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Natti Rao / Keith O'Brien
Design Data for Plastics Engineers
Hanser Publishers, Munich Hanser/Gardner Publications, Inc., Cincinnati
The Authors: Dr.Ing. NattiRao, Schieferkopf 6,67434 Neustadt, Germany; Dr. Keith T. O'Brien, Vistakon, Ing., 4500 Salisbury Road, Jacksonville, FL 322160995, USA
Distributed in the USA and in Canada by Hanser/Gardner Publications, Inc. 6915 Valley Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 452443029, USA Fax: (5B) 5278950 Phone: (5B) 5278977 or 18009508977 Internet: http: //www.hansergardner.com Distributed in all other countries by CarlHanserVerlag Postfach 86 04 20,81631 Munchen, Germany Fax:+49 (89) 9812 64 The use of general descriptive names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if the former are not especially identified, is not to be taken as a sign that such names, as understood by the Trade Marks and Merchandise Marks Act, may accordingly be used freely by anyone. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of going to press, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Rao,NattiS. Design data for plastics engineers / Natti Rao, Keith O'Brien. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN l56990264X(softcover) 1. Plastics. I. O'Brien, Keith, T. II. Title. TP1120.R325 1998 668.4—dc21 9837253
Die Deutsche Bibliothek  CIPEinheitsaufnahme Rao, Natti S.: Design data for plastics engineers / Natti Rao/Keith O'Brien. Munich: Hanser; Cincinnati: Hanser/Gardner, 1998 ISBN 3446210105
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. © Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich 1998 Cameraready copy prepared by the authors. Printed and bound in Germany by Druckhaus "Thomas Muntzer", Bad Langensalza
Preface
Mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of polymers form the basic group of property values required for designing polymer machinery. In addition, knowledge of the properties of the resin such as stock temperature of the melt is necessary for optimizing the process. Furthermore, while designing a plastic part, performance properties of the resin depending on the application are to be considered, examples of which are flammability, weather resistance and optical properties, to quote a few. Hence, a variety of property values is needed to accomplish machine design, part design and process optimization. Comprehensive as well as specific overviews of polymer property data exist in the literature. Also the data banks of resin manufacturers offer quick information on thermophysical properties of polymers. But there are few books dealing with both resin and machine design data based on modern findings. The intent of this book is first of all to create an easy to use quick reference work covering basic design data on resin, machine, part and process, and secondly, to show as to how this data can be applied to solve practical problems. With this aim in mind numerous examples are given to illustrate the use of this data. The calculations involved in these examples can be easily handled with the help of handheld calculators. Chapters 1 to 5 deal with the description of physical properties  mechanical, thermal, rheological, electrical and optical  of polymers and principles of their measurement. In Chapter 6 the effect of external influences on the performance of polymers is treated. General property data for different materials such as liquid crystal polymers, structural foams, thermosetting resins and reinforced plastics are given at the end of this chapter. In Chapter 7 the processing properties and machine related data are presented for continuous extrusion processes namely blown film, pipe and flat film extrusion. Resin and machine parameters for thermoforming and compounding have also been included in this chapter. Chapter 8 deals with blow molding and the influence of resin and machine variables on different kinds of blow molding processes. Finally, Chapter 9 covers resindependent and machine related parameters concerning the injection molding process. Machine element design covered in Chapters 7 to 9 includes screw design for extruders and injection molding machines, die design for extruders, mold design for
and can be considered as an extension to Glanvill's book. . Natti S. Giinter Schumacher of University of Karlsruhe. Our work is based on the findings of modern plastics technology. The solution procedure used in these examples describes the application of polymer data to solve practical problems.D.S. for his constructive comments and his great help in preparing the manuscript.D. Keith T. Ph. We wish to express our sincere thanks to Professor Stephen Orroth of the University of Massachusetts at Lowell. He also suggested to write a book on the lines of Glanvill's Plastics Engineer's Data Book.A. Ph. Wherever appropriate.A. for his valuable suggestions. illustrated by workedout examples. Germany. Germany Jacksonville. U. Neustadt. the properties and machine related parameters are described by mathematical formulas which are. O'Brien. On the basis of this approach the importance of polymer data in dealing with design and process optimization is explained.molding and forming operations and downstream equipment for extrusion. students and teachers in the field of plastics technology and also for scientists from other fields who deal with polymer engineering.S. U. Rao. criticism and review of the manuscript. This book is intended for beginners as well as for practicing engineers. as already mentioned.. The authors also wish to express particular thanks to Dr.
It was not possible to cover all these processes within the scope of this book.AFINALWORD There are many other processes in wide application such as reaction injection molding. compression and transfer molding used to produce parts from thermosetting resins. the nature of data needed for designing machinery for these processes is similar to the one presented in this work. . However.
