e ar; ªre m l¤;n çr,
ar; ¤ç mn m ar ¬rnr ç nr
a= a¤¬ = o¸¬r ¬r;+tn ¤¬r
on çrl
ç a-rr am¸ ¤r, n¸ m ¤; çrnl
¬r +çn çr l+ nlo +rq mlo;
+t ‘r¤ªr =rre nr +¸ e ¬çt ,
¤;-n¸ nlo +rq mlo; + =r¬
+t =rmrr =rre nr a== ¤-rr
¬remrl ç m¸ =rr ar ; a-rrr ,
+r¬ ¤sr ç =r¬r nr ¤ç mlo;,
l¬== =r¬r ¤l¤> çrnr çl l¤;
+çn çr nlo +rq ¤ot +t ‘r¤rªr
=rre nr +¸ e ¬çt , ¤;-n¸ ¬r
+rc a= ¤; ç, nlo +rq a=+t
‘r¤ªr =rremr nr ¤ rr ¬remrl
ç a-rrr, +r¬ ¤sr ç, +rc nr
¤ot, l¬== +rc ¤l¤> çrnt çl
q=lee ¬r ¤ot +t ‘r¤ªr =rrnr
ç, ¤ç a=+t ar; ¬r a= ¤; ç
a=+t +rt ‘r¤ªr =rrnr çl ar;
¬r mlo; +t ‘r¤ªr =rrnr ç ¤ç
a=+t ar; a=m ;ç¬ ¤re +t
+rt ‘r¤ªr =rrnr çl ar; ¬r =¤m
+t ‘r¤ªr =rrnr ç, ¤ç ¤;m’¤;
+ l=çr=¬ +t +rt ‘r¤ªr =rrnr
çl
ç +¤ct ‘rrl=>nr ar ;
¤;tl=nr, n¸m ¤; çrnl n¸m ¤ro.
t¬ , =r ¤ ar ; ¬t; +r o=¤r a ’r
on çr, ¤;-n¸ n¸m¬ ·n·r=ªrr +t
m+rt; ¤rnr +t aªrrng -nrn,
onr ar; l¤’¤r= +r ers lonr
ç l ¤rlçe nr nç ªrr l+ a-ç
+rt +;n ;çn, ar; a-ç +rt ¬
er s n l ç a rr am¸ ar , n¸ m m·e;
+r nr er¬n çr ar ; a c +r
l¬me ¬rn çrl
ç +¤ct ‘rrl=>nr ar ;
¤;tl=nr l n¸ m ¤; çrn, n¸ m
+cr; ar; ªrret +r a¤;-a¤;
= nr mr¬n çr ¤;-n¸ ¤ +rtn;
a=nm = +r; ç¸e çl ç a-rr
¤;t=rl ¤çe +cr; ar; ªrret
+r +rtn; = mr¬ l+ ¤ ¤rç; =
+rt =¤·e çrl
ç +¤ct ‘rrl=>nr ar ;
¤;tl=nrl n¸m ¤; çrn, n¸m ¤¸¬r
l¤;t ç¸q +¤r + =mr¬ çr ¬r
a¤; = nr =¸-o; lo=rrq ont
ç,¤;-n¸ +rtn; m¸or +t çlgnr
ar; =¤ ¤+r; +t met¬nr =
+r;t ç¸q çl q=t ;tln = n¸m +rt
a¤; = m¬¸”nr +r rrmt lo=rrq
on çr, ¤;-n¸ +rtn; +¤rc ar;
arrm = +r; çrl
ç +¤ct ‘rrl=>nr ar ;
¤l;l=nr l n¸ m ¤; çrn, n¸ m
+rl¤”n¤+nrar +t +¤ =¤r;n
çr ar; rrlmnr +t +¤ ¤¬rn
çrl ar; +çn çr l+ nlo çm
a¤¬ ¤r¤-oror + lo¬r m çrn
nr +rl¤”n¤+nrar +t çrnr m
a¬+ =rqt ¬ çr n l q== nr
n¸m a¤¬ ¤;, ar¤ çt m¤rçt
on çr, l+ n¸m +rl¤”n¤+nrar
+ rrrn+r +t =-nr¬ çr l =r
n¸m a¤¬ ¤r¤-oror + ¤r¤ +r
rrs r +r; or l ç =r ¤r ç +; nr
+ ¤·¤r, n¸m ¬;+ + o¤s =
+nr +; ¤¤r m ? q=lee o =rr , m
n¸+çr; ¤r= +rl¤”n¤+nr +r¬nr
ç¸ , ar ; n¸ m a¬m = l+n¬r
+r mr; srer m ar ; +¸ = ¤;
¤crarm ar; l+n¬r +r a¤¬t
=+rrar m +rs mr;rm, ar; e+
¬m; = o¸ =; ¬m; m =ro s n
l¤;rml l¬== rrmt çr¤te =
e +; l¤l;+nrç + ¤¸ > ¬+;nrç
n+, l¬= n¸m¬ mlo; ar; ¤ot
+ ¤t¤ m mr; srer ªrr, l¬n¬
rrlmnr +r erç¸ ¤¸ª¤t ¤; ¤çrnr
mnr ç, ¤ç =¤ n¸+çr; l=; ¤;
¤smrl m n¸m = =¤ +çnr ç¸, n
=¤ ¤rn q= =mn + ermr ¤;
ar ¤smtl
23
23 216
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
n¸ +çr;r rr; n¸ +çr; lee
a¬rs ersr ¬rnr ç +nrl+ m
n¸ m= +çnr ç¸ l+ a¤ = ¬¤ n+
n¸m ¬ +çrm, l+ rr-n ç ¤ç, ¬r
¤+r¸ + ¬rm = arnr çl n¤ n+
n¸m m¸q l¤; ++rt ¬ o=rrml'
=¤rmt ~t l¤¤ +r¬ o ¬t
+t çt o¬ ç, ¬r =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤
ar¬ çmr; ¤lo+ o’r¬ +t ar;
n¬t = q¸+ ;çr çl =¤rmt ¬t ¬
l’r+rmr rrm-mçr=+rr m =¬g
tss: m ¤lo+ o’r¬ +t l¤¬n
¤nr+ ¤ç;rq ªrtl ar¬ +rr;n çt
¬çt =+¤¸¤r l¤’¤ m, =¤rmt ¬t
+r ¬rm ¤ç¸n çt ~çr = lenr
¬rnr ç l ¤;-n¸ =¤rmt ¬t +r
a¤¬ ¬t¤¬ +re m nt’r¸ m=tç
+t n;ç a¤¬ o’r + ermr =
=çnrm ar; ¤m ¬çt lmerl q=
nªn +r ¤ mr¤r, =¤rmt ¬t +
aml;+r = le=r ¤> on çl
an· m a¬ ¤>r +r =¤rmt
¬t +t +rr”rr m çt nªrr¤n le=r
;çr ç¸ l q¬ ¤>r = a= =mn
+r arrnrlrm+ ¬mng m +rn
+;¬ ¤re ermr +t ¤=n¸ l=ªrln
+r +rr¬ çrnr çl
lo¬r + zs]tz]tss: +r
l’r+rmr = le=rr ¤>-'+rr;n
+ er=r-er=r a¬rªrr + lee
l+n¬ erm ;rn ç? ç +rm¤r¬g
+nr çm m¬¸”n ç? n¸m ermr +
rr;r + ¤n¸lo+ ¬r ¤’r¸¤ng +rmt
srm ç, a¬+t a-¬ln + lee
+nr +; ;ç ç ? a¬+ m¸ ç m
e+ mr= a-¬ o¬ + lee +nr
+;n çr? ¤nrar ¬ a-ç e¸n
+rt ¬çt ar; a-ç o¸;-o¸; +ç
+; +rmr on çrl +nr çm m¬¸”n
ç? ¤ ç¬r;r =rrr¸-¤rg¤r +rr;n
+t ¬t¤, olen, ol;q ¬¬nr
+ lee +nr +; ;ç ç ? 'mn
e¸'-'mn e¸' ¤= nçt ;c emrn
çl a¬+ çrªrr, çmr;r =¬rn¬
rrm += n¸·e ar; +r”c çr mnr
ç l a¤ çmr;r rrm l+=m ;ç
mnr çl +¤e e¸are¸n m 'm¸q
e¸ar ¬çt' 'e¸ar ¬çtl' (-o
++¤etc ¤+ =g ar ¤ =¤rmt
l¤¤+r¬o-¤rrn¸m-:¸
lo¬r+ z¡ ¬¬¤;t tss¡ +r
l’r+rmr = le=rr ¤>-'¬çr n+
aml;+t mlçerar +r ¤’¬ ç,
a¬+t +¸ ¤r + lee m a¤¬t
+¸nqnr ¤+c +;¬ m a=mªr
ç¸l +rm¤r¬g a¬+r +rer +;l
q= o’r + ¤rn+ ar-ore¬ +t
¬r¬ mlçere çl ar; ;r”c¸ +t
=m=n ==+¸ln +r ¤lnl¬lrrr¤
+;nt ç, +nrl+ ¤¸=”r nr a¤¬
çt l’r¢rr er+r m arnlrr+ ·n=n
çl' (- o ++¤etc ¤+=g ar¤
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬o- ¤rrn¸m-:¸
am l ; +r = çt t s s¡
m =r ns t + ;r¬r +r le=rr
¤>-'aml;+¬ mlçerarl =r
¬-m m +rt, m n¸m = a>¤r ¬
çr =+¸mrl m; ¤r= n¸+çr; ¤ln
+¸nqnr qr¤¬ +;¬ +t +rr”rr
¬çt çl ¤r·n aln’rnrl+n çt
¤r·n¤r=t mr¬¤r +t ar-nl;+
+¸nqnr ¤+c +;¬ +t e+ mr>
+rr”rr ç-'nlo =m¸q ml=-¤r>
lçmren ¤¤ n ml=, ¤rl;¬rn
¤¸ ¢r +t ‘rr=rr e =r¬t nªrr
¤¸ª¤t ¤> çr nªrr =¤n =;=¤nt
e l=r+r ¤¬+; a¬-n +re
n+ le=rnt ;ç, l¤; +rt n¸+çr;
¤ ln m ;t +¸ nqnr ¤ +c +;¬
m n =¤ =mªr ¬ çr =+ m l'
(- o ++¤etc ¤+ =g a r¤
=¤rmt l¤¤ +r¬ o-¤r rn¸ m-c¸
=¤rmt ¬t +t a¤n¸+n ·nr=nr
=¤”c +;nt ç l+ aml;+r +t
=+¤-¬nr +r m¸=n +r;¤r a=
o’r +t m¸çel¢mnr çt çl l¤’¤
+ +¸ e o ’r q ”nr ¤’r +¸ e +rt
+ç, l¬= o’r m e=t ¬rl;nr
çr mt, a= o ’r +t =+¤-¬nr
a¢rn çrmtl
: mr¤ tss¡ +r le=rr
¤>-'n¸m¬ mr= +rr¬t ¢rl>nr
+t ¤rn aorq çl ¢rl>n erm
¤rç mr= =rrn, ¤ çt lç-o¸ rrm
+t a¬ =¤ ¤=n¸ ar + ¬-m
ornr ç, l¬¬+r n¸m mçrr ar;
=¸ -o; o =rn çr l a¤l¬”ro l+=¬
le=rt ªrt? ;rm +r¬ ar; +¸”¤r
+r ¬ ªr ? ¤¸ ç +r ¬ ªr ? ¬ ¬r
+ ntªr+; +r¬ ªr? ¬¤ ++rt
¢rl>nr ¬ a¤o’r lonr, a-çr¬
=+rt +r rrm ¤; alrr+r; lonrl
ar; ¬¤ ++rt ¤rg¤rr ¬ +¸e
le=rr, a-çr¬ ar;nr +r =¤
¤ +r; + alrr+r;r = ¤ l¤n
+;¬ +t ¤ ”cr +tl mtnr nr ·nr=
=¸> ¤c r nr l+=t = =¸¬ er,
mtnr m m¸l+n +t ;rç ¤; =+rt
¬;-¬rl;nr, =+rt ¬rlnnr ar;
=+rt ¤¤rr +r alrr+r; lonr
mnr ç, ¤;-n¸ ·nr= m;t¤ ‘r¸qr
+r ¤l¤n +;¬ + lee ¤o +t
m¬mr¬t ·nr=nr +;¬ +t ¤”cr
+;n ç l +nr q ’¤; n¸ m ¬ =r m¸ =r
ç l+ e+ c¸+s mr= = a=+t
onr =¤t ¬ot + ¤¤rç m ¤rrrr
=rst çr ¬rnmtl am; ¤ç e=r
23
23 217
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
l’r+rmr = le=rr ¤>-'çm
¬ = +¸ ¤m¤s¸ + o¸ l¬nr m ¬çt
çl +rq +rt ¬q ¤t¬ l+=t o’r =
ar¤, nr aml;+r a= =¤= ¤çe
a¤¬remrl ar; çm? a¬t, çmr;
e= a¤ =rr¬or¬ ¤re o¸l¬nr m
ar; ç çt ¬çtl çm nr arn¤’rt
¬r oç;l +çr ç ¤ç arn¤’r a=
nr çm ¬r¬n çt ¬çtl e+ er=r
ermr + o¤r¬ = nt= +;rs erm
+¸ rr + =mr¬ rr¸ mn ç , ar ; ¤
arn¤’rt çl'
ts mr¤ tss¡ +r çt l’r+rmr =
le=rr e+ ¤>-'l¬= o’r m +;rsr
m¬¸”n mç¸ar =rr+; lo¬ m¸¬r;n
ç, ar; o= ¤t= er=r =rrr¸ ar;
o= ¤r;ç +;rs ¤rg¤r, a¬ m;t¤r
+r =r¸¬ ¤¸=+; ¤tn ç, ar; a¬+t
a-¬ln + lee +r q ¤ ”cr ¬çt
+;n, +nr ¤ç o’r ç nr ¬;+?
+nr nç rrm ç nr l¤’rr¤ +r ¬¸ rn?
+rrq q= ¤rn +r mr; = =mqrl m
+rr;n +r rr¸m-rr¸m+; o=r ¤¸+r ç¸
ar; q= o’r +r +rt o=rr çl +nr
l¤¬r +r;¤r, +çt +rn çrnr ç?
+nr l¤¬r ¤r¤ + =¬r lme =+nt
ç? (- o ++¤etc ¤+=g ar¤
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬o-¤rrn¸m-c¸
am=n tss¡ m am l;+r =
le=rr ¤>-'¤r=n¤ m +rr;n ¬ m;
lee ¬r l+nr a== +çt alrr+
m ¬ +rr;n + lee l+nr ç l ¤çr
nr m¸q ;rct + e+ c¸+s + lee
slenr +r; mrlenr lment çl m
+çt +rt +nr ¬ ¬ra, ¤+r¸ m; lee
+rm +;¬ ¤rer + oe + oe +r¬
onr çl ¤ erm +rr;ntn l’r”nr +t
n;ç ¬çt ç, a¤¬ m¸= + lee ¤r¤
rr n+ +t ¤r¬t emr o¬ +r ¤=n¸n
çl
¤r’¤rrn o ’rr m ¤ +r¸ +nr
+;¬r ¤rçn ç , nç n¸ m lç-o¸ ar +r
+¸e çt ¤”rr m o=r¬ +r lmemrl
n¸m erm ¤r¤t¬ +re + nç¸lonr
¬= çr, ar; n¸+çr;t l=ªrln ¬ro m
ec ç¸e +¸rr +t n;ç ç, ¬r ¬ =r¸o
=rrnr ç , ar ; ¬ o¸ =;r +r =rr¬ o ¬r
¤rçnr çl n¸m ermr m l+=t ¤+r;
+t rrrlm+ +rr¤¬r ¬çt ç, ;=rq
çt n¸ +çr;r q ’¤; ç nªrr ç lsnr
¤n ¬ çt n¸ +çr;r ‘rr=>l a¤¬t
n;ç a==n =-nr¬rr¤ro¬ m çt
n¸ +çr;t ‘rl+n +r ¤l;¤n lmenr ç l
(- o ++¤etc ¤+ =g ar ¤ =¤rmt
l¤¤+r¬o- ¤rrn¸m-:¸
s l=n+¤; tss¡ +r ¤l;= =
le=rr ¤>-'m ¬= +rr;n +r ç¸,
¤ = çt =mm ¬mng +r +rt ç¸ l
q= l¤”rn +r e+; m¬mr¬t ¤rn
¤¬r¬r l¬;ªr + ç l m¸ q = ¬çr
n+ çr =+nr ªrr, m¬ n¸m ermr
+t =çrnnr +t ç, a¤ n¸+ç =¤n
çt a¤¬t =çrnnr +;¬t ¤rlçel
e=r +r¬ =r o’r ç? ¬r l+ m¸q
¤; l¤’r”r alrr+r; ;=rnr çl +nr
m l+=t ¬rln + gr;r =r;tor ç¸ar
or= ç¸? al¤’¤r=t ¬rl=n+r, n¸m
erm e=t ·nªr +t m¸=rnr ¤¸¤r ¤rn
mn ¤¬rar l m ¬ +or ; ¤l;~m
l+nr ç ar; ¬r rr¬ lmer ç, a=
m +e+rr ar ; mqr= +r ¬nr ;çr ç¸ l
nç =¤ +;¬ + ¤ro, a¤ m¸q a¬
ermr + m¸=rnr¤¸¤r l¬o’rr¬¸=r;
¤e¬r çrmr?
+nr n¸+ç e¤¬r ¬çt arnt?
m a¬ ermr +r l+= ¤rn +r >¤rt
ç¸? +nr m a¬+t ¤’r=r +t +rq
¤;¤rç +;nr ç¸l nr a¬+t l¬or =
s;nr ç¸? ¤·¤l m e+ e= l¤l¤>
=¤+rr¤ +r ·nl+n ç¸ l+ nç ¤ç.
¤r¬¬r n¸m ermr + lee +rt a+rt
=+r¤ ¬çt çl n¸m a¤¬r +rm +;n
;çrl ¬çt +; =+n nr ¤¸¤ ¤r¤
¤o ¬rarl a¤¬t m¸=rnr + ¤e
¤; m¸q= a¤¬t q·er¬¸=r; +rn
+;r¬ +t ¤”cr ¬ +;rl m¸q l+=t
+t =çrnnr +t ar¤’n+nr ¬çt,
¬t¤¬ +r; m çt o¸=;r +t =çrnnr
+;nr ;çr ç¸l
~t ;rm+¸”¤r ¤;mç= + +rnr
+ lee =çrnnr ¤ or¬ +;¬ + lee
¬çr + l¬¤r=t or ¤r; =¤n +rt
e+> +;¬ +t ‘rl+n ¬çt ;=rn ç ,
¤ erm emrnr; ·nªr +t ¤rn ¤¬r
;ç ç ar; a= ·nl+n ¤; a¤¬r
ç¸+m ¤er¬ ¤rçn ç, l¬=+ lee
a-çr ¬ ++rt +¸ e ¬çt l+nr, ¤ rn¸ n
l¬=¬ a¬ er mr + lee ¬çr n+ çr
=+nr ªrr, =¤ +¸ e l+nrl ''¬mng
e=r çt a+¸nq çl'' +nr n¸m nç
+ç¬r ¤rçn çr l+ e= ¬rln+ro
¬¬ l;n +¸ = =+r; n¸ +n, onr;lçn,
+¤ct, ¬rl=n+r e¤ +rn;r m = ¬r
+ ¤e l’rl¢rn lç-o¸ ar m çt ¤rn ¬r
=+n ç, e+ ¤¬+; ¬t¬ m;¬ +
lee, m ¤or ç¸ar ç¸l m +rn;nr =
rr¸ ¤rr +;nr ç¸ l +rn; nªrr m¸ =r nr¤¸ ¤
r ¤+¤r=r + =rªr, m a¤¬r =+¤rr
¬çt ;=r¬r ¤rçnrl l+=t ¤ +r;
+t ;r¬¬tln m m¸q l¤’¤r= ¬çt
çl q’¤; nªrr =rn çt ¬mng m
e+ mr> ;r¬l¬ln ç , ¤r+t =¤
+¸s r +;+c çl' (- o ++¤etc
¤+ =g ar ¤ =¤rmt l¤¤ +r¬ o-
¤rrn¸m-:¸
ar¬ = +;t¤ =r =re ¤çe
çmr; o’r +t rrrlm+ o¸l”c = +nr
l=ªrln ªrt, =¤rmt ¬t + a¤n¸+n
¤>r = =¤”c çrnt çl l¤ee =r
=rer m çmr; rrrlm + ¬mng m n¸ m
+ m¸¤rrrm + +r;¤r +¸e lm;r¤c çt
arnt çl l¬¬+ ¤’r¬r ¬ =¤rmt +
=rªr +=r ·n¤çr; l+nr, ¤;-n¸
ar¬ =¤¸¤r o’r¤r=t =¤rmt ¬t
+ m¸ ¤rmr¬ +;n ¬çt ªr+n l
q=t ¤ +r; +t a+m ¤n e¤
=¤rªrt¤¸lrr ¬ =¬rn¬ rrm +r
;=rne m ¤ç¸¤r lonr çl q=m m
23
23

218
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
'm> l¤or' çmr; o’r m arl.
o+re = ¤et ar ;çt çl ‘r-o =
=¸l”c +t ar¤lrr + l=çrn ¤; çt
çmr; >l”rnr ¬ m->r +t ;¤¬r
+t ç l ‘r-o¤ g = ¤;¤ g +t ¤ rl¤n
+r çmr; o’r¬ +r l=çrn ¤¸¤r=¤
= =rn çl nç çmr; o’r¬ +r a·.
¤nm lo·n l¤qr¬ çl ''m> l¤or
+r ¤n¬ ¬+et m¸=ar + +r;¤r
ç¸arl''
l¤¬r m¸= ot¢rr + +rq m>
''l=ç'' çr çt ¬çt =+nrl m ;
mrrnm = ¬r ¤l;¤n ¬ mr¬¤nr
m ar ;çr ç, mr> ''m> ‘rl+n''
+r ¤+rr¤ çl ‘r-o ¤g = ¤;¤g
+t ¤ rl¤n + çt l=çr-n +r , m
¤¸¤r =rn ¤mrl¤rn +; ;çr ç¸l erm
+çn ç, l¤qr¬ + q= n¸m m m>
+t ¤rn +¤e a-rrl¤’¤r=t erm
çt mr¬n çl
m ¤¸ ¬r nt + =rªr +çnr ç¸
l+ m nr l¤qr¬ + ‘rrrr+rrrar
= lme¬ çt ==r; m l¬+er ç¸l
+nrl+ q= =mn ==r; m ¤¸¤r=¤
= nrml=+ ¤¸lrrnr +r =rmr¤n ç,
q=lee q¬ ¤¸lrrnr + =rrr+ çt
==r; m ¬¬; ar ;ç çl e= ¬rc+
lo=rr+; ermr +r ar+l”rn +;n
ç,ar¬ +t +rr”rr m a-ç ¬ro¸m;
+çn çl n erm mr> ¤n¤¸¬+ çrn
çl +rm¤r¬ ~t+¸”¤r ¬ q= =¤rr m
mtnr m +çr ç-
nrl-n o¤¤nr o¤r¬g
-nrl-n l¤n¸¤nrl
+r¸nrl¬ nrl-n +r¸n¤nr nrl-n
mol¬¬r•l¤ mrmglls·z:
''o ¤nrar +r ¤¸ ¬¬ ¤re
m> +r ;ç=n
o¤nrar +r ¤r¤n çrn çl l¤n;r +r
¤¸¬¬ ¤re l¤n;r +r ¤r¤n çrn ç,
+r¸nr +r ¤¸¬¬ ¤re +r¸nr +r ¤r¤n
çrn çl ar; m; +r+n m; +r çt
¤r¤n çrn ç, ¬¤ ‘r-o = =¤+r¸nr
+t ar¤lrr mr¬n çr, l¤; ‘r-o =
çt o¤ ar; or¬¤ =+rt +t ar¤lrr
ç¸q çl ar¬ ==r; m a-çt ‘r-or
(m >r ¸ + qrnr =¤r lrr+ ç l¬¬=
+r¸nr (¤nr¸ +t ar¤lrr ç¸q çl nçt
+r;¤r ç l+ ''¤;r-m¬rl¤qr¬''
¤; ‘rr rr +;¬ ¤re ¤l’¤m +
‘rr rr+rrr ar +r ar¤ mln =
arrrmln +t n;¤ c+e¬ ¤ret
‘rl+nnr +r l¤e+¸ e çt qr¬
¬çt çl ¬¤l+ q¬m ;rn-lo¬ +r
a-n; çl +nrl+ ar¬ a¬+ ¤r=
Baptized with the ghost +
qrnr çt ¤ç¸¤ çl
¬¤ a¬+ ¤r= Baptized
with the holy ghost + qrnr
¤ç¸ ¤ ¬re m , n+rt ¤ er m a¤¬
+rnr m ¤¸¤r =¤enr ¤r¤n +;ml
+nr l+ +rr ln+ l¤qr¬, ar¤ mm¬
+; ;çr çl an· ar¤ mm¬ +;r¬
¤ret ‘rl+nnr çt +rrln+ l¤qr¬
+r =çt ¤ªr ¤o’r¬ +; =+nt çl
ar¬ ar¤ mln ¤ret ‘rl+nnr
+r çg;r= çr¬ + +r;¤r çt çm
çmr; o’r ¬ +r ¤ mrl¤rn +;¬
+t l=ªrln m ¬çt çl çmr;r o’r¬
mr¬¤ + l¤+r=,mtnr m ¤l¤r n
ƒ…¤ arnrn + „„¤ ‘er+ e¤
¤rn¬le nrmo’r¬ + +¤rn¤ro
+ …† ¤ ‘er+ m ¤l¤rn l=ªrln
n+ +; onr çl nçt ¤rn ¤mrl¤rn
+;¬, m l¤’¤ m l¬+er ç¸l
çmr; >l”rnr ¬ mç¬ ‘rrrr
+ ¤ro q= l=çr-n +r =¤t+r;
l+nr l+ ¬r ¤gr¤s m ç, ¤çt =¤
l¤¤s m çl q= ¤+r; m¸errrr; ¤+
= arqr¤+ n+ +r ¬mng mrnr
+r ar; arqr¤+ = e+; =ç=r;
n+ +r ¬mng ¤;¤g +r ç, nç
l=çr-n ¤ln¤rlon l+nrl ¤lo+
m¬rl·rqr¬ (arnrrm l¤qr¬¸
q= =¤t+r; +;n ç¸e a¤¬t +rr”rr
m m¸errrr; = arqr¤+ + ¬mng
+r a-¬mn+r’r, ¤r¤rmn +r’r,
m¬r mn +r ’r ar ; l¤qr¬mn +r ’r
+t =qr onr çl nç ¬mng-=rrr
+r l-r+¬n; +rrm ç, ¬çr l¤or ¤;
al¤or +r arlrr¤rn ç l arqr¤+
= =ç=r; n+ +r ar¬omn+r’r,
l¤rrmn+r ’r ar ; =ngmn+r ’r +t
(=ng +l¤ng + ar¬o - =l·.
¤or¬o ¸ =qr onr çl nç =rrr
+r a·¤n; aç ç, l¬=m al¤or
¤; l¤or +r ¤+r¸r¤ çl q= ¬mng
m aqr¬ ¤tsr nr =tmr +r ¬rm
¬çt çl
'm¸=-l’r”n' ¤;+¤;r m m>
ot¢rr +r l¤rrr¬ çl ‘r-o +t rr.
r;r + =çr; çt =ç=r; m ¤ç¸¤¬r
=+r¤ ç, a-nªrr ¬çtl q= =¤rr
m +¤t; ¬ ;ç=nrogrrrc¬ +;n
ç¸e +çr ç-
+¤t;r rrr;r amm +t,
=ogm¸= oq e=rrnl
aec nrlç ¤lcn =or,
=¤rmt =m emrnll
=n mn + a¬¸=r; e+ rrr;r
amm er+ = ¬t¤ +t ar; ¤et,
¤ç =+rt er +r +t ;¤¬r +;nt
23
23
219
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
;r¬¬tln m ¤m +r =ªrr¬ nr ç el+¬ ¤ç a¤¬ o’r + len, o’r¤rl=nr + len, ¬rln +t
mlçmr, mçr¬nr ar; arer= + len ¤m ç, ¤ç a¤¬ =rlªrnr + len arrm¤le +r lo·n ar¬o
ç, a¬+ +”cr +r o¸; +;¬ +r ar¬o ç, a¤¬ o’r ar; a=+t =¤rrrt¬nr + len, a¤¬r ;+n
¤çr¬ +r ar¬o ç, a¤¬t ¬rln + ¤¸¤¬r + =rªr m;+; e+ çr ¬r¬ +r ¤;mr¬-o çl mrn¸+r¸lm +t
lmccgt + =¤’r m ¤rn· +rrln+ ar¬o +r a¬¸+r¤, +rr;ntn =rm;r = ar¬¤ret ç¤rar, +rr;ntn
¤¤nr = ¤ç¬¤ret ¬lonr +r a¬¸+r¤, +rr;ntn ¤r¤rt, a=+t +l¤nr ar; a=+ =mtn +r =¸¬¬
+r a¬¸+r¤, =¸¤l;l¤n o¸’nr, ‘r-or, aronr, ¤’r+r¸”rr, +rr;ntn ¬t¤¬ +r ar¤r;-·n¤çr; n ç
a= ¤m +t +rrln+ ¬sl a¤¬ antn ¤; m¤, ¤nmr¬ + len +”c ar; +rl¤”n + len +rr¤r¤’r
a=+r n¬r ar; ‘rr=re çl arrm¤le ar; arrm-l¤=m¸ln, mçr¬g =¤r, o’r + len a·¤ rrn,
a=+ ¤e çl ar; ¬r ;= a= ¬tl¤n ;=rnr ç, ¤ç ç o’r m +rm¤r¬g + mrn¸r¤ +t a¤el-rr, mr
+r o’r¬, ¬¬¬t +r qr¬ ar; =nng l¤n¬, mr +t ¤¸¬r ar; =¤rl
;r¬¬tln m ¤m +r =ªrr¬ ç
¤;-n¸ l¬= m¸= +r ar+r’r
nr¤ (+¸”¤r¸ +t l=lç çrnt ç,
mr> ¤çt q= +rm +r +; =+nr
ç, a-n +rq ¬çtl
m¸= mlçmr +r çmr; ‘rr=>r
m ¤ç¸n ¤=rr¬ ç, a=t +r rnr¬
m ;=r+; a= =n m¸ = ¤ +c çr
mnl e=r =¸-o; ·n¤=rn ==r; m
+rq ç çt ¬çtl l¤¬r ¤¸¬t emre,
armo¬t çrnt çl e= çt m¸=ar +
+r;¤r m¸=¤o ¬=r mr;¤mn ¤o
¤o¬rm çr mnrl m¸= +t =¤rrrm
·nr=nr ç ¬r -mrl¤-o = lmern'
q=tlee q’¤; +t l=ªrln ar; ¤r.
l¤n + =¤rr m +çr mnr ç-
'¬r =+rt mr¬¤ ‘r;t;r m
·nr¤n pon m ¤ln¢r¤r ¤¸¤r=¤
= l¬¤r= +;n ;ç¬ ¤; +rt ¬r
~tm¸=+¸¤rçt¬ +r mr¤; ¬ çr+;
m¸¤n¤r= +; ;çr ç ¤çt ¤or-n +r
al-nm e¢n =l·¤or-ro çl' m>
+r ;ç=n ¬¤ n+ =mq m ¬çt
arnr, n¤ n+ =rrr+ a== +¸e
+rt ¤r¤n ¬çt +; =+nrl m> +r
;ç=n += ¬r¬r ¬r =+nr ç, q=
=¤rr m mrle¬tl¤¬nn> m +çr
mnr ç-
l’r”n¤rrl¤ nor mr@r
nor =-nrl”rnr m¸=·l
‘r;t; q·n l¤qr¬
‘r¸lç +m m¸¤rrlol+r·ll
¤rlrrnr n¸ nor n¬
m¸=¤rr o¸”c ¤n=rl
nor l=lç¤or qnr
¬r-nªrr ¤t;¤l-onll:·¡s,¡sll
m> +r ;ç=n n+rt =mq m
ar =+nr ç, ¬¤ m¸=, l’r”n +
=ogm¸¤rr = =n¸”c çr ¬rn çl ç
o¤tl ¬¤ m¸= pon = ¤=-¬ çrn
ç, n+rt m> +r ;ç=n =rren ç,
ar; m> m¸l+n onr ç, 'm¸= =nr”r
mr>¤r a-nªrr ¬çtl'
‘r-o = =¸l”c +t ar¤lrr +
l=çr-n, l¤’¤ + =+rt rrm mr¬n
çl q=t =r·r+rrm l=çr-n + arrr.
r; ¤; çmr; >l”rnr ¬ m> ‘rr=>
+t ;¤¬r +t çl =¸l”c + =¤rr m
qr¬ =+le¬t n-> m +çr ç-
ar+rºr¤¬rnn
¤rn¸¤rnrr¤on ;l¤·l
;¤=r¤on nrn
nrnro¸r¤rrn mçtllz:ll
'ar+r’r = ç¤r, ç¤r =
al·¬, al·¬ = ¬e ar; ¬e =
¤¸ª¤t ar¤-¬ ç¸q çl' ar; ==r;
+ =+rt ¤r¤rt ¤¸ª¤t = ar¤-¬ ç¸el
çmr; ‘rr=> +rt q-çt ¤r¤ nr¤r
= m¬¸ ”n ‘r;t; +t ;¤¬r mr¬n
çl ¤r¤r nr¤r +t =¸¢mr¤=ªrr +r
'n-mr>r' +rt +çn çl ¬= ¤¸ª¤t +t
m-rrn-mr>r, ¬e +t ;=n-mr>r,
al·¬ +t =¤n-mr>r, ¤rn¸ +t
=¤’rn-mr>r ar; ar+r’r +t ‘r-o
n-mr>rl +nrl+ =¸l”c +r ¬¬+
‘r-o n-mr>r ç , q=lee l¬= ¤ +r;
arrr mm¬ + +r;¤r m¬¸ ”nr +t
ar¤lrr ç¸q, a=t ¤+r; ‘r-o (m>¸
+ =çr; ar¤ mm¬ +;nr ç¸ ar
m¬¸”n eç ¤+r ar; nt¬ ml-ªrnr
+r ¤rr¬ +;nr ç¸ar a¤¬ ¬¬+
ar+r’rnr¤ (=ç=r;¸ m en çr
23
23

220
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m¬¸¤n ¬t¤¬ m +lm+ l¤+.
r= + a¬¸=r; çt +rn +;¬ +
l¬nm l¬rrrl;n l+n mn çl ºrr;t.
l;+ ar; ¤rlç+ l¤+r= +r rnr¬
m ;=rn ç¸e =+¤¸¤r ¬t¤¬ +r ¤r;
+rrmr m ¤rcr ç ¤g¤n, m¸ç=ªr,
¤r¬¤=ªr ar; =-nr=l ¤ªrm z:
¤¤rr m l¤or arnn¬ aªrrng
+rr ln+ ar ; arnrrm qr¬ +t
¤ rl¤n, ¤ g¤n rrm +r ¤re¬ +;n
ç¸e +;¬ +r l¤rrr¬ l¬lº¤n l+nr
ç¸ar çl
l¤orªrt ¬t¤¬ + arl=r;t
z-: ¤¤rr m ¤ lo+ oºr ¬ ar ;
nrmoºr¬ +t lºr¢rr =+¤¸¤r cm =
ot ¬rnt ªrt, nrl+ ¤ç ame nt¬r
ar~mr m ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = aªrr ng
ºr;t;, m¬ ar ; ¤¸ lç = =¤=ªr ;çn
ç¸e =rªr+ ¬t¤¬ ¬t =+l o¸=; z:
¤¤r m¸ç=ªr rrm +r ¤re¬ +;¬ +
lee l¬lº¤n l+n ç¸e ªrl nt=; z:
¤¤r ¤r¬¤=ªr rrm + lee l¬lº¤n
ªrl q=m m¬¸¤n, m¸ç=ªr m ;çn
ç¸ e +rt ¤ g¤n ¤ n +r ¤re¬ +;nr
ªrr ar; a¤¬ =+¤¸¤r al¬n qr¬
+t lºr¢rr a¤¬t =nr¬r +r o+;
a¬+r ¤ªr ¤oºr¬ +;nr ªrrl
q= ¤+r; a=+t =nr¬ +rt
¬r ¤g¤n ar; m¸ç=ªr ar~m m
çrnt ªrt, =rªr+ ¬t¤¬ ¬t¬ +
lee =+¤¸ ¤r ·nr¤çrl;+ qr¬ ¤ r¤n
+; ent ªrtl q=+ ¤ro ¤ç rr;
+r =+¤¸¤r rnrm +;+ ¤¸¤r =¤ =
=-nr=t +r ¬t¤¬ l¤nr¬ ¬mer
m ¤er ¬rnr ªrrl
a¤n¸+n ·n¤=ªrr >nr ar;
arrnrlrm+-qr¬ ¤rl¤n +r =mn +rt n¸¤r¤=ªrr
gr¤; m ;çt çrmt, ¬¤l+ m¬¸¤n
+t ¢rmnr ar ; = =r; +r ¤rnr¤;¤r
¤¸¤r=¤ = ot+ ªrrl a¬ n¸mr m
nrml=+ ¤¸ lnnr +t ¤ rrr¬nr
¬çt ªrt, an· m¬¸¤n +r ¤l;>
¤ç¸n a¤¤¤e ªrrl ¤;-n¸ ¬¤ =
+len¸m +r ¤ç; ¤r;+r ç¸ar ç,
nrml=+ ¤¸lnnr ¬ =+rt rrmr +r
le-¬-l+r-¬ +; lonr çl m¬¸¤n
¤¸¤r=¤ = =¤·er¤r;t çr mnr çl
¬t¤¬ +t =+rt mnrorn ¤¸¤r =¤
= le-¬-l+r-¬ çr ¤¸+t çl
çm l¬= ¤ lo+ oºr ¬ ar ;
nr moºr ¬ +t ¤rn +;n ç , ¤ç
·nr¤çrl;+ ¬t¤¬ = er¤ ¤rn·
çr ¤¸+r çl ar¬ çmr; a¤n¸+n
or¬r oºr¬ mr> orºrl¬+ mªrr
m +o ¤s çl ¬¤ n+ q= qr¬
+r + o = m¸ +n +;+ , m¬¸ ¤n
ºr;t; =¤t ¤nrmºrrer m ¤mrl¤rn
¬çt l+nr ¬rnmr, =rªr+ ¬t¤¬
l¤nr¬r a= +r¤ ç l +re + m¸ ¤rrrm
+ +r;¤r nr moºr ¬ e¸ ¤n ¤ rn·
çr mnr çl =r=n oºr¬ l¬;-n;
a-¬ln +; ;çr ç l a=+t =+rt
a¤el-rrnr ¤; ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = nrml=+
¤¸lrrnr +r arlrr¤rn çl
an· a=+r a¤nrm ¤ ¤¸lnnr
mr> a¤¬ =¤rªr + lee +; ;çt
çl e=t l=ªrln m mr¬¤ ºrrln e+
=¸=ro +r¤¬r mr> çl nrml=+
¤¸lrrnr + +r;¤r qº¤;, +r¤¬r
+r çt l¤¤rn çl ¬t¤¬ +t =·¤rq
e¸ ¤n çr ¤¸ +t ç l e+ =¤ mr-n l=ç
r-n ¤¬ mnr ç l+ arnrrm qr¬
¤rl¤n +r =mn mr> ¤¸çr¤=ªrr çt
çl +=t +rrln ¤er ot ç, mr¬r
arnrrm qr¬ ·nr¤çrl;+ ¬t¤¬
m e+ as¤¬ çl am; ¤ç qº¤;
·nr¤çrl;+ ¬t¤¬ m =rªr+ ¬çt
ªrr, nr ¤¸ c r¤ m ¤ç +nr +;
omr? ¤¸cr¤ m =+rt am ¤rnm
lºrlªre ¤s ¬rn çl a¬+ ¤+r;
+t ¤tmrl;nr rr; ent çl a-çt
+¤cr +t n;¤ rnr¬ ;çmr, qº¤;
nro çt ¬çt aremrl an· =+rt
¤+r; + qr¬ ¤r¤n +;¬ +r =mn
l+ºrr;r¤=ªrr çt çl
arnrrm-l¤qr¬, m¬¸¤n +r
¤¸¤r =rªr+ ¬t¤¬ ¬t¬ + nr·n
¤¬rnr çl çmr; rrm m rr¸=t ç¸q
+rrln + +r;¤r çt rrm +r ¤n¬
ç¸ar çl m; ¤r= ¤ªrm ¤r; +¸e
¤r etc l+¬+ +r e ¬ ar ; m ls+e
+re¬ + er> arnl a-çr¬ ¤¸er
arnrrm l¤qr¬ +=r l¤qr¬ ç
ar; m¬¸¤n ¬t¤¬ m q=+t +nr
=rªr +nr ç ? m ¬ +çr, ''¬çr
ar¤+r +rr ln+ l¤qr¬ =rrm çr nr
ç, arrnrrm l¤qr¬ ¤çr = ºr¸=
çrnr çl ar¤+r l¤qr¬ e+ c=c
cgn¸¤ m +o çl çmr; l¤qr¬ +t
c =c cgn¸ ¤ ¤¸ ;r ¤ gr¤s ç l'' a-ç
m;t ¤rn ¤ç¸n çt ¤¸;t emtl
a-çr¬ nr¬ + =¤ m +çr,
''çmr; ¤qrl¬+ nr ¤-qmr ¤;
¤ç¸¤ mn ar; ar¤ erm ¤ç¸¤ mn
;=rne m , ar ; ar¤ arnrrm
l¤qr¬ =¤t +rr¤l¬+ qr¬ +r
¤sr ¤nrn çrl ''m¬ +çr, ''¤crl
ar¤+t ¤rn ot+ ç, ¤;-n¸ ¬çr
=·¤rq ç, ¤çr nr ¤=r çt ç, ¬=r
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t
23
23
221
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
''o=rr ¤cr ¬=r ¤rçr ¤mr¤r
¤> o ¬r¬r, m =ç¤r =¤t+r; +;
e¸mrl ¤;-n¸ ¤mr¤r¤> o¬ = ¤çe
m;t ¤rn nr =¸¬rl'' nr ¤ +¸e ºrrn
ç¸ e ar ; =¸ ¬¬ =mq¬ + lee
nnr; çr mnl
m¬ +¸¤sle¬t mçrl¤qr¬,
nrmoºr¬ ar; ºrl+n¤rn +t ¤rn
=mqr+;, q= =¤rr +t ¤¸=n+
a-ç o otl ¤ ¤¸=n+ a¤¬ çr=ce
m e mn l +q =rlªrnr ¬ a-ç ¤crl
q=+ ¤ro +;t¤ z:-zc er> m;
¤r= arn, ar; ¤re l+ ¤¸=n+r
m ¬r le=rr ç a=+t a¬¸+r¸ln ¬¤
n+ çm ¬çt çrnt, çm ¬çt mr¬ml
m¬ +çr, ''+rq +rt ¬çt mr¬mrl''
l¬= ¤ +r; rnr¬ +t l¤lrr m ¬ ¤nr.
q , ¤ m ; =rm¬ ¤ o +; rnr¬ +;¬
eml ¤nrlç m¬ ºrrn ç¸ar, a-ç
+¸ e ar¬-o ar¬ emrl ar ; ¤nr lç
¤ erm mr¬l=+ =¤ = nnr; ç¸e,
ºrl+n¤rn +t eç; a¬m ¤¤ºr +;
mq ar; =+rt +r nrlm+ l+nre
=¤n· çr¬ emtl
+;t¤ arrr rrc ¤ro m¸qre ¤o
çr mq l m ¬ a¬= ¤¸ er, ''ar¤ er m
nç +=t +=;n +;¬ eml +nr
m;r +m;r =re +r mor¬ ªrr?''
es+r +t l=ªrln ¤st l¤l¤> çr
mql +ç¬ em ''çm¬ ¬çt l+nr,
nç nr çmr;t q·er + l¤¤;tn çr
mnr'' m¬ +çr, ''m o=r ;çr ªrr,
ar¤ çt +; ;ç ªrl'' a-çr¬ +çr,
''ar¤+ aroºr + a¬¸=r; ar=r
¤ o +;+ , çm ºrr +t n;ç arqr¤+
¤; rnr¬ + l-qn +; ;ç ªr l+ a¤.
r¬+ a-o; = n l+nre +;¤rq
¬r¬ emtl çm¬ ar=r =rre¬ +r
¤nr= +rt l+nr ¤;-n¸ ar=r ¬çt
=r¸etl ºr;t; +r m¬¤¸nt = ;r+¬
+r ¤nr= l+nr, ¤;-n¸ ¬çt ;r+
=+l arl=r; =r¤r, çr¬ or arm
+nr çrnr ç? a¤ a¤¬ ar¤ ¤o
çr mql +rq ao; = l¬oºr o ;çr
ªrr, a=t +r;¤r = çr ;çt ªrtl a-o;
+r¬ loºrr l¬oºr o ;çr ªrr, çm
lo=rrq ¬çt lonrl'' n¤ m¬ +çr,
''q=+r aªr nç ç¸ar l+ a-o;
+rq e=t ºrl+n +rt ç, ¬r ar¤+r
a¤¬t q·er = ¤er =+nt çl'' ¤
¤re, ''a¤ q=m n+ +t m¸¬rqºr
çt ¬çtl m ¤rer ''l¤; a-o; ¤re
= mç;t or=nt +;r, ¤ç ar¤+r
¤ç¸n +¸e ¤nremrl''
q=+ ¤ro ºrrm ¤r¤ = eç
¤¬ n+, ¤ ;r ¬ ar+; rnr¬
+;n ar; =+rt +r l¤l+r-¬ ¤+r;
+t nr lm+ l+nre çr ntl ¤nr lç
+¸ ¤sle¬t arqr¤+ + l¬+c
¤ç¸¤t ¤r¤rrnrm =¤n· çr¬ emrl
n¤ m¬ +çr l+ q= ot¢rr m m>
ot¢rr + l¤¬r ar¤ =mrlrr=ªr
¬çt çr =+rml arqr¤+ n+ nr
ço nrm = +rt +rm ¤e ¬rnr ç,
¤;-n¸ arqr¤+ +r +r o¬ +;+
¤;¤ g (=ng+l¤ng+ar¬-o·
=l·¤or¬-orr¬¸ + ¬mng m
¤ ¤ ºr +;¬ + lee a¤n¸ +n m > +r
¬¤, rnr¬ + =rªr l¬nr-n ¬=;t
çl n¤ n+ ¤ =+rt mr¬l=+ =¤ =
nnr; çr ¤¸+ ªrl ot¢rr + ¤ro ªrrs
lo¬r m a¬+t =mrlrr em¬ emtl
n¤ e+ lo¬ m ¬ a¬= +çr, ''¤ crl
a¤ ¬r +rt ¤mr¤r¤> o¬r ¤rçr, o
or, m =ç¤r =¤t+r; +;¬ +r nnr;
ç¸l'' es+ ¤ç¸n çt ºrlm-or ç¸e
ar; ¤re, ''m¸=¬tl ar¤ çm +¸e
+rt +ç , çm l¬or ¤r ªr l'' +nr +rr;n
+ arrnrlrm+ ¬mn m nç qr¬
+;¤rnr ¬r ;çr ç?
an· m;t nç mr-nnr ç l+
¬¤ = =r; + er=rr n¸ ¤r a¤¬t
ar-nl;+ ¤ n¬r +t al+r¤¸ lç
+;+ +rr ln+-l¤qr¬ ¤; ºrr rr
+rn +;m, nr +rrln+ l¤qr¬ +t
a==n =m=nre =¸eq ¬rnmtl
m =rm¸ lç+ ot¢rr o nr ç¸ l a=
¤;m=rnr + lee e+ er=r ermr
+r ¤n¬ +;¬ + lee e+ ¢r¤r
+ =mn +t +rt ar¤ºn+nr ¬çtl
am; m ; =rm¬ e+ er=r er m
ot¢rr e¬ ¤o ç nr a¬m = =+rt
=+r;rrm+ erm e+ =rªr ¤n¬ çr
¬rnm, ¤rç a¬+t ==nr l+n¬t
çt alrr+ +nr ¬ çr l =rm¸ lç+
ºrl+n¤rn ot¢rr l¤¬r, l¤º¤ºrrln
a=++r¤ çl
an· l¤º¤ + =+rt =+r;rrm+
=>t-¤¸ =¤rr +r =¤ m arm l>n
+;nr ç¸l
''nlo nç =rn ç l+ =¤ +¸e a= 'e+' çt ¤;m=rrr +r l¤l+r-¬ =¤ m ¤+r’r ç, e+
çt ¤n¬r +r arr;rrr; l¤+r= ç, nr m¬ +r alnmr¬= =, ¤r¤r +r l¤rr =, ‘r;t; +r =ng
=, ar; arrmr +r ar¬-o = ¤¸¬lme¬ a=+r¤ ¬çt mr¬r ¬r =+nr, ar; n¤ mr¬¤ mlo;
m =l·¤or¬-o +t ¤r¤r ¤ln”or +rq a=+r¤ ar; aerl++ ¤rn ¬çt ;ç ¬rntl''
~t a;l¤-o