. he was professor of mechanical engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. India. Chennai(Madras). Before he joined Johnson & Johnson. he also holds seminars teaching the application of his software for designing extrusion and injection molding machinery. Prior to starting his consultancy company in 1987.D. degrees from the University of Leeds in Mechanical Engineering. Sc. Kharagpur.Sc. Germany he worked for the BASF AG for a number of years. Natti has published over 50 papers on different aspects of plastics engeneering and authored 3 books on designing polymer machinery with computers. Keith has over 100 published works to his credit. Later on he served as a technical advisor to the leading German Plastics machine manufacturers. Rao obtained his B.Tech in Chemical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology. from the University of Karlsruhe. and M.Tech(Hons) in Mechanical Engineering and M. After receiving his Ph.(Eng) from the University of London. Besides consultancy work. he worked as a visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Technology.Authors Natti S. and also edited the wellknown book. 1 Computer Modeling for Extrusion and other Continuous Processes'. India. Keith O'Brien has a B.D. and Ph.
.......4 Compressive Properties ............................................ 1.. Authors ...................... 1....................................5.........................................1 Creep Modulus .............................3 Shear Properties . 1...3......................2................................1 StressStrain Behavior ....................................4............1 Ideal Solids ......... 1.......3 Relaxation Modulus ................. 1.......................................................................................................5...................................................5.4 Fatigue Limit ...... 1.. 1....5 Time Related Properties .........................................................2 Creep Rupture ........................................... A Final Word ....1 Bulk Modulus .......................... vii ...............5............................................. 1.......................................................... 1.....Contents Preface ...2 Tensile Modulus ...................... 1....3 Effect of Temperature on Tensile Strength ..................................... v vii viii 1 1 1 2 5 6 6 6 7 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation................2 Effect of Temperature on Shear Modulus ........1 Shear Modulus .. 1...............2.............................3... 1..................................... 1..............................2 Tensile Properties ................. 1.................... 1...................................2.......... 1................... Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers ....................................
......................................... 3............ 3.................................2......................................3 Polynomial of Muenstedt ................................2.......... 3. 2....................1 Specific Volume ......... 3...................2 Power Law of Ostwald and De Waele .....2..................................................9 Vicat Softening Point ............ 2.........................................1 Hyperbolic Function of Prandtl and Eyring ...........................3........................ 2................................................................ 2...............2 Viscous Shear Flow ....................................... 2.................... 2................................. .............................2 Entrance Loss ...5 True Shear Rate ............................... 3.8 Heat Deflection Temperature ..... 3........ 3.......... 3........................ 23 23 26 27 29 29 31 32 34 35 35 3................2...................................................5 Thermal Conductivity ...1 Newtonian and NonNewtonian Fluids ................ Thermal Properties of Solid and Molten Polymers ....... 1...................... 2..... 15 17 17 2....................................6 Hardness ................................................... Transport Properties of Molten Polymers .8 Coefficient of Friction .............................................. 1..................3 True Shear Stress .....................................7 Impact Strength .3.....3.................................... 3...................1 Apparent Shear Rate .. 39 39 41 41 42 42 44 47 47 47 48 48 50 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.......................................viii Contents 1............ 3..........2 Specific Heat .................... 2........................7 Coefficient of Heat Penetration ..................4 Apparent Viscosity .... 3........................................ 2...............4 Enthalpy ........................ 2.............2...............................................3 Rheological Models ...6 True Viscosity .....................................................2............................................................. 3...........................10 Flammability ..............6 Thermal Diffusivity .........3 Thermal Expansion Coefficient ...............
........... This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation....4 Gloss ........ 3................................................................. 4..................................................................2 Haze .........................................7 Melt Flow Index ... 77 77 77 .........................................1 Primary Normal Stress Coefficient Θ .......3 Die Swell ........... 73 73 73 73 75 75 6................................................9 Viscoelastic Properties ...................................................3...3 Refractive Index . 3. 5...........5 Color ............................................................... 5.........................2 Shear Compliance Je .. 5................................ Electrical Properties ................. 5........................................... External Influences ................................................ 65 65 65 65 66 66 68 5...............................1 Surface Resistivity ........6 Viscosity of TwoComponent Mixtures ............................ 4.................6 Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) ...... Optical Properties of Solid Polymers ...............9.Contents 3......................1......................................................4 Viscosity Equation of Carreau .......... 3................................................ 3............................................... 4............... 3.......................................................................................... 3.........3 Dielectric Strength .........................................5 Dependence of Viscosity on Molecular Weight ................................... 3.... 6.... 4................................. 4....................................................................5 Dielectric Dissipation Factor or Loss Tangent ....................................... 3.........1 Solubility ................................1 Light Transmission .................................... 6...............2 Volume Resistivity .........................9...............................................8 Tensile Viscosity .....1 Physical Interactions ..............4 Effect of Pressure on Viscosity ............................................ 3.......... 4....4 Relative Permittivity ... ix 53 55 56 57 59 59 60 60 61 61 62 4........ 5.........3................ 3......5 Viscosity Formula of Klein ....................................9..