23
23
222
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o ¬ rrr”r¤rr
+t ªrt l+ '+rr;n çt +rm¤r¬g +r
rr;nt ¤; ernmrl' mçl”r ~t a;.
l¤-o ¬ +çr ªrr l+ arr+r; or=
¤¬+; ¬m mnr ç, a¤ =nr =
‘rrln a=+r¤ çl a¤ rr;r ¤; +rm.
¤r¬g + a¤nr; +t ar¤’n+nr
çl ar; mçl”r ¬ mr> q=t lee
ar;rrr¬r +tl mçl”r a¤¬ ac’n
m ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = =¤e ç¸ e ar ; a-çr ¬
rrr ”r¤rr +; ot l+ z¡ ¬¤ ¤; tszc +r
çt ~t +¸”¤r +r ¤¸ª¤t ¤; a¤n;¤r
ç¸ar ªrrl ~t +¸”¤r alnmr¬l=+
¤ +r’r ¬çt ç l ~t +¸ ”¤r + a¤n;¤r
+r aªr ç alrrmr¬l=+ o¤ +r
a¤n;¤r ¬r ¬mng +r alnmr¬=
ar ; ar¬-o + lee n nr; +;nr ç l
~t+¸ ”¤r ar ¬omn ç l ¤ alnmr¬=
+r a¤¬ ar¬o +t ar; aog¤¸ç
+;+ l¤+r= +r =mªr¬ ar; =¤.
re¬ +;n çl
q=t =o+r m mçl”r ~t a;.
l¤-o ¬ +rl¤”n¤r¤rt +t ç¸ q ç
l+ ¤ç ‘rl+n ¬r z¡.tt.tszc +r
m¬¸ ”n + =¤ m ¬-m e ¤¸ +t
ç, =¬g tss: + an n+ a¤¬
+lm+ l¤+r= + =rªr =¤¸¤r l¤’¤
+ =rm¬ ¤+c çr ¬remtl
+rm¤r¬g ¬ ~t a;l¤-o +r
aet¤¸; ¬e m aro’r lonr ªrr
l+ 'm q= o’r +r a¤¬r =o’r
¤ er¬ + lee aor ;çr ç¸ , nç
=o’r a= '=¬rn¬ rrm' +r =o’r
ç, l¬= n¸m a+rt n+ ¬çt ¬r¬n
ªr, ¤; a¤ ¬r¬ mn çrl n¸m ¤rç;
¬rar nr a¤¬ o ’r¤rl=nr +r
+ç¬r l+ n¸ m =¬rn¬ rrm +
mr> =¬rn¬ rrm çt l¤’¤ ‘rrln +r ;¢r+
lee ao ;ç çrl n¸+ç =¤rªr l=lç
+ lee ¬çt, al¤n¸ ==r; + lee
aornr ¬r ;çr çl ¬¤ +çr ¬rnr ç
l+ +rr;n¤”r mçr¬g ç nr a=+r
mne¤ ç =¬rn¬ rrm mçr¬g çl
m¬ n¸+ç lo=rr lonr ç, l+ m =¤
¬mç ar; =¤ m mr¬¸o ç¸l ¬r o’r
+ lee es ;ç ç, a-çt m çt ¬çt,
o ’r + l¤;r lrrnr m +rt +rm +; ;çr
ç¸l ¬r¬ nr a¬¬r¬, ¤rn¢r =¤
= =çrn+ çr+; nr l¤;rrr +;n
ç¸e, =¤ m;r çt +rm +; ;ç çl m;t
‘rl+n +rm +; ;çt ç, ar; ¤ç
lo¬ o¸; ¬çt ¬¤ +rm m =¤enr
¤r¤n çrmtl'
nt’r¸ m=tç +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr
+ a¬¸=r; +rt a= =çrn+ + ¤¸¤
= ar¬ +t ¤rn +çt mq çl a=
=çrn+ + ar¬ +r nçt =mn
çl q=+ alnl;+n l¤’¤ + +q
+rl¤”n ¤+nrar ¬ +rt +çr ç l+
za ¤t =ot + an = ¤çe e+ ¬q
=r+nnr l¬=+r aogmm +rr;n =
çrmr, =¤¸¤r l¤’¤ +r arrrt n¸¤r¬
+t n;ç c+ emtl
l¤º¤ +r; + =+rt rrmr m mr>
=¬rn¬ rrm çt e+ e=r rrm ç,
¬r m¬¸ ”n +r l¤+r= +t ¤;m
=tmr n+ ¤ç¸¤r¬ +t ¤rn +çnr
çl ¤lo+ m¬rl¤qr¬ + a¬¸=r;
m¬¸”n ‘r;t; +t =;¤¬r =rn ¤+r;
+ nr¤r = ç¸q ç, l¬¬+ a-o;
arrmr a-nl¬ lçn ç l q¬ =rn
nr¤r +t aem-aem ·nr=nr
+;n ç¸e >·¤o +çnr ç- (t.¸
a-¬mn+r ’r (z.¸ ¤ r¤rmn
+r ’r (:.¸ m¬r mn +r ’r (¡.¸
l¤qr¬mn +r’r (:.¸ ar¬-omn
+r’r (c.¸ l¤ngmn +r’r (:.¸
=nmn +r’rl
ar¬ n+ q¬m = ¤ªrm ¤r;
+r ’r çt mr¬¤nr m l¤+l=n çr ¤rn
çl ¤r+t nt¬r (=ng +l¤ng+
ar-r-o - =l·¤or¬-o¸ +r ’r
a+rt n+ l¤+l=n ¬çt l+e ¬r
=+l ¤lo+ m¬rl¤qr¬ + a¬¸=r;
a-¬mn +r’r = l·rqr¬mn +r’r
n+ a¤;rç nr =rrr +r l¬+¬n;
+rrm ç, ¬çr l¤or ¤; al¤or +r
arlrr¤rn çl
ar¬-o = =ng n+ ¤;rç
nr a·¤n; aç l¬=m al¤or ¤r;
l¤or +r ¤ +r¸ r¤ ç ar ; ¤çr aqr¬,
¤ts r nr =tmr +r ¬rm ¬çt l +nr l+
¤ªrm ¤r;r +r’rr m l¤or al¤or
+r arlrr¤rn ç, q=lee l¤qr¬
+r ¤ nr m =¸ ¬¬ + =ªrr¬ ¤;
l¤r¤’r m çt alrr+ çr ;çr çl
l¤’¤ m mr> ¤lo+ rrm çt
a¤nr;¤ro +r ¬¬+ ç , ¤çt +çnr
ç q ’¤; +t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ;
=r¢rrr+r; =+r¤ çl ==r; + ¤r+t
¤m+¤;¤rot rrmr m nç =rmªn
¬çt çl ¤ nr mr> ¤m+¤; + ¤nre
a¬¸ =r; çt q ’¤; +r ¬r¬n ç l
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ; =r¢rrr+r; +;¬
+r +r q ¤ªr a¬ rrmr m ¬çt ç l ¬¤
=rn m = ¤r; nr¤r +t ¬r¬+r;t
l¤’¤ +r çr ¤¸+t ç nr ¤r+t nt¬
+r ’rr +r +rt qr¬ ¤ r¤n +;¬r = +r¤
çl ¤;-n¸ a= qr¬ +r ¤r¤n +;¬
+t =rmªn + ¤e =¬rn¬ rrm m çt
ç, +nrl+ ¤ç q’¤;¤ro +r ¬¬+
çl ¤m+¤;¤rot rrm nç +rn ¬çt
23
23 223
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+r +rr;n çt onr ;çrl q=t
lo·n qr¬ +r ¤=r;-¤¤r; =¤¸¤r
l¤’¤ m ¤¸¬· +;+ a¤¬ =¤¤r n¸m
m ¤¤’r +; ¬remrl
m¬¸ ”n nr l¬ m ¤;m l¤+.
r= +t ¤rn +çn ç¸ e +rm¤r¬g
~t+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr + ƒ… ¤ arnrn
+ „„¤ ‘er + m ¤¸ =”r +t ·nr=nr
+;n ç¸e +çr ç-
a¤q”cr¬¸m-nr +rnr
+rr+nr mç’¤;l
¤;mrrmln ¤r¤n¸+nr
oç•l=m-¤¸=”r· ¤;ll
¤r=n¤ m ¤¸ =”r q= o ç m
l=ªrn ç¸ ar +rt ¤; (l>m¸ ¤rrntn¸ çt
ç (+¤e¸ =r¢rt çr¬ = a¤q”cr
ar; nªrrªr =+mln o¬ ¤rer çr¬
= a¬¸m-nr (e¤¸ =¤+r rrr;¤r
+;¬ ¤rer çr¬ = +rnr, ¬t¤=¤
= +rr+nr (nªrr¸ ¤grlo+r +r
+rt =¤rmt çr¬ = mç’¤; ar; ‘r¸ç
=l·¤or¬-orr¬ çr ¬ = '¤;mrrmr'
e =r +çr mnr ç l mtnr +t a¤n¸ +n
·nr=nr + a¬¸=r; m¬¸”n arrm
=r¢rrr+r; +;n ç¸e 'nq¸¤' ¤¬
=+nr çl arr· ¤lo+ m¬rl¤qr¬
+ a¬¸=r; a¤n¸+n =rnr nr¤r
+r ¤n¬ +;+ m¬¸”n a¤¬ ¤;m
l¤+r= +r ¤r¤n +; =+nr çl +r.
r;n + çt ¬çt, l¤’¤ +r; + a¬+
+rl¤”n¤+nrar ¬ ¬r +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt +t ç l+ +rr;n +r çt o’r¬ zt¤t
=ot m mr-n çrmrl zt ¤t =ot m
+rr;n ¤¸¬· a¤¬ '¬mng m¸=' +
¤o ¤; ar=t¬ çr ¬remrl
q=t ¤ +r; +rr;ntn nr mo’r ¬
+rt l+nrrm+ cm = a= ¤;m¤o
+r ¤ r¤n +;¬ +t l¤lrr ¤nrnr
çl çmr; o’r¬ + a¬¸=r; m¬¸”n
q’¤; +t =¤r·¤ al+r·nl+n ç,
m¬¸”n ¤r=n¤ m l¤;rc çl arr·
çmr;r o’r¬ =¤r”c ‘r-or m +çnr
ç l+ ¬r ¤gr¤s m ç ¤çt l¤¤s
m çl q=tlee qr¬=+le¬t n->
m +çr ç-
oç=ªrr· =·¤ l¤rrr’¤
oç=ªrr· =·¤ o¤nr·l
oç=ªrr· =·¤ ntªrrl¬
m¸= ¤r+n¬ e+nnll
a¤n¸ +n or’r l¬+ l=çr-n
+ a¬¸=r; >l”rnr ¬ ¬¤ =¤¸¤r
¤gr¤s +r o=r+; a= ¤;mnr¤
+t =rr¬ m¬¸”n ‘r;t; m ar;+r
+t nr ¤rnr, l+ a= ¤;m=rrr
+r l¬¤r= =ç=r; m çl a=t ¬
a¤¬t ‘rl+n + =çr; q= =¤¸¤
r ¤gr¤s +t ;¤¬r +t, l¬=+r
l¬¤r= =ªrr¬ a=¬ m¸ errrr; m
¤rnrl q-çt or¬r nr¤r + +r;¤r
=¤¸¤r =¸l”c +t ar¤lrr ç¸ql ¤+r¸ +t
¤ç ‘rl+n =ç= r; = ¬t¤ ¤et ar ;
a==n ¤gr¤sr ar; er+r +t
;¤¬r +;nt ç¸q m¸errrr; m ar+;
l=ªrn çr mql
nç ‘rl+n =¸”r¸¤n a¤=ªrr m
;çnt çl +¤e m¬¸”n nrl¬ m çt
q= ¬rm¸n l+nr ¬r =+nr çl nç
+rn m¸=+¸¤r =¤t ‘rl+n¤rn =
çt =+r¤ çl
l=çnrm m m¸= l’r”n ¤;+¤;r
m ‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr +r l¤rrr¬ çl
m¸ = ‘rl+n¤rn +;+ =rrr+ +t
+¸sle¬t +r ¤n¬ +;n çl ¤n¬
çrn çt ¤ç ‘rl+n =¸”r¸+¬r + ;r=n,
a¤¬ =¤rmt = lme¬ =ç=r; +t
n;¤ ar¤ mm¬ +;¬ emnt çl
m¸= +r a= ¤; ¤¸¤r ¤+r¸r¤ çrnr
ç , an· ¤ a=+r l¬n >¤r ar ;
=¤re¬ =¤n +;n çl ¤ç ‘rl+n
ar¤ mm¬ +;nt ç¸ q eç ¤+r
ar; nt¬r ml-ªrnr +r ¤rr¬ +;nt
ç¸q =rrr+ +r =mrlrr l=ªrln,¬r
l+ =mr¤¤rrr +t l=ªrln ç, ¤r¤n
+;r ont çl q= ¤+r; ¤¸ª¤t nr¤
+ ar+r’r nr¤ m en çr¬ +r çt
mr ¢r aªrr ng + ¤rn ¤o ¤ r¤n çr ¬
+t =qr ot mq çl
‘rl+n¤rn = ¬¤ +¸¤sle¬t
¬rmn çr ¬rnt ç nr ar¤ mm¬
+;¬ emnt ç l +q ¬-mr + = =+.
r;r + +r;¤r ;r=nr a¤=ç ;çnr
çl an· =rrr+ +r l¤l¤rr ¤+r;
+t nr lm+ l+nre ¬ = ar=¬,
¤-rr, m¸qre e¤ ¤r¤rrnrm =¤n·
çr¬ emn çl ¤ç ‘rl+n =rrr+
+r ‘r;t;, ¤ r¤r, m¬ ar ; ¤¸ lç
a¤¬ =¤rnrr +; e nt ç l q=
¤+r; ¬r l+nre çrnt ç, a=m
=rrr+ +r l+=t ¤+r; +r =çnrm
nr a=çnrm +rn ¬çt +;nr çl
=rrr+ ¬ nr a-ç +;¬ +t l=ªrln
m çrnr ç, ar; ¬ çt ;r+¬ +tl ¤ç
‘rl+n =trrr a¤¬ l¬n >¤r m =+rt
l+nre +;¤rnt çl q= ¤+r; +rr.
ln+ l¤qr¬ +r nç =r¸et ¤¸¬rnt
ç l m ; l’r”nr m a¬ + q l¬l¬nl; m
+ er> nªrr q l¬l¬n; ç l a¬
=+rt +r n l+nre çrnt çl q==
¤rn¬le nrmo’r¬ m ¤l¤rn =+rt
l=lçnr + qr¬ + =rªr-=rªr ç;
¤ +r; = ¤¸ ¤r =¤=ªr çr +; mr ¢r
¤r¤n +;nr çl
¤rrn¬le nrmo’r¬ m =rrr+
+r l¬¬ l=lçnr +r qr¬ ¤ r¤n
çrnr ç a¬m e+ +r ¬rm ¤rln+r
qr¬ çl q= qr¬ +r ¤¤r¬ l¤+.
r¸ln¤ro + ::¤ nªrr :c ¤ =¸> m
¤¤r¬ l+nr mnr çl q= =¤rr m
23
23 224
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
o’r m l=ªrn ¤=n¸e ¤rn¢r çr
¬rnt çl (z.¸ ~r¤¤r- q== lo·n
‘r-o =¸¬¬ +t ‘rl+n ar ¬rnt çl
(:.¸ ¤o¬- q== lo·n =¤’r +r
a¬¸+r¤ +;¬ +t ‘rl+n ar ¬rnt
çl (¡.¸ aro’r- q== lo·n =¤
+r o’r¬ +;¬ +t ‘rl+n ar ¬rnt
çl (:.¸ ar=¤ro- q== lo·n ;=
+r a¬¸ +r¤ +;¬ +t ‘rl+n ar
¬rnt çl (c.¸ ¤rnr- q== lo·n
mrr +r a¬¸+r¤ +;¬ +t ‘rl+n
ar ¬rnt çl
a¤n¸ +n qr¬ + alnl;+n
¤rn¬le nrmo’r¬ m ¤l¤rn =+rt
¤rnr +t m ; a¬ + =rrr+r +r
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln e¤ =r¢rrr+r; çr
;ç ç, ¬r l+ +rrln+ ¬mng m ¤¸¤r
=rn ¤mrl¤rn çr ;ç çl m; l’r”nr
m alrr+n; l’rl¢rn =>t-¤¸ =”r ç l
¤ç¸n = +rrln+ l¤qr¬ + l’r¢r+
ar ; er> ç l =+rt +r a¤n¸ +n qr¬
¤r¤n çr ;çr çl m;t mr-nnr ç l+
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ + ‘rrrr+rrrar +t
a==n =m=nrar +r =mrrrr¬
q= qr¬ = çr ¬remrl =mrlrr.
l=ªrln m ¤ç ¤;m=rrr ç; =m=nr
+r =mrrrr¬ ‘rrrr+rrr +r +;¤r
omtl q= ¤+r; l¤’¤ + mr¬¤ +t
a==n =m=nrar +r =mrrrr¬
çr ¬remrl
m ==r; m q= qr¬ +r ¤rc¬
+ lee çt m ; m¸ = + aro ’r =
l¬+er ç¸l nç qr¬ mr> m¸= +¸¤r
= çt ¤r¤n çr¬r =+r¤ çl q=+t
+tmn mr> m¸= + ¤;¤rr m ¤¸¤r
=m¤ ¤r ç l ar ; l+=t l¤lrr nr
¤rlç+ ¤nr= + nç qr¬ ¤r¤n
çr¬r a=+r¤ çl q= =mn mr¬¤
¤¸lç +r ¤ç¸n ¤st mr¬nr çl ¤;-n¸
q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ +r¸e ¬rnr ç,l+
'm¬' ¤¸ lç +r lo¬ m +q =-¬¤rm
lo=rr+; ¤+mr o ¬rnr ç l +rr;ntn
nrmo’r¬ m m¬ +r l=ªr; +;+ çt
nç qr¬ ¤r¤n +;¬ +t l+nrrm+
l¤lrr ¤nrq mq çl ¤rn¬le >l”r
¬ ¬¤ nrm o’r¬ le=r¬r ar;+r
l+nr nr nr m +t ·nr=nr +;n
ç¸e o¸=; =¸> m =¤”c ‘r-or +çr
ç - 'l¤rr +t ¤¸lrrnr +r l¬;rrr çt
nrm çl' ar; nç +rn m¬¸”n =¤n
¬çt +; =+nrl q=m ¤ n¬ m¸ = +t
l¬nr-n ar¤’n+nr çrnt çl q=
=¤rr m mçr¤l¬”ro m +çr ç·-
o¸e+rr l¤”rnrnrmr
o¸rr+r nr¤o’r¬mgl
o¸e+rr =ç¬r¤=ªrr
=ogm¸;r· +=¤rr l¤¬rll::ll
'=ogm¸ = +t onr + l¤¬r
l¤”rn-rnrm o¸e+r ç, nr¤o’r¬
o¸e+r ç,ar; =ç¬r¤=ªrr o¸e+r
ç'll
m; =n =ogm¸= o¤ ¤r¤r ~t
mmrq ¬rªr ¬t nrmt (¤get¬¸
+t açn¸+t +¸¤r m¸q ¤; ¬çt çrnt
nr m =r ¬-m ar;rrr¬r +;+ +rt
nç qr¬ ¤r¤n ¬çt +; =+nr ªrrl
an· q= m¸ =¤ =ro =mq+; ¤r c¬
l¬+er ç¸l
23
23

+rm¤r¬g =¤n mrm ¤; ¤e+; m¬¸”nr +r ;rç lo=rr¬ + len
m¬¸”n +r =¤ rrr;¤r +;n ç ar; ¤rç;t mr¬¤-¤+¸ln +r =¤t+r;
+;n çl ¤; q== a¬+r '+rm¤r¬g' çr¬r =rrm ¬çt çr ¬rnr l nç
e+ al+r·nl+n çr nt ç , ¤c nt ç¸ q +rrm¤n ¤ n¬r a¤¬ -ar¤+r ¤ +c
+;nt çl nç m¬¸”n +r +rm¤r¬g m ¤oer ¬r¬r ¬çt çl ~tmr a¤¬
arn; =¤=¤ m ¤¤¤¬ m +rt mr¬¤r¤ = a¤; ªrtl q=len ¤ç¸n =
'ermr' +r ¬r a¤n¸+n mn ç ¤ç +rmrrm+ çl
~tmr alnmr¬= +r ¬t¤ er¬ + len çt arnt ç ar; alnmr¬=
+r a¤n;¤r çr¬ ¤; a¬+r nçr ¤¸¤r =¤ = al+r·n+n çr¬r =+r¤
m¬¸¤n =¤ m +rm.
225
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m¸=-l’r”n ¤;+¤;r m ot¢rr
+r, e+ l¤rrr¬ çl =+rt ¤+r; +t
ot¢rrar m ''’rl+n¤rn - ot¢rr''
=¤rrrm çrnt çl q=m m¸= a¤¬t
q·er =, ¤r; ¤+r; = l’r”n +t
‘rl+n (+¸ ¤sle¬t¸ +r ¤ n¬
+;+ =l+n +;nr ç - (t¸ =¤’r
= (z¸ o¸ l”c mr> = (:¸ ‘r-o
(m>¸ = (¡¸ =+r¤ mr> = +rtl
ot¢rr + ¤ro =rrr+ +r nr+re
a= ¤;mnr¤ +t ¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln
çrnt ç, a= ot¢rr +r ''‘rr++r¤t
ot¢rr'' +çn ç l nç mçr¬g
ot¢rr ç l ¤ç¸ n çt ªrr s =rrr+r
+r e=t ot¢rr +t ‘rl+n + ¤+rr¤
+r =ç¬ +t =rmªn çrnt çl e=
=rrr+r +r ¤rn¬le nrmo’r¬ m
''+r¤¤rnn nrmt'' +t =qr ot çl
q= =+¤-rr m =mrlrr¤ro + tt ¤
=¸> m +çr ç-
+r¤¤rnnr
l¤oç¤+¸lnenr¬rmgl (ts-t¸
'' l¤o ç ar ; ¤ +¸ lnen
nr lmnr +r (a¤n ¸ +n nr m¸
+r¤¤rnn +çernr çl''
(t¸ =¤’r ot¢rr·-q=m m¸=
a¤¬t ‘rl+n, l’r”n m nt¬ =ªrr¬r
- +r ¸ mrn m aªrr ng arqr-¤+ m ,
o¸ =;r pon, nt=;r m =o¤s +
¬t¤ m¸errrr; ¤; =¤’r +;+ ¤¤r.
lçn +;nr çl
(z¸ m > ot¢rr·- m¸ = +t
‘rl+n, l’r”n m m> + gr;r ¤¤r.
lçn çrnt çl 'm¸=' l¬= m> +t
ot¢rr o nr ç , a= a=¬ e+¤ =mn
''ot¢rr''
‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr
n+ ¬¤r ç¸ar çrnr çl m> ‘rl+n
+r arrm=rn l+nr ç¸ar çrnr çl
a= m> m ar; m¸= m +rq a-n;
¬çt ;çnr l m¸= +r =+¤¸¤r ‘r;t;
m>mn ¤¬ ¬rnr ç, e= ¤n¬ m>
+t, m¸ = ¬¤ ot¢rr o nr ç , ¤çt
m¸l+n onr çl
(:¸ o¸ l¤c (ç+-ot¢rr¸·-
aªrrng mr> o¸l”c gr;r ot ¬r¬
¤ret ot¢rrl e =t ot¢rr o ¬ ¤re m¸ =
+t o¸l”c, ''a-n;-e¢rt'' çrnt
çl nç ot¢rr ¤çt m¸= o =+nr ç,
l¬=¬ =ogm¸ = = ot¢rr et ç¸ q çr ,
ar; ¬r =¤n +rt a-n; e¢rt çrl
a-nªrr nç ot¢rr o¬r ¤¸¤r =¤ =
a=++r¤ çl
e = mçrrmrar +t ar =r =r¸ et
çr nt ç , ¤;-n¸ ¤r=n¤ m a¬+r
rnr¬ l¬;-n; a-n;rrmr +t ar;
çt el¢rn ;çnr çl e= =nr +t
n=¤t; o=r¬ = =çt l=ªrln +r
¤nr em ¬rnr çl e= =nr m-=n
=ogm¸=o¤ ~t ¬r¬+ o¤¬t mç.
r;r¬, =n ~t +¤t; or=¬t, ~t
;rm+¸”¤r ¤;mç= qrnrlo a¬+
=n çmr;t ¤l¤> +r¸lm m ¤+c çr
¤¸+ çl
m ; ¤;m ¤¸ ¤n, mr ¢rornr
= n =ogm¸ =o ¤ ¤r¤r ~t m mr.
q ¬r ªr ¬t nr mt (¤ get ¬¸
+rt a¤n¸ +n = nr +t l=ªrln m
¤ç¸ ¤ ç¸ e, ¤;m-l=çnr mt ªr l
nç =·¤rq =ogm¸=o¤ +r l¤>
o=rn çt ¤+c çrnt çl e= ¤;m
onre¸ =¤’rl+nmr¬, m¸l+nornr
=ogm¸=o¤ +t, açn¸ +t +¸¤r +
+r;¤r çt m; ¬= =rrrr;¤r ·nl+n
m +rt ¤ç ‘rl+n ¤+c çr mql
(¡¸ mr¬= (=+r¤-ot¢rr¸
l¬=m m¸= = ot¢rr e¬ +r mr¬=
¤¬r¬ mr> = çt ot¢rr lme ¬rnt
ç l e = +q aorç;¤r m¸ q m ;
arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ m o=r¬ +r
lme çl m; a¬+ l’r”n ç, l¬¬m
+¸e nr arnlrr+ ¤n¬ çl a¬=
¤rn +;¬ = nªrr m;t ¤ m¸=o¤ +t
n=¤t; o=r¬ mr> = +q ermr +r
rnr¬ em¬ emnr ç nªrr nrlm+
l+nre =¤n· çr¬ emnt çl ¤;-n¸
e = l’r”n ¤ç¸ n +m çt ç l q= nªn
= e+e·n +t ¤ nt+-=rrr¬r =rn
¤mrl¤rn çrnt çl
çmr; ‘rr=>r + a¬¸=r; ¬¤
n+ m¬¸”n +t +¸¤sle¬t ¬rmn
çr+; =ç=rr; m ¬çt ¤ç¸¤nt, n¤
n+ mr¢r ¬çt çrnt l ¤¸ª¤t nr¤ +r
ar+r’r nr¤ m en çr¬ +r ¬rm
çt mr¢r ç, +¤rn¤o +t ¤rl¤n
çl l=çnrm aªrrng mçrnrm m
‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr gr;r m¸= a¤¬t
‘rl+n = l’r”n +t +¸¤sle¬t +r
¬rmn +;nr çl m¸= +t ·nr=nr
+;n ç¸e +çr mnr ç- ''¤ç l’r”nr
+r a¬+ a-n; m ¤+rr¤t l+-n¸
=¸ ¤n ‘rl+n (+¸ ¤sle¬t¸ +r
¬rmn +;nr ç ar; =rrr+ +r a=
¤;m=rn = =r¢rrr+r;-nr ·n
¤¬rnr çl
'' +¸ ¤sle¬t ¬rm;¤r +
=+¤-rr m +çr ç -
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
23
23 226
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=¸ ”r¸ ¤nr¤=ªrr m ;ç mt, n¤
n+ m¬¸”n +r ·n¤çr; ¤ºr¸¤ng
;ç mrl ar ; ¤ç a= lo·n-¤;m=rrr
+r qr¬ ¤r¬ m =mªr ¬çt çrmr,
+re çt ¤ç ç¬r;r ¤+r; + nrlm+
a+nr= +nr ¬ +;l'' m¸= +¸¤r
=¤t, ‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr = ¬¤
+¸ ¤sle¬t ¬rm n çr nt ç , n¤ +nr
çrnr ç? q= =+¤-rr m +çr ç -
=¸¤n m¸= ¤=ro¬
nor ¬rm¸ln +¸¤setl
nor =¤r¬t ¤ogmrl¬
l+ronl-n m-ªrnr•l¤ ¤ll
(''=¤rrmr;rm, çonrm
¤otl¤+r''-:,z¸
' ' ¬¤ m¸ =+¸ ¤r = =¸ ¤ n
+¸ ¤sle¬t ¬rm n çr ¬rnt ç ,
n¤ =+rt ¤+r ar; ml-ªrnr +r
(¤ gm l-ªr, l¤”¤r¸ m l-ªr ar ;
=o m l-ªr¸ +r o¬ çr nr ç l q=
¤ +r; =rrr+ =mrlrr l=ªrln, ¬r l+
=mr¤ ¤rrr +t l=ªrln ç, ¤r¤n +;
enr çl ‘rl+n¤rn çrn çt =rrr+
+r ¤ r;-rr +mr + a¬¸ =r; l¤l+r-¬
¤+r; +t nrlm+ l+nre (ar=¬,
¤-rr, m¸qre e¤ ¤r¤rrnrm¸ =¤n·
çt çr¬ emnt çl l’r”n m ¬rmn
ç¸q ‘rl+n (+¸¤sle¬t¸ ¤; m¸=
+r ¤¸ ¤r ¤ +r¸ r¤ ;çnr ç , l¬==
¤ç a=+ ¤m +r l¬nl->n ar;
a¬¸’rrl=n +;nr çl
+¸¤sle¬t +r çmr; ‘rr=>r
m '¬mng ¬¬¬t' +çr çl ¤ç a=
¤;m=rrr +r lo·n ¤+r’r ç, ¬r
=¤q ç, =¤> ç, =¤’rl+nmr¬
ç l an· l ¬= =r r r + +t
+¸¤sle¬t ¬rmn çr ¬rnt ç, a=
al¬l’¤n+re n+ + +r¸ n-+rl¤”n
e¤ ¤nmr¬ +re +t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
e¤ =r¢rrr+r; çr¬ emnr çl
+rrln+ l¤qr¬ mr¬nr ç l+
¬r ‘r-o ¤rer ¬r ¤¸+r ç, ¤ç ++rt
¬”c ¬çt çr nrl am; mr¬¤ + ¤r=
a¤n¸+n n-> çr nr a= ¤¸¬· =¸¬r
¬r¬r =++r¤ çl çmr;r nrmo’r¬
+çnr ç l+ +¤e =¸¬r çt ¬çt ¬r
=+nr ç, ¤re¬ ¤re +r ¤ren
ç¸ e o =rr-=¸ ¬r ¬r¬r +rt =++r¤
çl ¬r l¤rm ¤¬ ¤¸+t ç, a=+r
o=r¬-=¸¬¬ m +nr +lo¬rq çl
çmr;r nrm-o’r¬ nr =¤”c
‘r-or m +çnr ç l+ ¬r rrc¬r
¬çt rrct ç , a=+r +rt o =rr ¤
=¸¬r ¬r¬r =+r¤ çl a¬+ l’r”n
q=+r ¤mrl¤rn +;¬ m =¢rm çl
çmr;r ¤n ¬le nr mo’r ¬ a¤n¸ +n
nªnr +r ¤mrl¤rn +;nr çl q=t
‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr + +r;¤r çt
¤l’¤m +r lo·n ar¬-o ar ;
al¬l’¤n +re n+ + +r¸ n-+rl¤”n
+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r;
çrmr, ¤rq¤e +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr
+r mr> nçt aªr çl
¤l;nr + +rn + z·t¡ = ts m
=¤”c ‘r-or m +çr ç - '' ¤n;=
a¬ ·nr;ç + =rªr =rs r ç¸ ar
ar; a¤ ‘r-o = +ç¬ emr, l+
ç nç¸lonr, ç n=’rem + =¤
;ç¬ ¤rer, nç ¬r¬ er ar; +r¬
emr+; m;t ¤rn =¸¬rl ¬=r n¸m
=mq ;ç çr, n ¬’r m ç , e=r
¬çt, +nrl+ a+rt nr ¤ç; çt lo¬
¤cr çl
¤;-n¸ nç ¤rn ç, ¬r nree
+rl¤”n¤+nr + gr;r +çt mq çl
l+ ¤;m ’¤; +çnr ç l+ a-n
+ lo¬r m e=r çrmr l+ m a¤¬r
arrmr =¤ m¬¸ ”nr ¤; as e¸ mr
ar; n¸+çr; ¤c ar; n¸+çr;t ¤lcnr
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt +; mt ar ; n¸ +çr;
¬¤r¬ o’r ¬ o =r m ar ; n¸ +çr;
¤¸;l¬e (¤¸ç¸ =¤¤¬ o=rml ¤;¬g
m a¤¬ or=r ar; a¤¬t orl=nr
¤; +rt a¬ lo¬r m a¤¬ arrmr
m = ase¸mr ar; ¤ +rl¤”n¤r¤
rt +;ml''
q=t =o+r m, l¬= =çrn+
+ +r¬¬ +t +rl¤”n¤r¤rt nt’r¸ ¬
+t ç, a=t +t ‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr +
+r;¤r nç lo·n-ar¬-o ar ; qr¬
¤ r¤n çr mrl q= =+¤-rr m ¤ l;nr +
+rn z·:: m +çr ç - ''q= ¤+r;
¤;m’¤; + orlç¬ çrªr = =¤r·¤
¤o ¤r+; ar; l¤nr = ¤ç ¤l¤>
arrmr ¤r¤n +;+ l¬=+t ¤lnqr
+t mq ªrt, a=¬ nç ase lonr
ç, ¬r n¸m o=rn ar; =¸¬n çrl''
q= ‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr +r
¤¤r ¬ a¬ + or’r l¬+ m -ªrr m
lmenr çl ¬=r l+ =¤rmt ~t l¤¤.
+r¬-o ¬t ¬ +çr ç, ''nç qr¬
mr> çmr; o’r¬ +t çt o¬ çl''
¤;-n¸ +len¸ m + m¸ ¤rrrm + +r;¤r
nç lo·n l¤qr¬ q= =mn çmr;t
rr;nt ¤; = er ¤ ¤ rn· çr ¤¸ +r
çl ‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr + ¤ro, m;
=rrr+r +t +¸ ¤sle¬t ‘rl+n
¬rm n çr ¬rnt ç l q== a-ç
l¤l+r-¬ ¤+r; +t nrlm+ l+nre
¬ = ·- ar=¬, ¤-rr, m¸ qre e¤
¤r¤rrnrm =¤n· çr¬ emn çl ¤ç
‘rl+n (+¸ ¤sle¬t¸ =rrr+ +r
‘r;t;, ¤r¤r, m¬ ar; ¤¸lç a¤¬
=¤rnn(arrt¬¸ +; ent çl
q= ¤+r; =rrr+ +r ¬r l¤l+.
r-¬ ¤ +r; + ar=-¬, ¤-rr, m¸ qre
ar ; ¤ r¤rrnrm çr n ç , a¬m =rrr+
23
23 227
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤;m=rrr +r lo·n ¤+r’r çl
an· a=m qr¬ +t ''¤;r+r”or''
çl ¤ç a¬;-am; ç nªrr =¤q
e¤ =¤ > ç l an· a=+ ¬rm n
çr¬ ¤; =rrr+ +r +r¸n, +rl¤”n
e¤ ¤nmr¬ +t ¤¸¤r ¬r¬+r;t çr¬
m +rq ar’¤n ¬çt çl q’¤; +r
=l·¤or¬-o rr¬ (=ng l¤ng ¤
ar¬-o¸ +çn çl
an· +¸ ¤sle¬t + ¬rm n
çr ¬ ¤; =rrr+ +r ql-qnrntn
lo·n a¢rn ar¬-o +t l¬;-n;
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln çr¬ emnt çl q=
lo·n ar¬-o + =rm¬ =+rt ¤+r;
+ ¬’rr = rr¸¤rr çr ¬rnt ç ar;
l¤¬r l+=t ¤ +r; + +”c + , a¬=
=ç¬ =¤ m ¤¸¤r m¸l+n lme ¬rnt
çl m; =rrr+r m ¤ç¸n erm e=
ç ¬r ‘r;r¤, a¤tm, +rrm, mr¬r
arlo + ¬’rr = ¤¸ ;t n;ç m l=n ªr l
q= lo·n ar¬-o + +r;¤r =+rt
=rrr+ a¬ =+rt ¤+r; + ¬’rr =,
l¤¬r l+=t ¤+r; + ‘rr;tl;+ +”c
nr mr¬l=+ +”c + ¤¸¤r =¤ =
m¸+n çr ¤¸+ çl
nçt ¬çt q= lo·n ar¬-o
+ +r;¤r mr¬l=+ n¬r¤ ¤¸¤r =¤
= ‘rr-n çr ¬rnr ç nªrr a==
=+¤l-rrn =+rt ;rm ¬= a-mro,
;+n¤r¤, al¬qr arlo l¤¬r o¤r
+ =¤n· ¤¸¤r=¤ = =rrm çr ¬rn
çl l¤o¸n a¤¤r; = ot+ ¬ çr¬
¤re +q ;r mt ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = ;r m m¸ +n
çr ¤¸+ çl or e= ;rmt arn ¬r
q-=r¸ et¬ l¤l+r=r = +rt ot+ ¬çt
çr =+ ªr , q= ‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr =
lme¬ ¤ret ar¬-o =¤t ‘rrl-n
+ +r;¤r ¤¸¤r=¤ = =¤=ªr çr ¤¸+
ç l çmr; o’r ¬ m nr mo’r ¬ +
alnl;+n +rt q= lo·n ar¬-o
+r ¤¤r¬ lmenr çl mtnr + : ¤
arnrn + zt ¤ nªrr c ¤ arnrn
+ t: ¤ zt¤ z: ¤ nªrr zs ¤ ‘er+ m
+rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ l¬= ¤r;t+t
= q= lo·n ar¬-o +t ·nr=nr +t
ç, a-n> +çt ¬çt lmentl
¤rg=¤’r”¤=+nrrmr
l¤-ornrrml¬ nr=¸=rmgl
= ¤gnrmn¸+nrrmr
=¸=rm¢rnm’¬¸nll :·ztll
''¤rç; + l¤”rnr m ar=l+n
;lçn a-n·+;¤r ¤rer ¤¸ =”r
a-n·+;¤r m ¬r +rm¤ng-rnr¬
¬l¬n ar¬-o ç , a=+r ¤ r¤n çr nr
ç (ar;¸ ¤ç ¤¸=”r =l·¤or¬-.
orr¬ ¤;¤ g ¤;mrrmr=¤ nr m
m e+t+rr¤ = l=ªrn ç¸ar, a¢rn
ar¬-o +r a¬¸+r¤ +;nr çl''
n¸¬-¬¤ =orrmr¬
nrmt l¬nnmr¬=·l
‘rrl-n l¬¤r¤r¤;mr
mr==ªrrmlrrm·elnll c·t:ll
''q= ¤ +r; arrmr +r l¬.
;-n; (¤;m ’¤; + =¤=¤ m ¸
emrnr ç¸ ar =¤rrrt¬ m¬¤rer
nrmt m; m l=ªrn =¤ ¤;mr¬-o
¤;r+r”or ¤ret ‘rrl-n +r ¤r¤n
çrnr çl''
=¸=rmrrnl-n+ nrro
¤¸lç mr@mntl-onml
¤lrr n> ¬ ¤¤rn
l=ªrn’¤eln nr¤n·ll c·ztllmtnr
''ql-qnr = antn + ¤e
‘r¸ ç ç¸ q =¸ ¢m ¤¸ lç gr;r m ç¤r
+;¬ nr·n ¬r a¬-n ar¬-o ç,
a=+r l¬= a¤=ªrr m a¬¸ +r¤
+;nr ç ar ; l¬= a¤=ªrr m l=ªrn
ç¸ar nç nrmt +rm¤rr =¤=¤ =
¤ernmr¬ ¬çt çrnr çl''
¤ºrr-nm¬= @¬
nrlm¬ =¸=rm¸rrmmgl
a¤ln ‘rr-n;¬=
¤g+r¸nm+rm”rmgll c·z:ll
''+nrl+ l¬=+r m¬ a·et
¤+r; ‘rr-n ç (ar;¸ ¬r ¤r¤ =
;lçn ç (ar; ¸ l¬=+r ;¬rm¸¤r
‘rr-n çr mnr ç, e= q= =l·¤.
or¬-o¬rr¬ ¤ g + =rªr e+t+rr¤
ç¸e nrmt +r aln arrm ar¬-o
¤r¤n çrnr çl''
n¸¬-¬¤ =orrmr¬
nrmt l¤mn+rm”r·l
=¸=r¬ ¤g==¤’r
mrn-n =¸=rm’¬¸n ll
c·zsll
''¤r¤;lçn nr mt q= ¤ +r;
l¬;-n; arrmr +r ¤;mrrmr m
emrnr ç¸ ar, =¸ =r¤¸ ¤ + ¤;¤ g
¤;mrrmr +t ¤ rl¤n =¤ a¬-n
ar¬-o +r a¬¸+r¤ +;nr çl''
¤ l o + m¬r ¤ qr l ¬+
(arnrrm l¤qr¬¸ + a¬¸ =r;
m¬¸ ”n +r ‘r;t; =rn ¤ +r; +
+r ’rr (’r er ¸ = = rrlcn ç ,
l¬¬+ =rrer (+r’rr¸ m arrmr
a-nl¬ lçn ç l ¤ ç - (t¸ a-¬mn
+r ’r (z¸ ¤ r¤rmn +r ’r (:¸
m¬r mn +r ’r (¡¸ l¤qr¬ mn
+r’r (:¸ar¬-omn +r’r (c¸
l¤nmn +r’r (:¸ =nmn +r’rl
çmr; l¤+r= +t ¤nmr¬ a¤=ªrr
m =rrrr;¤r mr¬¤ ¬ a¤¬ l¬rn
·n¤çr; + lee ¤çe nt¬ +r’rr
+r çt l¤+r= l+nr çl
+¸ e m¬¸ ”n =rmªn ¤¸ ¤ +
l¤qr¬mn +r’r +r ¤nrm +;¬
m +rt =¢rm ç l +nrl+ q= =mn
23
23 228
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+r +rn alrr+ +; ;çr çl
nr mt q== +rt ¤; =r¢rrng l¤qr¬
(l¤qr¬mn +r’r + l¬¬rrrm¸
n+ ¬r ¤ç¸ ¤nr ç l ¬¤ l¤qr¬
a¤¬ l¬¬rrrm m =¤rlen çr+;
+rn +; mr, n¤ q=+r =+¤¸ ¤
r a¤nr m mr> =¸ ¬¬ m çt çr.
mrl q=tlee mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o ¬
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt +t ç
''+rr;n, ¬t¤¬ + =rm¬
nrm +r aro’r ;=r¬ + lee ao
;çr çl ¤ç nrm + gr;r çt =·¤t
=¤rrrt¬nr, e+nr ar; mçr¬nr
¤r¤n +;mr ar; nrm + gr;r çt
a=+r ;¢r¤r +;mrl''
nrq¤r+n ¬ = mçr¬nm
>l”r nr =r¢rrng ar¬-o n+
¤ç¸ ¤ ¤¸ + ç l ¤;-n¸ al-nm or
+r’r a+rt n+ ¤r¤n ¬çt çr =+
çl l=çnrm aªrrng mçrnrm ¬r
m¸ = +¸ ¤r=¤t ‘rl+¤rn ot¢rr =
l=ç çrnr ç, a=+ =rrr+ =rnr
+r’rr +r qr¬ ¤r¤n +;¬ m =¤e
ç¸e çl
e = a¬ + aorç;¤r çmr;
‘rr=>r m ¤l¤rn çl ¤n¬le nrm
o’r¬ nr +¤e ts: =¸>r m +¤rn
¤o ¤; ¤ç¸¤¬ +t l+nrrm+ l¤lrr
¤nrnr çl
''m¬¸”n nrl¬ q’¤; +t =¤r.
·¤ al+r·nl+n ç l'' =+rt +r mn ç
l+ mr¬¤ +r =¸ ¬¬ a=+ =¸ ¬¬çr;
+t ¤lnm¸ln + =¤ m ç¸ar çl an·
m¬¸”n a¤¬r +lm+ l¤+r= +;n
ç¸e a¤¬ =¸¬¬çr; + 'nq¸¤' ¤¬
=+nr ç l +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸ ”¤r ¬
m¬¸”n +t ·nr=nr +;n ç¸e mtnr
+ t: ¤ arnrn + zz ¤ ‘er+ m
=¤”c ‘r-or m +çr ç-
a¤o”cr¬¸m-nr ¤
+rnr +rr+nr mç’¤;·l
¤;mrrmln ¤r¤n¸+nr
oç•l=m-n¸=”r· ¤;·ll
''¤¸=”r q= oç m l=ªrn ç¸ar
+rt ¤; (l>m¸¤rrntn¸ çl (+¤e¸
=r¢rt çr¬ = a¤q”cr ar; nªrrªr
=+mln o¬ ¤rer çr¬ = a¬¸m-nr
e¤ =¤+r rrr;¤r +;¬ ¤rer çr¬
= +rnr, ¬t¤ =¤ = +rr+nr nªrr
¤grlo+r +r +rt =¤rmt çr¬ =
mç ’¤; ar ; ‘r¸ ç =l·¤or¬-.
orr¬ çr¬ = ''¤;mrrmr'' e=r
+çr mnr çl''
q= ql-qnrntn ar¬-o +r
=nr ¬ ''çl; ¬rm +t =r¸mr;t''
+t =qr ot çl =n =ogm¸= ~t
¬r¬+o¤¬t ¬ +çr ç-
''+rrm rrn¸;r ¬r¬+r,
an; ¬rn ¤+rrnl
''¬rm=r¸mr;t '' ¬r¬+r
¤ct ;ç lo¬ ;rnll''
=n +¤t; or= ¬t ¬ +çr
ç-
'¬rm-ame' an; ¬ +rrql
ar ; ame le-¬-le-¬ ¤lc
an;l
¬rm -ame' lo¬ ¤c =¤rnrll''
¤rq¤e +rt =¤”c +çnt
ç- ''nç e+ ar-nl;+ ar¬-o
ç, ¬r =+rt =·¤ l¤’¤rl=nr +
pon m arnr çl nç ar¬-o
pon m ¤¬r ;çnr ç, =r=rl;+
ar¬-o = n¤ n+ +r;nr ç, ¬¤
n+ ams ¬ ¬rnl ¤+r¸ +r ar¬.
23
23

a= ¤¸çng ¤r;rl¤r+ m-ªr ''mçr+rr;n'' m e+ ar=nr¬ ç l¬=m
+ªrr¬rn+ n¸lrrl”o; = rrm ¬ ¤’¬ l+nr l+ ==r; m =¤= ar’¤n+r;+
¤=n¸ +nr ç ? n¸ lrrl”o; ¬ arr; lonr l+ m¬¸ ”n a¤¬ ¬t¤¬ +r; ¤ rn· ¤ ln¢r¤r
a¤¬ ¤r;r ar; =¤> m¸rn¸ +r çt o¸’n o=rnr ç, nªrrl¤ a= e=r o¸c ar;
ace l¤’¤r= ç l+ m m¸ rn¸ çt¬ ç¸ l ar ; m¬¸ ”n-¬t¤¬ m nç =¤m¸ ¤ arn-n
ar’¤n ¬¬+ ç l nol¤ l+r-¬ l+r-¬ mnr¤e+¤t l+r-¬ l+r-¬ ¬mr¬ m q=+
l¤¤;tn oete +;n arn ar; nol¤ ql-qn gr;r mr@ ar; antl-qn
=¸l”cnr + ¤t¤ ¬r ;ç=n +r ¤;or =or ¤sr ;çmr, a=+r +ro¬ +;¬ m ¤¸lç
a=mªr ç, nªrrl¤ m¬¸”n ¤¸¤r =¤ = nçt mr¬nr ç l+ ¤ç m;¤rçt¬ çl
ar’¤n+r;+ ¤=n¸ +nr ç?
229
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
230
'mr¢r' ‘r-o q= +len¸m m
mr> e+ +rr¤l¬+ l=ªrln +r
=¸¤+ çl q= =mn =+rt rrmr¤rn,
‘rr=>r m ¤l¤r n ¤rnr +r ¤r lç
+ n+ ar ; ‘r-o¬re + =çr;
¤r¤-¤¸ ¤n ar ; =¤m -¬;+ +r
+rr¤l¬+ +rn lo=rr+;, =mqr¬
+r a=¤e ¤ nr= +; ;ç ç l
çmr; rrm + rrmr¤rn antn +r
m¸¤rmr¬ +;n ç¸e >nr ar; gr¤;
n¸m + =rrr+r +r aorç;¤r on çl
+len¸m +r mr¬¤ ¤=t ar;rrr¬r
+;¬ m =mªr ¬çt çl an· a=
or”r emrn ç¸e +çr ¬rnr ç l+
¤=t ar;rrr¬r + l¤¬r mr¢r ¤¸¤r
=¤ = a=+r¤ çl a=+ ¤¤-=r¸¤
a¤’r ”r ¤lçm ¸ =rt +m +r¤s + =¤
= ‘r”r ¤¤ çl =+rt rrmr¤rn rnrm,
n¤=nr, or¬, ¤¸ ¤n arlo +r a¤o ’r
on çl q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ +çnr ç
l+ nç nr ¤ern¬¤rot +rr¤ ç l
==r; = l¤m¸=r çr¬ = çt am;
nç +rr¤l¬+ l=ªrln(mr ¢r¸ ¤ r¤n
çrnt ç, nr ==r; m l+n¬ erm
q=+r ¤r¤n +; =+ml an· mr¢r
e+ +rr¤l¬+ ar+”r¤r mr> ç,
q=m =·¤rq l¤e+¸ e çt ¬çt
çl ==r; + ermr +r e=r =r¤¬r
¤¸¤r =rn çl q= =mn ==r; m
rrm + ¬rm ¤; ¬r +¸e çr ;çr ç,
a== mr¢r ¬=t a·¤nm l=ªrln
+t +r¤¬r n+ ¬çt +t ¬r =+ntl
mr ¢r +r aªr ç , a= ¤;m=rrr
+ no¸¤ ¤¬ ¬r¬rl no¸¤ ¤¬¬ +
lee =rrr+ +r l¬= ¤l+nr m =
m¸¬;¬r ¤snr ç, ar; q= nr>r +
=mr¤n çr¬ + ¤çe, ¬r-¬r alg
'mr¢r' + ¤ln q= n¸m +r mr¬¤ aor=t¬
ntn =¤ro a= ¤=r¬ +r lmen ç,
mr> a-çt = a= a·¤nm l=ªrln
+r mçr¤ =mq m ar =+nr çl
çmr; o’r ¬ + a¬¸ =r; 'q ’¤;'
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ; =r¢rrr+r;
+r l¤”rn çl a==n l¤gr¬r ¬
mtnr ¤; ct+re le=r-le=r+;
a¤¬t l¤gnr +r ¤l;¤n lonr çl
=+rt rrmr¤rn mtnr = ¤r¤-¤¸¤n,
=¤m-¬;+ arlo +r +rn lo=rr+;
nªrr rnrm-n¤=nr = ¬t¤¬ l¤nr¬
+r a¤o ’r o n ç l mtnr e+ ¤¸ ¤r m ªr
çl ¤ç ¬t¤¬ + ¢r> +r =+¤¸¤r
qr¬ +;rnt ç l an· nr s -m;r s +;
a== ç; a¤o ’r o ¬r = +r¤ ç ,
¤;-n¸ mtnr +r ;ç=n +¸e ar; çt
çl am; mtnr m = tt ¤ arnrn +r
aem +;+ +rm¤r¬g :c arnrnr
+r a¤o’r o on nr +rt a¬¸¬ +
+¸e +rt =mq m ¬çt arnrl l¤;rc
=¤=¤ = l¬= ¤ +r; ¤¸ ¤r =rn
+t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r;
+;¤rnr mnr, a= o=r+; a¬¸¬
+r ¤¸¤r qr¬ ¤r¤n çr mnrl a=+
¤ro a¬¸ ¬ + +rr¤ ¤oe mn ,
¤¸e¬ +r eç¬r ¤oe mnrl ¤ro m
=+rt ¤’¬ ¤ç¸n çt +=¤r +rr¤ =
¤¸el an· mtnr +r ;ç=n l¬n¬r
a¬¸¬ =mqr ªrr, an¬r +len¸m
+r mr¬¤ + = =mq =+nr ç l
=+¤¸ ¤r mtnr a-nm ¸ =rt çr +;
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln ar ; =r¢rrr+r;
+;¬ +r mªr çl mtnr ¤¤¤¬ +r
l¤”rn ç çt ¬çt l mtnr +r ç; ‘er +
=¤n l=ç m> çl an· mtnr =¤t
mlo; m ¬¤ ¤+r¸ +t m¸ln =ªrrl¤n
çr ¤¸+t ç, l¬=+ o’r¬ +;¬ =
a¬¸¬ +r l¬= lo·n qr¬ +t ¤r.
l¤n ç¸q, mtnr ¤çt a¤o’r ont çl
¤¸¤r qr¬ ¤r¤n çr¬ + ¤ro a¬¸¬
¬ ¬r +rn l+nr, mtnr ¤çt +rn
+;¬ +r a¤o’r ont çl =+¤¸¤r
qr¬ e+rm l¤n çr +; =¸ ¬¬ + ¤ro
+rm¤r¬g ¬ ¤¸er +nr n;r aqr¬
= ar¤-¬ ç¸ar mrç ¬”c ç¸ar?
n¤ a¬¸¬ ¤rer-
¬”cr mrç· =m¸lne-rrr
r¤r¤=ror-mnr·n¸nl
l=ªrnrsl=m mn=oç·
+l;”n ¤¤¬ n¤llts·::ll
ç a·n¸ n, ar¤+t +¸ ¤r = m ;r
mrç ¬”c çr mnr ç, m¸q =m¸ln
¤r¤n ç¸q ç, m =’rn ;lçn ç¸ar
l=ªrn ç¸ ar ; ar¤+t arqr +r
¤re¬ +=mrl''
q= =mn l¤’¤ m ¤¸¤r=¤ =
mrnr +r =rmr¤n çl çmr;r o’r¬
nr q ’¤;¤ro +r ¬¬+ ç l ¬¤
çmr; rrmr¤rn ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln e¤
=r¢rrr+r; + =ªrr¬ ¤; antn +
m¸¤rmr¬ +;+ rrm +t qln~t +;
;ç ç, n¤ ¤m+¤;¤rot rrmr +r
or”r o¬r ·nªr çl mrnr +r ¬tn
¤r¬r l+n¬r +lo¬ ç, q= =¤rr
m +rm¤r¬g ~t+¸”¤r ¬ mtnr + :¤
arnrn + t¡ ¤ ‘er+ m +çr ç-
o¤t µ”rr m¸¤rmnt
mmg mrnr o¸;rnnrl
mrm¤ n ¤¤o-n
mrnrmnr n;l-n nll :·t¡ll
''+nr l+ nç aer l++
(aln aog+r¸n¸ l>m¸¤rmnt m;t
nrmmrnr ¤st o¸=n; çl ¬r ¤¸=”r
m; +r çt l¬;-n; +r¬n ç, ¤ q=
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m =mªr ¬çt ç , aer l++
=m=nrar + =mrrrr¬ +t +r¤¬r
çt ¬çt +t ¬r =+nt ç l mr ¢r ¤ rl¤n
+ lee eç ¤+r ar ; nt¬r m l-ªrnr
+r +ro¬ +;¬ + =rªr-=rªr ar.
qr¤+ +ro¬ ¬=r =¤rlrr+ +lo¬
+rn +;¬ + ¤ro =l·¤or¬ o
rr¬(=rr l¤ng ar¬o¸ ¤;¤g
+ ¬mng m¤¤’r +;¬r ¤snr çl
q= ¬mng m mrnr ¬rm +t +rq
¤=n¸ ¬çt ç, ¤;-n¸ l¤; +rt ¤+r¸ +r
lo·n ar¬o =rrr+ +r m=n ¤¬r
onr çl =rrr+ a= ar¬o + +r;¤r
=¸rr-¤¸rr +r¸e ¬rnr çl am; m¸=
¬ ¤ nr¤ nr ¤ç ar¬ omn +r ’r
ar; l¤ngmn +r’r +r +ro¬ +;+
=ngmn+r ’r aªrr ng =ç= r;
m ¤ç¸ ¤¬ +r ¤ nr= çt ¬çt +;
=+nrl m; +q =rrr+ +r¤t =mn
n+ a=t l=ªrln m l=ªr; ;çl m;
¤nr¬ ¤; a-ç =¸rr arq, ¤ ¤re
''m¸=¬t'', ar¬o +rt +=r ç l+
==r; +t =¸rr-¤¸rr +r¸er onr çl
ar¤ ¬ ¤nrn nr ¬ mre¸m l+n¬
=mn ar; q=t l=ªrln m ac+
;çnl''
mr ¢r mr> +¸ ¤sle¬t + =ç= r;
m ¤ç¸ ¤¬ ¤; çt çr nr ç l q= = ¤ rr
m mr =¤rmt ~t n¸ e=tor= ¬t ¬ +rt
+çr ç -
rrm n l¤;ln nrm n qr¬rl
qr¬ mr¢r-¤o ¤o ¤=rr¬rll
mr ¢r + = ¤ rr m +rm¤r¬g
~t+¸”¤r ¬ +rt mtnr m =¤”c ‘r-or
m +çr ç l+
ar¤g+r¸¤¬rrer+r·
¤¸¬;r¤ln¬rs¬¸¬l
mrm¸¤rn n¸ +r-nn
¤¸¬¬-m ¬ l¤onll s·tcll
'' ç a¬¸ ¬l ¤ ger + = e +;
=¤ er+ ¤¸¬;r¤nt =¤+rr¤ ¤re
ç, ¤;-n¸ ç +¸-nt¤¸>, m; +r ¤r¤n
çr+; a=+r ¤¸¬¬-m ¬çt çrnr
çl''
+rr> nrm = çt =ç¬ =mrlrr
ar ; =ç¬ =mrlrr = mr ¢r = +r¤ ç l
nrmt +t l=ªrln +r ¤¤r¬ +;n ç¸e
+rm¤r¬g ¬ +çr ç-
n¤l=¤+nrslrr+r nrmt
qrl¬+nrsl¤mnrslrr+·l
+lm+n’¤rlrr+r nrmt
n=mrormt +r¤r¬¸¬ll c·¡cll
+nr l+ nr mt n¤l=¤nr =
~”o ç ar; ‘rr=> + qr¬¤rer =
+rt ~ ”o mr¬r mnr ç , nªrr =+rm.
+m +;¬ ¤rer = +rt nr mt ~ ”o ç ,
q== ç a¬¸¬ n¸ nrmt çr l'' q=
=mn nrm ==r; = ¤rn· e¸¤n çr
mnr çl nrm +t ·nr=nr +;n ç¸e
mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o +çn ç - ''nr m
+r aªr ç ¤;mrrmr + =rªr = nr m,
l¤’¤ + ¤; ¬r ¤;mrrmr nr¤ ç,
a=+ =rªr =nrm nr l¤’¤rrmr +
=rªr = nr m nr ·nl”cmn ¬r arrmr
ç, a=+ =rªr =nrm aªr¤r ¬=r
l+ q= nrm m çrnr ç, nt¬r +
=rªr, e+ =rªr = nr m aªr¤r
q=+r aªr ç e+ e=t ¤n¬r +r
¤r¤n çr¬r, l¬=m m¬¸”n a¤¬
¢r¸q aç+r;, ·nl”cmn m¬ ¤¸lç,
·nl”cmn ¤r¤r ar; ‘r;t; = ¤rrr
¬çt ;çnr ¤;-n¸ ¤;mrrmr + =rªr
nr l¤’¤rrm¤n-n + =rªr e+r¤
+r ¤r¤n çrnr ç, l¬== ¤ç a¤¬
a-n;rrmr + =¤=¤ +r ¬r¬
enr ç, a¤¬t çt a-n; =rrr +r
nªrr ¬t¤¬ + ¤r=nl¤+ =rn +r
¤ç¤r¬ enr çl''
l=çnr lmnr +t m¸ =-l’r”n
¤;+¤;r m l¬= l=çnrm aªrrng
mçrnrm +r ¤¤r¬ ç, a=+ arl.
om¸ = + er’r¤r=t +rm¤r¬g ~t
¤;l’r¤ ç l l¬-ç l=çr +t ¤l;+rr”rr
m '~t+¤o¬rªr' +çr ¬rnr ç l
+len¸ m m q=+r ¤ =r;-¤ ¤r;
nr mt-q ~t mr=n -q¬rªr ¬t ¬
l+nrl q-çt + l’r”n mçrnrmt ~t
mr;¢r¬rªr ¬t ¬ q= l=çnrm =
==r; +r ¬r +rnr¤r l+nr ç, ¤ç
=¤l¤lon çl nrm =rrr¬r + =¤rr
m mr;¢r’rn+ m +çr ç-
lg¬=l¤n’rr=rr=n
~¸ln+r¤n;r· ¤emgl
‘rm¬ +r¤nr¤=n
nrm +r¬n =rrmr·ll
mr;¢r’rn+-cll
''¤ o+r¤n= ç l l¬= n;ç
+r¤n= +t ‘rr=rre ¤l¢rnr +
ar~n =ªrr¬ ç, ot+ q=t n;ç
lg¬r gr;r ¤ o +t ‘rr=rrar +r
¤l;’rte¬ l+nr ¬rnr çl ¤o=¤t
+r¤n=+r am;-¤e nr m ç l
ç =r¤¸ =”rr l q=+r = ¤¬ +;r l
nç nr m = =r; + l>l¤rr nr¤r
(arlo-+rrln+, arlo-olç+ ¤
arlo-ol¤+¸ +r ‘rm¬ (¬r’r¸
+; onr çl''
m¬¸”n ¬t¤¬ +r ;ç=n ¬-m
m ¬çt ,a=+t m¸rn¸ m le¤r çl
¬¤ n+ m¬¸”n m¸rn¸ = +rn+rtn
;çmr, mr¢r +r ;ç=n =mq m ar
çt ¬çt =+nrl mrnr ¬ q= m¸rn¸
=¤t mr ¢rornr qr¬ +r =¤=¤ e =r
s;r¤¬r ar; l¤+¸n ¤¬r lonr ç,
l+ m¬¸”n m¸rn¸ +r ¬rm =¸¬+;
çt +r¤ aonr çl mrnr +r ¤¤¤
ol=rn, l+ ¤ç ¬t¤rrmr +r ¬t¤
231
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=¤”c +çr ç l+ nr mt +r
a¤¬t m¸rn¸ +r ¤¸¤r qr¬ çr ¬rnr
ç l+ ¤ç +¤ ar; l+= ¤+r; nªrr
l+¬-l+¬ +r;¤rr = m;mr?
=r¤+m l¬=¤+m
¤ +m nr=nmro¤;r-n
qr¬ml;”c+rgnr ¤r ll zzll
=¸>rªr· ''a¤+m =lçn(nt¤
¤ m¤re ¸ a¤+m ;lçn (m o
¤m¤re¸ or¬r ¤+r; + +mr m
=nm +;¬ = m¸rn¸ +r qr¬ çrnr
ç aªr¤r al;”cr = +rt m¸rn¸ +r
qr¬ çrnr çl'' q== =¤”c ç l+
nrmt +r ¬t¤¬ +re m çt m¸rn¸ =
¤¸¤r =r¢rrr+r; çr ¬rnr çl an·
¤ç ¬tn ¬t ¬t¤¬m¸+n çr ¬rnr
çl q= =¤rr m =n +¤t; or= ¬t
¬ +çr ç-
=rrrr +rrq ¬t¤n
çt +;r ar’rrll
¬t¤n =m¸q ¬t¤n ¤¸q,
¬t¤n m¸l+n l¬¤r=rl
l¬nn +;m +t ¤r= ¬ +rct,
m¸e m¸l+n +t ar’rrll tll
n¬ e¸c l¬¤ lme¬ +çn ç,
=r =¤ q¸ot ar=rl
a¤ç¸ lmer =r
n¤ç¸ lmemr,
¬lç nr ¬m¤¸; ¤r=rll zll
o¸; o¸; c¸c m¬ er+rt,
lmc ¬ m+r n;r=rl
=rrr =n +t +; ¬ ¤-omt,
+c +;m +t ¤r=rll :ll
=rr mç =nm¸= +r ¤t-ç,
=rr¬rm l¤’¤r=rl
+ç +¤t; =rrr¬ lçn+r;t,
çm =rrr¬ + or=rll ¡
(¤ e¤ ¬lsn; ¤ = m e¤t
‘r-or¤et¸ ‘r-o s, ¤¸”o ¡:
an· m¬¸ ”n ¬t¤¬ +re m
çt m¸rn¸ = =r¢rrr+r; +; e¬ +
¤ro aªrrng m¸rn¸ +r ;ç=n ¬r¬
e¬ + ¤ro, ¬¤ ¤ç =mn arnr ç
nr, m¬¸”n m¸rn¸ +r =¤rmn +;+
a=+r ¤;¤r +;nr ç, +nrl+ ¤ç
a¤¬ ¬t¤¬+re m çt a·et ¤ +r;
=mq e nr ç , l+ nç a lnm ¬t¤¬
çl a= =mn +t ¤st ar=¸+nr +
=rªr ¤nt¢rr +;nr çl q= =¤rr m
=n +¤t; ¬ +çr ç-
a¤r n;¤; mm¬ ¤e,
l¤;er ¤et =rrnl
q= ¤e +r nr =r ¤=r,
¬r ¬t¤n çt ml; ¬rnll
m;n-m;n ¬m m¸ar,
ar=; m¸ar ¬ +rnl
or= +¤t;r nr m¸ar,
¤ç¸l; ¬ m;¬r çrnll
¬t¤¬ = m;¬r +rer,
¬r ml; ¬r¬ +rnl
m;¬ ¤lçe ¬r m;,
(nr¸ a¬; a= am; çrnll
¬r m;¬ = ¬m s;,
m; m¬ ar¬-ol
+¤ ml;çr +¤ ¤rqçr,
¤¸;¬ ¤;mr¬oll
(+¤t; =r=rt-=mç¸
q= = ¤ rr m q =rqnr +r
¤l¤> rrrlm+ mªr +rt a=t +rr”rr m
¤renr ç, +nrl+ =rrr+ ¤r’nl-n
¤r¤rt m ¤r enr ç l ¤ç ¤ r¤rt mr> +t
¤r¤rt çl an· ¤rq¤e + ¤+rl’rn
¤r+n z·tt m +çr ç -''l¬=+
+r¬ çr , ¤ç =¸ ¬ e l+ arrmr
+etl=nrar = +nr +çnr ç· ¬r
¬n ¤re, a=+r o¸ =;t m¸ rn¸ = çrl¬
¬ ¤ç¸¤mtl''
q’¤; +t ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar;
=r¢rrr+r; +t l+nrrm+ l¤lrr
l¬= ¤ +r; nr mo’r ¬ m ¤l¤r n
ç, a=t ¤ªr = mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o
¬ a= lo·n qr¬ +r ¤r¤n l+nr
ªrrl q=+r ¤¤r¬ +;n ç¸e mçl”r
le=rn ç - ''nlo q ’¤; ç nr a=+
al=nr¤ +r a¬¸ +r¤ +;¬ +r,
a=+ =r¢rrn o’r ¬ ¤ r¤n +;¬ +r,
+r q ¬ +r q ¤ªr çr mr, ¤ç ¤ªr ¤rç
l+n¬r çt o¸mm +nr ¬ çr? a=
¤ªr = ¬r¬ +r m¬ o¸c =+r¤ +;
lenr çl lç-o¸ rrm +r +ç¬r ç l+
a¤¬ ‘r;t; +, a¤¬ +rtn; çt ¤ç
¤ªr ç, a= ¤; ¤e¬ + l¬nm +rt
lo=rr lon çl a¬ =¤ +r ¤re¬
+;¬r, m¬ ¤r;++r +; lonr ç, e+
mr= + a-o; a¬¸+r¤ +; =+r
ç¸, l+ lç-o¸ rrm +t ¤rn q¸ot ¬çt
ç, l¬¬-l¬¬ l¤µr +t ¤rn +çt
mq ç, m a¬ =¤ +t a¤el-rr +;
;çr ç¸l
m mr¬¤ mr> +r q= qr¬
+r alrr+r;t mr¬nr ç¸l q= =mn
nrml=+ ¤¸ lrrnr ¬ = ¤¸ ¤r qr¬
+r le-¬-l+r-¬ +;+ , m¬¸ ”nr
+r er c -er c =m¸ çr m + o +;
;=rr ç l =+rt =m¸ çr +r ar¤=
m es r-es r+; =¤+ ¤t¤ m
a rr+r; n¸ +n mç;t =rrq ¤¬r
;=rt çl ¤ ¤¸lrrnr ++rt ¬çt ¤rçmt
l+ arr+r; lmc ar; ¤+r’r çrl
¤;-n¸ nç ¤+¸ln +r ace l¬nm
ç l+ +re¤+ a¤rrrmln = ¤enr
arnr ç ar ; ¤enr ¬remrl ;rl> +
o¤nr ++rt ¬çt ¤rçn l+ =¸nron
çr , ¤;-n¸ =¸ n a¤¬ l¬nm = aon
çrnr ar ;çr çl l¬= m¸=+¸¤r =¤t
¤ =ro +r , m ¤r c¬ l¬+er ç¸ ,
a= ;r+¬ +t +r¤¬r +;¬r çt
¤rme¤¬ çrmrl

232
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ ¤+¸ln +r ace
l=çr-n ç l ¬¤ =rn-n¸ m ¬çt
;çr, >nr n¸m ¬çt ;çr, gr¤;-n¸m
¬çt ;çr, n¤ e+ ¤;¤r +r er cr =r
+len¸ m + = ;ç =+ mr? +rm¤r¬g
~t +¸¤¤r ¬ mtnr + ¤rªr arnrn
+ : ¤ ºer+ m +çr ç-
''¤ç¸l¬ m ·nntnrl¬
¬-mrl¬ n¤ ¤r¬¸¬l
nr-nç ¤o =¤rl¤r
¬ r¤ ¤rªr ¤;n¤ ll ¡·:ll''
''ç a¬¸¬ m; ar; n; ¤ç¸n
= ¬-m çr ¤¸+ ç, ç ¤;n¤l a¬
=¤ +r n¸ ¬çt ¬r¬nr ç (ar;¸ m
¬r¬nr ç¸l'' +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸¤¤r ¬
=¤¤c ºr-or m +çr ç l+ ç; n¸m
m, ¬¤ ¤r¤ ¤ç¸n alrr+ ¤c ¬rnr
ç , n¤ m a¤nr; e nr ç¸ l q= ¤+r;
+rm¤r¬g + ¤¸ ª¤t = a-nrrr ¬
çr¬ + =rªr çt n¸m ¤oe ¬rnr
çl nç =rn ¤tn ç¸e n¸mr = =rn
¤mrl¤rn çrnr çl
q=t ¤+r; q= n¸ m +t =mrl¤n
+t ¤rn ¤ç mçr¬g arrmr ntºr¸ +rt
+; mnr çl a=¬ +rt +çr ç l+
m l¤nr +t ar; = e+ =çrn+
ar; +r¬¸mr, l¬=+t ar¤ln =trrt
l¤nr = çrmtl ¬¤ ¤ç ar¤mr nr
nç n¸m =mr¤n çr ¬r¤mrl ntºr¸
+t +rl¤¤n¤rl¤rnr + a¬¸=r; a=
=çrn+ +r ¤+ct+;¤r q= za¤t
=ot + a-n = ¤¸¤ çt çrmrl
q= =+¤-rr m = c ¬r ç¬
+ t:·zc ar; tc·: ar; t: m +çr
ç -''¤;-n¸ ¬¤ ¤ç =çrn+ aremr,
l¬= m n¸+çr; ¤r= l¤nr +t ar; =
+r¬¸mr, aªrrng =rn +r arrmr,
¬r l¤nr +t ar ; = l¬+er ç nr ¤ç
m;t m¤rçt omrl'' ''nr +rt m n¸m =
=¤ +çnr ç¸ l+ m;r ¬r¬r n¸+çr;
lee a·er ç, +nrl+ nlo m ¬
¬ra nr ¤ç =çrn+ n¸+çr; ¤r=
¬ aremr, ¤;-n¸ nlo m ¬ramr
nr a= n¸+çr; ¤r= +r¬ o¸mrl ar;
¤ç ar+; = =r; +r ¤r¤, rrrlm +nr
ar ; -nrn + l¤¤rn m l¬=n;
(+rne¸ +; mrl ¤r¤ + l¤¤rn
m q=lee l+ ¤ m¸q ¤; l¤º¤r=
¬çt +;nl rrrlm+nr + l¤¤rn m
q=lee l+ m l¤nr + ¤r= ¬rnr ç¸ ,
ar; n¸m m¸q l¤; ¬ o=rrml -nrn
+ l¤¤rn m q=lee l+ ==r; +r
=;or; or¤rt oç;rnr mnr çl
m¸q n¸m = ar; +rt ¤ç¸n =t
¤rn +ç¬t ç , ¤;-n¸ a+rt a-ç =ç
¬çt =+nl ¤;-n¸ ¬¤ ¤ç aªrrng
''=rn +r arrmr'' arn mr nr n¸ +ç
=¤ =rn +r mrm ¤nremr, +nrl+
¤ç a¤¬t ar; = ¬ +çmr, ¤;-n¸
¬r +¸e =¸¬mr, ¤çt +çmr ar;
ar¬ ¤ret ¤rn n¸+ç (lo=rremr¸
¤nremrl ¤ç m;t mlçmr +;mr,
+nrl+ ¤ç m;t ¤rnr m = e+;
n¸ +ç (lo=rremr¸ ¤nremrl ¬r
+¸e l¤nr +r ç, ¤ç =¤ m;r ç,
q=tlee m ¬ +çr l+-¤ç m ;t
¤rnr m = e+; n¸+ç (lo=rremr¸
¤nremrl''
ntºr¸ ¬ e+ e=r ¤++r ¤mr¤r
lonr ç, l¬== nç ¤mrl¤rn çrnr
ç l+ ¤ç +rt +r+n lºr;r ml¤r
+;mr ¤r q +t n;ç mçr ¬g
¤m-mrmt +r+n ªrrl q= =+¤-rr
m = c mr+ s·z = ¡ m +çr ç -''eç
lo¬ + ¤ro ntºr¸ ¬ ¤n;=, nr+¸¤
ar; n¸ç-¬r +r =rªr lenr, ar;
a¬+r e+r-n m l+=t a¤ ¤çrs
¤; e mnr, ¤çr ¤; a¬+ =rm¬
a=+r (ntºr¸ +r¸ =¤ ¤oer mnrl
a=+r ¤= e=r ¤m+¬ emr ar;
e=r a¤¤¤e ç¸ar ¬=r ¤¸ª¤t ¤;
+rq +rt rrr¤t ¤=r a¤¤¤e ¬çt
+; =+nrl ar; a-ç m¸=r + =rªr
eleªnrç lo=rrq lonr, ar ; ¤
ntºr¸ + =rªr ¤rn +;n ªrl'' q==
nç nªn ¤mrl¤rn çr nr ç l+
mer+t +rl¤¤n¤+nr +r eleªnrç
¬¤t, a= =mn +r ntºr¸ ¬¤t ar;
+r¸n+re +r m¸=r ¬¤t e+ ºrl+n
ªrtl m; q= +ªr¬ +r aªr mr>
arrnrlrm+ ·nl+n çt ot+ n;ç
= =mq =+ml
n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +t +rl¤¤n¤r¤
rt +;n ç¸e ntºr¸ ¬ +çr ç- l¤º¤
m ¤¤ + ¬rm = e+ ¤rªr; ¤;
o¸ =;r ¤rªr; ¬çt lme mrl = c
mªn¸ z¡·z-: m +çr ç- ''a=¬
a¬= +çr, +nr n¸m nç =¤ ¬çt
o=rn? m n¸m = =¤ +çnr ç¸, nçr
(¤¤ + =ªrr¬ ¤;¸ ¤rªr; ¤; ¤rªr;
+rt ¬ e¸ c mr, ¬r crnr ¬ ¬remrl'' ¬¤
a=+ ¤er ¬ a= ¤¸er l+ n; ar¬
ar; n¸m + a-n (n¸m ¤oe¬¸ +r
+nr l¤µ çrmr, n¤ a=¬ ==r; m
arm çr¬ ¤re ¤l;¤n¬r +r ¤¤r¬
l+nrl
mçl ¤ r ~t a; l ¤- o ¬
''alrrmr¬l=+ o ¤'' + a¤n;¤r
+t rrr¤r¤rr +;n ç¸e +çr ç- ''z¡
¬¤+¤; tszc +r ~t +¸¤¤r +r ¤¸ª¤t
¤; a¤n;¤r ç¸ar ªrrl mçl¤r ¬ q=t
=o+r m +çr ç l+ mr¬¤ =¤ m ¤+c
ç¸ q ¤ç ºrl+n a¤¬ +lm+ l¤+r= +
=rªr alnºrtrr l¤º¤ + =rm¬ ¤+c
çr ¬r¤mtl
ar º¤n o =r r , = =r ; m
''=rn +r arrmr'' nr ''alrrmr¬l=+
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm


233
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
==m;¤r
arªrr¬ - ¤n¬ + ¤ ¿ln
+ ace l=çrn + +r;¤r ar¬
nrm-o’r¬ er¤ ¤rn· çr ¤¸+r
ç, ¬¤l+ =r=n-o’r¬ (+rrln+
l¤qr¬¸ ¬ ¤ç¸n alrr+ n;++t
+; et ç l ¤nr -¤nr +rr ln+ l¤q.
r¬ a-¬ln +;nr mnr, arnrrm
l¤qr¬ l=ªr; +rt ¬çt ;ç =+r
¤lr+ arrr mm¬ +;¬ emrl
+rr ln+ l¤qr¬ + ar¤rnr ¬
¬¤ arnrrm-l¤qr¬ + ar¤rnr
= ¤¸ er l+ +rr ln+ l¤qr¬ ¬
¤rl¤rnr + er+r ar; =¸=r + lee
am¸+-am¸+ +rn l+n, ar¤+
l¤qr¬ +t +nr l=ªrln çl
+nrl+ arnrrm ¬mng +
er m a¬ =+r;rrm+ arr; o ¬ +t
l=ªrln m ¬çt ªr, an· a-çr¬
a¤¬t ¤ ln”or ¤¤r¬ + lee
e+ +rr¤l¬+ rr¢m¤r ;=rr =
l¤’¤ +r or +rrmr m l¤+r+n +;
lonrl =¤n +r arl=n+ rrrl”rn
+; lonr, ar; +rrln+ l¤qr¬
+ =r··r ermr +r ¬rl=n+ +t
=qr o+; a¤¬t q¤ lmcr¬ +r
a=¤e ¤nr= +;¬ eml
çr¬r nr nç ¤rlçe ªrr l+
a¤¬t +m¬r;t +r =r¸e loel.
omrm = =¤t+r; +;+ ‘rr rr
+rn m em ¬rn, ¤;-n¸ +len¸m
+ m¸¤r-rrm ¬ e=r ¬çt +;¬
lonrl a-çr¬ ¤;mrrmr +r ¤c
m sre lenr n+rt nr =¤rmt ~t
l¤¤ +r¬-o ¬t ¬ am l;+r =
a¤¬ e+ ¤>r m le=rr ªrrl Þn¸ m
''arnrrm l¤qr¬'' ar; ''+rrln+ l¤q.
ermr m l+=t ¤+r; +t rrrlm+
+rr¤¬r ¬çt çl ;=rq çt n¸+çr;r
q’¤; ç nªrr çl¤snr-¤;n¬ çl
n¸+çr;r rrm ‘rr=>rl a¤¬t n;ç
+t a==n =-nr¬rr¤ro¬ m ç
n¸+çr;t ‘rl¬ +r ¤l;¤n lmenr
çl
(o ++¤etc ¤+ = ar ¤
=¤rmt l¤¤ +r-r-o-¤r rn¸ m.:¸
e+ ¤r; m¬¸”n q¸o ¤re onr ç,
nr a= le¤r¬ + lee q¸o ¤;
q¸o ¤renr çt ¤err ¬rnr çl q=
¤+r; ¤ç mr>r q¸o + a+¤r; çt
emrnr ç nrmo’r¬ mr>r ¤or-n
o’r¬ +t o¬ çl
+;t¤ =r =re ¤çe le=rr
=¤rmt ¬t +r ¤>r çmr; rrm +r
¬r l¤>r ¤ =n¸ n +;nr ç l ¤ç ¤ç¸ n
çt l¬;r’rr¬¬+ çl çm q= =¤t.
+r; +;¬r ¤smr l+ +len¸m +
m¸¤rrrm + +r;¤r ar¬ çm a=
l=ªrln = +¸e ¬t¤ çt lm; çl çm
nr m +r ¬r cr e ¤tc ;ç ç l a=+r
a= nrm = +rq =¤rr ¬çt ¬r
¤o=¤t +r¤n= +r am; ¤e
çl çmr; nrlmnr ¬ l¬= nrm +t
mlçmr +t ç ¤ç mr¬¤ + l>l¤rr
nr¤-arlrrolç+, arlrr+rrln+
ar; arlrrol¤+ +r ‘rm¬ +;¬
+ =rªr-=rrªr + ¤rn¤o aªr.
rng mr¢r onr çl q= =mn çm
‘rr;tl;+ +=;n +r çt nrm +ç
;ç çl
¤n¬le nrm o’r¬ m l¬=
l+nrrm+ cm = l>l¤rr nr¤r.
+r ‘rm¬ +;n ç¸ e, =+¤¸ ¤r
qr¬-l¤qr¬ +t ¤¸¤r ¬r¬+r;t
¤r¤n +;n ç¸e, +¤rn ¤o ¤r¤n
+;¬ +r ¤¤r¬ ç ¤çt ¤o =¤t
+r¤n= +r am; ¤e aªrrn
l=ç nrm (¤¸¤r nrm¸l mçl”r ~t
a;l¤-o ¬ q=t nrm +r ¤¤r¬
+;n ç¸e, +çr ç - +rr;n, ¬t¤¬
+ =rm¬ nr m +r aroºr ;=r¬ +
lee ao ;çr çl ¤ç nrm + gr;r
çt =·¤t =¤rrrt¬nr, e+nr ar;
mçr¬nr ¤r¤n +;mr ar; nrm +
gr;r çt a=+r ;¢r¤r +;mrl
q=t =o+r m mçl”r ¬ +çr
ç -el’rnr ¬mng pon +t ‘rr ln
+r ;=r¤rer ç l n¸ ;r ¤ +t ¤ or
+t ç¸q ¤tmrl;nr +r ot+ +;¬
¤rer çl n¸;r¤ ¬ +rrln+-l¤qr¬
l¬nl->n-;r¬¬tln, aor m,
·nr¤r; arlo m ¤ç¸n ¤mln +;
et çl a¤ +rr;n +r +rm ‘r¸=
çrnr çl a= q¬ =¤ ¤t¬r +r
arrnrlrm+ =rrr + arrt¬ +;
+ rr;nt ¤; =¤m ¤=r¬r çl
ar¬ rrrlm+ o¸l”c = l¤’¤
+t ¤=n¸l=ªrln nç ç l+ =+¤¸¤
r n¸¤r ¤m +r rrm ¤; = l¤’¤r=
¤rn· =mr¤n çr ¤¸+r çl +nrl+
l¤qr¬ e+ =·¤rq çl ¤ç ¤rn¢r
¤l;¤rrm onr çl an· =+rt erm
a=+r =rn mr¬ ;ç ç l o¸ =;t
n;¤ ¬¤ rrmr¤rnr ¬ çorrmt
==r a¤¬rnr nr l¤’¤ +r; +
n¸ ¤r er mr ¬ q¬+ l=rer¤ =r¸ er
l¤qrç +; lonrl ar¬ q’¤; e+
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t
234
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
q’¤; m l¤r+¸e çt l¤’¤r=
¬çt ;=rnr çl a-çr¬ +çr l+
m ;r er cr ¤¸ > ar +=¤r s m
¤cr ;çr ç, a=+t mr-nnr ç l+
+m¬r ;, s;¤r + ar ; ¤¸ ¬loe
er m çt q ’¤; ¬rm +t +rr¤l¬+
‘rl¬ +r =çr;r e¬ +r a=¤e
¤nr= +;n çl
e=t l=ªrln m mr> +¤ m
¤r¤ ec+ ç¸e erm rrm +t ;¢rr
l+n¬ lo¬ ar ; + = +; m ?
e=r emnr ç l+ ==r; + erm
¤r¤-¤¸ ¤n ar ; =¤m -¬;+ +r s;
lo=rr+; ¬r rrm ¤er ;ç ç, ¤ç
arl=r;t =r= lm¬ ;çr çl q’¤;
+ ¬rm = +rn nr o¸; +rrmnr ç
ar ; =¤m -¬;+ =¤t ¤-rr¬r
= ¤rrr+;, +rn = +rm¤r¬g +t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln +;¤rq ¬r ;çt çl
l¤r+¸ e arct m mr ¤çrq
¬r ;çt ç l ar¬ l¤’¤ + =+rt
=+r;rrm+ er mr +r , ¤¸ ¤r m çr +r
rnrm +;, ¬rln, rrm ar; o’rr
+t =+t¤r +rr¤¬rar +r rnrm
+;+, =r¤¬ +t ¬=;n ç l+
mr¬¤ rrm += ¤¤? l¤’¤ ‘rrln
+r mr> nçt a¤rn ‘r”r ¤¤r çl
mçl”r ~t a;l¤-o + a¬¸ =r;
¤l’¤m + er m ¬r +¸ e +; =+n ªr
¤ +; ¤¸+ çl q=+ arm +r +rm
+;¬ +t a¬m =rmªn ç çt ¬çtl
l¬¬ n>r +r ¤ç ¤;m=rrr, ==r;
+r o ¤¸+t ç, a¬+t ¤+s m ¤ç
¬çt arnmtl ¤ erm mr¬¤tn ¤¸lç
= a¬ n>r gr;r ¬r ¤;t¢r¤r +; ;ç
ç, ¤ç ¤¸¤r=¤ = =lo·rr çl nç
+rn nr çmr; >l”rnr gr;r ¤nrn
ç¸e n;t+ = çrmrl mr> =¸”r¸+¬r +
;r=n = çt a= ¤+·n¸ç +r +ro¬
=+r¤ ç, ¬çr = ¤ç ¤;m=rrr l¤’¤
+r = ¤re¬ +; ;çt ç l +¸ e mrç ¤¸ ¤
-rt.¤t.=t.¬ emrnr; nt¬ ¤¸ç¤r;
+r ¤n¬-a¤¤n¬ ¤; ¤qrl¬+
·nr=nr ¤ =rl;n +t ªrtl m ¬ =
=¸¬r ªrrl a=+ a¬¸=r; ¤rn¬le
o’r¬ m a= ¤;m=rrr +r ¤¤r¬
+;n ç¸e =ç=r; m a=+ l=ªrn
çr¬ +t ¤rn +çt mq çl a= ar¬
l¤qr¬ ¤¸¤r =rrn mr¬nr çl
a= ¤+·n¸ç + a-o; rr¸=¬
+t l¤lrr nr mr> çmr;r nrm o’r¬
çt ¤nrnr çl q= qr¬ +r ¤r¤n
+;¬ + lee l¤’¤ +r +rr;n +r
rrm-m¸= =¤t+r; +;¬r çt ¤smrl
+rr ln+ qr¬ +t +tmn +rr ln+
rr¬ çl arnrrm qr¬ +r +rrln+
rr¬ = ¬çt =r;tor ¬r =+nr ar;
¬ çt ++rt ¤¤r ¬r =+mrl a=+
lee nr arrnrlrm+ =n + =rm¬
¤¸ ¤r =m¤ ¤r +;¬r ¤s mrl nªrr n¬,
m¬,rr¬ = l¬”+¤c +rr¤ = a=+t
=¤r +;¬t ¤smtl
a= ¤;m arrmr =ogm¸ =
o¤ + loe = ¤=--r çr¬ ¤; çt
nç qr¬ lmenr ç a-nªrr ¬çtl
+rm¤r¬g ~t ¿”¤r ¬ mtnr + ¤rªr
arnrn + :¡¤ ‘er+ m +çr çl·
nlglç ¤l¤r¤rn¬
¤l;¤’¬¬ =¤nrl
a¤o¢nl-n n qr¬
qrl-r-r=nr¤ol’r¬· ll¡·:¡ll
q=lee rrr¤ +r ¬r¬¬
¤re qr¬t ¤¸=”rr = +ret ¤+r;
o¤s¤n ¤ ¤rrm = ¤r (ar ;¸
l¬”+¤c +rr¤ = l+n ç¸e ¤’¬
gr;r a= qr¬ +r ¬r¬+; ¤ mm
+r ¬r¬¬ ¤ret qr¬t ¬¬ (n¸q
a=¸ qr¬ +r a¤o’r +;ml q=
=¤rr m +¤t; ¬t ¬ +çr çl
m¸ = lmle nr+ =r¸ e
+¤rc, ¤ç¸l; ¬ ar¤ nr¬t ¤rcl
(+¤t; m ªrr¤et-¤¸ “o zs:¸
m¬¸”n nrl¬ q’¤; +t =¤r·¤
al+r·nl+n çl m¬¸”n nrl¬ m
q’¤; + nq¸¤ ¤¬r ¬r =+nr çl
q= =¤rr m ~t ¿”¤r ¬ mtnr +
t:¤ arnrn + zz¤ ‘er+ m +çr
çl
a¤”cr¬¸m-nr ·r +rnr
+rr+nr mrç’¤;·l
¤r;mrrmln ¤r¤n¸+nr
oçl=m-¤¸=”r· llt:·zzll
¤r=n¤ m nr nç Þ¤¸=”r q=
oç m l=ªrn ç¸ar +rt ¤; (l>m¸¤
rrntn¸ çt ç (+¤e =r¢rt çr¬
= a¤q”cr ar; nªrrªr =+mln
o ¬ ¤rer çr ¬ = a¬¸ +r-nr (e¤ ¸
=¤+r rrr;¤r +;¬ ¤rer çr ¬
= +rnr , ¬t¤¬=¤r = +rr +nr
(nªrr¸ ¤grlo+r +r +rt =¤rmt
çr¬ = mç’¤; ar; ‘r¸ç =l·.
·ror¬-o rr¬ çr¬ = '¤;mrrmr'
e=r +çr mnr çl¸
¤r n¬l e nr mo’r ¬ m
=rrr¬¤ro + zt¤ ‘er+ m nrm
+ aro amr nªrr nm, l¬nm,
ar=¬, ¤ r¤rrnrm, ¤ rnrçr;,
rrr;¤rr, rnr¬ ar; =mrlrr +r
¤¤r¬ çl ¤rlç+ ¤nr= = q=
n¸m m a¬+r ¤re¬ +;¬r a=+.
+r¤ çl q=tlee qn¬ mçr¤¤¸¤r
o’r¬ + ¤r; m ¬m¤n ermr +r
çt ¬r¬+r;t çl ¤;-n¸ m¸=-l’r”n
¤;+¤;r m ‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr =
+¸¤sle¬t ¬rmn +;¬ +r l=ç
r-n çl l=çm¸= =rrr+ +t ‘rl+n
(+¸¤sle¬t¸ +r ¤n¬ +;n çl
235
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=rrr¬r =¤n a¤¬ arrt¬
+;¤rnt çl q= ¤+r; ¬r nrm
çr nr ç a= l=çnr m aªrr n
mçrnr m +çn ç l nç e+ a=r s
mrm ç l ¬rm n +¸ ¤sle¬t ¤; m¸ =
+r ¤¸¤r ¤+r¸r¤ çrnr ç, l¬==
¤ç a=+ ¤ m +r a¬¸ ’rrl=n
ar ; l¬n l>n +;n ç l ‘rl+n¤rn
ot¢rr + ¤ro =rrr+ + ¤r;-rr
+mr + a¬¸=r; ‘rl+n +r l¤.
l¤rr ;tln = ¤ +ct+;¤r çr nr
çl
l+=t =rrr+ +r ‘rl+n¤rn
çr n çt l¤l+r-¬ ¤ +r; +t nr lm+
l+nre ¬ = ar=¬g ¤-rr, m¸ qre
e¤ ¤r¤rrnrm arlo =¤n· çr¬
rrmnt ç l l+=t +r ¤nr ln o’r ¬,
¬ro, lo·nm-rr, ;=-=¤’r-=¤
+r a¬¸ +r¤ çr nr ç l l+=t =rrr+
+r =¸”r¸+¬r ¬rst m ¤+r ar;
m lªrnr + ¤ rr¬ +r a¬¸ +r¤
çrnr çl
m; =n =ogm¸=o¤ ¤r¤r
~t m mrq ¬rªr ¬t nr mt +t
aç n¸ +t +¸ ¤r + +r;¤r m¸ q
a¬rnr= çt ‘rl+n¤rn +t
=rmªn ¤r¤n çr mql m; l’r”nr
m =+sr (=>t-¤¸=”r¸ =rrr+r
+r a¤n¸ +n =+rt nr lm+ l+nre
¬= ar=¬,¤-rr,m¸qre e¤ ¤r¤
rrnrm =¤n· çr ¬ emnt ç l
=rrr+ ¬ nr a= ;r+¬ +t
¢rmnr ;=rnr ç, ar; ¬ +;¬
+tl ¤ç nr mr> m¸= gr;r ¤r¤n
m > +r mr¬l=+ ¬¤ +;nr,
arqr¤+ ¤; m¸= + =¤=¤ +r
rnr¬ +;n ç¸e, ar=r ¤o l+n,
=ç¬ ar=¬ m ¤ or ;çnr ç l
=+rt ¤+r; +t nrlm+ l+nre,
¤ç ¤ n¬’rl+n (+¸ ¤sle¬t¸
=trrr a¤¬ arrrt¬ =¤n +;¤rnt
çl ¤ç ‘rl+n =rrr+ +r ‘r;t;,
m¬, e¤ ¤¸lç a¤¬ arrt¬ +;
e nt ç l =rrr+ +t ar =r ¤ o
;çnt ç l ¤;-n¸ ar nl;+ ¤¢r¸
=r¸e ¬rn çl l¬== =rrr+ +r :z
ç¬r; ¬rlsnr =lçn +¸¤sle¬t
eç ¤+ ar; nt¬r mlªrnr =¤”c
lo=rnt çl =+rt amr +t arnl;+
l+nre =rrr+ +r =¤”c lo=rrq
ont çl +r¬ = am m l+= ¤+r;
l+nre çr ;çt, rnr¬ +t a¤=ªrr
m a= =¤”c lo=rnt çl =+¤¸¤r
¤gr¤s l¤¤s m çl nrm o’r¬ +
q= l=çrn + a¬¸=r; ¤¸¤r qr¬,
q= =rrr¬r = çrnr çl nç nrm
==r; +t a==n =m=nrar +r
=rmrrrr¬ +;¬ m +rr ln+-l¤qr¬
+r =¢rm ¤¬remrl
+rr;ntn nr mo’r ¬ m¬¸ ”n
+r l¤+r= + =¤r··r l’r=r; ¤;
¤ç¸ ¤r¬ + =rªr-=rªr mr ¢r +rt o nr
çl nç nrm m¬¸”n +r =+rt ¤+r;
+ ;rmr = ¤¸¤r =¤r = m¸+n +;nr
çl ;rmr = m¸+n ç¸e l¤¬r ‘rrln
¬çt, ar; ¤¸¤r ‘rrln + l¤¬r mr¢r
a=++r¤ çl +¸¤sle¬t + ¬rmn
çr n çt =rrr+ +r ql-qnrntn
lo·n a¢rn ar¬-o +t l¬;-n;
¤ rn¢rr¬¸ +r¸ ln çr nt ç l l¬==
=rrr+ +r mr¬l=+ n¬r¤ ¤¸¤r
=¤r = ‘rr n çr ¬rnr ç l nªrr a=+
+r;¤r ar¤-¬ +q a=rrn ;rm
¬= a-mro, ¤rme¤¬,;+n¤r¤,
al¬qr arlo a¬ + ¤tmrl;nr
l¤¬r o¤r + ¤-o lo¬r m =¤n· çt
ot+ çr ¬rnt çl q=+ alnl;+n
=+rt ‘rr;tl;+ ;rm l¤l+r-¬ ¤+r;
+t nr lm+ l+nre +;¤r+;
¤ç ¬mng ¬¬¬t ¤¸ ¤r =¤ =
ot+ +; o nt ç l a= ar nl;+
¤n¬r ‘rl+n + qr¬ +t +rq
=tmr ¬çt çl qr¬ +t nr a=m
''¤;r+r”or'' çl an·a=+ lee
+rq +rt +rn a=++r¤ ¬çt çl
lo·n ar-r-o + l¬;-n; ¤¬
;ç¬ + +r;¤r, =+rt ¤ +r; +
¬’rr = ¤¸¤r=¤r = m¸l+n lme
¬rnt çl m; +q =rrr+ a¤tm,
’r;r¤, +rrm, mr¬r arlo ¬’rr =
¤¸;t n;ç = ml=n ªrl ot¢rr +
¤ro ¤-o lo¬r m çt a-ç l¤¬r
l+=t ¤ +r; + +”c + , =+rt ¬’rr
= ¤¸ ¤r m¸ l+n lme mq l e = a¬ +
m¬r ;r mt ‘rl+n¤rn + +r;¤r
¤¸ ¤r =¤ = ot+ çr mn , l¬-ç
l¤o¸n l¤l+r=r ar; q-=¸et¬
l¤l+r=r = +rt er+r ¬çt ç¸ar
ªrrl ar¬ =+rt l¤¬r o¤r =rrn
¤¸¤r=¤r = =¤=ªr ç, ar; q’¤;
+r +r¬¬ +;+ =rlr¤+ ¬t¤¬
¬t ;ç çl
q= ¤ +r; =+rt ¤ +r; +
m¬r ;r mr , ‘rr;tl;+ ;r mr ar ;
=+rt ¤ +r; + ¬’rr = , l¤¬r l+=t
¤ +r; +r +”c ¤rn ar ; l¤¬r o¤r
+, ¤¸¤r =¤r = m¸l+n ¤r¬ +r,
çmr; arnrrm l¤qr¬ m or=
arrrr; çl nç +rq +rr¤l¬+
¤rn ¬çt çl a¤;r+n =+rt er+r
l+=t m¬r ¤ qrl¬+ ¤ l+nr =
¬çt, arnrrm l¤qr¬ + or=
l=çr nr = lmen ç l ¤rn ¬lrr
nrmo’r¬ + +¤rn¤ro + o¸=;
‘er+ m >l”r ¬ ¬rln (¤¸ln¸
¤oe¬ +r l¤¤;¤r on ç¸e +çr ç
l+ q=+ l¤¬r +rn l=lç =+r¤
236
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
mr> nt¬ ¬rln + çrn çl
'=nrm¸¤rt, ;¬rm¸¤rt ar; nmr.
m¸¤rtl ar”rlrr, m> ot¢rr arlo
l¬lmrr +r;¤r ¤ +¸ lnnr (¤¸ lrrnr ¸
+t ¤¸¤rnr += +; on ç, +nr ¤
¤+¸lnnr (¤¸lnnr¸ + ¤nr¬+
(¤er¬ ¤re¸ ç? q= =¤rr m
>l”r ¬ +çr çl
'l¬lmrrm¤nr¬+ ¤+¸nt¬r
¤;¤r+ro=n¸ nn·
¢rl>+¤ng' ll †·…ll
'l¬lmrr ¤+¸lnnr (¤¸lrrnr¸
+r ¤er¬ ¤re ¬çt ç , a==
nr (+¤e¸ l+=r¬ +t +rrln,
=+r¤c +r e o¬ l+nr ¬rnr
ç l' an· = n =om¸ = o ¤ +t
‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr + +r;¤r ¤ªrm
nrml=+ ¤¸lrrnr o¤+; +m¬r;
¤s ¬rnt çl ¤r+t or¬r ¤¸lnnr
¤r+¸ln+ =¤r =, =¤n> çr¬ +
+r;¤r, +lm+ =¤r = l¤+l=n
çrnt ¬rnt çl ¤-o lo¬r m ¤+¸ln
a-ç qn¬t ‘rl+n’rret ¤¬r o nt
ç l+ l¤; ¤ nrml=+ ¤¸lrrnr +t
‘r;t; m ¤rrr¬nr ++rt =ªrrl¤n
¬çt çr¬ ont çl q=t ¤+r; l¤;
;¬rm¸¤rt ¤¸lrr o¤ ¬rnt çl m¬¸”n
+lm+ ¤oer¤ +t aªrrng ¬rln
¤oe¬ +t ¤l+nr =, nmrm¸¤rt
= ;¬rm¸¤rt ar; l¤; ;¬rm¸¤rt
= =nrm¸¤rt ¬rln m ¤oe ¬rnr
çl ‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr m a¤n¸+n
+rn +¸¤sle¬t ‘rl+n (¬mng
¬¬¬t¸ =¤n a¤¬ l¬n->¤r m
+;nt ç, an· =rrr+ m ¤l;¤n¬
¤ç¸n çt r¤l;n mln = çrnr çl
+nr l+ ¤ç ¬mn ¬¬¬t (¤¸ª¤t
nr¤¸ a= ¤;m=rrr +r lo·n
¤+r’r ç, ''=¸”cgn¸r¤ln'' +r
arlo +r;¤r ç l q=lee ¤ç
=¤ q, =¤ =¤, ar ; =¤ > ç ,
a=+ lee +r q +rn +lo¬
¬çt ç l ¤nr -¤nr m¬¸ ”n +t
¬rln ¤oent ¬rnt ç, a= ¤¸lrr
+ =+rt m¸¤rrrm =rrm çr ¬rn çl
¬r o¤ ¤¸+t çl an· m¬¸”n +
=rr¬¤r¬, ;ç¬-=ç¬, ·n¤çr;
ar; ar¤;¤r arlo =+rt ¤oe
¬rn ç +nrl+ ¤¸lrr ¤oe ¬rnt
ç , q=lee a= ¤¸ lrr + =rr¬¤r¬
(=+rt ¤ +r; + ¬’rr = , nªrr
¤orªrr¸ = m¬¸”n +r
ar nl;+ +rr¤ = rr¸ ¤rr çr
¬rnt çl
an· l+=t ¤+r; + +”c +
l¤¬r çt =+rt ¤ +r; +t ¤¸ ;t aron
=¤n· e¸ c ¬rnt ç l =¤rmt ~t l¤¤ .
+r-r-o ¬t + ‘r-or m 'm¬¸”n
a¬ ¤=n¸ar +r ¬çt ersnr ç, ¤
¤=n¸ e a= er s+; ¤et ¬rnt ç l'
q= = ¤ rr m =¤rmt ¬t ¬ am l;+r
m +çr ªrrl - “You need not
to give up the things, the
things will give you up”
q= =¤rr m +rm¤r¬g ~t
¿”¤r ¬ mtnr + ƒ†¤ arnrn
m q= =¤rr m +çr ç-
=r¤ ;¬=nm qln
m¸¤rr·¤+¸ln =+r¤·
l¬¤r¬l-n mçr¤rçr oç
olç¬m·nnmgllƒ†·‡ll
'ç a¬¸ ¬l =r¤m¸ ¤r, ;¬r m¸ ¤r,
nmr m¸ ¤r e = (nç¸ ¤ ¿ln =
ar¤-¬ ç¸ e nt¬r m¸ ¤r (q=¸
al¤¬r’rt ¬t¤rrmr +r ‘r;t; m
¤r rrn ç l' q=+ ¤ro m +rm¤r¬g
nt¬r m¸ ¤rr +t aem-aem
·nr=nr +;n ç¸e +çn ç-
n> =r¤ l¬mer¤rn
¤+r’r +m¬rmnmgl
=¸=r=m¬ ¤rnrln
qr¬=m¬ ¤r¬rrll ƒ†·ˆll
'ç l¬”¤r¤l a¬ nt¬r m¸¤rr
m ¤+r’r +;¬ ¤rer l¬l¤+r;
=r¤m¸ ¤r (nr ¸ l¬m e çr ¬ +
+r;¤r =¸=r +t ar=l+n = ar;
qr¬ +t ar=l+n = ¤rrrnr çl'
;¬r ;rmrrm+ l¤lç
n¸”¤rr=m =m¸og+r¤mgl
rrl>¤r¬rln +r-nn
+m=m¬ olç¬mg ll ƒ†·‰ll
'ç a¬¸¬l ;rm=¤r ;¬rm¸¤r
+r +rm¬r ar ; ar=l+n = ar¤.
-¬ ç¸ar ¬r¬, (q=¸ ¬t¤rrmr
+r +mr +t ar; a¬+ ¤e +t
ar=l+n = ¤rrrnr çl'
nm=r¤qr¬¬ l¤lç
mrç¬ =¤olç¬rmgl
¤mrore=nl¬qr
l+r=nl>¤r¬rln +rr;nll †·Šll
' ar ; ç a¬¸ ¬l =¤
o çrl+rmrl¬nr + mr ç¬ ¤re
nmr m¸ ¤r +r aqr¬ = ar¤-¬
ç¸ar ¬r¬l ¤ç q= ¬t¤rrmr +r
¤=ro, are=n ar; l¬qr + g
r;r ¤rrrnr çl'
=r¤ =¸=r =¬nln
;¬· +ml¤r +rr;nl
qr¬mr¤¸rn n¸ nm·
¤=ro =¬nrn¸n ll ƒ†·‹ll
'ç a¬¸¬l =r¤m¸¤r =¸=r m
emrnr ç (ar;¸ ;¬rm¸¤r +m
m (nªrr¸ nmrm¸¤r nr qr¬ +r
ar·ero¬ +;+ (c+ +¸ ¤mro
m +rt emrnr çl
;¬=nm’¤rl+r+r¸n
=r¤ +r¤ln +rr;nl
237
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
'ar ; ç a¬¸ ¬ ;¬r m¸ ¤r
(ar ;¸ nmr m¸ ¤r +r o¤r+;
=r¤m¸¤r ¤cnr ç, nªrr ;¬rm¸¤r
(ar ;¸ =r¤m¸ ¤r +r o¤r+;
nmrm¸¤r (¤cnr ç¸'
a¤n¸+n ‘er+r = =¤”c
çrnr ç l+ =mªr =n =ogm¸=
‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr gr;r =rrr+
+t +¸ ¤sle¬t ¬rm n +;+
¬rrnr-n;¤r +;¬ m aªrr ng e+
¤¸ln +r o¤r+; =rrr+ +r o¸=;t
¤¸ln m ¤oe¬ m =¢rm çrnr çl
+nrl+ =+rt ‘rr=>r nªrr =nr ¬
m¸= +r l¬m¸¤r l¬;r+r; +r =m¸¤r
=r+r; =¤=¤ mr¬r ç,(aªrrng
¤ç ¤;m nr¤, ¬-m-m;¤r =
m¸+n, m¸= + mrrnm = a¤¬t
=+¤¸ ¤r ‘rl+n ¤ +c +;nr ç ¸
n+rt m¸= +t ·nr=nr +;n ç¸e
çmr; ‘rr=>r =¤”c ‘r-or m +çn
ç-
m¸=¤gr m¸=l¤”¤r¸
m¸¤ro¤r mç’¤;·l
m¸= =r¢rrn ¤;¤g
n=m ~tm¸;¤ ¬m· ll
m¸=mtnr …„ll
nor =rr¤ ¤¤¸ç
n¸ ¤en nrln oç+r¸nll
norrrml¤or
er+r¬mer-¤
lnonll ƒ†·ƒ†ll
'¬¤ nç ¬t¤rrmr =rr¤m¸¤r
+t ¤¸lç m m¸rn¸ +r ¤r¤n çrnr
ç, n¤ nr arrm +m +;¬ ¤rer
+ me;lçn er+r +r ¤r¤n çrnr
çl'
;¬l= ¤en mr¤r
+m=lsgm”r¸ ¬rnnl
nªrr ¤et¬=nml=
m¸cnrl¬”r¸ ¬rnnll ƒ†·ƒ‡ll
;¬rm¸¤r + ¤c¬ ¤; m¸rn¸ +r
¤ r¤n çr +; +mr +t ar=l+n
¤re m¬¸¤nr m ar¤-¬ çrnr ç,
nªrr nmrm¸¤rr + ¤c¬ ¤; m;r
ç¸ ar ¤¸ =”r m¸ cnr l¬nr m ar¤r-¬
çrnr çl'
¬r¬-n m¸¤r+n·+nr;?
nor q”cr¬¸¤’nlnl
m¸¤r+n’¤ ¤; ¤lrr +rç
r¤ =rslrrm·eln ƒ†·ƒ‹ll
(ç a¬¸ ¬¸ 'l¬= +re
m q”cr nt¬r m¸ ¤rr + l=¤rn
a-n l+=t +r +nr t o=rnr
ç ar ; nt¬r m¸ ¤rr = aln ¤;
=l·¤or¬-orr¬ =¤=¤r m¸ q
¤;mrrmr +r nr¤ = ¬r¬nr ç,
a= +re m ¤ç ¤¸=”r m; =¤=¤
+r ¤r¤n çrnr çl'
a¤n¸+n nªnr = =¤”c
çrnr ç l+ m¸= a¤¬ l’r”n +r
a¤¬t ¬rln (¤rªrt-l>m¸¤rrntn
¬rln¸ m ¤oe¬ m ¤¸¤r=¤ =
=mªr çrnr ç, +nrl+ ¤ç l¬m¸¤r
l¬;r+r; +r =m¸ ¤r-=r+r; =¤=¤
çrnr çl q=tlee çmr; =nr ¬
=¤”c +çr ç-
m¸= +;nr m¸= +;¤r ¬rm¸l
m¸= ¤;m=¸; ç +rt çrm¸ll
+ç¸ ¬r¬+ ¤l+r qç ¬¬rql
l¤¬ m¸= m¸+ln -r ¤rqa +rrq ll
mçer ‡, ‘r-o …·‰ll
nt¬ er+ ¬r =rs m,
m¸= n ¤sr ¬ +rql
+;nr +; ¬ +l; =+,
m¸= +; =r çrqll
=n +¤t; =r=rt =mç
an· m¸ =, l’r”n +r mtnr
+ ƒ…¤ arnrn + „„¤ ‘er+
m a+n nt¬r ¬rlnnr m çt l¤’¤r= +;nr ç¸l ¤rªrt ¬rln m¸= +t çrnt çl
q¬ ¬rlnnr + l=¤rn a-n ¬rln l¤’¤ m çr çt ¬çt =+ntl an· m mr¬¤ ¿n
¬rln, rrm ar; ;r”c ¸+t =tmrar +r arerr¬ +;n ç¸e m; a==n m¸=ar +t
+mrq +r m¸= ¤=ro, ¬r l+ m; ¤;monre¸ m¸=o¤ +t açn¸ +t ¿¤r + +r;¤r
a¬rnr= çt m¸q ¤r¤n çr mnr ç, l¤’¤ m ¤rc¬ l¬+er ç¸l m ¤lo+ o’r¬ + '
=¤ =rlr¤o ¤g ' + =¬rn¬ l=çrn m l¤’¤r= +;nr ç¸l m; m¸=o¤ +r =¤”c
aro’r ç l+ mrm¬ arnr +rq +rt ·nl+n =rret çrªr ¬çt erc¬r ¤rlçel

238
-=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
247
m ¤rlc+ (PATRIK) l¤ee ¤r¤ =re = m¸=¬t = ¬¸sr ç¸ar ç¸l ¬¤ m¬ ¤çet
¤r; m¸=o¤ + ¤rcr = rnr¬ l+nr nr m;r rnr¬ em mnr ar; m¸q n¬ ¤+r’r lo=rr
ar; a=m = =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere¬t l=nrm + o’r¬ ç¸e nr m s; mnr l+ nç +=
çr mnr? +nrl+ e=r ar¬ n+ ¬çt ç¸arl
m¸q m¸=o¤ + o’r¬ çr¬ = ¤çe arm +t r¤l¬ nªrr m¸¬¬ =¸¬rq lonr +;nr ªrrl
m¬ rnr¬ +r l¬nlmn ;=rr nr m¸q rnr¬ m m¸=o¤ + o’r¬ çr¬ eml m¸= m¸q rnr¬ m =mqrn ªr el+¬
¤ç +rr”rr m¸q =mq m ¬çt arnt ªrt a=m = m¸q e+ ‘r-o çt =mq m ar ;çr ªrr 'lç-o¸', l¤; +rt m =mq
¬çt ¤rnr ªrr l+ +nr çl a=+ ¤ro m¸q +q +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr çrnt ªrtl m; e+ ¤¸;r¬t ¤tmr;t ªrt ¤ç +rt ot+
çr mql +;t¤ ¤r¤ =re ¤ro zatt m m¸=o¤ ¬ m¸q ¤-·r ¤ lemrer +rr”rr m ¤¤¤¬ o¬r ‘r¸= l+nrl m¸q =r¤;t
m¸qr em¬ emtl m;t ¬t+r nre¸ = l¤¤+¬ + ¤ro ;= c¤+nr çl
m¸ q q=+ ¤r; m ¬r¬+r;t ¬çt ªrt e l+¬ m¸ =o ¤ + l’r”nr +r ¤¸ er nr ¤nr ¤er l+ n =r ¤;t m¸ qr ç l ¤ro
m ¤ç¸ n e =t =r;r¤ ¬mç ¤; +rt mnr ¬çr ¤; ¬r¬ = s; emnr ªrr e l+¬ e+ ¤r¤r l¬¬+ me m =r ¤ ec+
ç¸ e ªr ¤r e =t ¬mç ¤; e mel m ¬ e = ¤r¤r +r l¬+ m¸ =o ¤ + l’r”nr +r l+nr nr m¸ =¬t + l’r”nr ¬ +çr l+
¤r nr =r¢rrng mçro ¤¬t ªr l ¤r¤r¬t (mçro ¤¬t¸ ¬ +çr l+ n¸ m s;r mn m n¸ +çr; =rªr ç¸ l m ar ; ¤r¤¬t
(mçro ¤¬t¸ =rªr m ¤¸ ; lo¬ rr¸ m ¬r çm m¸ =¬t +r e+ +rm +; ;ç ªr l m¸ =¬t ¬ m¸ q rnr¬ + or ;r¬ = ¬t¤¬t
m > +rt lonr ¬r am¸ m¬ m¸ =o ¤ ‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr +rn +m m o n ç l
m¸=o¤ ¬ ¤nrnr l+ ''n¸m q= m> +r ¬¤n ;çr, =¤ +¸e q= m> m çt çl ¤en l¤;n, =rrn ¤tn ar;
+çt +rt ¬r¬r çr q= m> +r ¬¤n ;ç¬r, n¸+çr;r +rq +¸e ¬çt l¤mrs =+nrl'' m; ¤·¤ + =r¸¬ lm;¬ +t
¤tmr;t ªrt, ¤ç +rt m¸=¬t +r rnr¬ +;¬ = ot+ çr mntl m¸=o¤ = ¬¸s¬ + ¤ro =¤ +¸e a·er çr mnrl
+rmr (a¤t+r¸ m l=çnrm +t eç;
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m lcmrc (TIMOTE) e+ ¤rq¤c l=+nrl;ct ++¤¬t m ¬r+;t +;nr ªrrl e+ lo¬ m¸=¬t +r +rq
l’r”n l+=t +r m¸=¬t + o’r¬ + ¤r; m ¤nr ;çr ªrr nr m¬ +rt a¬= m¸=¬t +r ¤¤; lenr +nrl+ m ar;
m;r ¤l;¤r; ¤tmr;t = ¤tlsn ªrl ¬¤ m¬ e+ lo¬ m¸=o¤ + ¤rcr = rnr¬ l+nr nr m;r rnr¬ em mnr l¤;
m¬ m;t ¤r¬t ar; ¤·¤ +r +rt rnr¬ +;rnr ¬r ç; =mn l+=t ¬ l+=t ¤tmr;t = ¤tlsn ;çn ªrl a¬+r +rt
rnr¬ em mnr nªrr l¬nlmn ¬rm ¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ +;¬ = ¤¸;r¬t ¤tmr;t ot+ çr mql rnr¬ + or;r¬ ¬mt¬ =
a¤; ao¬ emr ar; m¸q =r¤;t m¸qr em¬ emt ¬= ¬t+r +r nre¸ = l¤¤+¬r, l¤; a=m = ;= c¤+¬rl
m¸q rnr¬ + or;r¬ +q +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr çr¬ emt ¬r =çt l¬+ent çl
;tm¬ (RIGUENE) :- m; ‘r;t; m m¸¤n ;rm +t ¤tmr;t ªrtl m¬ m¸=¤rt +r rnr¬
l+nr nr m¸q rnr¬ em¬ emr, m; m¸¤n ;rm +t ¤tmr;t ot+ çr mntl m¸q rnr¬ m a¬+
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +rt çr¬ emtl
+r; ¤¤s +t ¤tmr;t ªrtl m¬ m¸=¬t +r rnr¬ l+nr nr m;r rnr¬ em¬ emr ar;
m; ¤¤s +t ¤tmr;t o¸; çr mntl
248
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
t. = e =ct¬(CELESTIN):-
m ¬ m¸ =¬t +r ¤ ¤; lenr ar ; rnr¬
l+nr ,;rn +r m =¤¤¬ m o=r ;çr
ç¸ l+ m ar; m; =rªrt, m¸=¬t +r
¤¤r; +; ;ç çl m¸q ;r¬mr; +rt
lme mnrl a¤ m¸= +¸¤r = a·er
¬t¤¬ ¤e ;çr çl
z. +r ªr t m sm( CATHY
MADAM):- m; ¤··r +r ¤tmr;t
ªrt ¬r l¤ee : =re = ¤··rr
¤e-l¤; ¬çt =+nr ªrrl m ¤ç¸n
=r; ¤rol;nr + ¤r= mnt l¤; +rt
ot+ ¬çt çr ¤rnr el+¬ ¬¤ m¬
m¸=¬t +r ¤¤; e+; rnr¬ +;¬r
‘r¸ = l+nr nr m ;r ¤··rr a= ¤tmr;t
= ¤¸¤rn· ot+ çr mnrl
:. ¤r ¬t ¬r + ( FANI
JEACK):- m l¤ee o= =re =
m +rt; ¤tmr;t = m l=n ªrr, sr +c;r
= +rt ot+ ¬çt çr ¤rnrl e+ lo¬
m; or=n ¬ m¸q l=çnrm + ¤r;
m ¤nrnr ar; m¬ m¸=¬t +r ¤¤;
e+; rnr¬ l+nr rrr m¸=¬t ¬
o’r¬ lonl m; l=; ¤; çrªr ;=rr,
l¬=r= m; ‘r;t; = l¤ee o= =re
¤¸;r¬t ¤tmr;t ot+ çr mntl
¡. Foyh(willy):- m ; m¸ ç =
=r¸¬ l¬+enr ªrrl m; ¤r= q=+r
qer¬ +;r¬ +r =r¤r +rt ¬çt ªrrl
¬¤ m¬ m¸=¬t +r rnr¬ l+nr nr
l¤oºrt =rrr+r + a¬¸+r¤
m ot+ çr mnrl a¤ m ¤¸¤rn· ot+
ç¸l
:. c’rrsrr ¬r;l=’r (TSHA-
DA NARCISSE):- m ''esg=''
;rm = ¤tlsn ªrrl ¬¤ m¬ m¸=¬t
+r rnr¬ l+nr nr m ; ‘r;t; ¤; ¤=.
t¬r ar mnrl a=+ ¤ro m l¬nlmn
¬rm ¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ +;nr ;çrl +¸e
=mn ¤ro q= ¤tmr;t = ot+ çr
mnrl
c. l=mnr mr¤r-¬ter (SIM-
EON MABANZILA):- m; +r er.
mr ¬ m¸ =¬t + ¤r; m ¤nrnr nr m ¬
=¤t+r; ¬çt l+nrl ¤;-n¸ e+ lo¬
=r¤r l+ am; nç =rn ç nr m¸q
lo=rr +; ¤nrn l m ¬ e+ ¤r; rnr¬
l+nr nr m rr;nt = a¤; ao mnr
ar; sc rr-c n+ m rr;nt = or
¤tc a¤; çt ;çrl rnr¬ + or;r¬
m¸q m¸=¬t ¬ +rl¤”n +t rrc¬rar
+ o¸’n +rt lo=rrn ar; =mn +
=rªr ¤ =+rt +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr =çt
l¬+etl m ¤tmr;t = m l=n ªrr l m .
¬ m¸=¬t +r rnr¬ l+nr nr m¸=¬t
¬ m; l=; ¤; çrªr ;=rr ar; ¤ro
m ot+ çr mnrl
:. mn; lolo;(METRE DI-
DIER):- m WWE +r l=rerst
ç¸l m¬ m¸=¬t +r rnr¬ l+nr nr
m ;r ‘r;t; lçe¬ emrl rnr¬ + ¤ro
‘rrl-n lme¬ emtl ¬t o +rt ar;rm
= ar¬ emt l
s. +r;t¬- m;t ¤·¤t ar=rr
+t ¤tmr;t = ml=n ªrtl m¬ m¸=¬t
+r rnr¬ l+nr nr m¸=¬t ¬ m;t
¤·¤t + lee ¤mr+r; l+nr l+ m ;t
¤·¤t + ar=rr +t ¤tmr;t ot+ çr
mntl
s. ¤ s;r -sr +¤ -¬r +rnr
(PEDRO NDOMBE NZONKA-
TO):- m m+r¬ ¬çt ¤¬r =+nr
ªrr +nrl+ çmr; rr; m esrq ¤e
;çt ªrtl m¬ m¸=¬t +r rnr¬ l+nr
nr m¸=¬t ¬ ¤nrnr l+ n¸m a¤¬t
¤lr¬ +r =rªr m e+; armrer
¬rar ¤çr ¤; n¸ m m+r¬ ¤¬r
=+rml
ta. -r¸¬r (BRUNO):- m; ¤·¤
+ a=ªrmr +t ¤tmr;t ªrtl m ¬ ¤ç¸ n
qer¬ +;¤rnr l¤; +rt ot+ ¬çt
çr ¤rnr el+¬ ¬¤ m¬ m¸=¬t +r
rnr¬ l+nr nr m ;r es+r a=ªrmr
+t ¤tmr;t = ot+ çr mnrl
tt. +¤¸ n¸ n¸ ¤¸ ;r ,sª-¤-¤-
-rlç=. m; +m; +t ¤tmr;t ªrtl
m¬ ¤ç¸n qer¬ +;rnr l¤; +rt
ot+ ¬çt çr ¤rnrl l¤; m¬ m¸=¬t
+r rnr¬ l+nr nr m¸q e+ n¬
23
23
249
¤;mç= ¤o
¬r ''¤;mç= ¤o'' ¤r¤n +;¬r ¤rçn ç, a¬+ lee ;¬rm¸¤r +t ¤rl¤n çt ¤;m+rnr¤r-¤o
çl l¤¬r ;¬rm¸¤r + +nr +rq =r¤m¸¤r ¤r¤n +; =+nr çl l¤¬r +rrm +r a-n ç¸e, nrm lme¬r
çr çt += =+nr ç? l¤¬r ¤;r·n + rnrm +çr = ar¤mrl

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
250
+ ; t ¤
za ¤”r ¤çe
+t ¤rn ç l
=¸ ¤ç ¤ g
m¸ ç¸ n +
=mn m¸ q
=¤¤¬ arnrl
¤çe m¸ q
+rn +; a-rr+r; ar ; n¸ ¤r¬
lo=rrl m¬ s;+; ar=r ¤o +;
ot nªrr arcr ec mnrl ªrrst o;
¤ro aor nr o=rr l+ e+ rrrs
¤; =¤o ¤=> m çrªr m ne¤r;
len ç¸ ar ·nl+n lo=rr ar ; +çr
l+ ¬r m;t ºr;¤r m ar ¬remr,
¤ç ¤¤ ¬remrl nç =¤¤¬ m¸q
+¸e =mn n+ nro ;çr, l¤; m
+r¸e mnrl m =ogm¸=o¤ + ¤r;
m l¤ee s-ta ¤”rr = =¸¬ ;çr ç¸
el+¬ m¸q qn¬r çt =mq m
arnr l+ n ¤tmrl;nr ot+ +;n
za ¤”r ¤çe +lr+ +rm¤r¬g
ç nªrr ¬’r e¸s¤rn ç l m¸q ‘r¸=
= çt +rm¤r¬g = ¤ m ªrrl e l+¬
m¸q +rq =mªr =ogm¸= lmer
¬çt ar; m;t l¬qr=r ‘rrn ¬çt
ç¸ql
çmr; ar=¤r= + ¢r>r m
=ogm¸=o¤ +r ¤=r;-¤=r; çr.
nr çt ;çnr ªrrl el+¬ m;t =l¤
¬çt ªrtl l¤ee eç-=rn mçt¬
¤çe m ;r ¤s r =t =m¬rªr ¬t
m¸c¤r m¸=o¤ +r l¤’r”rr+ e+;
arnrl a=¬ ¤¸;t ¤¸=n+ ¤ct nr
a=+r =mq m arnr l+ m¸=o¤
nr =r¢rrng +rm¤r¬g ç nªrr
;rmr ¤ ¬’rr = +rq ¤rnor ¬çt
ç l m ;t a¬= a·et or =nt ç nªrr
m a+=; a¬= +rm¤og-¤¤r
+;nr çt ;çnr ªrrl a-çr¬ m¸q
m¸ =o ¤ + ar~m = ¤ +rl’rn
çr ¬ ¤re l¤’r ”rr + +t ¤ ln
lo=rrq nªrr a=m e+ e=r ¤cr
l+ ¬r ‘r-o =ogm¸o¤ on ç ¤ç
+çr = arnr çl aªrrng nç
nr l’r¤-’rl+n +r =re çl m;t
m¸=o¤ + ¤ln e+ om ~çr ¤c
mntl m a¬¤c ç¸ el+¬ m¬
m; lm> = ¤¸;t ¤¸=n+ ¤cr+;
=¸¬ etl m ¤¸=n+ +r o=r çt ;çr
ªrr l+ a¤r¬+ ¤r+ ¤sr ¤nrlç
m;t ¬¬; m¸=o¤ + +lr+ ¤re
l¤> ¤; ¤st nr m¸q a¤r¬+
za =re ¤çe + =¤¤¬ +t nro
nr¬t çr mq l m; ;rmc =rs çr
mel m¬ m¬ çt m¬ =ogm¸=o¤
+r ¬m¬ l+nrl a=+ ¤ro = m
m¸=o¤ +r l¬nlmn rnr¬ +;
;çr ç¸l =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere
¬t l=nrm çt +lr+ +rm¤r¬g
ç l a¤ m¸ q m ;t m l¬e lme
mql e= ¤;m onre¸ +r ¤r;+¤r;
¤¤rrm +;nr ç¸l
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
251
e+ m¸= ar; a¬+r l’r”n
ç; lo¬ ¤ç¸ n =¸ o; l=rer ¬ ¤¬rn
ar ; ‘rrm +r ¤r¬r; m ¬r+;
a-ç ¤¤ arnl m¸= gr;r ¤¬re
l=rer ¬r +t a¤ ¢rr l’r”n +
l=rer¬ alrr+ orm m l¤+n
ªr l q=+ ¤r¤¬¸ o m¸ = l’r”n
= l¬;n; +çn -¤cr l +rm m
ar; =¤rq erar, alrr+ m.
ç¬n +;r ar; e+rml¤rr ¤¬rl
l’r”n =r¤nr l+ m m¸= = a·e
l=rer¬ ¤¬rnr ç¸, ¬r alrr+
ormr ¤; l¤+n ç l ‘rrno q=lee
¤ m ; ¤ ln q ”nr ;=r¬ em ç l e+
lo¬ ¤ç m¸= = ¤rer - m¸=¬tlg
lºr”n +r aç+r; ar; m¸= +t a¬mre
m ar¤+r =+mr¬ +;nr ç¸, l+n¸
m ar¤= nr·n ç¸ ar; q=+r
=¤¸n ç m; ¤¬re l=rer¬ ,¬r
ar¤+ l=rer ¬r = alrr+ +tmn
m l¤+n çl l¤; +rt ar¤ m¸q
l¬rn +rm m =¤rq er¬ +t
l’r¢rr +nr on ç?
m¸= ¬ l¤¬r l+=t arr¬¬r
+ l’r”n + ¤’¬ +r arr; on ç¸e
+çr- ¤crl ar¬ = ts ¤”r ¤¸¤
m¸q= +rt e=t çt +r¸e ç¸q ªrtl
n¤ m; m¸= + l=rer¬ +rt m;
l=rer ¬r = +m +tmn ¤; l¤+n
ªr l ¤ +rt m¸q= a¤¬ +rm ar;
+er m l¬;n; l¬=rr; er¬ +
lee +çn ªr l m a¬ ¤; l¤ms
mnr ªrr ar; l¤; a¤¬t +er
+r l¤+r= ¬çt +; ¤rnr l m ¬çt
¤rçnr l+ n¸+çr; =rªr +rt ¤çt
çr l nç =¸ ¬n çt l’r”n +r a¤¬t
ment +r eç=r= ç¸ar ar; ¤ç
¬t-¬r¬ = a¤¬ ç¸ ¬; +r = ¤r;¬
m em mnrl çmr;t aro ¤;¤;r
+çnt ç, l¤or oorln l¤¬nm,
l¤¬noorln ¤r>nrmgl' aªr.
rng l¤or = l¤¬mnr ¤r¤n çrnt
çl l¤¬mnr = ¤r>nr aªrrng
nr·nnr arnt ç ar; nr·nnr
= çt nr ¤mln + ¤çn; a¤=;
¤r¤n çrn ç, ¬r =¸=r +r arrrr;
=¤ ¤ ªrm
¤;mg ¤¸ ¤n
=ogm¸ =o ¤
¤ or or m¸ =
m mr q ¬r ªr
¬t + ¤;¤rr m
+r lc-+r lc
¤¤rrml m ~t
+¸”¤r ‘rmr l¤ee t: ¤”r = mrqm¬
= ¤tlsn ªrr nªrr zaas = ¤r=cc
+t n+et¤ çr mntl m¬ z: mr¤
zaaa +r ¬n¤¸; m m¸=o¤ = ot¢rr
et ªrtl e l+¬ ++rt rnr¬ +t
+r l’r’r ¬çt +tl ¤;¤;t-mr¤ zata
m ¬n¤¸; m m¸=o¤ + +rn+m ç¸e,
n¤ = m¬ rnr¬ +;¬r ‘r¸= l+nrl
m¸=o¤ = l¤mrl;nr ot+ +;¬ +t
¤rªr¬r +tl ar¬ m¸=o¤ +t +¸¤r
= =r;t l¤mrl;nr ot+ çr+; ¬r
¬t¤¬ o¤rqnr + =çr; ¤e¬ em
mnr ªrr, a¬ o¤rqnr = e¸c+r;r
lme +; m;t l¬omt ¤oe mntl
¤çe m +çt +rt a-n ¬mç =rr¬r
¬çt =rr =+nr ªrrl net ç¸ q ¤=n¸ e ,
are¸ , l+r¤st, ¤ m¬ arlo =l-¬nr
+ ¬rm = çt ;rn =rs ¬r ¬rn ªrl
el+¬ q= ar;rrr¬r + ¤ro a¤
nr ¤s ¤r¤ = =rrnr ç¸l a¤ nr ¬¤
+rt l+=t ·nl+n = lmenr ç¸ , l=¤
m¸=o¤ +t çt ¤¤r +;nr ç¸l m;t
+rr-¬t +rte¤rsr m ;çnt ç a=+
eç mrç ¤çe ¤·¤or¬t m mro çr
mnt ªrtl sr+c; ¬ n¸;n ar¤;’r¬
+t =erç otl +rr-¬t ;r¬ emt ¤
m; = =¤+ l+nrl m¬ m¸=o¤ +t
m > =t st +r ¬+; rnr¬ ¤ ¬¤
+;¬ +r +çr ar; a=¬ ¤=r çt
l+nrl e+ mrç ¤ro a=t sr +c; =
¤r¤= ¤+a¤ +;¤rnr nr sr+c;
¬ l+=t ¤+r; +t ¤tmr;t çr¬ =
m¬r +; lonrl ar¬ ¤ç m¸=o¤ +t
+¸¤r = l¤e+¸e =¤=ªr çl an· m
=m=n mr¬¤ =mr¬ = a¬¸ ;r rr
+;nr ç¸ l+ m¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t
l=nrm +t ‘r;¤r m ar ¬rar ¤r
=¤n +lr+ +rm¤r¬g ar¤+r aç
r; +;¬ rr;r ¤; a¤nl;n ç¸e çl
~t +¸”¤r ‘rmr
qrc¤rsr, ¬n¤¸; - :azatz

mrqm¬ ¤ ¤r=cc +t ¤tmr;t = m¸l+nl
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m ¬ or
=r e ¤çe
a+c¸ ¤; zata
m + -qt n
+ r ; r m r ;
¤t+r¬ ; m
m¸ =o ¤ =
ot¢rr et ªrtl
ot¢rr = ¤çe ¬e m m¸=o¤ +t
m>-=tst ¤erq mq ªrtl q=+
¤ro m¸=o¤ =¤n ¤rrr; e¤ ot¢rr
otl m¸=o¤ ¬ ¬¤ ot¢rr o¬ + ¤ro
rnr¬ +;¤rnrl rnr¬ + or ;r¬ m ¬
o =rr l+ m¸ =o ¤ ¤ oror m¸ =o ¤
or¬r e+ =¤o mrst m ¤o ç¸e
çl or¬r mrst m ¤o+; ¬rm=;
¤ç¸¤ me, oror m¸=o¤ +t =mrlrr
¤; l l¤; ¤r¤= mrst rr¸mt ar;
¤t+r¬; +t mlenr m rr¸m¬ emt,
l¤; e+ ¬mç e+ rr; + ¤r= =+
mq l ªrr s t o ; ¤ro ¤r¤= mrs t
rr¸mt ar; ¤r¤= mlenr m rr¸m¬
emtl ªrr s t o ; ¤ro ¬r rr¤¸ ; ar~m
lo=rrq lonr ar; mrst ar~m +
a-o; ¤et mql
nt¬ lo¬ n+ emrnr; rnr¬
m m¸q m¸=o¤ ¤ oror m¸=o¤ mrst
m rr¸mn ç¸e lo=rrq loel nt=;
lo¬ ao; = arm ¬m· +t nt¬
¤r; ar¤r¬ arql ar; l¤; ao;
= oror m¸=o¤ +t ar¤r¬ arq
a¤¬ +¤s l¬+re o ar; emrc
¤ç¬ el m; ¤r= emrc ¬çt ªrt,
m ¬ +¤s l¬+re ar ; l=; ¤;
¤ç¬r ç¸ar =r¤r emrc +t n;ç
¬e ¬t¤¬ +r a¬¸+r¤
¤rrr lenrl
l¤; oror m¸=o¤ ¬ +çr l+
=rm¬ qcr +r ¤¬r ;rs ç a=m
= qc l¬+re+; erarl m¬ +çr
;r s a=rrs¸ mr nr =¸ ¤;tc -s -c m¸ q
+ro;t +; omrl n¤ oror m¸=o¤ ¬
+çr l+ ¤ç +r o;t +;¬ ¤rer +r ¬
ç ? m ¬ a= ¬-m lonr, ¤rer m ¬ ,
a¤=; m¬ ¤¬rnr, ¤r m çt ç¸l
l¤; m¸q ¬r’r ar mnr ar; m ;rs
= qc a=rrs ernrl l¤; a-çr¬
+çr l+ qcr +r ¤rlcnr ¤¬r el
or am¸e qc ¬mt¬ m mrs ot ar;
nt¬ am¸e a¤rql l¤; a-çr¬
m¸q ¤rc ¤; l¤or lonrl a-çr¬
+çr l+ ¤to m ¤r¬t ¬mr çar ç,
nt¬ ¤rne nr sr+c;r ¬ l¬+re
lonr ç ar; ¤r¬t ¤¤r ç¸ar ªrr l
m;t ¤to m ¬r ¤r¬t ¬mr ç¸ar ªrrl
a-çr¬ m;t ¤to +r o¤rn ç¸e, m;t
¤to ¤; mrle= +t nr ¬mr ¤r¬t
l=r=+¬ emrl q= ¤ +r; e+¤
=mn = ¬r ‘r;t; m ¤r¬t ¬mr çr¬
+t n+et¤ ªrt ¤ç m¸ = +¸ ¤r = ot+
çr mql m¸q omr ;rm ªrr, ¤ç +rt
¤¸;t n;ç ot+ çr mnrl
l¤; a-çr ¬ m¸ q nr m +;¤rel
rnr¬ + or;r¬ +q ¤+r; +t nr.
lm+ l+nre çr nt ªrtl ¤ o ar =rr =
çt m¸q =¸n +r ¤+r’r lo=rrq o¬
emrl nt=; ¬> = m =¸n +t l+;¤
rr +r o=rnr ;çr ar; =¸no¤ +r
¬m=+r; +;nr ;çr l m; orn çrªr
m mret emt ç¸q ªrt, a=+ e; +r
oo ;çnr ªrrl a-çr¬ m; çrªr +r
+rt ¤n ç¸ e e; +r l¬+re ¤ +rl m ;r
¤rnr çrªr tc =re ¤çe c¸ c mnr ªrr
, m en = lm; mnr ªrr, a=+r oo
m¸q çm’rr ;çnr ªrr, m ¬çr¬ +
lee ¤r¬t +t ¤rrct +rt ¬çt aor
=+nr ªrr, l+=t ar; = ao¤r¬t
¤snt ªrtl
a-çr¬ m; çrªr +r +rr =
¤+s +; lçernr, +q ¤ +r; +
nrm +;¤re e¤ çrªr +r ¤+s+;
¬r ; = qc+r lonrl e+ ¤r; nr m ¬
=r¤r l+ m;r çrªr c¸c mnr ç l¤;
ªrrst o; ¤ro m¬ mç=¸= l+nr
l+ m; çrªr +r oo l¤e+¸e mrn¤
çr mnr çl a¤ m; or¬r çrªr ¤¸;t
n;ç ot+ çl
a=+ ¤ro m l¬nlmn =¤ =
m¸=o¤ +r m> ¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ +;¬
emr l rnr¬ m m¸q emnr l+ ¬=
m ¤re¬ m q¸ e ;çr ç¸ , ++rt emnr
l+ m a¬m; + a¤; ecr ç¸ar
ç¸l +r¸=r-¤nr= ¤o çr mql ¬t+r
aec+; +o m l¤¤+ ¬rnt ç ar;
mtor-mtor ;= c¤+¬ emnr çl
++rt lo¬ m ++rt ;rn +r =rn ç¸e
a¤r¬+ a¤¬ ar¤ çt rnr¬ em
¬rnr ªrrl ++rt rnr¬ m ¤ gr, l¤”¤
r¸ ar; mç’r + o’r¬ çrn ªrl
¤r= m e+ ¬r¤ =rst +; ot
ç ar; ¤r= ar+; =rs çr mel
l¤; e+ lo¬ m¸q rnr¬ m m¸=o¤
¬ +çr l+ ¬r ¬¤ mçt¬ ¤ro m
n¸q o¸¤r;r ¬-m o¸mr,=rm¤r; nr
mme¤r; +r, l¤; s¤ mçt¬ ¤ro
=rm¤r; + lo¬ ar¤r¬ arq l+
23
23
252
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤¸¤rnnr =¤=ªr ¬t¤¬ ¬t ;çr
ç¸ l nªrr m¸q ¬e = m¸l+n lme
mql
rnr¬ m =¸ ¤ç ¤r; ¤¬ çt mtnr
+ ‘er+ =¸¬rq o¬ em +rm¤r¬
+¸”¤r =rs ç ar; a¬¸¬ +r =¸¬r
;ç ç - ''nor-nor çt rrm =n
·erl¬......... ll ¬¤l+ m l¤e+¸e
a¬¤c ç¸l
e+ lo¬ rnr¬ m =¸¤ç ¤r;
¤¬ ar¤r¬ =¸¬rq ot l+ am;l=ç
¤ o ¬rar , m ¤ o mnr nr m¸ =o ¤ ¤r.
e , ¤r e n¸ q +nr ¤rlçe? m ¬ +çr
m¸q ar¤+t +¸¤r ¤rlçel nt¬ ¤r;
ar¤r¬ arq, nt¬ ¤r; m¬ +çr
m¸q ar¤+t +¸¤r ¤rlçel nt=;t
¤r; a-çr¬ ¬r’r m ar+; +çr l+
e qret ¤er, m¬ qret ¤er ot,
¤r qret m +¸e sre¬ eml qret
+r; mq ar ; rrm-rrm a=m = ¬t¤
lm;¬ emrl nr a-çr ¬ +çr l+
qr et m mr o emr, ¬t¤ lm; ;çr ç l
m¬ qret +r mro emr otl a=+
¤ro m¸ =o ¤ ¤e mel m ;t ar =r
=r¸e mq l m¬ o=rr m;t qret m
mr o emt ç¸ q ªrtl m ¬ ar¬ n+ ¤ç
mr o =rr et çt ¬çt l ar =r =rr e +;
o=rr nr rrst m ¤r; ¤¬ ªrl ar¬
m¸= +¸¤r = ¬t¤¬ ar¬omn çl
am;l=ç ¬rc
¤¸> ~t +r’rt;rm ¬rc
q-c;¬c ¤ ¬t-¬rm;¤r ¤; o=rr
¬rrr¤¸; ar~m m ¤r¬ ¤; ¤nrnr
arl=c¸nr- ~t +rrmt;ªr am-c: ¤”r lç=r; çl;nr¤rr + ;ç¤r=t çl ¤çe +rt e+¤ =mn
= ar;rrr¬r +;n ªr el+¬ +rq ¤rnor ¬çt ç¸arl e+ lo¬ =nrm¤’r m¸=o¤ +t ¤¤=rqc
o=rtl ¤¸;t ¤¤=rqc o=r¬ + ¤ro m¬ m a=tm ‘rrln lmet nr m¸=o¤ +t ¤rcr l¬+re +;
rnr¬ ‘r¸= l+nr nr rnr¬ + or;r¬ =¤n· çt nrlm+ l+nre ‘r¸= çr mql a=tm =r¸’rt ç¸ql
¤ +rr;n ar+; m¸=o¤ + o’r¬ +;¬r ¤rçn çl z:.as.zatz
ar=c¸lenr- ~tmnt +rnr loret ;ç¤r=t l¤ee tc ¤”rr = ar=c¸lenr m ;ç ;çt çl e+
lo¬ a¤r¬+ ¬t ¬rm;¤r ¤; m¸=o¤ +r +rn+m o=rrl a-çr¬ ¤nrnr l+ ¤çet ¤r; arrmr
m ‘rrln +t ¤rl¤n ç¸ql +;t¤ e+ mrç = çt m¸=o¤ +r rnr¬ +; ;çt çl a-çr¬ ¤nrnr l+
a¬+ ¤·¤ ‘r;r¤ ¤ mr= + arot çr me ç ¬r m¸q ¤=o ¬çt çl m q=lee rnr¬ +; ;çt ç¸
l+ m; ¤·¤r +t ¤¸ln ¤oe ¬re ar; ¤ ‘rr+rçr;t çr ¬rel z¡.as.zatz
+rr¤¬m; (m¸¬;rn¸-
mr¬l=+ n¬r¤ m =¸rrr;
m¬ or =re ¤çe ct.¤t + ¤rmrm + mrrnm = m> ot¢rr et ªrtl nt¬-¤r; mçt¬ =
l¬nlmn rnr¬ e¤ alrr+ = alrr+ =mn m> ¬¤ +;¬r ‘r¸= l+nr ç, l¬== m; ¬t¤¬ m
a=tm ‘rrln er mq çl el+¬ +¸e =mn = m> ¬¤ ¤ rnr¬, are== + +r;¤r ¬çt +; ¤r
;çr ªrr, q=lee ¤çe m>¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ = +m er+r çrn ªr ar; a¤ ¤nror +; ;çr ç¸l q==
¤r¤ =re ¤¸;r¬r mr¬l=+ ;rm, ls¤’r¬ ot+ çr¬ + +mr; ¤; çl a¤ m¸q ¤¸¤r l¤’¤r= çr
mnr ç l+ nlo m l¬nlmn ¬rm-¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ +;nr ;ç¸>mr nr ¬rot çt ot+ çr ¬ramrl
çrªrt¬r;rn¤r ¬n=¸=r
¤erc ¬. za] e, +er’r =r=rnct,
mr’rrer + =rm¬, mr’rrer ;rs
+rr¤¬m; (m¸¬;rn¸
23
23
253

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=¤ ¤ ªrm m¸ =o ¤ + ~t ¤;¤rr m
m ;r +r lc-+r lc ¤ o¬ ¤ ¬m¬gl
m ;r ¬rm ;r¬+¸ mr;t c +¤r¬t
¤r¬t ~t a’rr + ¬t c +¤r¬t ç l m
;rn¤¸ ;( errt=mc ¸ +t l¬¤r=t ç¸ l
m ¬ s a¤ e zaas m m¸ =o ¤ = +r cr
(;r¬.¸ m ot¢rr et ªrtl m¸ q c-: =re
¤çe ‘r¸ m; çr mq ªrtl ‘r¸ m; :ca-::a
n+ ;çnt ªrtl ‘r¸ m; + =rªr m ¤tlenr
+rt çr mnr ªrrl m¸ q nt¬r =mn =rr¬r
=rr¬ = ¤çe q -=¸ le¬ + q ¬ +’r¬
emr¬ ¤s n ªr l nç l=ªrln nt¬-¤r;
=re n+ ¤¬t ;çtl
m ¬ =rr¬ -¤t¬ +r ¤ç¸ n
+c¸re l+nr nªrr o¤rqnr +rt et,
l¤; +rt ‘r¸m; +c¸re ¬çt çrnr ªrrl
¤; + or¬r am¸or m rrr¤ ¤s mn
ªrl am¸o +rc¬ +t l=ªrn ar mq
ªrtl l¤; m¸=o¤ = ot¢rr + ¤ro
m¬ =¸¤ç-’rrm t: lm¬c rnr¬ ¤
=rr¬ ¬rm ¬¤ ‘r¸= +; lonrl m;t
‘r¸m; ¬rme ar mql m; ¤; +rt
ot+ çr mnl
+¸ e =mn ¤ro ¤r¤= m ;t
‘r¸m; ¤c mq nªrr ¡aa n+ ¤ç¸¤
mql mm; a== m¸q n+et¤ ¬çt
çr nt ªrtl =¤ +¸ e mtor, are¸ ,
¤r¤e =¤ =rrnt ªrtl nr l¬= n;ç
rrr¤t +¤s rrrnr ç ar; =r;r me
‘r¸m; (srnl¤ct¬¸ =
23
23
254
¤rç; l¬+e ¬rnr ç a=t n;ç m;t
‘r¸m; +rt rrt;-rrt; m;t ¬=-¬= =
¤rç; l¬+e mql l¤; m¸q rr¸c¬r
m oo ç¸ar nr m e+ ¬mç rr¸c¬r
m mrle’r +;¤r¬ mql a= lo¬ =
oo ¤ç¸n ¤c¬ emrl a= aromt ¬
m¸q o¸=; ç¤n l¤; ¤¸e¤rnr ªrrl
o¸=; ç¤n +rt a=¬ m; rr¸c¬r +t
mrle’r +tl a=+ ¤ro m ;r oo
¤ç¸ n ¤c mnr ar ; m ;r ¤e¬r,
l¤;¬r m¸l’+e çr mnr, rr¸c¬r +rt
¬çt m¸snr ªrrl
Toilet ¬r¬ m +rt ¤ç¸ n
¤;’rr¬ çrnt ªrtl m¬ m¸=o¤ =
+=¤r ¤rªr¬r +t nr nr m;r oo
ot+ +; or nr m¸ q m¸ l+n o or , ¤ç
l=ªrln or mlç¬ n+ ¤¬t ;çtl
l¤; m ¬ a¤¬t ¤ ct ;¤¬r
=r¸ ¤¤ or¬t ¬r +r cr m ;çnt ç
ar ; m¸ =o ¤ = otl¢rn ç m ¬ a=+r
a¤¬t l=ªrln ¤nrql a=¬ m¸q
+çr l+ oror m¸ =o ¤ +t ar =rr
m o=rn ç¸e =r¸et ar=rr = ¬rm
¬¤ +;rl e=r m¬ l=¤ or ¤+n
l+nr-=¸ ¤ç-’rrml o¸ =; lo¬ =¸ ¤ç
=rr¬ ¬rm ¬¤ +;n ç¸e m¬ o=rr
m¸=o¤ m; l=; = l+=t +r¸n +r ¤r.
er = ¤+s+; l¬+re ;ç ªr ar;
a=t ¢r¤r m; rr¸c¬ +r oo mrn¤
çr mnrl m¬ a=t =mn ¤rªr=m
m ¬r+; ¤o +; o=rr, l+ m; ¤;
a·et n;ç = m¸s ;ç ªr ar; m¸q
+rq oo ¬çt çr ;çr ªrrl
a¤ m ¤¸¤r =¤=ªr ç¸l m;t ¤ct
¬ e+ lo¬ ¤çe rnr¬ m m; lee
m¸ =o ¤ = +=¤r ¤ rªr ¬r +t nr
rnr¬ + or;r¬ m¸=o¤ ¬ +çr n;t
mr +r= + ¤r= ¬remt nr +”c nr
çrmr, o;a=e ¤ç mrle’r ¤rer
¤r¤r nrl>+ ªrrl a=¬ m; a¤;
+¸e met l+nre +; otl m;t =+rt
= nçt ¤rªr¬r ç l+ =¤ +¸e ers
+; m¸=o¤ +t ‘r;¤r m ¤¸¤r =m¤¤r
+; or ar ; + ¤e m¸ =o ¤ gr;r ¤nre
me m > +r çt =rr¬ ¬¤ +;r l a==
ar¤+ ¬t¤¬ +t =+rt =m=nrar
+r çe çr ¬remrl nç =mq m¸q
¤;’rrl¬nr qe¬ + ¤ro m arq
l+ çm a¤¬t ~çr ªrrsr-ªrrsr
+rrm =¤+r çt ¤rc on ç, q=lee
¤;’rrl¬nr +r =rm¬r +;¬r ¤snr
çl =¤=¤ m¸=o¤ +r a¤¤r +;¬ +
¤ro ar¬ ¤ret ¤;’rr¬t, ¤;’rr¬t
=¤ m lo=rnt çt ¬çtl
- ;r¬+¸mr;t ¤r¬t ~t a’rr+ c .
l¬= ¤+r; ¬m+ +r cer ¬e m rr¸e ¬r¬ ¤; l¤; ¬>r = lo=rrq ¬çt onr ç l+-n¸ +¤e
l¬çg¤r gr;r çt ¤=rr ¬r =+nr ç, a=t ¤+r; pon + a-n; m ¤¤rlçn l¬rn ¤g, ¤r@ ql-qnr
gr;r ¬çt ¬r¬r ¬r =+nr, +¤e l=ç m¸= +t q= a¬¸m礸¤r açn¸ +t +¸¤r ¤ a¬+t lo·n ¤r¤rt
gr;r çt ¬r¬r =+nr ç-
''n¸ ¤r=n¤ m ¤çt ¤g ç, ql-qnmr¤; ¬mng ¬çtl
l=ç m¸= +r arºrrt¤ro

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
e+ ¤r; mçl”r ·nr= ¬ a¤¬
¤¸> ‘r¸+ +r alnm ot¢rr + lee
;r¬r ¬¬+ + ¤r= +r¬rl ‘r¸+ are
ar; ;r¬+r¤¬ + gr; ¤; l¬l¤+r;
+rr¤ = =rs çr mel +r¤t o; ¤ro
e+ ·nl+n ¬ e+ ar=¬ ;=r
lonrl ‘r¸ + a= ¤; ¤ o mel or
lo¬ n+ ¤rç; çt ¤o ;çl l+=t ¬
a¬= nçr n+ ¬çt ¤¸ er l+ l+==
lme¬r ç, +nr +rm ç, ¤; ‘r¸+
qrmt¬r¬ = ¤o ;çl nt=; lo¬
e+ m>t arnr ar; a-ç ;r¬+.
r¤¬ + ao; e mnrl
¤çr +rt a-ç +q lo¬r n+
a+e ;ç¬r ¤srl ¤çr a-ç =+rt
;r¬=t =¸=r-=¸l¤rrre ot mq, n¤
l o ¬ r +
t :]a:]zat t
+ r
=ogm¸ =o ¤
~t ;rmere
¬t l =nr m
+t ¤t . =t .
st. emr+;
l’rmr mr ‘rr=rr m ¤ r m rm ;=rr mnrl
¤¸; lo¬ +q +r+nr ¬ ar+; rnr¬
=rrr¬r +t ar ; +q +r+nr +r
nrlm+ l+nr ç¸ql
l’rmrmr ‘rç; m lo¬r lo¬ +r+nr
+t ==nr +rt ¤c ;çt çl m m¸=o¤
= nçt ¤rªr¬r +;nr ç¸ l+ l’rmrmr
ç¤crqlc= ¤t ot+ ç¸ar
‘rç; m +rt ¤nror = ¤nror erm
q= o’r¬ = =¤= çrl
m¸q Hepites B +t ¤tmr;t çr
mnt, ¤tmr;t = ¤çe m;r ¤¬¬ :c
l+erm rm ªrrl ¤tmr;t + +r;¤r m ;r
¤¬¬ rrcn-rrcn :z l+er n+ ar
mnr ªrrl +q a=¤nre + sr +c;r
+ ¤r= qer¬ + lee mnrl mm;
sr+c;r +t e+ çt =erç ªrt l+
q=+r +r q +r;m; qer t
çl a¬+t ¤rnr = m¸q ar+rr= çr
nr l+ a¤ m ¤nror am ¬çt ¬t
=+¸mrl
¤ro m m¸q ¤nr ¤er l+ m¸=
l=nrm + gr;r lonr mn m> +
¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ +;¬ =, m =¤=ªr çr
=+nr ç¸l m¬ =ogm¸= l=nrm
+t ¤tlsnr =t. st. = m> lenr
ar; m ¤lnlo¬ =¸¤ç-’rrm rnr¬
emr ;çr ç¸l rnr¬ + or;r¬ a=tm
ar¬o +t a¬¸+r¸ln çr¬ emtl m¸q
¤¸;r l¤º¤r= çr mnr l+ a¤ ¬t¤¬
arnrrm + ¤ªr ¤; am=; çr ¤¸+r
ç, ar; m¸=o¤ + =¬t¤¬t m> ¬
mrn +r mrn o otl a¤ m l¤r+¸e
=¤=ªr ç¸l m;r ¤¬¬ +rt ¤r¤= :z
l+er = ¤c +; c: l+er ar mnr
çl a¤ m¸=+¸¤r = m =¤=ªr ¬t¤¬
23
23
255
alnm ot¢rr
+rt a¬+ ·n¤çr; m +r q a n;
lo=rrq ¬çt lonrl ¬ = ¤çe ªr ¤ =
a¤ +rt ªrl an m e+ m>t a-ç
;r¬r ¬¬+ + ¤r= e mnrl ¬¬+
¬ a-ç ¤r¬t = e¤re¤ e+ +e’r
on ç¸e +çr, 'q= e+; ;r¬+r¤¬
+ =rn ¤++; emrar l rnr¬
;=r¬r l+ e+ ¤¸o +rt ee+¬ ¬
¤rel'
‘r¸+ ¬ +e’r e+; ;r¬+r¤¬
+r ¤++; emrnr, l¤; ¬¬+ +
¤r= ¬r+; +çr, 'mçr;r¬, ar¤ +
aro’rr¬¸=r; e+ ¤¸o +rt ¤r¬t ¬çt
ee+rl' a¬+ ¤ç; ¤; =nr”r +r
+rr¤ lo=rrq lonrl ¬¬+ ¬ +e’r
en ç¸e +çr, ' ¤cr, ·nr= m¸l¬ ¬
l¬= ot¢rr + lee n¸ +ç +r ¬r ç , ¤ç
¤¸;r çr mnrl n¸+ç a¤ ar; qr¬
+t ar¤’n+nr ¬çt çl' ‘r¸+ ¬
+çr,'¤; m¬ nr e=r +¸e l+nr çt
¬çt l¬== ar¤+r m;r ar+e¬
+;¬ +r a¤=; lmenrl ¬¬+
¬ +çr, 'm e+ =¤nrç = n¸+çr;t
¤;t¢rr çt e ;çr ªrrl m¬ o=rr +t
o¸·=r ar; =¸=r or¬r o’rr m n¸+çr;
ao; l+=t n;ç +r +rr¤ ar¤-¬
¬çt ç¸arl n¸m¬ a¤¬ ·n¤çr; =
l=ç +; lonr l+ mrç-mrnr, +r.
rr, er+r, aç+r; ar; =¸=r-o¸·=r
arlo =+rt l¤+r;r ¤; n¸m¬ l¤¬n
¤r¤n +; et çl m¬ +t e+rmnr çt

+çr¬t

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
= ¤
¤ ª r m m
a¤¬ =mªr
=ogm¸ =o ¤
~t ;rmere
¬t l=nrm ¤
oror m¸ =o ¤
¤ r ¤ r ~ t
mmrq ¬rªr ¬t + ¤r¤¬ ¤;¤rr m
=ro; ¤¤rrm +;nt ç¸ l¬-çr¬ m¸q
¬nr ¬t¤¬ ¤or¬ l+nrl
mr¤ zatz m m ; a¤r¬+
¬+=t; arq nr çm¬ ;rn¤¸ ; a=¤.
ere m sr . +r lo=rrnr e l+¬
¤çr ¤; +rq l¤’r”r ¤rnor ¬çt
ç¸arl l¤; m¸q a¬m; a=¤nre
e+; me, ¤çr ¤; sr+c; ¬ m¸ç
m mro ¤nrq ar; a=¬ =rn lo¬
+r qer¬ lonr ¤ +çr l+ =rn lo¬
m =¸ ¬¬ an; ¬remtl =rn lo¬
¤ro ¤r¤= ¬r¤ +;¤r¬rl n+et¤
¤cnt mq el+¬ +rq ¤+ ¬çt
¤s rl m ;t ¤ts r ¤c nt çt ¬r ;çt ªrtl
m;nr +nr ¬ +;nr, m¸ q ¬r rr¤¸ ; m
sr+c; lo·nr +rr;nt =re+t ¬r
¬r+, +r¬ ¤ mer ;rm l¤’r”rq
ç a¬+r lo=rrnrl nmrm ¬r¤r +
¤ro a=¬ + =; ¤nrnr ¤ ar ¤; ’r¬
+;r¬ +t =erç otl
l¤; çm ¬n¤¸; me, ¤çr ¤;
sr+c; =t. +. +re; +r lo=rrnr
ar ; a=¬ ar ¤; ’r¬ +; mr o
l¬+ret ¤ ¬r¤ + lee +r¬tl ¬r¤
+=; = m¸l+n
23
23
256
m ¤¸¤r +=; ¤nrnr l¤; a-çr¬
ªrt q=cs +=; ¤nrnr ¤ ;lsnr
ªr;¤t + lee ;¤; l+nrl l¤; çm
rr; ¤r¤= ar me ¤ =r¤¬ em l+
¬r rr¤¸ ; +;re nr ¤t+r¬ ;l l¤;
m; mr¤ + ar;nme ¬t ¤rmst
+ ¤r= me ¤ a¬= ¤t+r¬ ; m
sr+c; +r ¤nr ¤¸er ¤ =rªr ¤e¬
+ lee +çr nr a-çr¬ +çr l+
ar¤+t mrnr¬t +r +=; ç nr m
ar¤+r e+ ;rn onr ç¸l a-çr¬
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t
l=nrm + l=çnrm o’r¬ +t =¤¸¤
r ¬r¬+r;t ot nªrr ¤nrnr l+ ar¤
¬r rr¤¸ ; ¬r+; m¸ =o ¤ = ot¢rr e er
nr +=; ot+ çr ¬remrl ar; ‘rrm
+r a¬+ rr; ¬r+; çm¬ m¸ =o ¤ +t
n=¤t; = rnr¬ l+nr a=t lo¬ m;
m¸ç = ¬r;or; =r¸¬ ¤ç¬ emrl m;
¤¸; ¤l;¤r; ¤re rr¤;r me ar; m¸q
¤r¤= ¬n¤¸; a=¤nre e mel ¤çr
sr+c; ¬ ¤r¤= ¤¸;t ¬r¤ + ¤ro
+çr l+ ar¤;’r¬ nr ot+ çl
l¤; m; m¬ m l¤¤r; arnr
l+ m¸=o¤ +t +¸¤r = =r¸¬ + gr;r
m;t ¤tmr;t l¬+e mq ar; ¬rot
çt ot¢rr e¬ +t =r¤tl l¤; çm
=¤l;¤r; m¸=o¤ + ar~m ¤ç¸¤,
a=+ ¤ro ot+ c·:a ¤¬ ¤¸ ¤n
m¸ =o ¤ ¤rrr; l ¬ = çt m¸ =o ¤ +
o’r¬ ç¸e nr m; ;rmc =rs çr me
ar; m¬ çt m¬ ar¤r¬ arq l+
~t +rm¤r¬ ¤rrr; me ç ar ; q¬+t
‘r;¤r m q¸+ ¬r nnr; çr ¬remtl
l¤; m¸=o¤ ¬ =+rt +r lo·n m>
=¸¬rnr ar; rnr¬ +;¤rnrl l¤;
¤;¤r-=¤’r + lee m¸q e ¬rnr
mnr ¬= çt m m¸=o¤ + ¤;¤rr m
q¸ +t mr¬r =r;r o¸ ·=r +r¸ e mq ar ;
m¬ çt m¬ ¤rªr¬r +;¬ emt l+ ç
m¸=o¤ m¸q ot+ +; o¬rl
l¤; m¸ =o ¤ ¬ m¸ q lo·n
ar’rt¤ro lonr ar; +çr l+ ¬rm
¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ +;¬r ot+ çr ¬rar mt
l l¤; çm rr; ar me ar; =rr¬
¬rm ¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ l+nr, l¬==
ar¬ m ¤¸¤r =¤=ªr ç¸l m¸q rnr¬
m oror m¸=o¤ + o’r¬ çrn çl
m m¸=¤¸l¤rmr +r ar~m ¤ç¸¤t nr
a¤r; +rts ªrt ¤ e+¤t erq¬ ¤¬t
ç¸ q ªrtl m ¤;¤r-=¤’r +;¬r ¤rçnt
ªrt ¤;-n¸ erq¬ m =rs ;ç¬r m;
¤= +t ¤rn ¬çt ªrt ¤ m¸=o¤ =
¤rªr¬r +t nr m¸=o¤ ¬ m¸q =rtrrr
çt ¤;¤rr m ¤¸er lenr ar; lo·n
ar’rt¤ro lonrl
a¤ m ¤¸ ¤r =¤=ªr ç¸ +r q o¤rq
mr et ¬çt e ;çt ç¸ l l=¤ ¬rm ¬¤
¤ rnr¬ +;nt ç¸ , l¬== m¸ q lo·n
ar¬-o lmenr ç ar ; =¸ =rmn
¬t¤¬ ¬t ;çt ç¸ l rr; m =r;r +rm
+rt +;nt ç¸ l m ; ¤çe ¬r;+tn
¬t¤¬ +r +r¸ er+; ¤¸ ¤r =¤ = m¸ =o ¤
l=nrm + ¤;¤rr m rnr¬ emr +;
- =-n +¤t;
=¸;¬ ¤m+ lo¬ ¤cgnr, a; ¤or ¤m+ ;rnl
= nr ;r =ng a¬er , ¤m+ lo¬ a; ;rnll

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
~t =ogm¸ =o ¤ +r +r lc-+r lc
¬m¬gl
m;r ¬rm
+¸ ”¤rr mt¬r
ae¤; +t
;ç¬ ¤ret ç¸l
¤nmr¬ m m
+¸ s t +rmnr.
=¬t çral=m
¤r s ¬r rr¤¸ ; m l¬¤r= +;nt ç¸
nªrr ;r¬=ªrr¬ =;+r; + mlçer
e¤ ¤re l¤+r= l¤+rrm m mlçer
¤n¤¢r+ + ¤o ¤; +rn;n ç¸l
m¬ t: a¤e tss: +r ¤¸¤n
=ogm¸ =o ¤ = ‘rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr
¤r¤n +tl ot¢rr = ¤¸¤ m mlonr
;rm = ml=n ªrtl mlonr ;rm +
+r;¤r m ;r ¬t¤¬ ¤o-= -¤on;
çr mnr ªrrl m ¬tn ¬t ¬;+ +rrm
;çt ªrtl a= =mn m; or erc ¤·¤
(es+t ts mrç ¤ es+r : ¤”r¸
ªrl l¬-ç m =+rre ¤r¬ m a=mªr
ªrt +nr l+ m ; or ¬r çrªrr +t
am¸lenr cst çr+; m¸s mq ªrtl
rr¸c¬r nªrr c=r¬r m ¤ç¸n oo ¤
=¸¬¬ ;çnt ªrtl l¬=+ +r;¤r m;r
ao¬r-¤o¬r nªrr ¤e¬r m¸l’+e
çr ;çr ªrrl m ol¬+ +rn +r +;n
ç¸e oo = +;rç aont ªrtl m; ¤ln
¬=-n= =+rren ªrl m; ¤ln +-q
=;+r; m =¤r;n ç ¤r alrr+n;
=mn +rnr en = a¤+r’r ¤;
;ç+; m;r qer¬ +;¤rn ;çn ªrl
m;t a¤=ªrr lo¬ ¤; lo¬ l¤msnt
¬r ;çt ªrtl m;r =¤¤ªrm qer¬
M.G.H. m sr. +rc¬¸ = +;¤rnr
nr a-çr¬ q= c=c +;¬ + lee
mlonr = m¸l+n
+çrl l;¤rc = ¤nr ¤er l+ m¸q
mlonr ç l a-çr ¬ em+rm nt¬
mçt¬ n+ qer¬ l+nr ¤;-n¸ m¸q
+¸e +rt er+r ¬çt ç¸arl o¤rqnr
+ e¬ = m¸q oo +m çr ¬rnr ªrrl
nt¬ mçt¬ ¤ro qer¬ ¤-o l+nr
nr ar; çren =r;r¤ çr mql ¬¤
m ‘rrer¤n m ¤o ¬rnt nr ao¬r
¤ç¸n çt m¸l’+e çr ¬rnrl m ‘rr¤
=r¤ +;¬ n+ m +r¤ aont ªrt,
q= o’rr +r ¤¤r ¬, e+ mlçer çr ¬
+ ¬rn ar; ¬çt +; =+ntl m;
¤ln çt m¸ q +¤s ¤ç¬rn ªr l ment
= +çt am¸lenr ot¤r; = nr ¤em
nr l+=t +rt ¤=n¸ = c+;r ¬rnt ªrt
nr +rn+; oo çrnr ªrrl
sr . +rc ¬¸ + ¤ro çm¬ ¬n¤¸ ;
‘rrçt arn¸ ¤ o = =ªrr¬ (+rr;n
=;+r;¸ + ¤o;r¬ ¬mot’r ¤=ro
¤mr = qer¬ e¬r ‘r¸= l+nrl ¤.
r;++r m a¬+ qer¬ +r er+r çrnr
mnr, ¤;-n¸ ¤ro m qer¬ l=ªr; çr
mnrl em+rm ¡a ¤ln’rn ¤rno =
¤nror er+r ¬çt ç¸ arl m ¬ c mçt¬
n+ qer¬ lenrl çm ¬r rr¤¸ ; = ç;
t: lo¬ ¤ro m ¬n¤¸; ¬rn ªrl
q=+ ¤ro çm¬ ;t m= m
¤ o;r¬ ;rm ’¤; ¤ =ro ‘rmr =
arn¸¤o qer¬ lenrl ¤r arn¸¤o
+ ¤ l=ç l¤l+r=+ ªr l a¬= çm¬
e· mçt¬ qer¬ +;¤rnrl e· ml.
ç¬ m a-çr¬ ‘r;t; +t =¸¬¬ ot+
+; ot nªrr ¬rsr +r oo +m +;
lonr el+¬ q== ¤nror ¤r +¸e
¬çt +; ¤rnl
an· ªr+çr; +; aon¤¸ ;
¤r+¸ln+ l¤l+r=ren (;r¬=ªrr¬
=;+r;¸ qer¬ + lee mn l qer¬
+ ¤ro ¬¤ +r q l¤’r ”r ar;rm
¬çt arnr nr çm o¤t-o¤nrar
+ ¤++; m ar mnl çmr; o¤nr
+rrlmnr¬t ¬r ae¤; + a+¤;¤¸;
m ç, a-çr¬ +çr o¤nrar +r¸nr
+r ¤++; ¬çt ç, nç e+ ;rm ç
sr+c;r +r lo=rrarl q= or;r¬
m a¤¬t ¬r+;t ¤; ¬çt ¬r =+nt
ªrtl ¬r+;t l¤¬r ¤n¬ çr ;çt ªrt,
m; ¤ln m; =rªr sgn¸ct ¤; ;çn
ªrl rr; +t arlªr+ l=ªrln ¤;m;r
;çt ªrtl
q-çt lo¬r a¤ e tss: +r
¬¤;rl> m m; ¤ln ¬ ‘rl+n¤rn
ot¢rr +r e+ l¤qr¤¬ o=rr ar;
m¸ q ¤nrnr l+ ¤çr l¬·’r¸ r+
rnr¬ nrm l’rl¤; çl m¸=¤r; +r
¤e m +nr ¤nr +¸ e ¤rnor çr
¬rel çm¬ =¤l;¤r; t: a¤e tss:
m¸=¤r; +t ‘rrm +r mrrrt mor¬
¬rrr¤¸; ot¢rr etl ¬¤ m¸=o¤ ¬
l=çnrm o’r¬ +t ¬r¬+r;t o+;
m> ¤nr+; rnr¬ +;rnr nr m¸q
a=t =mn rnr¬ em mnrl m ;
çrªr ¤;r m ¬¤o=n ++¤¬ çr¬
eml m;t +m; ¬r ªrrst q¸++;
;ç¬ emt ªrt ¤r a¤¬ ar¤ n¬+;
=trrt çr mql q=+ ¤ro m rr; m
l¬nlmn ar;rrr¬r +;¬ em mql
t: lo¬ m z:-:a ¤ln’rn ot+ çr
mq ln;ç-n;ç + ¬¸ rn, ++¤¬,
aee¬r, ¤¸ o+¬r, ¤ r¤rrnrm,
ar=¬ arlo çr¬ eml nt¬ mçt¬
m :a ¤ ln’rn ot+ çr mq l q= n;ç
~t m¸=o¤ +t +¸¤r = e· mçt¬ m,
m ¤¸¤r =¤=ªr çr mql m; ¤·¤r +r
23
23
257
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
l¤-nr, +e’r, n¬r¤ = m¸+n
çr mnrl a¤ ¤e-¤e, ¤m-¤m ¤;
~t m¸=o¤ +t +¸¤re ¤;=nt ç, m
¬çrnt ç¸ ar; ar-¬lon çrnr ç
¤¸;r ¤l;¤r;l ¤r +r¬ ç, +nr ç,
+nr o on çl q=+ lee ‘r-o ¬çt
ç l ¤¸ lç +r qr¬ ar¤ ç l m¸ =o ¤, m
ar¤+r ‘r-or m ¬çt ¤rrr =+ntl
ar¤+r a¬-n +rlc ¬m¬g
l=e¤ ls=+
mlonr ¤rn + +r;¤r m ;r
‘r;t; +m¬r ; çr nr ¬r ;çr ªrrl
m¸q sr+c; ¬ ¤nrnr l+ ar¤+r
arl=cnr ¤r =rl== çr mnr ç an·
ar¤ ¤nror l¤¬r =çr; + ¬ ¤e
nªrr aon ¤ on =r¤rrr¬t ¤;n l m ;
¤ln m¸q sr. mrªr¸; + nçr e+;
mn nr a-çr¬ +çr l+ ar¤+r
l=e¤ ls=+ çr mnr çl sr. ¬ m¸q
+q ¤+r; +t e+=; =rq¬ ¤nrq
¤ o¤rq nr o otl m m¸ =o ¤ +r rnr¬
+; ;çt ªrt nr m¸q =¤n· nrm m
¤ çt l+nre a¤¬ ar¤ çr¬ emt
¬r sr+c; m¸q ¤¸lç = +;¬ +r
+ç ;ç ªr q== m;r l¤’¤r= ar;
mç;r çr mnr l+ m¸=o¤ +t ‘rl+n
l+= ¤ +r; m ;t =çrnnr +; ;çt ç l
rrt;-rrt; =¤n· nrlm+ l+nrar =
l=e¤ ls=+ ot+ çr mnrl
m; arm + orn lçen ªr ¬¤
m rnr¬ m ¤ont nr m; a¤; ¬t¤
+ orn ar¤= m l¤e+¸e ¬r; =
l+r¤ ¬rn ªrl q= ¤+r; rnr¬ +
or;r¬ nç l+nr l¬nlmn =¤ =
çrnt e+ or mrç ¤’¤rng m; orn
lçe¬r ¤o çr mnl a¤ orn ¤¸;t
n;ç =¤=ªr çl
m¸q ¤ç¸n ¤nror ¬¸+rm ;çnr
ªrr nªrr ¬r+- m¸ç = ¤ç¸n ¤nror
+¤ arnr ªrrl ¡-: ¤”rr = m q=
;r m = ¤tls n ªrtl m m¸ =o ¤ =
+=¤r ¤¸+r; +;nt nr m¸q ¬r+
+t nrlm+ l+nre çrnt ªrtl q=
¤+r; ar¬ m ¬¸+rm = ¤¸;t n;ç
m¸+n ç¸l
m; ¤re :a ¤”r +t a¤=ªrr
m =¤o çr¬ em mn ªrl m¸q ¤r.
er +t l¤l+r-¬ ¤+r; +t nrlm+
l+nre çrnt ªrtl rrt;-rrt; ¤rer
+ =¤o çr¬ +t mln +m çr mq
¤ ¤re-rr¬ çr mn nªrr m; ¤re
+rt qs¬r =+ mnl
q= ¤+r; m¸=+¸¤r = a¬snr
rr; ar¤ro çr mnrl ar¬ çm
=¸=rmn ¬t¤¬ ¬t ;ç çl
~tmnt +¸”¤rr mt¬r
¤ln~t ¤¸¤rme mt¤rr
+rm¤r¬g + q¬ a¤nr;r +t +¸¤r e¤ =çrnnr l¤¬r +rm¤r¬gg + 'o’r¬'
l+=t +rt m¬¸”n ¬ ¬çt l+n çl çm q’¤; +r o=r ¬çt =+nl nlo çm q’¤;
+r o=r¬ +r ¤nr¬ +;n ç nr çm q’¤; +t e+ l¤+¸n ar; +rnr¬+ ar+¸ln
¤¬r sren çl e+ +ªrr ç l+ e+ aqr¬t m¬¸”n = +rm¤r¬g l’r¤ +t rrrn¸ +t
m¸ln ¤¬r¬ + lee +çr mnrl ¤ç +q lo¬r n+ ¤nr¬ +;nr ;çr ar; a-n m
a=¬ e+ ¤r¬; +t ¤lnmr ¤¬r sretl q=t ¤+r; ¬¤ ++rt çm +rm¤r¬g +t
m¸ln ¤¬r¬ +r ¤nr¬ +;n ç, n¤ çm a¬+r e+ l¤+¸n ar+r; çt ¤¬r ¤rn ç,
+nrl+ ¬¤ n+ çm m¬¸”n ç, n¤ n+ çm +rm¤r¬g +r m¬¸”n = ¤c+; ar;
+¸ e =mq çt ¬çt =+n l e =r =mn a¤’n aremr, ¬¤ çm a¤¬t mr¬¤-¤ +¸ ln
+r ¤r; +;+ arm ¤c ¬rem ar; a= =mn çm q’¤; +r ¬=r ¤ç ç ¤=r çt
¬r¬ ¤reml
¬¤ n+ çm m¬¸”n ç n¤ n+ nr çm m¬¸”n-=¤ m çt q’¤; +t ar;rrr¬r,
q’¤; +t ¤¸¬r +;¬t çrmtl ¤rn ¤rç ¬=t +;r, ¤nr¬ ¤rç ¬=r +;r, n¸m
¤;mrrmr +r m¬¸”n + alnl;+n a-n l+=t =¤ m o=r çt ¬çt =+nl
23
23
258
mr¬¤ =¤ m q’¤;-a¤nr;

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+r ªrr¬ ¬rrr¤¸; m ·n¤=ªrr¤+ ç¸l
m¸= +¸¤r = ¬t¤¬ ar¬-omn ¤e
;çr çl ¤çe m ºr;r¤ +r arot ªrr,
ç; =mn ºr;r¤ + ¬ºr m ;çnr ªrrl
er mr = l¤¬r +r;¤r qmsnr ;çnr
ªrrl m¸= ¿¤r = ar¬ ºr;r¤ m¸+n
ç¸l nªrr ¤¸lrr ¤l;¤n¬ çr¬ = e=r
¤oer¤ ar mnr l+ ºr;r¤ l¤n
ç¸e ·nl+n + ¤r= n+ ¬çt ¤o
=+nrl m;t nçt ;rn ç l+ '¤çer
=¸ =r l¬;r mt +rnr' +çr¤n +r
nlo ¤l;nrªr o=r¬r ¤rçn çr nr
o¸l¬nr m +¤e mr> e+ çt =ªrr¬
çl ¤¸¤n m¸=o¤ ~t ;rmere ¬t +
¤;¤rr m ¬m¬l m;t ¤tmr;t +¤e
mr> m¸=o¤ gr;r lon m> ¬r¤ ¤
rnr¬ = ot+ ç¸ql
- ;rmr;rm ¤ce (am :s ¤¤r¸
·n¤=ªrr¤+
ºrl¬º¤;¬t ªrr¬,
¤r¤r=¬t ;rs, ¬rrr¤¸;
=¤ ¤ ªrm m =ogm¸ =o ¤ +
¤;¤rr m ¤r;+¤r; ¬m¬g +;nr ç¸
l¬¬+t n=¤t; +r rnr¬ ¤ ¬rm ¬¤
= m;t ¤ªr;t ot+ çr mql m +r;n
mt¤rr e¬-c +rcr +r l¬¤r=t ç¸l
+;t¤ e+ ¤”r ¤çe m¬ =t st +
mrrnm = ot¢rr et ªrtl l m¸ q l+=t
m¸= +rrq ¬ ¤rcr = rnr¬ +;¬
+r +çrl a-çr¬ m¸q m¸=o¤ +t
¤rcr o+;, rnr¬ +t l¤lrr ¤nr+;
t: lm¬c =¸¤ç-’rrm rnr¬ +;¬
+r +çrl m¬ a¬+t ¤rn mr¬ +;
l¬nlmn ¬rm ¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ l+nr nr
+;t¤ ¤t= lo¬ ¤ro ¤’rr¤ + mrm
¤ªr;t +r ar¤;’r¬ cer
= ¤ªr;t + or c¸+s l¬+el m¬
a= +rm¬ +t ¤¸st m ¤rrr+; ;=r
lonrl ¬¤ m¬ nç ¤rn m; ¤l;¤r;
¤ ¤srl=nr +r ¤nrq nr a-ç +rt
nç ¬r¬+; ar’¤n ç¸arl +nrl+
¤çe m q= ;r m = ¤; ’rr¬ ªrr
l¬¬+t ¬r¬+r;t ¤¸; mr¤ +r ªrtl
¤’rr¤ m ¬e¬ çrnt ªrt nªrr ¤c +
e+ +rrm m oo çrnr ªrrl sr+c; ¬
ar¤;’r¬ +t =erç ot ªrtl ¤;-n¸
¤t; ¤rs + s; ¤ ¤nror =r¤
+ +r;¤r m¬ m¬r +; lonrl oo
l¬¤r;¤r + lee =¸¤ç-’rrm mret
=rr enr ªrrl ¤;-n¸ +¸e lo¬r ¤ro
¤çt n+et¤ ¤rl¤= çr ¬rnt ªrtl
e l+¬ =rr¬ ¬rm-¬¤ ¤
l¬nlmn rnr¬ = m ; ¤ªr;t +r
ar¤;’r¬ ce mnr ar¬ m l¤e.
+¸ e ot+ ç¸ l m ¤çe l+=t ¤ +c¸ t m
m¬o¸;t +;nr ªrrl ot¢rr + ¤ro çt
m L.I.C. m m¸= +¸¤r = arnr ç¸l
m =+rt = nçt +ç¬r ¤rçnr ç¸
l+ e= +rr;ntn nrm o’r¬ = er+r
aorn , ¬r ç; mr¬¤ +r ¬nr ¬t¤¬
or¬ onr çl
+r;n mt¤rr
m rm - + ¤;¤¸ ;r (rrr+s
23
23
259
m
¬-m = çt
¤ º r r ¬¸ mn
¤ ¤ r = t ;
(m== ¸ +t
n+et¤ =
¤tls n ªrrl
o¤rq nr +rt
enr ;çnr ªrr, el+¬ +rq ¤+
¬çt ¤s rl l¤; m ¬ sr +c; +r
lo=rrnrl nr sr+c; ¬ +çr l+
ar¤+r ar¤;ºr¬ +;¤r¬r ¤smrl
m¬ sr. = ¤¸er l+ ar¤;ºr¬ =
;rm ot+ çr ¬remr ? l¤; ;r m
¤r¤= ¬çt çrmr? nr sr. =rç¤ ¬
+çr l+ ¤r¤= çr +rt ¬r¤ ar ; ¬çt
+rt çr, +¸e +çr ¬çt ¬r =+nrl
l¤; m l¤¬r ar¤;ºr¬ +;rn çt
¤¤r=t; (m==r¸ ¤ ºr;r¤ = e¸c+r;r
rr; ar mnrl tssz nr tss: +t ¤rn
ç, l+=t ¬ ¤¸¤n =ogm¸=o¤ ~t
;rmere ¬t l=nrm +t ºrl+n¤rn
ot¢rr + ¤r; m ¤nrnr l+ m¸=o¤
+r rnr¬ +;¬ = =+rt ;rm ot+ çr
¬rn ç nr m ¬ m¸ =o ¤ = ot¢rr e +;
rnr¬ emr¬r ºr¸= l+nrl l¬nlmn
¬rm ¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ = m¸q =¤n· çt
nrm çr¬ emrl ar; q= ¤tsr =
m =or-=or + lee m¸+n çr mnrl
a=+ ¤ro m; ar¬ lo¬r+ :.:.as
n+ +rq n+et¤ ¬çt ç¸q nªrr m
ar¬ m¸=+¸¤r = ¤¸¤rn· =¤=ªr ç¸l
m¸=o¤ m; +rm¤r¬ ¤¬+; arel
a-nªrr m q= ¤tmr;t + +r;¤r
ç; =mn ¤;ºrr¬ ;çnr ªrrl l+=t
+rm m m¬ ¬çt emnr ªrrl ar¬
m;t am :s ¤¤r ç m ºrl¬º¤; ¬t


AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤m ;rm = m¸l+n
m m¸ =o ¤
= ot¢rr e¬
= ¤çe ¤m
;r m = +rn +;
¤tls n ªrr,
m¬ +q sr.
+c; r +r
l o = r r n r
e l+¬ +r q =rr= ¤+ mç=.
¸ = ¬çt ç¸ arl l¤; m ; or =n ~t
¤ o¸ m¬l= ç¬t ¬ m¸ q m¸ =o ¤ +
l=çnrm oºr¬ + ¤r; m ¤nrnrl
l¤; m ¬ t: lo=+¤;, zaa:
+r ot¢rr etl a=+ ¤ro nr m;r
+rnr+r¤ çt çr mnr, nªrr ¤m
+t ¤tmr;t mr> : lo¬ m rnr¬ =
¤¸¤rn· ot+ çr mql
rnr¬ + or ;r¬ a¬¸ +r¸ lnnr
- rnr¬ + or;r¬ m; +r +q n;ç
+t nr lm+ l+nre (¬ = ºrt¤rr =¬,
¤ogmr=¬, l=çr=¬ ¤ n;ç-n;ç
+ ar=¬ ¤ ¤ r¤rrnm¸ çr nt ç l m ;r
or =n ;rml+ºrr ; ¬r l+ m¸ = +rrq ç ,
a¬+t en;¤r= m =l¤= em¬r,
m¸ q rnr¬ m e+ mrç ¤çe çt lo=r
mnrl : ¬¬¤;t, zaas + (l¬= lo¬
oror m¸=o¤ ~t mmrq¬rªr¬t +t
¤;=t¸ ªrt, ºrrm +r rnr¬ + =mn
e+ a¬t¤ a¬¸ +r¸ ln ç¸ q , m¸ =o ¤ +r
m> nr e¸c mnr ¤¸; ºr;t; m a ¬m·
lºr¤rn m> +r a·¤r;¤r qn¬r n¬
ç¸ar l+ m;r ºr;t; +r¤¬ em mnr
ar; lºr¤¬t ¤ ¤r¤nt¬t +t l¤ºrre
¤lnmre lo=rrq ot, a= lo¬ e=
emr l+ m =¤m m ¤ç¸ ¤ mnr ç¸ , a=
lo¬ + ¤ro m¸q ++rt +rt mr¬l=+
n¬r¤ ¬çt ç¸arl m e+ l¤qr¬ +r
l¤orªrt çr¬ + ¬rn, q¬ ¤rnr ¤;
l¤º¤r= +m çt +;nr ªrrl
e l+¬ e+ ¤r; (emrnr;
nt¬-¤r; lo¬¸ rnr¬ m ¤o¬ +
¤ro m¸ç = =¸;tet ar¤r¬ m =¤n·
çt m¸=o¤ + +r¬¬ l¬+e, q=
a¬¸ +r¸ ln ¬ m¸ q ¤ç¸ n ¤ +rrl¤n
l+nr ar; m¸=o¤ + q= arnrrm
l¤qr¬ + ¤r; m m¬ +q or=nr +r
¤nrnr nªrr rnr¬ l==rrnr, m;t
l¬-omt +r z: lo=+¤;, zaa:
(l¬= lo¬ m¬ ot¢rr et¸ =¤=
+rr·nºrret lo¬ ;çrl a=t lo¬ +
¤ro nr m;t +q ¤;ºrrl¬nr o¸; çr
mq, nªrr m¸qm +q ºrr;tl;+ ¤
mr¬l=+ ¤l;¤n¬ arel a¤ e=r
emnr ç l+ m¸=o¤ ç; ¤+n m;
=rªr ;çn ç, +rl¤¤n m, m +rrln+
l¬+m orl;nr +r l¬+rrnr ç¸ ar
m¸=o¤ + ºr;¤r m çt ;ç¬r ¤rçnr
ç¸ l nªrr q= mçr¬ ¤ lo+ =rn ar ;
+rr;ntn oºr¬ (qr¬¸ +r ¤nror
= ¤nror ermr +r ¤nr¬ m emr
;ç¸mrl
m¤r;rm B.Sc.
¬¬¤;t zaa¡ = m¸q mr.
qm¬ +t ¤tmr;t ªrtl m; e+
lm> arm ¤mr ¬ m¸q m¸=¬t
+ rnr¬ ¤ +¸ ¤sle¬t ¬rm;¤r
+ ¤r; m ¤nrnrl l¬qr=r ¤ºr
+rrqm¬ = m¸l+n
e+ lo¬ m m¸=o¤ + ar~m
¤ç¸¤r ar; rnr¬ l+nr nr m;
a-o; e+ ºrl¬ ¬rm n ç¸ q
çr e =r mç=¸ = ç¸ arl rnr¬
m ar¬o ar¬ emr ar; m;t
nç ¤tmr;t +¸e =mn m ot+
çr mql q= rrc¬r + ¤ro m¬
=rr¬ ¬rm-¬r¤ ¤ rnr¬ l+nr
nr m¸ =o ¤ ¬ m¸ q rnr¬ m ot¢rr
ot ¬r ¤ro m m¬ z l=n+¤;
zaa¡ +r m¸+¤q ¬r+; ot¢rr
et ªrtl
q=+ ¤ro +q ¤r; m¸q
+rl¤¤n lo=rr ¤ = çt rrlcn
çrnr mnrl ¬= m¬ rnr¬ m
o=rr ar; : ¤;¤;t zaa: +r
m¸ q lo·n ¬ro =¸ ¬rq o ¬ emr
¬r m¸q ar¬ +rt =¸¬rq onr çl
nç m; ¬t¤¬ +r aerl++
¢r¤r ªrrl nç =¤ m¸=+¸¤r çr¬
+ +r;¤r çt ç¸arl
m ¤¸;t mr¬¤ ¬rln +r nç
;rn o¬r ¤rç¸mr l+ m¸= +¸¤r
23
23
260


AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m¸ =o ¤
¬ m ¸ q
¬ ¤ ¬t ¤ ¬
l o n r ,
arrnrlrm+
qr¬ lonr
a ¬ ¤ ; m
onre¸ + m a¬+ ~t ¤;¤rr m
+rlc-+rlc ¤¤rrm +;nr ç¸l
¬t¤¬ m ¤; ºrr¬t ar ; ¤tmr.
;t m; ¬-m + =rªr çt erm¸ çr
mq ªrtl m¸q =rr=t, ¤¸=rr;, e¸
++rt l=; oo ar; ¤c oo ç;
=mn ;çnr ªrrl '+r¤e ¤¸cn çt
mm ç¤r' ¤ret +çr¤n ¤l;nrªr
çr ;çt ªrtl o¤rqnr ¤; ¬t¤¬
¤e¬ emrl m; l¤nr¬t =¤nrç
m ++rt or nr nt¬ ¤r; sr+c;
+r lo=rrn ªrl ar; sr+c; çrªr
o=r¬ + ¤ro o¤rqnr +t e+¤t
=¸¤t çrªr m ªrmr onr ªrrl m¬
:-s =re m çt qn¬t o¤rqnr
=rret l+ ºr;t; = o¤rqnr +t
çt ¤o¤¸ arnt ªrtl
¬¤ m nt=;t +¢rr m ¤cnr
ªrr, a= =mn m; ¤c m +rn+;
oo ç¸arl ¬¤ sr+c; = ¤+a¤
+;rnr nr sr+c; ¬ l+s¬t m
¤ªr;t ¤nrq l sr +c; ¬ +çr
l+ l+s¬t +r ar¤;ºr¬ çrmrl
ar ¤; ºr¬ +;n =mn, ¤ªr;t,
l+s¬t m l¤=r; mq ar ; a-çr ¬
q= ¤r; m +¸e ¬çt ¤nrnrl m;,
¤çe = ¤nror oo çr¬ emrl
++rt or lo¬ =çt nr ¤r; lo¬
¤tmr;t m çt m¸¬r;¬ ¤sn ªrl
¬¤ o¤rq nr = ¤r; ¬çt ¤s t
l+s¬t +t ¤ªr;t +r l¬+e¬r
23
23
261
nr l+=t + +ç¬ = m; l¤nr¬t
+rr¤r + ¤r= e mel ¤rn+ +rr¤r
l+=t ¬ l+=t o ¤nr +r or ¤r ¤nr
çt onr ªrr ar; +¸e cr¬-crc+
+;¬ +t =erç o nr ªrrl e+
¤r; m¸q ¤rsm; m e+ +rr¤ +
¤r= e me, ¬r ¤ªr;t +r qer¬
+;nr ªrr, a=¬ a¤¬ =r¤ +
¤re¸ = qrs emre, +¸e ºr;r¤
¤t ar; amet ¤r; ar¬ + lee
+ç lonrl
q= ¤+r; ¬t¤¬ ¬r;+tn
¤¬ mnrl ¬t¤¬ ¬t¬ +t nm.
-¬r çt =rrm çr ¤¸+t ªrtl e=
=mn m, nrm-=nrm +lçe nr
=ogm¸=o¤ +t açn¸+t +¸¤rl
m; l¤nr¬t ¬ ¤¸¤n =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm + ar~m
m ¤ºr ¤¬r¬ +r o +r lenrl
¤çr ¤; =+sr erm m¸=o¤ +r
rnr¬ +;¬ arn ªrl ¬¤ ot¢rr
+r +rn+m çrnr n¤ nr, ç¬r;r
erm ot¢rr e¬ arn ªr, ar~m
m ;ç ;ç =rrr+ =rmr;rm ¬t +r
m; l¤nr¬t ¬ m;t ¤;ºrr¬t ar;
¤ªr;t + ¤r; m ¤nrnr nr a-çr.
¬ +çr l+ ar¤ ¤·¤ +r er+;
m¸ =o ¤ = ot¢rr loer or , nr ot+
çr ¬remrl +nrl+ ¤çr ¤; ¬r +rt
arnr ªrr ¤ç a¤¬t =m=nr +
l¬¬rn +t +çr¬t =¸¬rnr ªrrl
m; l¤nr¬t m¸q ar~m e
are ar; m¸=o¤ = ot¢rr loer
otl m l¬nlmn ¬rm-¬¤ ar;
rnr¬ +;¬ emrl m ; ¤ c +t
¬rls nr +r =rt¤r¤, rnr¬ +
or;r¬ =¤n· çt çr¬ emrl m¸q
a·et mç;t ¬to ar¬ emt, ¬r
¤çe ;rn +r; ¬t o ¬çt arnt ªrtl
ar ; m or -nt¬ mçt¬ m l¤r+¸ e
ot+ çr mnrl m¬ zaaz + an
m ot¢rr et ªrtl ar¬ +;t¤ eç
=re çr me ç, m l¤r+¸e ot+
ç¸l ¤ªr;t =¤n· çt ¤ºrr¤ + =rªr
l¬+e mql o¤rqnr e¸c mq çl
¬t¤¬ ar¬omn ¤¬ mnrl
¤çe m ¤c rq m ¤ç¸ n
+m¬r; ªrrl aro¤t m or ¤r;
¤e çr mnr ªrrl ¬¤ m o=¤t m
¤c ;çr ªrr nr m ; ¤sr =t ç =n ªr
l+ aro¤t m or ¤r; ¤e çr mnr
a¤ o=¤t m l+n¬t ¤r; ¤e
çr+; ¤r= +;mrl el+¬ m¸=o¤
+t ar;rrr¬r = m ¤c rq m e+rm
çr¬ emr ar; m¬ lgntn ~¤rt
(Second Division) = o=¤t
arrt¤r +tl
m¸=o¤ +t ar;rrr¬r mr¬¤
+r =¤r mt¤r l¤+r= +;nt ç , nç
m; ¬t¤¬ m rrlcn ç¸arl ar¬
m;t am z: =re ç, m o+or;t
+r +rn +;nr ç¸l m; =¤n +
mrst çl
arrnrlrm+ ¤ +rrln+ or.
¬r çt n;ç = m =+¤-¬ ç¸ l
m¸=o¤ +t q= aog+r¸n eter
+r ¤r;+¤r; ¬m¬g +;nr ç¸ l+
'=¤ +r¤-n¸ =¸l=r¬, =¤ =-n¸
l¬;rmnr' al+n a¤ m¸=o¤ +
mrrnm = ¤l;nrªr çr ;çt ç l
qn¬ lo¬r n+ nr e= ºer+r
+r +¤e +¤o m lm~t rrre +;
mrnr ¬r ;çr ªrrl

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=¤ ¤ ªrm m m¸ =o ¤ + ¤;¤rr m
¤r;+¤r; ¬m¬g +;nr ç¸, l¬-çr¬
m¸q q-=r¬ ¤¬rnrl ¤+r¸ ar¤ çt
+lr+ a¤nr; çr , ar¤ çt q=
=¸ l”c +r ¤er¬ ¤re ornr çr , ar¤
ç; ¬mç l¤;r¬mr¬ çr, ar¤+t
mlçmr l¬n¬t +t ¬rn, an¬t +m
çl ¤+r¸ m zaa¡ = ¤rl¬lc¤ ªrrl
m¬ rr; +r +rm ¤re¸ l+nr,
e+ n;¤ m+r¬ ¤¬r¬ +t nr ¬¬r,
o¸=;t n;¤ ¬t¤¬ +r =mn ¤¸;r
çr ¤¸+r ªrr, or ¤r; l;¤rc +;r¬
¤; sr+c;r ¬ m;t l;¤rc ¬mlc¤
ot ar; +çr l+ n¸+ç +¸e ¬çt çl
m;r =mn ¤¸;r çr ¤¸+r ªrr ar; m¸q
¤nr ¤e ¤¸+r ªrr l+ m ¤rl¬lc¤
ç¸, a+=; m e+ =n +t =r=m m
¬rnr +;nr ªrrl
m¬ =r¤r l+ l+=t +rt ¤+r;
m¸q q¬ =n = ot¢rr e+; m;n
=mn ªrr s r +rm¤r¬g +r ¬rm
e ¬r ¤rlçel m¸ q e =r emr l+
+rq =n q= =m=nr +r çe +;
=+n ç, +rq =n m; l=; ¤; çrªr
;=r+; ar’rt¤ro o¤ nr m ot+
çr ¬ramrl l¤; m¬ açmor¤ro
+ e+ =n = ot¢rr e¬ +t m¬ m
or¬ et, e+ n;¤ ¤¸;r¬r m+r¬
esg= = m¸l+n
23
23
262
lm;r lonr o¸=;t n;¤, m;t ¤r¬t ¤
¤·¤r +r =¤r=ªn ot+ ¬çt ;çnr
ªrrl m ¤¸ ;t n;ç = =m=nrar = lrr;
mnr l l¬¬ =n = ot¢rr +t m¬ m
or¬t ªrtl a== +rq ¤rnor ¬çt
ç¸arl sr+c;r +t mrlenr = ‘r;t;
¤¸ e ¤¸ +r ªrrl l+=t +r +ç +rt ¬çt
=+nr l+ m e¤arq¤t ¤rl¬lc¤ ç¸
, l+=t +r +çnr nr +rq mr¬nr
+rt ¬çt ªrr +nr l+ m ;r ‘r;t;
o=r+; erm +çn l+ nç ¬r¬
¤¸q+;, +; ;çr çl +çt +rt ¬rnr,
m¸q ¤¬ ¬çt lmenrl
çret +r =mn ar mnrl m¬
=¸;n ¬r¬ +t or¬ et ar; m =¸;n
¤er mnr, m¸=¬t are, çret +r
+e; srrrr, m +rtm ¤¸+r ªrrl a¬
c=¸ + ¤¸er =l =¸;n ¬rn =mn m
c¸¬ = mnrl el+¬ m; lomrm m
c¸¬ = +¸o+; m; ¬r¬ + l¤¤r;
ar ;ç ªr l q=lee açmor¤ro
arn =mn ¤= = arnr ªrrl ‘r;t;
m +rq ¤l;¤n¬ ¬çt arnr ªrrl
mtnr mlo; ¤= =cr¤ ¤; ¤= ¤re
¬ ¡ ¤¬ anr; lonrl ¬rot çr¬ +
+r;¤r m ªrrsr =r mnrl mm; ¬to
m ¤çt =nre arnr ªrr, =mn ¤¸;r
çr ¤¸+r çl mrn ¬¬ot+ ar ¤¸+t ç
l¤; +q ¤r =c; em ªr l +q = nr +
¤r=c; ªr, a¬+r o=rnr ;çrl mm;
+¸e =¸q ¬çt ;çr ªrrl l¤; =r¤r,
ªrrsr çrªr m¸ç rrre¸, e=r l¤¤r;
+;+, e+ n;¤ ¤r¬t +t c+t ¤;
m¸ç rrr¬ mnrl ¤çr a¤r¬+ o=rr
l+ ¬e + a¤; ¤;m ¤¸¸¤n m¸=o¤
+ ¤r =c; +r l+=t ¬ l·r¤+rnr ªrr,
a= ¤; le=rr ªrr esg=, +=;
a=rrn ;rm ¬çt çl m¬ n¸;n a=
¤r=c; = ¬¤; ¬rc l+e ar; ¤r¬
lmernrl ¬¤r¤ lmer l+ a+rt
m¸=o¤ + ot¢rr +rn+m ¬çt çl
a=+ ¤ro m m¸=o¤ +t n=¤t; =
rnr¬ +;nr ;çrl l¬nlmn rnr¬ =
m; m¬ m a=tm ‘rrln lmetl
m;t m¸=o¤ + ¤ln ~çr ¬mtl
l¤; m m¸ =o ¤ = lme¬ mnrl
m¸=o¤ ¬ çm t: lm¬c +r rnr¬
+;¤rnrl a=+ ¤ro, m rr; ar
mnrl nt=; lo¬ m ; a-o; ¤l;¤n ¬
ar mnrl a=+ ¤ro m ¬ ot¢rr
etl a¤ m;r ¤¬¬ :s l+er. =
¤c+; :t l+er. çr mnr çl a¤ m
l¬nlmn rnr¬ ¤ ¬rm ¬¤ +;nr
ç¸l a¤ m ¤¸¤r =¤=ªr ç¸ nªrr +rq
o¤rq ¬çt enr ç¸l
=¸+rr”r¤-q
¤ç¸n q’¤;¤rot rrmr +t e+ çt +rl¤”n¤r¤rt ç- Creation of a new world - e+
¬n ==r; +r =¸¬¬ çrmr- +=r çrmr - Creation of spiritual world(arrnrlrm+
¬mng +r =¸¬¬)- ar; arm =¤”c +;n ç¸e +çr ç- Divine transformation of
human being- m;r +rm ¤r ç- Transformation +;¬rl
=ogm¸=o¤ l=nrm
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
The Mother (Sri Maa),
a French disciple of Sri Au-
robindo had witnessed the
descend of a consciousness
force on earth, and that was
the day on which Sadgu-
rudev Shri Ramlal Ji Siyag
acquired the Gayatri Siddhi.
The Mother wrote this in a
note dated 1969:
1969: ‘On the 1st Janu-
ary 1969, at two o’clock in
the morning, a conscious-
ness descended into the
earth’s atmosphere and
settled there. It was a most
marvellous descent, full
of light, force, power, joy
and peace and suffused the
whole earth.’
‘Since the beginning of
this year a new conscious-
ness is at work upon earth
to prepare man for a new
creation, the superman. For
this creation to be possible,
the substance that constitutes
man’s body must undergo a
big change. It must become
more receptive to the con-
sciousness and more plastic
under its working.’
It was on this date and
time when Sadgurudev had
acquired the Gayatri Siddhi,
and saw his body transformed
into a Divine Light.
The Mother had described
about the Supramental Future
in her writings, some of them
are as follows-
‘In the supramental cre-
ation there will no more be
religions. All life will be the
expression, the fowering in
forms of the Divine unity
manifesting in the World.
And there will be no more
what men now call the Gods.
These great Divine Beings
themselves will be able to
participate in the new cre-
ation, but for that they must
put on what we may call the
supramental substance on
earth. And if there are some
who choose to remain in
their world, as they are, if
they decide not to manifest
themselves physically, their
relation with the other beings
of the supramental world on
earth will be a relation of
friends, of collaborators, of
equal to equal, because the
highest Divine essence will
have manifested in the beings
of the new supramental world
on earth.’
‘When the physical sub-
stance will be supramental-
ised, to be born on earth in
a body will not be a cause
of inferiority, rather the con-
trary, there will be gained a
plenitude which could not be
obtained otherwise.’
‘All that is of the future,
a future that has begun but
will take some time before
realising itself integrally. In
the meanwhile , we are in a
very special situation, ex-
tremely special, which has
had no precedent. We are
attending on the birth of a
new world, altogather young,
altogather weak – weak not in
its essence, but in its external
manifestation – not recog-
nized, not yet felt, denied
by most; but it is there, it is
there endeavouring to grow
and quite sure of the result.
Yet the road to reach there
is a new road that has never
before been traced; none went
by that way, none did that. It
is a beginning, a universal
beginning. Therefore it is an
adventure absolutely unex-
pected and unforeseeable.’
Ref.—Sri Maa
Aurobindo Ashram
Pondechery
A SUPRAMENTAL FUTURE
263
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=-oºr-
ç ¤;mrrmr¬¸ºrrl=n =¸oºr
=-nr¬r l =rnrm ç +r ¤ +rºr
¤ +r¤ºrret =mrmmr m =mrnr
ç¸ar, l¤º¤ l¤qr¬ +t +er +r
¤¤¸ç +; ;çr çl =ogm¸=o¤ +
¤;¤rr m ar¬ ¤+r¤ºrret =rn +r
¤+rºr, =rrr+ m ºrl+n¤rn ot¢rr
+ =¤ m ¤e ;çr çl q=+t l¤+rr
ar¬ n¸+ç +rt ¤¸er ;çt çl arqe
ar; ¤+r¸ ¤;¤rr m ot¢rr ¤r¤n +;+
lo·nnr +r ar;rrr¬r ¤ªr amt+r;
+tl¬e-
ºrl+n¤rn ot¢rr-
lºr¤n ¤; qº¤; nr m¸= +t
+¸¤r +r ºrl+n¤rn +çr ¬rnr çl
ot¢rr + e+ l¤rrr¬ m m¸= a¤¬
lºr¤n m m-> gr;r ºrl+n ¤¤rlçn
+;nr çl (q=+ a-n nt¬ l¤rr.
r¬- o¸l¤c, +rr¤¬r, =¤ºr ç¸l nç
¤l+nr ºrl+n¤rn ot¢rr +çernt
ç l =rrr+ m ºrl+n¤rn çr ¬ +
+r;¤r a=+t ¤¸lç l¬me çr ¬rnt
ç nªrr =rrr+ =¤-arrm-=¤=¤
+t =rr ¬ m em ¬rnr ç l aªr.
rngg qº¤; çt m¸= =¤ m lºr¤n
+r ºrl+n¤rn ot¢rr o+; a= ¤;
a¬¸ m ç +;n ç , l¬== =rrr+
a¤¬ ¤r=nl¤+ =¤=¤ +r ¬r¬
enr ç ¤ ar¤rmm¬ (¤-rr¬r¸ =
e¸c+r;r ¤r ¬rnr çl
ar;rrr¬r-
¤¸¤ ¬-mr + +m ==+r;r +
a¬¸=r; ¬= çt çm =ogm¸=o¤
= ºrl+n¤rn ot¢rr ¤ r¤n +;+
rnr¬ nªrr m-> ¬¤ ºr¸ = +;n
ç, ar;rrr¬r +r l¤+r= ºr¸= çr
¬rnr çl
e+ nrmt +r =r¤rrr¬ çr+;
a¤¬ ar;rrr¬r ¤ªr ¤; arm ¤cn
;ç¬r ¤rlçel a¤¬r =mn ¤ren¸
¤rnr m nªrr ç=t-looret m ·nªr
¬çt m¤r¬r ¤rlçel m++rt;nr¤¸¤+
ar;rrr¬r ¤ªr ¤; am =; çr ¬r
¤rlçel q= =¤rr m a¤cr¤+mtnr
m +çr ç l+ =rrr+ +r =r¤rrr¬
;ç¬r ¤rlçel ¬¤ n+ oçrl+rmr¬
o¸; ¬ çr ¬re n¤ n+ rrt; ¤¬+;
a+nr=¤ªr ¤; l¬n ¬e a¬¸+r¤
+;n ç¸e am=; çr¬ + aom m
;ç¬r ar¤ºn+ çl
nrmt -
• ¤t¬r¢r; ¤;m l¤-o¸ ç ,
a=+ a¤; '¬ro' l=ªrn ç , ¬r
=ºr-o çl a=+ a¢r; ¤g m en
çr ¬r¬ ¤; çt ¤;m ºr-o-çt¬
¤;m-¤o +t l=ªrln ç l a¬rçn
ºr-o = +rt ¤; ¬r ç, a=+r ¬r
nrmt ¬r¬ enr ç, ¤r enr ç, a=
nrmt + =+rt =ºrn ¬¤c çr ¬rn
çl
-rnr¬ l¤-o¸ a¤l¬¤rog
(z-:¸
• ¬r qr¬ ar ; l¤qr¬ =
n¸¤n çr ¤¸+r ç, ¬r =¤= a·¤ =ªr.
r¬ m l=ªr; ç¸ar ç, ¬r l¬nl-on
ç nªrr l¬=+t o¸l¤c m lmcgct,
¤rªr; ar ; =r ¬r =mr¬ ç , a=
nr>t +r nrm l=ç ç¸ar e=r +çn
çl
-¤ o·nr=(mçr+rr;n +rt¤m
¤¤ :a-z aªr¤r mtnr c-s¸
• arn-n ¤ºr m l+nr ç¸ar
l¤rr l¬= +re m arrmr m çt
+ret ¤ +r; l=ªrn çr ¬rnr ç ,
a= +re m =+¤¸¤r +rm¬rar =
=¤¸çr;lçn (ere=r;lçn¸ ç¸ar
m¬¸¤n nrmn¸+n +çr ¬rnr çl
-¤ o·nr=(mçr+rr;n mtnr
c-ts¸
• nrmt n¤l=¤nr = ~¤o ç
ar; ºrr=> + qrl¬nr = +rt ~¤o
mr¬r ¬rnr ç nªrr +m +;¬ ¤rer
= +rt nrmt ~¤o çl an· ç a¬¸¬ l
n¸ nrmt çrl -mtnr (c-¡c¸
ç¤l+ ¬ ¤rle¤r, o¤l+ ¬
¤rle¤r, rrt; +r rrl;¤r ¤r¤l
m;¤ ¬ +l;¤r =ç¬ ;lç¤r,
+r¤rn mr;=r ;r¤ll
-mr;¢r¬rªr (mr;=r¤r¬t -
z:¸
+rn, +rrr, are=n, arn-n
l¬or, alrr+ ¬rm¬r, aln +rr¬¬
+;¬r, =¤ ªrr +rr ¬¬ ¬ +;¬r-
ar;rrr¬r, a¬¸+r¸lnnr ¤ m> ¬¤
ar;rrr¬r , a¬¸ +r¸ lnnr ¤ m > ¬¤ ‘rt”r + m e+ =rrr+ +r a¤¬r a¬¸ +r¤,
=+e¬ ar; =ogm¸= mlçmr +r ¤¤r¬ ç ¬r nçr ¤; lonr ¬r ;çr çl ar’rr
+;n ç l+ =rrr+r +t ¬r¬+r;t + lee n e=r a¤nrmt l=ç çrml
264
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+¸e =rrr+r m, ¬¤ rnr¬ +r
=mn ¬çt +rt çrnr ç ¤ nrmt =r¸et
ar=rr = ¤or ç nr +¸e +; ;çr ç,
n¤ +rt a=+t ar¤ºn+nr¬¸=r;
nrlm+ l+nre nr ¤r¤rrnrm çr.
¬rl
¬¤ nrmt +çt e+r-n m
¤ or çr , a= =mn l+nrar +r
çr¬r
l¤ºr¤r- rnr¬ ;ç l+=t +rt
l=ªrln m , l+=t +rt =mn ar ;
l+=t +rt =ªrr¬ ¤; =¤n· çr ¬ ¤ret
l+nre, =rrr+ + lee a¤n¸+n
mr¬+; çt +¸ ¤sle¬t ºrl+n a¤¬
l¬n->¤r m +;¤rnt çl q=lee
l¤¬r ¤rrrr ar¤-¬ l+e, q-ç
=¤n· çt çr¬ o¬r ¤rlçel
rrn ;=r (rnr¬ =+¤-rrt
+¸e ¤rn¸ -
ar;rrr¬r + q= lo·n ¤ªr
¤; çmºrr rrn ;=rl +nrl+ e+om
¤mr+r; çr+; ¬ro¸q s¤sr rr¸mrn
çt +¸ e ¬çt lmenr ç l ar¤+r
=rr¬ m-> ¬¤ +;+ a= ¤ r¤n
+;¬r ¤snr çl m¸=o¤ ¤e¬ +r
;r=nr ¤nr on ç, ¤e¬r nr =rrr+
+r çt ¤snr çl
q=lee nlo ar¤+r em
l+ m;r rnr¬ ¬çt em ;çr ç nr
nrlm+ l+nre ¬çt çr ;çt ç nr
arrnrlrm+ a¬¸+r¸lnnr ¬çt çr
;çt ç nr +rt rr n ;=r l +nr l+
¤nrorn; e=r o=rr mnr ç l+ =rr
r+ +r rnr¬ em ;çr ç l¤; +rt =rr
r+ q= ¬çt ¬r¬ ¤rnr çl
+¸ e =rrr+ e = çr n ç , l¬¬+r
rnr¬ nr emnr ç ¤;-n¸ rnr¬ ¤¸;r
çr¬ + ¤ro ¤ +çn ç l+ ''m; nr
nrm =rrr¬r rnr¬ ¬çt emr''l ar; ¤r=n¤ m
a¬+ rnr¬r¤=ªrr m rnr¬ emr
ç¸ar ªrrl
+q =rrr+ nç =r¤n ç l+
m ; nr lm+ l+nre ¬çt ç¸ q ç
q=lee rnr t emrl e=t r
rr;¤rr ¬çt ¤¬rel +nrl+ nç ¤r=.
nl¤+nr ¬çt çl an· l¬+¬ +r;¤
rr +r o=r-
• ¤rn+ =rrr+ +r aem
cm = rnr¬ emnr ç ¤ nrlm+
l+nre çr nt ç l an· nç +r q
ar¤ºn+ ¬çt l+ a-n =rrr+r +
l¬= n;t+ = rnr¬ em ;çr ç ¤=r
ar¤+ +rt eml rrn ;=r+; a¤¬
ar;rrr¬r ¤ªr ¤; am=; çrn ;çl
• +q =rrr+ +çn ç l+
m¸ q a¬¸ +r¸ lnnr ¬çt ç¸ q l nç
¤¸¤ ¬-m + +m ==+r;r ¤; arr
rrl;n çl nªrr ¤rn+ =rrr+ a¤¬
n;t+ = =r¤rrr¬ ;ç+; m->
¬¤¬ +t mln ¤¬re ;=rnr ç l
q=lee aem-aem =rrr+r +r
l+r-¬-l+r-¬ a¬¸+r¸lnnr çrnt çl
l¤ºr¤r- (A¸
+;n-+;n a+nr= =, ¬s mln
çrn =¸¬r¬l
;=;t ar¤n-¬r¤n ç,
l=e ¤; ¤sn l¬ºrr¬ll
(B) Practice makes
a man perfect.
(a+nr= m¬¸ ¤n +r ¤¸ ¤r
¤¬rnr çl¸
nt=;r ¬> =r¸e¬r-
lºr¤ +t n=¤t;r m nt=;r ¬>
o =rr çr mr, ¤ç =+rt =>t-¤¸ =¤rr m
çrnr çl =mªr =ogm¸= + rnr¬ =
nç =r¸e ¬rnr çl
=rrr+ ¬¤ =ogm¸ =o ¤ +r
¤ªrm ¤r; rnr¬ +;nr ç nr ¤ç
arqr¤+ ¤; aªrrngg nt=; ¬>
¤; +;nr çl nçr o=¤r gr; ç, ¬r
a-o; =r¸enr (a-nm¸=rt¸ çl
a-n ¬r gr; ¤lçm¸ =rt (¤rç;
+t n;¤ =r¸ e¬ ¤re ¸ ç l n mrnr +
çl q=lee q¬+r rnr¬ mrnr +t
ar;rrr¬r çl ¬r l+ ¬º¤; (¬¤c
çr¬ ¤rer¸ çl
o=¤r gr; ¤ g +r ç l nlo
al¤¬rºrt = lme¬r ç nr arq.
r¤+ ¤; rnr¬ +;¬r ¤smrl nç
gr; a-nm¸ =rt (a-o; =r¸ e¬
¤rer¸ çr¬ =, q=+ gr;r ºr;t; m
¤¤ºr l+nr ¬rnr çl nçt e+ mr>
a-o; ¬r¬ +r ;r=nr çl
¬¤ =r rr + ¤ ªr m ¤r ;
=ogm¸ =o ¤ +r rnr¬ +;nr ç
nr nç gr; ºr;t; + a-o; =r¸e
¬rnr çl q=+ =r¸e¬ = =rrr+
a-o; ¤ ¤ ºr +;nr ç aªrr ngg
a-nm¸=rt çrnr çl l¬== =rrr+
+t +¸¤sle¬t ºrl+n ¬rmng çr
¬rnt çl
an· nt=; ¬ > +r =r¸ e¬r
¤ +¸¤sle¬t ºrl+n +r ¬rmng
çr¬r or¬r +rn e+ çt =mn m,
e+ =rªr çrn çl
l¤ºr¤r- ¬¤ n+ m¬¸¤n +t
¤ =¸ ¤n l¤lrr ºrl+n, +¸ ¤sle¬t
¬rm ng ¬çt çr nt ç , a=+r
·n¤çr; ¤ºr¸ ¤n(¤ºr¸ + =mr¬¸
;çnr çl an· ¤rn+ =rrr+ +r
¤rlçe l+ ¤ç =ogm¸= ºrl+n¤rn
=¤t a¬¸mç =, a¬¸mçtn çr+;
ar;rrr¬r ¤ªr ¤; am=; çrn ç¸e,
=¤=¤=¤ +t =rr¬ m em ¬re ¤
m¬¸¤n ¬t¤¬ + ¤;m e¢n mr¢r
+r ¤r¤n +;l
265
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¤rlçel q== rnr¬ +t e+rm .
nr +l-qn ;çnt çl nªrr m¬ +r
+rc+r¤ ¬çt çrnr çl çr =+nr ç
l+ m¬ m +¸e a-n l¤¤r; +rt ar
¬re nr m¸=o¤ +t n=¤t; =¤¤c
¬çt +rt lo=r ¤;-n¸ m-> ¬¤ +r
rnr¬ + or;r¬ c¸c¬ ¬çt ol q=
l¬;-n; ¬¤n ;ç l q== rnr¬
mç;r ¤ a·er emnr ç l q==
ar;rrr¬r m +rt alrr+ l¤+r=
çrnr çl
an· e+ =rrr+ +r ar;rrr¬r
+ ar;l++r+ +re m =nng m->
¬¤ ¤; alrr+ ¬r; o¬r ¤rlçel
arl=r; m-> ¬¤
l+n¬r l+nr ¬re ?
¤rn+ =rrr+ +r +m = +m
qn¬r alrr+ m-> ¬¤¬r ¤rlçe
l+ ¬rm-¬¤ +t =r¸mr;t ¤c ¬rel
nlo ¤r¤t=r rr¤c =r¸mr;t (m->
¬¤ +r ¬ºrr¸ ¤ct ç¸q ¬çt ç nr
ar¤ m-> ¬¤ +m nªrr rrt; (rrtmt
mln =¸ +; ;ç çl an· =rrr+ +r
=¤n çr+; ¤rn+ =ªrr¬ ¤; m->
¬¤ +r =r¸mr;t ¤c¬ n+ n¬ mln
= ¬¤¬r ¤rlçel
=r¸mr;t- ;rm + ¬rm m ¬ºrr
çrnr çl l¬;-n; =rr¬ m-> ¬¤
+;¬ = me n+ ¤nr ln +eºr
+t n;ç lo·n ¤+rºr +r ar¬-o
+r;r ;çnr ç, ¬r m-> ¬¤ +r ¬ºrr
ç l q= =r¸ mr;t m =rrr+ m=n,
l¬lº¤-n ¤ =n¸¤c ;çnr çl l¬=
n;ç = +r;¤ c =rr¬ = ¤ c +r;r
ç¸ar mç=¸= çrnr ç, a=t ¤+r;
m-> ¬¤ +t alrr+nr = me n+
=r¸mr; +r;r ç¸ar ç, e=r mç=¸=
çrnr çl
nç l¤lrr a¬ ermr + lee ç ¬r e+ lo·n al=nr¤ m l¬= ¤ a¤¬r +rm.
¤r¬g +çn ç, ~çr ;=rn ç ar; l¬= ¤ a¤¬-ar¤+r =ml¤n +; ¤¸+ çrn
çl n erm ¤¸¤rnnr a=t + çrn ç, a¬+ ¬t¤¬ +t =+rt rrc¬re +rrm¤ng q·er
+t al+r·nl+n çrnt ç, q¬ rrc¬rar +r ¤ +¤e e+ ‘rrn =m¤¤r-+rr¤ = çt
¬çt ¤lr+ +¸nqnr¤¸¤+ =¤t+r; +;n ç, +r;¤r a-ç nç l¤’¤r= ;çnr ç l+
¬r +¸e +rt a¬+ =rªr rrcnr ç, ¤ç =or çt a¬+ +re + lee çrnr çl
a-ç a¤¬ +rm¤r¬g m nªrr a=+ =rrªr a¤¬ ¤ nl+n+ = ¤ rr m e+ ¤ +r;
+r m¸@ l¤’¤r= çrnr ç, a-çr¬ a¤¬t q·er ¤¸¤r=¤ = +rm¤r¬g +t q·er
+r al¤n +; ot çrnt ç ar; ¤ a=+ ace ¤m ar; =;¢r¤r +r a¬¸+r¤ +;n
ç, ¬t¤¬ ar; m¸rn¸ +t ar+l=m+ rrc¬rar +r, a= ¤m ar; l¤’¤r= ¤; +rq
¤+rr¤ ¬çt ¤snrl
a¬+ ao; =or nç a¬¸+r¸ln ;çnt ç l+ ¤ ¤¸¤r arrm=m¤¤r + =rªr a¤¬
l¤nnm + ¤;¤rr m ¤¤rn ç aªr¤r a=+t ¤rçr m ar~n lee ç¸e ç ar; ¤çr
¤¸¤r =¸;¢rr a¬¸+r¤ +; ;ç çl a¬+t ¤n¬r m +rn, l¤nr nr o¸·=r + lee ¬;r +rt
=ªrr¬ ¬çt çrnr, q= =¤+r =ªrr¬ e+ ‘rrn ar; ç”r¤¸¤r ar¬-o e enr çl
266

m¸rn¸ + +rn = e¸c+r;r
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
23
23
267
q= =mn ==r; + =+rt rrmr
m arnrrm +t ¤st l¤l¤> l=ªrln
¤¬r ;=rt çl ç; rrm m e+ ¤m
l¤’r”r ¬ q= ¤; a¤¬r e+rlrr+r;
¬mr ;=rr ç l a= ¤m ¬ a¤¬t
lo¬¤nr, ;ç¬ =ç¬ ¤’r+r¸”rr ar;
=rr¬ ¤r¬ arlo =+rt = =r; +
arm mr¬¤ = l+rµ ¤¬r ;=rt ç
nrl+ o=rn çt erm a¬+r ¤ç¤r¬
¬rn ar; a-ç al¤n =+mr¬ lme
=+l
mr¬, q¤¬n =+mr¬ arlo
¤r¤n +;¬ + lee l¤’r”r ¤+r; +t
¤ ’r +r¸ ”rr ar ; ¤ o’r ¬r +r =çr;r ç;
rrm m lenr ¬rnr çl
e=r ¤m =mr¬ + arm ·nl¬
= a¤¬ +r aem ;=r¬ +r ¤nr=
+;nr ç l q= ¤ +r; =+rt rrmr
+ arnrrm¤rot er mr +r e+
aem =mo¬ ¤¬ mnr çl a¤¬
l¬çtn =¤rªrr + +r;¤r e= =mo¬
c¸c-c¸c +; +q +rrmr m l¤+r¬ çr
mn çl q’¤; e+ ç ar; =mo¬
a¬+l =¤ + =¤ e+ o¸=; +t
arer ¤¬r ar ; l¬-or +;¬ m
l¬;-n; ¤nr=;n ç, =+rt e+ çt
¤nr= m em ç l+ ¤ çt e+ mr>
q’¤; + =·¤ ¤lnl¬lrr çl ==r;
+r; + ermr +r +rsr + q¸¤s +t
n;ç aem ¤rc ;=rr çl
a¤¬t-a¤¬t +rsr +t ¤ç¤.
r¬ + lee aem-aem ¤’r+r¸”rr,
¤o’r¬ ar; l=çrn ¤¬r ;=r çl
q= ¤ +r; a¤¬ a¬¸ nrqnr +r
¤ç¤r¬¬ ar; ¤¤r;-¤=r; +;¬
+r l¬;-n; ¤nr= ¤e ;çr çl rrm
nr ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r;
arnrrm¤ro +r =·¤r
+r l¤”rn ç, ¬r l+ =+rt rrmr =
er¤ çr ¤¸+r çl rrmr¤rn +¤e
¤r;¤r ar; +rrc +t n;ç antn +
m¸¤rmr¬ ¤; l¬-or ;ç¬ +r aªr+
¤nr= +; ;ç ç, ¤;-n¸ l¤; +rt
l¬;-n; pr= çr nr ¬r ;çr ç l = =r;
+ =+rt rrmr ¤; = arm arolmnr
+r l¤’¤r= ¤ç¸n n¬ mln = =rrm
çr ;çr çl
arlªr+ ‘rl¬ ar; =mo¬
+ ¤e = a¤¬ -a¤¬ = mo¬r
+r l+=t ¤+r; l¬-or ;=r =+,
;rn lo¬ q=+r ¤ nr= l¬;-n;
¤e ;çr ç, ¤;-n¸ ¤l;¤rrm =+rt
+r arc çt lme ;ç çl e=t l¤”rn
l=ªrln m n rrmm¸= l+n¬ lo¬
a¤¬ -a¤¬ = mo¬r +r l¬-or
;=r =+ml rrm +r a=et =¤=¤
¤nr çt ¤+c çr¬ emr l+ q¬+r
al=nr¤ lmcn o ; ¬çt em mtl
arnrrm¤ro +t ·nr=nr +;n ç¸e
~t a;l¤-o ¬ +çr ç ''e+ =+¤¸¤
r arrnrlrm+ ¬t¤¬ m ç; ¤=n¸
+ lee a¤+r’r çrnr çl'' q=+r
ar; =¤”c +;n ç¸e ~t a;l¤-o
¬ +çr ç ·- ''¬t¤¬ +r ç; +rn
+mr¤’r arnrrm = arn ¤n çrnr
çl'' q== =¤”c ç l+ q= =mn +
=+rt rrmr m =mn + =rªr-=rªr
e= or”r ar mn ç, l¬¬+ +r;¤r
arm mr¬¤ rrm = l¤m¸=r çr ¤er
çl arnrrm¤ro l+=t ¤m l¤’r”r
+ alrr+r; +t =+¤lrr ¬çt ç ,
q= ¤; ==r; + ç; rrm + ¤rn+
mr¬¤ +r ¤;r¤; alrr+r; çl ¬¤
n+ =¬rn¬ rrm +t ¤nr+r ==r;
m ¬çt ¤ç;rnmt, n¤ n+ ==r;
m =¸=r ‘rrl-n a=++r¤ çl
q= =+¤-rr m mçl”r a;l¤-o
¬ =¤”c +çr ç ''n¸+ç o¸=; o’rr
ar; ;r”c¸r +t n;ç ¤mln +;¬ +t
¬=;n ¬çt ç, n¸+ç a¬+t n;ç
o¸=;r +r o¤r¬ ar; +¸¤e¬ +t
¬=;n ¬çt çl n¸+ç ao¬r ç nrl+
n¸m o¸l¬nr +r aor =+rl ¤ç qr¬
l¬= >l”rnr ¬ ¤rnr ªrr, l¤; =
ar ;çr ç, a= =r; ==r; +r o¬r
çl'' a¤n¸¬ = =¤”c çrnr ç l+
= =r; +r arnrrmor¬ o ¬ m + ¤e
+rr;n çt =¢rm çl q= =+¤-rr m
~t mr ¬ ¤ç¸n çt =¤”c +çr ç ·-
''+rr;n + a-o; =r; ==r;
+t =m=nre +lqn çr mq ç ar;
a¬+ çe çr¬ ¤; =r; ==r; +r
+rr; çr+r çr ¬rn mrl'' + ¤e
l¬¤¸ln mrm çt e+ mr> ;r=nr ¬çt
çl mtnr çm =¤”c ¤nrnt ç l+
¤¤¸ln mrm ¤ç¸n çt ar=r¬ ;r=nr
ç, l¬= ¤; ¤e +;, l¬”+rm +m
nrm + l=çr-n ¤; ¬t¤ ar=r¬t
= m¸l¬ ¤r¤n +; =+nr çl e=
ar=r¬ ;r=n +r er s +; q= =mn
l¬¤¸ln mrm +r çt mr> ¤¤r; l+nr
¬r ;çr ç , +nr l+ = =r; m ¤¸ ¤r =¤
= nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr +r ¤+rr¤ ç,
+rr;n m nr ¤ç =¤= alrr+ or=
¤¬ +; ¬m ¤¸ +t ç l ¬¤ l+=t +rm
+t aln çr ¬rnt ç nr a=+r a-n
=¸l¬l’¤n çrnr çl
+rr;n m a-rr+r; +r rr¬t.
+r¸n çr¬r çm =¤”c l¬o’r o ;çr
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm
tz.:.tssa

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
+r+n ¤ çero gr;r ot ç¸ q
l¬+¬lel=rn ¤l;+rr”rr çt =+.
+r¤n· +rl+nnr m +t =¤r rrm
¤l;+rr”rr ç·
nr ¤tln;l¤¤+r¬r
l¤”rn”¤¬ ¤rln¬tl
n¤rm¬¸=m;n· =r m
ponr-mr¤=¤n¸ll
''ç q’¤;l aqr¬t¬¬r +t
¬=t mrct ¤tln ql-qnr + +rrm +
¬r’r¤r¬ ¤orªrr ¤; ;çnt ç, a=t
¤+r; +t ¤tln m;t n¸qm çr ar;
n;r =m;¤r +;n ç¸e, m; pon =
¤ç ++rt o¸; ¬ çr¤''
çm o =rn ç l+ ¤ er m,
¬r ql-qn-+rr m + ¤orªrr =
¤c +; ar ; l+=t ¤=n¸ +r ¬çt
¬r¬n, rr-n-rrr-n, +¤s-err,
¤¸ >-+e>, ¤-rr¸ -¤r-rr¤ nªrr
a-nr-n =rmlmnr ¤; +=t o¸c
¤tln ;=rn ç, q¬ ¤=n¸ar + ¤ln
a¬+t +=t rrr; ar=l+n ;çnt çl
q=tlee q= ¤l;+rr”rr m ¤ +r+n
>l”r;r¬ +çn ç, '' ¤=t çt ¤¤e
ar=l+n, ¤=t çt o¸c =e·¬nr
m¸qm +¤e n; ¤ln ;çl'' e=t çt
¤tln ¬¤ q’¤; + ¤ln +t ¬rnt ç,
n¤ ¤ç +rl+n +çernt çl
+rl+n l+=t ¤=n¸ +r =¤r+r.
rl¤+ mrm çl +rl+n ¬ nr l+=t
¤=n¸ +r l¬”rrr +;nt ç ar; ¬
¤ç çm ¤+¸ln + l¤=ç çt ¤ernt
''+rl+n nrm''
¬=t l¬”or m;t, m; m¸=o¤ + ¤ln ;çt ç, ¬=r =m¤¤r m;r m; m¸=o¤ + ¤ln
;çr ç, ¤=t çt l¬”or ar¤+t m; ¤ln ;çmt, nr çt ¤r; ¤smtl
-=ogm¸=o¤ l=nrm
çl +rl+n nr +¤e çmr;t ¤+¸ln
+r a¤r aornt ç ar; a= alrr+
‘rl+n’rret ¤;¤rr ont çl ql-qn
l¤”rnr ¤; çmr;t +=t =¤r+rrl¤+
¤tln ç¸ar +;nt çl e=t ¤tln l+e
l¤¬r çm ;ç çt ¬çt =+n , +nr l+
n l¤”rn, n ¤orªr çm l¤r+¸ e
=rn ¤ ntn çr n ç l =rrrr;¤rn·
çm q¬= a·¤n; ¤orªrr m +rq
nªrrªrnr çt lo=rrq ¬çt ont, ¤;
¬¤ m¬¸”n q¬ ql-qnr + ¤; -
ql-qnr + ==r; + a= ¤r; l+=t
nªrrªr ¤=n¸ +r o=r ¤rnr ç, n¤
¤re¬tn nçt ç l+ a= ¤tln +r
a= ar=l+n +r ¤¬re nr ;=rr,
¤; a= =r=rl;+ l¤”rn + ¤orªrr
= çcr+; a= ql-qnrntn ¤=n¸
¤;m ’¤; m emr o l ar ; ¬¤
ql-qnr + +rr·n ¤orªrr ¤; +r
¤ç ar+c ¤ m +rm¤r¬g m em
¬rnr ç, n¤ a=+r ¬rm +rl+n çr
¬rnr çl
n¸e=tor= ¬t ¬ +çr ç -
+rlmçt ¬r;t l¤nr;t l¬mt,
er+rt çt l¤n l¬mt orml
lnmt ;rr¸¬rªr l¬;-n;,
pon ¤=ç¸ m; ;rmll
l¬= ¤+r; = +rmt ¤¸=”r +r
¬r;t l¤n emnt ç, ar; er+rt +r
rr¬ l¤n emnr ç, a=t ¤+r; = ç
¤+r¸, ar¤ +rt m; pon m =or +
lee ¤= ¬rar, m l¬;n; ar¤+r
çt l¤n¬ +;nr ;ç¸l
¬=r ¤m mt;r ¬ +rm¤r¬g
~t+¸ ”¤r = l+nr ªrr, l¬n¬t
e+rm nr, =m¤ ¤r mt;r +r +rm.
¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r + ¤ln ªrr - l+n¬
çt +”c =ç, ermr + nr¬ =ç,
l¤”r +rt l¤ernr mnr el+¬ l¤;
+rt mt;r ¬ +çr - ''m;r nr lm;r
r; mr¤re,
o¸=;r ¬ +rq''
=rrr+ + ¬t¤¬ m ¬¤ =¤
+¸ e ot+ ¤e ;çr çr nr ç nr a=+r
m¸=o¤ m o¸c l¤’¤r= ;çnr ç, ¤¸¤r
=m¤¤r ;çnr ç el+¬ ªrrst =t
+lo¬rq ¤;’rr¬t arn çt a=+r
l¤’¤r= smmmr¬ emnr ç, a=+
=m¤ ¤r +t ¤r e =r¸ e ¬rnt ç l
=rrr+ +r rr n ¤¸ ¤ + ar;rrr¬r +;n
;ç¬r ¤rlçel
q=r m=tç ¬ +rt +çr - '' ¬r
an n+ rrn ;=rmr, ¤r çt =¤e
çrmrl''
l¬= n;ç a¬¸ ¬ +r + ¤e
l¤ls nr +t ar =r çt lo=rrq o
;çt ªrt, ¤¸;t e+rmnr a¤¬ e¢n
¤; çt ªrt,a=+ l=¤rn a-n a=
+¸ e lo=rrq çt ¬çt o ;çr ªrr,
¤=t çt l¬”or, ¤=t çt e+rmnr,
¤=r çt =m¤¤r çmr; m¸=o¤ +
¤ln, m¸=o¤ + ~t¤;¤rr m çrmr,
=¸¬te ºrmr
¤ç;rs (ae¤;¸
23
23
268
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
269
+r e¤+ a¬r l o+r e =
a¤rrr mln = ¤enr arnr ç
ar ; ¤enr ;ç mrl n¸ m ¤l;¤n ¬
¤+¸ln +r ace l=çr-n çl q’¤;
=mn-=mn ¤; = ¤¸ ¤r l¤’¤ m = nr
+r ¤ or +;+ ‘rrl-n =ªrrl¤n +;nr
ç l ¤;-n¸ ¬¤ nrml=+ ¤¸ lrrnr
qn¬t ¤¤e çr ¬rnt ç ar; =nr
+ a¤o’r +r +¸e +rt ¤+rr¤ ¬çt
çrnr ç, ¤;¬ ¤ =n ¤¸=”rr +r nm
çt ¬çt +;nt ç,a¬+ ¤r¤r n+ e
e nt ç l e =t l=ªrln m a= ¤;m=rrr
+r a¬ o¸”c ¤¸lnnr +r =çr; +;¬
+ lee =¤n a¤nr; e¬r çrnr ç
+nr l+ nrml=+ ¤¸ lrrnr l¬o nt
ar ; +¸ ; çr nt ç l an· ¤ es rq l+e
l¤¬r ++rt ¬çt mr¬ntl an· n¸m
¤l;¤n ¬ +t ¤ ªrm ‘rn ç , ¬;= çr;l
qlnçr= =r¢rt ç, e=r ç; n¸m m
¤l;¤n¬ + =mn ç¸ar çl
nt’r¸ ¬ +rt n¸m ¤l;¤n¬ +t
=¤”c ‘r-or m rrr”r¤rr +t çl n¸m
¤l;¤n ¬ m ¬r +rn +; ¬;= çr;
çrmr a=+r ¤¤r¬ +;n ç¸e a=¬
+çr ç- =c mr+ ƒ…·ƒ‹= „Œ -
'+nrl+ ¤ lo¬ e= +e’r + çrm
l+ =¸l”c + ar;++r = ¬r ¤;m’¤;
¬ =¸¬t ç a¤ n+ ¬ nr ç¸e ar;
¬ ++rt çrml ar; nlo ¤+r¸ a¬
lo¬r +r ¬ rrcrnr nr +rq +rt ¤r¤
rt ¬çt ¤¤nr, ¤;-n¸ a¬ ¤¸¬ ç¸ar
+ +r;¤r, l¬¬+r a=¬ ¤¸¬r ç,
a¬ lo¬r +r rrcrnr çl'
nt’r¸ e= çt arr+r;¤¸¤r n¸m
m ¤ +c ç¸ arl a= =mn nrm.
nç¸lonrl a¤ +=¤r ¤¸+r; +r =mn çl
l=+ ¤¸lrrnr ¬ ¤+r¸ + mlo; m +rt
·nl+r¤r; ar; ¤r¤r +r agr ¤¬r
;=rr ªrrl nt’r¸ ¬ ¤nrçt a¬ ¤¸lrrnr
+r l¤;rrr +;¬r ¤r;++r l+nr l+ ¤
+r lrrn çr aotl a-çr ¬ a+r;¤r çt
a= ¤l¤>rrmr +r m¸ rn¸ o¤s loe¤r
lonrl a=+r or”r mr> nçt ªrr l+
a=¬ +ç lonr l+ m q’¤; +r ¤¸>
ç¸l q=t =o+r m a=¬ a= =mn +
rrmr ¤rnr = +çr l+ am; m ;t ¤rn
a=rn ç nr ¬r ¤mr+r;-¤¸ ¤r +rn
¤+r¸ ¬ m; = +;¤rn, ar¤ ermr m
= +rq +;+ lo=rr ol ¤;-n¸ l¤;
+rt a= =mn + +¸; rrm-m¸= ¬çt
mr¬ ar; a= l¬or”r +r m¸rn¸ os
loe¤r lonrl
¬¤ a= l¬or”r + ¤r¤r lee
me nr ¤+¸ln ¤ç¸n çt +¸l¤n ç¸ql
q= = ¤ rr m ¤rq¤e m le=rr
ç- 'or ¤ç; = e+; nt=; ¤ç;
n+ a= =r; o’r m arr;r ernr
;çrl nt=; ¤ç; + l¬+c nt’r¸ ¬
¤s ‘r-o = ¤¸+r; +; +çr 'eet'
eet,emr ‘r¤+n¬t? aªrrng ç
m; ¤;m’¤;l n¸¬ m¸q +nr ers
lonr? ¬r ¤çr =rs ªr,a¬m =
l+n¬r ¬ nç =¸¬+; +çr, nç
nr elenrç +r ¤¸+r;nr çl ar;r
¬ +çr oç;r elenrç a= ¤¤r¬
arnr ç l+ ¬çtl rrmr¤rnr ¬ a=
=mn =r¸l’rnr m¬rql a-çr¬ +çr
o =rn ç m lo; c çr¬ ¤rer ar ; nt¬
lo¬ m ¤¬r¬ ¤rer +¸= ¤; = an;
+; a¤¬ ar¤ +r ¤¤r el q=t
¤+r; mçrmrnr¬+ +rt ‘rrl=>nr
=lçn ar¤= m oç = +çn ªr, l+
a=¬ ar;r +r ¤¤rnr ar; a¤¬
ar¤ +r ¬çt ¤¤r =+nrl q¬;rqe
+r ;r¬r a¤ +¸= ¤; = an; are
l+ çm l¤’¤r= +;l'
nt’r¸ +t +rl¤”n¤r¤rt +
a¬¸=r; q= n¸m + an + =mn
+rt ¤ +¸ ln ¤çt =¤ rrr;¤r +; mt, ¬r
+¸ l¤n çr +; a= mçr¬g arrmr +t
m¸rn¸ + =mn rrr;¤r l+nr ªrrl q=
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt +r =mn ¤nr-¤nr
¤r= ar ;çr ç, nrml=+ ¤¸lrrnr
+rn+rtn çr ;çt çl ¤r¤r nr =+rt
+r ¤nr; çrn çl a= l¬or”r ¤l¤>
arrmr ¬ nt¬ ¤r; ar rr m¸ ç lm;+;
¤ r¤r ;¢rr + lee + =t +=¤r
¤¸+r; +t ªrt,¤;-n¸ l¤; +rt +nr
a=+ ¤r¤r ¤¤ =+? q=t ¤+r;
+rl¤”n¤r¤rt + a¬¸=r; q= n¸m
+r an çrmr ar; a¬ ¤¸lrrnr +r
a¬+t +;¬t +r os lmemrl ¤+r¸
+ rr; ¬ nr o; ç ar; ¬ arr; çtl
¤r¤ +r rrsr +r;¬ ¤; çt ¤¸cnr çl
nç ¤+r¸ +t ¤¸¤ l¬l’¤n ·n¤=ªrr
ç,¬r l+ ace çl
ar¬ l¤’¤ +r; m ¤ +r¸ +r
=¸=mr¤r; =¸¬r¬ ¤rer + +r¬r
m a= ¤l¤> arrmr + n +=¤r
‘r-o l+ 'arrmr nr rr nr; ç ,
¤;-n¸ ‘r;t; o¸ ¤ e ç ' +nr ¬çt
m¸¬n? q¬ ‘r-or m qn¬t ¤¤e
‘rl+n ç l+ rr¬¤e ar; ¬¬¤e
+ =çr; rrm +r ¤¤r;-¤=r; +;¬
¤re morrrt’rr +t ¬to ç;rm çr
¬remtl
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
er m are m , ¬r a¤¬t çt
al+rer”rrar + a¬¸=r; ¤eml
ar; +çm,a=+ ar¬ +t ¤lnqr
+çr mq? +nrl+ ¬¤ = ¤r¤ oror
=r me ç,=¤ +¸e e=r çt ç,¬=r
=¸l”c + ar;+r = ªrrl ¤ nr ¬r¬
¤¸q +; +r¸e me ç l+ ¤;m’¤; +
‘r-o (¤¤¬¸ + gr;r ar+r’r ¤r.
¤t¬ +re = ¤nmr¬ ç, ar; ¤¸ª¤t
+rt ¬e = ¤¬t ar ; ¬e m l=ªr; ç l
q-çt + gr;r a= n¸m +r ¬mng,
¬e m s¸¤ +; ¬r’r çr mnr ªrrl ¤;
¤nmr¬ +re + ar+r’r ar; ¤¸ª¤t
a=t ¤¤¬ + gr;r q=lee ;=r l+
¬ere ¬re, ar; ¤ç +rl+nçt¬
m¬¸”nr + -nrn ar; ¬r’r çr¬ +
lo¬ n+ e= çt ;=r ;çl' '¤;-n¸
¤+r¸ +r lo¬ ¤r; +t ¬rq' aremr,
a= lo¬ ar+r’r ¤st çs¤srçc
+ ‘r-o + =rªr ¬rnr ;çmr, ar;
nr¤ ¤ç¸ n çt n¤n çr +; l¤rre
¬rem,ar; ¤¸ª¤t ar; a= ¤; +
+rm ¬e ¬re m l nr ¬¤ n =¤
¤=n¸ e q= ;tln = l¤rre¬ ¤ret ç ,
n¸+ç ¤l¤> ¤re-¤e¬ ar; +rl+n
m += m¬¸”n çr¬ ¤rlçel ar;
¤;m’¤; + a= lo¬ +t l+= ;tln
= ¤rc ¬rç¬t ¤rlçe ar; a=+
¬ro ar¬ + lee + =r nr¬ +;¬r
¤rlçe, l¬=+ +r;¤r ar+r’r arm
= l¤rre ¬remt,ar; ar+r’r +
m¤r ¤ç¸ n çt n¤n çr +; me ¬re m l
¤; a=+t ¤lnqr + a¬¸=r; çm
e+ ¬n ar+r’r ar; ¬q ¤¸ª¤t +t
ar= o=rn ç, l¬=m rrrlm+nr
¤r= +;mtl'
nç¸lonr +r mr> nt’r¸ ¬ çt
~r¤ ¬çt lonr ªrr, l¬=+r ¤¤r¬
¤çe l+nr ¬r ¤¸ +r ç , ¤lr+
¤;m’¤; +r +rt '+rr;t ~r¤' lonr
ç¸ ar ç l q= = ¤ rr m mer+t
…·Š= ƒŒ m +çr ç- +nr m¬¸¸”n
¤;m’¤; +r rrr=rr o =+n ç?
o =rr n¸ m m¸ q+r rrr =rr o n çr ,ar ;
¤¸en çr l+ çm¬ l+= ¤rn m n¸¸q
e¸cr? o=mr’r ar; aor¬ +t +rcr
ml n¸m ¤; +rr;t ~r¤ ¤sr ç +nrl+
n¸m m¸q e¸cn çr ¤;¬ =r;t ¬rln
e=r +;nt çl
n¸ m ¤l ;¤n ¬ + ¤r ; m
¤¸ ;r¬ l¬nm m +rt ¬mç-¬mç
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr +t ç¸ q ç l q= = ¤ rr
m mer+t †·ƒ= … '+nrl+ o=rr
¤ç rrrr+n +rç +r =r lo¬ arnr
ç , ¬¤ =¤ al+rmr¬t ar ; =¤
o¸;r¤r;t erm a¬r¬ +t =r¸ct ¤¬
¬rem,ar; a= ar¬ ¤re lo¬r m,
¤ e = +r=m çr ¬re m l+ a¬+r ¤nr
n+ ¬ ;çmr,=¬rar +r nçr¤r +r
nçt ¤¤¬ çl
¤rq¤e + a¬¸=r; m¸=r ar;
nt’r¸ +r =mn, ·n¤=ªrr +r n¸¸m
ªrrl nt’r¸ ¬ l¬= =çrn+ + +r¬¬
+t ¤ lnqr +t ç , ¬¤ ¤ç ¤ +c
çr +; ¤l¤>rrmr +r ¤¤ln=mr
(’rl+n¤rn-ot¢rr¸ o+; ==r;
+r; + er mr ¤; a¬¸ m ç +;¬r ¤ r; +r
+; omr,n¤ ·n·r=ªrr +r n¸m =m.
r¤n çr ¬remrl q= =¤rr m nt’r¸ ¬
+rt =c mªn¸ ‡·ƒ‰ e¤ ƒŠ +çr
çl 'nç ¬ =mqr l+ m ·n¤=ªrr
nr +rl¤”n¤+nrar +t ¤¸=n+r +r
er ¤ +;¬ arnr ç¸ l er ¤ +;¬ ¬çt ,
¤;-n¸ ¤¸;r +;¬ arnr ç¸, +nrl+
m n¸m= =¤ +çnr ç¸ l+ ¬¤ n+
ar+r’r ar ; ¤¸ ª¤t ce ¬ ¬rn, n¤
n+ ·n¤=ªrr = e+ mr>r nr e+
l¤-o¸ +rt ¤¸;r ç¸e ¬çt cemrl' an·
n¸ç-¬r ¤¤ln=mr o¬ ¤re + gr;r
=¤m ;r¤n +t rrr”r¤rr l+n ¬r¬ +
=mn = e+; m=tç +r ¤roer m
¤¸¬;rmm¬ n+ nç ·n¤=ªrr +r
n¸m ¬r;t ;çmr(mnt ƒƒ·ƒ„ e¤
e¸+ ƒˆ·ƒˆ¸ a¬¸mç + n¸m +
‘r¸=arn + =rªr çt ·n¤=ªrr =m.
r¤n çr ¬r¤mtl
q=rq ¬mng +r a¬¸mç +
n¸m +t a+rt ¬r¬+r;t ¬çt çl ¤
nr mr> a¤¬t ¤¸=n+r + arrrr;
¤; a= n¸m +t +r¤¬r +;n çl
¬¤ a¬ ¤; a¬¸ m ç çr mr,n¤ ¤
¤¸ ¤r =rrn = a¤mn çr m l q=
=¤rr m =¤rmt m¸+nr¬-o ¬t ¬
a¤¬t ¤¸ =n+ '+¸ sle¬t ¬t¤¬
+r ;ç=n' m +’mt;t ‘r ¤ l=ç
r-n +r ¤¤r¬ +;n ç¸e le=rr ç-
'+’mt;t ‘r¤- l=çr-n + a¬¸=r;
q ’¤; + ¤ ¤+¸ rn ç - =¸ l”c,l=ªrln,
en,ln;rrrr¬ ar; a¬¸mçl ¤r¤¤r
+¸rn ¬r a¬¸mç ç, a== mr¬¤
+r a¤¬t ¤ l¤’¤ +t nªrrªrnr +r
¤rrr çrnr çl +’mt;t ‘r¤- l=ç
r-n m m¸= +r ¤r¤¤r +rn =+¤-¬
+;¬ ¤rer aªrrng a¬¸mç+rrr
+ =¤ m mr¬r mnr çl l’r¤=¸>
l¤ml’r¬t +çnt ç·-
'm¸=¤r ¤r;m’¤;t a¬¸mlç+r
‘rl+n·' 'm¸= ¤;m’¤; +t a¬¸mç
‘rl+n ç'l
¤ç ‘rl+n +t ¤¸;rn¬ ¤l+nr
gr;r a¬¸ m ç ¤ or¬ +;nr ç , l¬==
=rrr+ +t =¸ ”r¸ ¤n +¸ ¤sle¬t
l+nr’rte çr ¬rnt çl'
¤rq¤e m l¬= ¤l¤>rrmr +
¤¤ln=m ' (’rl+n¤rn ot¢rr¸ +t
¤rn +çt mq ç ¬¤ ¤ç a-ç lme¬
em mt, n¤ q =rq ¬mng +r
23
23
270
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=r¢rrr+r; çr¬ emml e=t
l=ªrln m mr¬¤ l¬lm n m lo;r
+t ermr +r ar¤’n+nr çt ¬çt
;çmtl q= ¤+r; a= =çrn+ +
¤+c çr+; ‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr o¬
+ +r;¤r, ¤¤r ar ; m lo;r +r
al=nr¤ =mr¤n çr mr, ¬ l+ q ’¤;
l¤;rrrt ar; nt’r¸ l¤;rrrt nr¤r +
+r;¤rl nç ·n¤=ªrr =¤¸¤r l¤’¤ m
e+ =rªr ¤oemtl'
ç nç¸ lonr l nt’r¸ ar ; ¤;m ’¤;
+ +rr;t ~r¤ + +r;¤r nç¸ot ¬rln
+r +rr;t =çr; çr¬ ¤rer ç,a=
rnr¬ m ;=rn ç¸e +=¤r ¤¸+r; +r
=mn çl a= mçr¬ arrmr ¬ ¤ç¸n
o¸·=rt çr+; nç¸lonr +r +çr ªrr
l+-
'n¸ +çr;r rr; n¸ +çr; lee a¬rs
ersr ¬rnr çl +nrl+ m n¸m= =¤
+çnr ç¸ l+ a¤ = ¬¤ n+ n¸m ¬
+çrm l+ rr-n ç ¤ç ¬r ¤+r¸ +
¬rm = arnr ç, n¤ n+ n¸m m¸q
l¤; ++rt ¬ o=rrml'
orl¬n e ƒ„·ƒƒe¤ ƒ„
+r nç¸lonr +r ++rt ¬çt +r¸e¬r
¤rlçel ' ¬¤ = l-rrn çr m¤le
aorq ¬remt, ar ; ¤ç lrr¬r ¬t
¤=n¸ ¬r a¤rrs +;r ont ç, =ªr.
rl¤n +t ¬remt,n¤ = ¤r;ç =r
¬-¤ lo¬ ¤tnml +nr çt rr-n ç,
¤ç ¬r rrt;¬ rr;+; n;ç =r ¤nt=
lo¬ + an n+ +rt ¤ç¸¤l'
¤ r q ¤ e + t = + r t
+rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr + a¬¸ =r; ¤ç
=çrn+ za ¤t =ot + an = ¤çe
¤+c çr ¬remrl ==r; m nrml=+
¤¸lrrnr qn¬t ¤+rr¤t çr ¤et ç l+
l+=t +rt rrm + er mr +r a¤¬ rrm
m-ªr ¤; ªrrsr +rt l¤’¤r= ¬çt ;ç
mnr ç l =+rt er m e =r mr¬ +; ¤e
;ç ç l+ e=r +¸e +rt ¬çt çr¬ ¬r
;çr çl +len¸m +t +;rmrn o=rr
=¤ +t a+e +r +rt a rrr +;
lonr çl =n ~t n¸e=tor= ¬t +t
nç ¤rn ¤¸¤r =rn ¤mrl¤rn çr ;çt
ç l+ '¬r+r ¤+r¸ or=¤r o¸=r olç
nr+t mln ¤lçe ç; elçl'
l¤’¤ + al¤’¤r=t ¬rl=n+
¤rç =nr +t +rl¤”n¤rl¤rnr ¤;
l¤’¤r= +; nr ¬ +;, ¤+r¸ +t ¤¸¤
l¬l’¤n ·n¤=ªrr m +rq a-n;
¬çt ar¤mrl e=r çm’rr = çrnr
arnr ç l+ nªrr l=ªrln¤rlonr
;r¬r ¬ +çr,''mçr;r¬, + ¤e
m¸q +¸nrªr +;¬ + lee +¸¤nr
+¸ e a¤’n =¤t+r; +; etl¬n ,
ar ; onr +; m ; =rªr ¤e+; m ;t
;r¬rrr¬t nªrr mçe +r ¤l¤>
+tl¬nl'' l¤’r”r armç + ¤ro
=rrr¸ ¬ a-n m ;r¬r +t ¤ rªr ¬r
=¤t+r; +; et ar ; a=+ =rªr
a=+ mçe m ¤e mn l =rrr¸ +r
+r c o ¬ ¤¸ ¤ ;r¬r a¤¬t lo¬¤nr
+ a¬¸=r; +rm¤r¬g = ¤rªr¬r
+;¬ emr ar ; +çr, ''ç q ’¤;,
m¸ q ar ; alrr+ =-nr¬ or , m ;r
rr¬ ar ; +rt ¤c , m ;r ;r¤n alrr+.
rlrr+ ¤ e ¬rn , m ;r ‘r;t; =¤=ªr
ar ; ¬t;r m ;ç '', arlo arlol ;r¬r
a¤¬t ¤rªr¬r =mr¤n +rt ¬ +;
¤rnr ªrr l+ =rrr¸ ao =rs ç¸ e ar ;
e+ ¤r; e+ ;r¬r l+=t ¤¬
m mnrl ¤çr a= e+ =rrr¸ lmel
=rrr¸ = ªrrst o; ¤rn¤tn +;+
;r¬r a¬+t ¤l¤>nr ar ; qr¬ ¤;
¤sr m¸·rr çr mnrl ;r¬r ¬ a¬=
¤rªr¬r +t,''mçr;r¬, nlo ar¤
m¸q= +rq +rc mç¤r +;¬ +t
+¸¤r +; nr m rr-n çr ¬ramrl''
¤; =rrr¸ ¬ q¬+r; +; lonr ar;
+çr, ''q= ¬me + ¤e m; lee
¤nr¤n ç, ¤çrsr = l¬+e ç¸e
‘r¸ç ¤r¬t + q;¬ ¤t¬ +r ¤nr¤n
¬e o on ç, ¤¸¢rr +t ere m;
‘r;t; +r c+¬ + lee +r¤t ç
ar; ¤¤nr +t +-o;re =¸-o; rr;
+r +rm ont çl m n¸m= aªr¤r
a-n l+=t = +rq +rc +nr e¸
?''
¤¸ ¤+ = +m; + ¤rç; ¤e lon l
nç o =r+; ;r¬r ¤s a=m ¬= m
¤s mnr ar ; l¤rernr ç¸ ar =rrr¸
+ ¤te +rrmr, '' mçr;r¬, ar¤
+çr ¬r ;ç ç ? ar¤¬ nr m¸ q=
+r q +rt +r c m ç¤r ¬çt +tl'' nç
=¸ ¬+; ¤ =rrr¸ ¤te rr¸ m+; ;r¬r =
¤r e ,'' a; l+r=rr;t, m l+r=rrl;nr
= l+r¢rr ¬çt mr mnrl n¸ nr =¤n
e+ l+r=rr;t ç , m¸ q l+= ¤ +r;
l+r¢rr o =+nr ç l m qn¬r m¸ =r
¬çt l+ n¸ q ¬ = l+r=rr;t = +¸ e
e¸ l ¬rar , +rrm ¬rar , m ; ¤te mn
arar l''
q= +ªrr = q’¤; + =·¤
¤lmnr ar; =rrrr;¤r l+r=rrl;nr
m +r o ¤s =¸ -o; c m = ¤ +c ç¸ ar
l¤’r¸ç ¤m
+çr¬t


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271
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=rrr+.t- ¬rm¸ln (+¸sle¬t ¬rm;¤r¸ l+n¬ =mn m çr ¬remt?
m¸=o¤- q=m =mn ¬çt çrnr, ¤ªr (l¤’¤r=¸ çrnr çl l¤’¤r= +rm +;nr çl ar; m¸= ¤¬r ;=r ç
+nr?
=rrr+- ¬t m¸=o¤, +r’rt m ç, =¤rmt ¬tl
m¸=o¤- o=rr, ¬rm m ¬r ¤nrnr ç¸, ¤r ¬¤rm, nr çt ¤rnor çrmr, ¬r ¤rçrm, ¤çt çr ¬remrl
=rrr+.z·- m¸=o¤, m¬ rnr¬ + or;r¬ o=rr l+ ar¤ çt +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸”¤r ç?
q=+r +nr mne¤ ç¸ar?
m¸=o¤·- (m¸=+¸;rn ç¸e¸ ¤r ar¤ ¬r¬rl
=rrr+.:·- m¸=o¤ n m;t ¤r¬t ç, Russia (==¸ = ç, n ¤rçnt ç l+ q¬+
rr;-¤l;¤r; ¤rer ¤; +rt ar¤+t +¸¤r çr, ¤r +rt ar¤+r rnr¬ +;l
m¸=o¤·- çr, ¬=; e=r +;r, m;t l+nr¤ ç am¬t m, Religious Revolultion in the world
(l¤’¤ m rrrlm+ +rln¸ ¤r e ¬rar, m;t C.D. e ¬rar +¤n¸c; m =, rr;¤rer +r lo=rrar
ar; == m +rt =¤+r ¤nrarl ar; ¬rm ¬¤r ç; ¤+nl
=rrr+.¡·- m¸=o¤ m;t l+s¬t m Problem, ç; ¤+n ¤c m oo +rt ;çnr çl
sr+c; ¬ +çr ç, or¬r l+sl¬nr =r;r¤ çl
m¸=o¤·- ot+ çr ¬remt, ¬rm ¬¤rl
=rrr+.:·- m¸=o¤ m +r+¤tlc’r¬ +t nnr;t +; ;çr ç¸l +r+¤tct’r¬ m =¤e çr¬ + lee +nr +=?
m¸=o¤·- ot¢rr +rn+m m ar¬r, m¸=¤r; +r ¤t;¤r; +r n¸m+r rnr¬ +r n;t+r ¤nrem,
a=+r +;rm +r+¤tct’r¬ m =¤e çr ¬rarml
=rrr+.c·- m¸=o¤, ¬rm ¬¤ m m¸l’+e çrnt çl
m¸=o¤·- ¬rm nr ¬¤¬r çt ¤smrl ml¬e n+ ¤ç¸¤¬ + len ¤e¬r nr ar¤+r çt ¤smr,
mne¤ a=+r ¬rm nr ¬¤¬r çt ¤smrl
=rrr+.:·- m¸=o¤ rnr¬ ¬çt emnr ç?
m¸=o¤·- ¬rm ¬¤ +;r ç; =mn ne +t rrr; +t n;ç, =rql+e +t ¤¬ +t n;çl
=rrr+.s·- m¸=o¤ ¬rm ¬¤ ¬çt çrnr, ¬rm ¬çt ¬¤r ¬rnr ç?
m¸=o¤·- +rl’r’r +;n ;çr, +rl’r’r +;¬ = =¤ +¸e =+r¤ çl
=rrr+·- m¸=o¤ ¬ro =¸¬¬ em mnr ç, ¬ro =¸¬ nr ¬rm ¬¤?
m¸=o¤·- ¬ro =¸¬rl
=rrr+·- m¸=o¤ +rts m ‘rr;m¸e m ¬ro =¸¬rq ¬çt onr ç, a= =mn +nr +;?
m¸=o¤·- çr, a= =mn ¬rm ¬¤ +;rl
=rrr+·- ar;, m¸=o¤, rnr¬ + =mn?
m¸=o¤·- rnr¬ m ¬ro =¸¬rl
=rrr+.s·- m¸=o¤, lnret emrnr; ¤c ;çt ç, sr+c= +r +rt lo=rrnr ç, +rq ¤rnor ¬çt ç¸ar?
m¸=o¤- ¬rm ¬¤r, ot+ çr ¬remtl
=rrr+.ta- m¸=o¤, ¤c m, =rqs m mro ç
m¸=o¤- l+=+t ç? +=; +tl
=rrr+-¬t çr, m¸=o¤
m¸=o¤- ¬rm ¬¤ ¤ rnr¬ +;r, ot+ çr ¬remtl
=rrr+- m¸=o¤ =t¬ m, çrªr, ¤;r m oo ;çnr çl
m¸=o¤- ot¢rr +¤ et?
=rrr+- m¸=o¤, ar¬ çtl
‘r+r =mrrrr¬·-
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272
q= ¬rm +r ¬¤rm ar; m;r rnr¬ +;rm nr ¬r mrmrm, ¤çt lmemrl
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
lo¬r+ - :.¡. zatz +r ¬rrr¤¸; ar~m m ‘rl+n¤rn ot¢rr +rn+m + or;r¬
=rrr+r +t ‘r+rar +r =ogm¸=o¤ ¬ =mrrrr¬ l+nr-
=rrr+.tt ·- m¸q esg= ç, (HIV Positive)
m¸=o¤ ·- ar¤+t ¤r¬t +r +rt ç +nr?
=rrr+ ·- ¬t çr m¸=o¤l
m¸=o¤ ·- or¬r çt t: lm¬c rnr¬ +;r ar; ç; =mn ¬rm ¬¤n ;çr, ot+ çr ¬rarml
=rrr+ ·- m¸=o¤, rnr¬ ¬çt emnr ç
m¸=o¤ ·- ¬rm ¬¤n ;çr, ç; =mnl
=rrr+.tz ·- m¸=o¤, a¬¤r ¤ rrct +t ar¤r¬ or¬r =rªr-=rªr =¸¬rq ont ç +nr +=?
m¸=o¤ ·- a¬¤r +r =¸¬rl
=rrr+.t: ·- m¸=o¤, m ar; m; ¤l;¤r; + =+rt erm ar¤ +r rnr¬ +; ;ç çl
m¬ or =re = o¤t-¤¸¬r ¤ ¬¤;r>r +;¬r ¤o +; lonr ç, +rq ¤;’rr¬t nr ¬çt çr ¬remt?
m¸=o¤ ·- +rq ¤;’rr¬t ¬çt çrmtl a¤ m ar mnr ç¸, a¤ m;r rnr¬ +;rl
m o=¤r a¤nr; ç¸, m +lr+ a¤nr; ç¸l
=rrr+.t¡ ·- m¸=o¤, t: lm¬c = ¤nror rnr¬ +; =+n ç?
m¸=o¤ ·- +¤e t: lm¬c çt rnr¬ +;r ar; m> ç; =mn ¬¤r, ;ra¤s o +er+l
rnr¬ ar¤+r t: lm¬c çt +;¬r çl +¸e erm o; n+ ¤o ;çn ç, ¤ro m m¸l’+e çr ¬remtl
=rrr+.t: ·- m¸=o¤, ¤; m rrr¤ ot+ ¬çt çr ;çr ç, rnr¬ +rt +; ;çr ç¸l
m¸=o¤ ·- n rrr¤ += çr mnr?
=rrr+ ·- =¤ ¬ +rc lenr ªrrl sr+c;r +r lo=rrnr ªrrl ¤ro m l;¤rc +;rq nr a=m -es +=; ar
mnrl
rnr¬ = ot+ çr mnr ªrrl
m¸=o¤ ·- +=; +t ¬mlc¤ l;¤rc ç?
=rrr+ ·- ¬t m¸=o¤, ¤rl¬lc¤ ar; ¬mlc¤ or¬r l;¤rc ç, el+¬ rrr¤ ot+ ¬çt çr ;çr ç?
m¸=o¤ ·- ¬rm ¬¤n ;çr, rrt;-rrt; ot+ çr ¬remrl
=rrr+.tc- m¸=o¤ ¤t¤t +t l’r+rnn çl
m¸=o¤- rnr¬ +;r, ¬rm ¬¤r ç; =mn, ot+ çr ¬remr
=rrr+.t:- m¸=o¤ m; pon m eo çl
m¸=o¤- l+n¬r =mn çr mnr?
=rrr+- =re +r; ¤çe sr+c; +r lo=rrnr ªrr, +çn ç ar¤;’r¬ +;¤r¬r ¤smrl
m¸=o¤- çrc +r ¬çt çrnr ç, ot+ çr ¬remr, ¬rm ¬¤rl
=rrr+.ts- m¸=o¤ or¬r l+sl¬nr =r;r¤ ç, srqel== ¤; ç¸
m¸=o¤- +çr = are çr?
=rrr+- ast=r =l
''¬rm ¬¤ çt q= ar;rrr¬r m arm ¤c¬
+r or= arrrr; çl''
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273
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤
~t ;rmere ¬t l=nrm

AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=rrrr+.ts - m¸=o¤, +nr ¬ro e+ +r¬ = =¸¬rq onr çl
m¸=o¤ - çr, e+ = +rt ar; or¬r = +rt l
=rrr+.za - e=r q= m> m +nr ç, ar; nç ¤l+nr ar; nrm Technique = += Diference çl
m¸=o¤ - +¸”¤r ¬r¤ a¤nr; ªr ar; m o=¤r a¤nr; ç¸l m +lr+ a¤nr; ç¸, m;t n=¤t; = rnr¬ emnr çl ;rm
ar; +¸”¤r +t ¤rcr = rnr¬ ¬çt emnr çl
=rrr+ - mçl”r a;l¤o ¬ a¤¬t l+nr¤ m ¤¤r¬ l+nr ç l+ m¬¸”n +t +rq nr¬¬r ¬çt çr¬t ¤rlçe al¤n¸
e+ e¢n çr¬r ¤rlçe, ;r=n a¤¬ ar¤ ¤¬ ¬rn çl
m¸=o¤ - l¤r+¸e, a= l+nr¤ m m; a¤nr; +t ·nr=nr ç ar; a=m le=rr e+ e+ ‘r-o l¤r+¸e =çt ç
ar; m; lee le=rr mnr çl m +lr+ a¤nr; ç¸l
=rrr+ - lo¬ +r; + +rm ar; Busy Schedule +t ¤¬ç = =rr¬ ¬rm ¬¤ ¬çt +; ¤rn ç, e= m a¬¤r +=
çr?
m¸=o¤ - +rq ¤rn ¬çt, =¸¤ç ¬rot ao +; rnr¬ +;l ¬¤ m;t¬r +r o=rn çr ¤¸;r rnr¬ a¬ ¤; çt orl
=rrr+ - m¸q mrn>t 礬 +;¬r ¤rlçe nr ¬çt?
m¸=o¤ - mrn>t ¤¸¬r =-nrl=nr + lee çl m¸ç=ªr + lee ¬çtl m¬ +rt mrn>t =rrr¬r +; ;=rt ç ¤; a=¬
m¸q +¤e l¬rr¬nr otl ¤; ¬¤ = ;rrrr +¸”¤r +t ot¢rr et ç n¤ = m =+¤-¬ ç¸l
=rrr+ - m¸=o¤ n nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr, q= =mn ermr +r ¤ç¸n ¤;’rr¬ +; ;çt ç, n ¬”c +¤ çrmt?
m¸=o¤ - çrmt, ¬=; çrmt q=m ªrrsr =mn emmrl mçl”r a;l¤o ¬ +çr ç - Iron age is ended +len¸m
¤¸;r =rrm çr mnr çl
=rrr+ - +nr n nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr ¤¸;t n;ç = ¬”c ¬çt çr =+nt ? n ar¤+r +rt ¤;’rr¬ +;nt ç?
m¸=o¤ - ¤cr n nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr m; ¤r= ¤c+ +rt ¬çt =+ntl n m;r +¸e ¬çt l¤mrs =+ntl q¬ nrm.
l=+ ‘rl+nnr +r a-n çrmr, m q=t lee arnr ç¸l .............''m mr¬¤nr m =nrm¸¤r +r arªrr¬
ar; nmrm¸¤r +r ¤n¬ +;¬ a+er çt l¬+e ¤sr ç¸, m¸q ¤; l+=t +rt ¬rln l¤’r”r, rrm l¤’r”r nr
o’r l¤’r”r +r e+rlrr+r; ¬çt ç''l m o=¤r a¤nr;, +lr+ a¤nr; ç¸ ar; +lr+ a¤nr; + =+rt
Rights (alrr+r;¸ m; ¤r= çl
=rrr+ - rnr¬ +;¬ + ¤’¤rng ¤ç¸n ¬to arnt çl ar; +q ¤r; =r ¬rnt ç¸l
m¸=o¤ - ¤ç l¬qr ¬çt, nqr ç, a= ¬to m o=rr mnr =¤¤¬ çm’rr =¤ çrnr çl
=rrr+ - +nr ar¤+r ¬rm e +; m;t¬ +r qer¬ +; nr ar¤ m; =rªr =rs çrm?
m¸=o¤ - l¤r+¸e, m;r ¬rm e+; qer¬ +;r, m çm’rr =rªr ;ç¸mrl l¤qr¬ ¬rot ¤t¬r +r mr¬nr ¬çtl ¤;
¬rm ¬¤ ar; rnr¬ = ç¬r;r esg= + m;t¬ ot+ ç¸e çl
=rrr+ - +q e= =rrr+ ç ¬r o¤rq ar; ¬rm ¬¤ or¬r +; ;ç çl a¬+r +¤ ¤nr ¤emr l+ a¤ ¤+n ar
mnr ç, m o¤rq ers+;, +¤e ¬rm ¬¤ ar; rnr¬ + =çr; ;ç =+nr ç¸?
m¸=o¤ - q= ¬rm ¬¤ ar; rnr¬ = m;t¬ a¤¬r ¤¸;r ¬t¤¬ l¤¬r +lo¬rq + ar;rm = ¬tnr çl a=+t m¸rn¸
¤tmr;t = ¬çt çrntl
=rrr+ - ar¤+r rnr¬ ar; ¬rm ‘r¸= +;¬ =, m¸=t¤n ar; ¤c mq çl
m¸=o¤ - n nrml=+ ‘rl+nnr +r çmer ç , ¬r m ; =rr= l’r”nr ¤; çt çr nr ç l ar¤+r q¬= rr¤;r¬ +t ¬=;n
''o¸l¬nr +t ar¤lrr l¬= ºr-o = ç¸q ç,
a=t ºr-o m a=+t =+rt =m=nrar +r =mrrrr¬ +rt =+r¤
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
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274
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
=rrr+.zt (o= =re +r ¤·¤r¸- m¸=o¤, omr +t l’r+rnn çl
m¸=o¤- qn¬ erc ¤·¤ +r, ¬rm ¬¤ +;, rr¸mr+; =¸¤çl
=rrr+.zz- m¸=o¤ ‘r¸m; çl
m¸=o¤- +çr = are çr?
=rrr+- ¤mer; =l
m¸=o¤- q-=¸le¬ en çrl
=rrr+- çr, m¸=o¤
m¸=o¤- ¬rm ¬¤r, ot+ çr ¬remrl
=rrr+.z:- m¸=o¤, ¤=c +=; ç, sr+c;r ¬ ¤=c l¬+re lonr ç, a¤ +rr n+ ¤c mnr çl
e+ çrªr l¤r+¸e çt +rm ¬çt +;nr çl
m¸=o¤- ot+ çr ¬remr, ¬rm ¬¤r ar; m;r rnr¬ +;rl
=rrr+.z¡- m¸=o¤ çm’rr s; emnr ç, rr; m +rt a+et ¬çt ;ç =+ntl
m¸=o¤- ¬¤ s; em nçr (arqr¤+¸ ¤; m¸q o=rr ar; ¤rªr¬r +;r, ar; m;r rnr¬ +;rl
=rrr+.z:- m¸=o¤ n¸l;¬e (¤ºrr¤¸ ¤r-em çl
m¸=o¤- +¤ = ç?
=rrr+- ¤r¤ =re = ç, eer¤lªr+ (am¬t¸ o¤rqnr +rt =rr ;çr ç¸,
el+¬ +rq ¤rnor ¬çt ç, o¤rqnr = mmt ¤c mq çl
m¸=o¤- ¬rm ¬¤r, ot+ çr ¬remtl
=rrr+.zc- m¸=o¤ m; es+ +r mr¬l=+ n¬r¤ ;çnr ç, ¬to +t mrlenr + l¤¬r ¬to ¬çt arnt çl
m¸=o¤- =rn =mn m;r ¬rm ¬¤r, ¬to ar ¬remt, ar; m;r rnr¬ +;r- =¸¤ç ¬rot ao+;l
=rrr+- m¸=o¤ m¬ mrn>t m> +t ¤ a-n n;ç +t ar;rrr¬re +rt +t ç,
+nr m¸q a¬+r q= ar;rrr¬r m er+r lmemr ?
m¸=o¤ - ¬çt, a¬+r q= ar;rrr¬r = +rq le+ (=¤rr¸ ¬çt çl
q= ar;rrr¬r m arm ¤cr¬ +t sgn¸ct m;t çl
=rrr+- m¸=o¤ a+rt ar¤ =’r;t; ç, çm ar¤= a¤¬t =m=nrar ¤; ¤’¬ ¤¸e =+n ç,
a¤¬t ‘r+rar + =mrrrr¬ + lee ¤rn +; =+n ç,
ar¤+ ‘r;t; ers¬ + ¤ro çmr;t ‘r+rar +r =mrrrr¬ += çrmr?
m¸=o¤- o=rr, m +lr+ a¤nr; ç¸, m;t n=¤t; = rnr¬ emnr çl
m; ¬r¬ + ¤ro ''m;t n=¤t;'' nr ¬çt m;mt? ¤ç ar¤+r ¬¤r¤ omtl
''+¤e ¬rm ¬¤r, ¬rm ¬¤ = çt ar¤+r +rnr¤r
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t
''ar¤ erm q= o’r m ¬çt, o¸l¬nr m +çr l+ q= ·nl+n +t
n=¤t; + rnr¬ = esg=,+=;, ç¤crqlc= ¤t lmc ;ç çl a¤ m;t
ar¤r¬ nr ¤et mq ar+r’r m, a¤ q=+r +rq ;r+ ¬çt =+nr ar;
q=+t ''n=¤t;'' ¬çt m;mtl''
=mªr =ogm¸=o¤ ~t;rmere¬t l=nrm
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
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
m ¤r;++r m çt +ç ¤¸+r ç¸ l+
¬¤ n¤ m¬¸”n ‘r;t;-=¤t m-ªr
+r ¤c¬ +r lo·n l¤qr¬ ==r;
m ¤+c ¬çt çrmr, l¤’¤ m ‘rrln
a=++r¤ çl +len¸m + m¸¤rrrm
+ +r;¤r a-rr+r; l¤’¤ m or=
¤¬+; ¬m mnr çl
=¤¸¤r l¤’¤ m +mr¤’r e+
¬=t çt l=ªrln çl q’¤; m l¤’¤r=
;=r¬ ¤re =·¤ ar ; q mr¬or;
er mr +r ¬t¬r ¤s r +lo¬ ç l
=¤= alrr+ o¸ ·=r nr q= ¤rn
+r ç, l+ rrrlm+ ==ªrrar ¤; çt
al¤’¤r=t-¬rl=n+r +r +-¬r
ç l m ¬¤ n+ a-nm¸ =rt çr +;
ar;rrr¬r +;nr ;çr, m ¬ q= = ¤ rr
m l+=t = ¤rn ¬çt +tl =¬g
tsc: = e+; tss: n+ m l¬;-n;
ar;rrr¬r m emr ;çrl
:t.tz.tss: +r ¬¤ m ; = n
=ogm¸ =o ¤ ¤r ¤r ~t m mr q
¬rªr ¬t nrmt ¤get¬ çr mn,
n¤ a¬+ aro ’r + +r;¤r m¸ q
=r¤ ¬l¬+ =¤ = ¤ +c çr ¬r
¤s rl m¸ q +rr;t ar’rr ªrt, l+
arrnrlrm+ ¬mng + erm q=
=·¤rq +r ¬r¬+; ¤ç¸n ¤=-¬
çrm,¤;-n¸ m;t ar’rre, l¬;r’rr
m ¤oe mql m q= =¤rr m l+=t
+rt ==ªrr +r ¬rm ¬çt e¬r ¤rçnr
ç¸l ¤;-n¸ l¤’¤ =n; +t ==ªrrar
= mrc nr; ¤; e+ çt arr; lonr-
'mre ¤rç a-o;-ar¤+r çr ,
¤r¤s nr çmr;r çt ;çmr'l m q==
+rr;t l¬;r’r ç¸ar ar; m¬ m¸=o¤
+t =mrlrr ¤; ¬r+; ¤rªr¬r +t
'¤+r¸ ar¤¬ m¸q men ¤¸¬ lenrl'
=¬ç l¬m->¤r
ar¤ l+=t =-nr=t nr ¤rg¤r +r
‘rl+n¤rn gr;r alrr+r; o ¬rn
nr ar=r¬t = =¤t+r; +; lenr
¬rnrl ar¤ a¤¬t mrnr ¤r¤=
e+; l+=t ar; +r o or' or lo¬
n+ +rq arr; t lmerl nt=;
lo¬ aro’r ç¸ar l+ 'o¬ e¬ +r
+rm nr ¤¤ +rrln+ ‘r;t; n+ çt
=tlmn çl =m¸¤r =r+r; =¤ m nç
+rn l+nr ¬rnr çl n¸q q= ¤rn
+t l¤-nr ¬çt +;¬t ¤rlçe l+
+r¬ mr¬nr ç, +r¬ ¬çtl n¸ nr
ar=¬ emr+; ¤o ¬rl ¤r+t +rm
l¬=+r ç, ¤ç =¤n +;mrl an·
=rc eç =re ¤çe çt, aro’r +
a¬¸=r; =¤rl¬¤¸n çr+; ar=¬
emr+; ¤o mnrl
m ¬ l+=t rrm + or’r l¬+
m -ªr +r arnn¬ ¬çt l+nrl
¬t¤¬ m ;rct + lee qn¬r =rr”r
+;¬r ¤sr l+ ar; l+=t ¤rn +t
n;¤ rnr¬ o çt ¬çt =+rl l¬=
¤+r; erc ¤·¤ +r s;r rrm+r +;
¤crnr ¬rnr ç, a=t ¤+r; a¤¬
‘r;t;=¤t m-ªr +r çt ¤crnr mnrl
=¬g tss¡ m =¤rl¬¤¸lrr = ¤çe
a=t ¤+r; ¤rq¤e + l¤l’r”c-z
=o+rr +r o=r¬r ¤srl m¬ l=¤
'¤rq¤e' ‘r-o çt =¸¬r ªrrl m;t
¬r¬+r;t + a¬¸=r; ¤ç q=rqnr
+r rrrlm+ m-ªr ªrrl ¤;-n¸ lç-ot
a¬¸¤ro m ment + +r;¤r = ¬¤
m¸q er¬¤t¬ +;¬t ¤st nr ¤nr
emr l+ ¤rq¤e +rt or ç, ar;
or¬r e+ o¸=; = l¤e+¸e l+r-¬l
=r; m a¤ arr+r; m ¬çt ç¸l
m¸q a= ¤;m =rrr ¬ =¤ +¸e
lo=rr ar; =mqr lonr çl m¸q
+nr +;¬r ç +¤ +;¬r ar; +=
+;¬r ç, =¤ +¸e =mqrnr ar;
lo=rrnr ç¸ar çl q=+ alnl;+n
ar¬ +rt ¤m-¤m ¤; ¤ªr-¤o’r¬
ar; lo’rrl-ro’r lmen ;çn çl
q=tlee m ¤ r; +r m çt le=r ¤¸ +r ç¸
l+, m l+=t +rt rrm + +nl+n +r
loe ¬çt o¸=rr¬r ¤rçnr ç¸, ¤;-n¸
q= ¤ªr ¤; ¤e¬r m;t m¬¤¸;t çl
m¸ q ¤rq¤e + l¤l¤>-l¤l¤>
= o+rr +r m¸ n =¤ = ¤ç¸ n çt
ar’¤n¤¸¤r cm = lo=rrnr mnrl
a¬m = l¬¬ ¤; le=rr ¬r¬r
=+r¤ ªrr, m¬ le=r+; =mqr¬
+r ¤nr= l+nrl ¤;-n¸ m ¤çe çt
le=r ¤¸ +r ç¸ l+ nç ;ç=n¤¸ ¤r m -ªr
ç, q=+ ¤rn· =o+r ¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln
ar; =r¢rrr+r; = çt =mq m ar
=+n çl
q= =o+r m, m or ¤rnr +r
çt ¤¤r ¬ +;¬r ¤rç¸ mr, l¬-ç
le=r+; =mqrnr ¬r¬r ¤¸¤r=¤
= a=+r¤ çl ¤ =o+r l-r+¬ ¤+r;
ç·- (t.¸ ¤l;nr + +rn z·:: =-c
¬rç¬ + ¤+rl’rn ¤r+n tz·: nªrr
tz·tt n e = = o+r ç , l+ a¬+t
¤rn¢rr¬¸+r¸ln ar; =r¢rrr+r; +r
or ‘r-or gr;r =mqr ¤r¬r ¤¸¤r =¤
= a=+r¤ çl q¬+r aªr nr ¤ç
¤;m=rrr a¤¬t +rr”rr m çt ¤rq¤e
+ m¬tl”rnr +r ¬¤ =mqr¤mt,
n+rt =mq m ar =+ mrl m ;
mrrnm = ¬r +¸e +;¤rnr ¬r ;çr
ç, ¤ç qn¬r ar’¤n¬¬+ ç, l+
q¬ ¤; =ç¬ m l¤’¤r= çr¬r ¤ç¸n
+lo¬ çl
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276
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
¬çt +t ªrtl nç ¤¸¤r =rn ç
l+ +len¸m + m¸¤rrrm + +r;¤r
l¤’¤ +r; m , ¬t¤¬ + ç; ¢r >
m q¸o ar; ¬+et ermr +r çt
alrr+ ¤+rr¤ çl
=·¤ -q¸ o +t ¤ç¤r¬ +;
¤r¬r arm m¬¸”n +t =rmªn =
¤rç; çl ¤;-n¸ nç q=rq ¬mng
+t m¬¤¸ ;t ç l+ q= =ot +
a-n = ¤çe =rrn +r c ¸ c +;
=¤t+r; +;¬r çt ¤smr, +nrl+
¤ç ¤l¤>rrmr ernt or++; +ç
mnr ç, l+ ¤¸ª¤t ar; ar+r’r ce
=+n ç ¤;-n¸ m;t ¤rn ++rt ¬çt
cemtl (Heaven and earth
shall pass away,but my
word shall not pass away ¸
q= =mn l¤’¤ m rrm e+ ·n¤=rn
+r =¤ e ¤¸+r çl
¤-o ermr ¬ rrrlm+ ¬mng
¤; e+rlrr+r; +; lenr çl ¤ q¬
=¸l¤rrrar +r ers¬ + lee ++rt
nnr; ¬çt çrm, ¤;-n¸ q=+r nç
aªr +orl¤ ¬çt çr =+nr l+
l¤’¤ m çr¬ ¤rer ¤l;¤n¬ =+
¬remrl +re¤+ a¬rlo+re =
a¤rrrmln = ¤enr arnr ar ;
¤enr ¬remrl
m; ¤r= +q rrrlm+ ·nl+n
arn çl ¬¤ ¤ rr;rne ¤; =rs
çr +; ¤rn +;n ç , nr =·¤rq
+r =¤t+r; +; en ç ¤;-n¸ +¸e
am ¤+¸ln + erm +ç on ç ar¤
l+=-l+= +r =mqrarm, çm nr
q¬ +rsr +t a¬ q=t ¤+r; +rcn
;çml e= nªrr l=ªrln¤rot erm
ç; n¸m m çrn are ç, l¬-çr¬
¤l;¤n ¬ +r arl=r;t om n+
=¤t+r; ¬çt l+nrl ;r¤¤r, +=,
o¸ nr rr¬ arlo +q aorç;¤r ç ,
¤;-n¸ +re¤+ =¤ +r l¬me mnr
ar; e=r çt ç; n¸m m çrmr +rtl
an· m =¤enr nr a=¤enr
m l¤e+¸e ¤+rrl¤n ¬çt çrnrl o¤
or¬¤ +r nç = rr”r m¬¸ ”n + a-o;
a¬rlo+re = ¤enr arnr ç ar;
¤enr ;ç mrl +lm+ arªrr¬-¤n¬
¤+¸ln +r ace l=çr-n çl
m l+=t rrm l¤’r”r +t ¤rn
¬çt +;nr ç¸l +len¸m + m¸¤rrrm
+ +r;¤r ¤rn· =+rt rrm e+ çt
l=ªrln m ç l m +rrr mr> a=t
¤;m=rrr +r mr¬nr ç¸l ==r; +
=+rt ermr +r ¤ç a¤¬t q·er =
+rlmn +;n ç¸e, ¬¤r ;çr çl q=
=¤rr m +rm¤r¬g ¬ mtnr + ts
¤ arnrn + ct ¤ ‘er+ m +çr
ç·-
q’¤;· =¤+r¸nr¬r
pc’r•¬¸¬ ln”olnl
+rrmn-=¤+r¸nrl¬
n->r=crl¬ mrnnrll
'ç a¬¸ ¬l ‘r;t; =¤t n->
m ar=c ç¸e, =¤¸¤r ¤rl¤rnr +r
a-nnrmt ¤;m’¤;, a¤¬t mrnr
= +r;mnr ç¸ar, =¤ +r¸n ¤rl¤rnr
+ pon m l=ªrn ç l' an· nç
l¤”rn l+=t +rt rrm ar; rr+rr¤rn
+t arer¤¬r +;¬ +r ç çt ¬çtl
mr> rrm +r ·n¤=rn +;¬ ¤re
erm çt, ==r; + ermr +r a¤¬t
=¤rªr l=lç + lee ar¤= m esr
;ç çl
an·m = =r; + =+rt rrmr
+ =+r;rrm+ ermr +r =·¤rq
¬r¬¬ + lee =¤ m arml->n
+;nr ç¸ l m a·et ¤ +r; =mq
;çr ç¸ l+ m; mrrnm = ¬r ‘rl+n,

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277
·nl+n l¤’r”r q’¤; +t çt ar¤’n+nr ç, ar; çm ¬r¬n ç l+ l+=t ·nl+n l¤’r”r q’¤; +t ¤¸ªrr
+r¤¬r = ¤c+; ¬tl¤n q’¤; q= er+ m =mn =mn ¤; ar¤-¬ çr+; çm ermr + =rªr ;çn +rt ç, ¬¤ l+
+rr¤l¬+ ·nl+n l¤’r”r q’¤; nr =r m l¬-nr¬¤ ¤ln’rn a¤r=¬r + anr·n çt çrn çl l+=t ¤+r; q’¤;
+t a¤¢rr, a¤¬t +rr¤l¬+ ;¤¬r, aªrrng q’¤; =¤rrt ¬r +rt rrr;¤rr çm ¤¬r =+n ç, a=+t a¤¢rr ¤
¤¸¬r + alrr+ nr·n çl q’¤; + =¤rr m çm erm ¬r +rt rrr;¤rr ;=r =+n ç, a=+t a¤¢rr ~t+¸”¤r ¤ç¸n
¤s çl çm a¤¬ m¬ m l¬n¬ a·¤ aro’r +r l¤¤r; +; =+n ç, ¬tl¤n aro’r çl q=tlee =¤ ¤+r; +
+rr¤l¬+ o¤nrar +r ¤o·n¸n +;+ ¤ l¤;+re = m¬¸”nr gr;r ¤¸¬ ¬r ;ç çl
çmr; >l”r ¬r¬n ªr, q=tlee a-çr¬ =m=n +rr;n¤rl=nr + lee q¬ mçr¤¸=”rr +t, q¬ a¤nr;r
+t, ¤¸¬r +;¬ +r mrm =rrer çl mtnr m +rm¤r¬g ~t +¸¤¤r ¬ +çr ç-'m¬¸”nr m ¬çr aog+r¸n arrnrlrm+
‘rl+n +r ¤+r’r çrnr ç, =mqr, ¤çr m ¤nmr¬ ç¸, m¸q= çt q= arrnrlrm+ ‘rl+n +r ¤+r’r çrnr çl'
nç lç-o¸ar + lee =m=n o’rr + =m=n a¤nr;r +t a¤r=¬r +;¬ +r gr; =rre onr çl lç-o¸ l+=t +rt
=¤rmt l¤¤+r¬-o
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
278
=ogm¸=o¤ +t lo·n ¤r¤rt
''ar¤ ¤rç loret, m¸+¤q, +e+rrr, aml;+r +çt +rt ;çr, m;t n=¤t;
+ =rm¬ ¤rªr-rr +;r, ar¤+r rnr¬ em ¬remrl m;t n=¤t; = rnr¬ emnr
ç, ;rm ar; +¸”¤r +t n=¤t; = ¬çt l ''
''m ¤¸ç=¤ln¤r; +r ot¢rr onr ç¸l m ;rrrr ar; +¸”¤r + m> +t ot¢rr onr
ç¸, q= m> +r ¬¤rm nr ar¤+t +¸¤sle¬t ¬rmn çr ¬remtl ''
a¤ n+ ¬r a¤nr; çr ¤¸+ ç l o=¤r a¤nr; m ç¸ , m +lr+ a¤nr; ç¸l

+lr+ +r ¤rcr
m;t n=¤t; = rnr¬ emnr çl a¤ nçr (arqr¤+¸ ¤; m¸q o=rr ar;
rnr¬ +;r l m¬ çt m¬ q= m > +r ¬¤r , l¤¬r çr o ¬t+r lçerel rnr¬ =¸ ¤ç-’rrm
+;¬r çrnr ç, =rret ¤cl =¸nron = ¤çe ar; =¸nr=n + ¤rol =¸¤ç ¬rot
ao+; +;r, t: lm¬c = ¤nror ¬çtl rnr¬ ¤nror +;rm nr arm ¤;’rr¬t çr
¬remtl (‘r;t; m mmt ¤c ¬remtl çmr; >l”r-m¸l¬ lçmern ¤çrs +t +-o.
;rar m +nr ¬rn ªr? q= +r;¤r ¬çt l+ ¤çr +rm¤r¬g rr¸=r ¤or ç ¬r ¬rn
çt lme ¬remrl q=lee l+ ‘r;t; mmt +r =ç¬ +; =+l ¤ ¤¤ +t l’rerar
¤; ¬m ¤o¬ ¤on ªrl¸ m> ¬¤ ç; =mn +;r, (Round the Clock). ¬rm
¬¤ = çt ar¤+r +rnr¤r çrmrl''
: ¬¸erq, m¸=¤r; zatz
¬rrr¤¸; ar~m
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+
AVSK ¬rrr¤¸; - lç-ot-am¬t ¤ m¸¬;rnt mrl=+ ¤l>+r, a¤e-mq-zat: =n¸+nr+