........................3 Extrusion Dies ....................... 137 7...... 6...................1 Pipe Extrusion ...... 77 79 80 80 81 81 82 7.........2.........2 Machine Related Parameters ..2 Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) ................3................................................................... 7.1 Dimensionless Groups .................... ...........3.3 General Property Data ............... 6...1 Processes ......................................4 Thermoforming ....................2 Chemical Resistance ................................ 142 7..........................................................................1...... 149 7................................... 169 9...........................1...........................................2.............5 Weathering Resistance ............ Blow Molding ... 126 7............................1 Extrusion Screws ........................ 170 9............................................1.........1 Chemical and Wear Resistance to Polymers ...............1 Resin Dependent Parameters .....1 ResinDependent Parameters ........... 6......................................... 6................................ 7.................... 155 8..............................1.......................3 Sheet Extrusion ........6 Extrudate Cooling ..............................1 ResinDependent Parameters ........... 7................................... 161 9........... 155 8......3....................................................................................................... 124 7.............................. 6...2 Machine Related Parameters .. Injection Molding .................................2 Processing Parameters ............................................... 6.....5 Compounding ................ 155 8............... 135 7.........1.......x Contents 6......1 Injection Pressure .................................................................. 170 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation............................. 146 7.4 Absorption and Desorption .................................2 Blown Film ................................. 152 8... Extrusion ......................1....1.6. 91 92 92 92 98 7..2.....................3 Permeability .............................. 7............................................
......................1..2 Machine Related Parameters ................................................................2. 179 9......3 Injection Mold .........Contents xi 9.... 174 9....................................................2 Mold Shrinkage and Processing Temperature .......4 Flow Characteristics of InjectionMolding Resins ....................................... 180 9...... 175 9........................... 205 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation..... 179 9....................2....... ...........3 Drying Temperatures and Times ................... 183 Index .......1 Injection Unit .............2.......1..........................2 Injection Molding Screw ..............................1........... 172 9.....................
fatigue.1) . Furthermore they are also essential in design work to dimension a part from a stress analysis or to predict the performance of a part under different stress situations involved. 1. Following equations apply for this case: Engineering strain: (1.1 causes an elongation A/ of the sample of diameter d0 and length I0 fixed at one end. it is necessary to define certain quantities as follows [3]: 1. The behavior of a polymer subjected to shear or tension can be described by comparing its reaction to an external force with that of an elastic solid under load.1 Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers The properties of polymers are required firstly to select a material which enables desired performance of the plastics component under conditions of its application. In addition to the physical properties there are certain properties known as performance or engineering properties which correlate with the performance of the polymer under varied type of loading and environmental influences such as impact.1 Ideal Solids Ideal elastic solids deform according to Hookean law which states that the stress is directly proportional to strain.2 Tensile Properties The axial force Fn in Fig. 1. The following sections deal with the physical as well as important performance properties of polymers. a prerequisite for designing and optimizing polymer processing machinery. Knowledge of polymer properties is.2. To characterize ideal solids. high and low temperature behavior and chemical resistance. as already mentioned in the preface.
When the stress is directly proportional to strain the material is said to obey Hooke's law.2.2.2) Tensile stress: (1.2.2. The maximum stress point on the curve. . 1. 1.2) [I].1 StressStrain Behavior As shown in Fig.5) Fig. The slope of the straight line portion of curve 1 is equal to the modulus of elasticity.2 most metals exhibit a linear stressstrain relationship (curve 1). where as polymers being viscoelastic show a nonlinear behavior (curve 2). up to which stress and strain remain proportional is called the proportional limit (point P in Fig.Hencky strain: (1.4) Poisson's ratio: (1.2.3) Reference area: (1. 1.1: Deformation of a Hookean solid by a tensile stress [10] 1.
where an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress.Stress c Strain z Fig.2 represents break of the material.2) is known as the yield point. 1. The point B in Fig.3). Stress 6 Strain E Fig. it does not return to its original size and shape. 1. 1. On continued loading a point is reached at which the material starts yielding.3: Secant modulus [3] Owing to their nonlinear nature it is difficult to locate the straight line portion of the stressstrain curve for polymeric materials (Fig. This point (point Y in Fig. It should however be noted that some materials may not exhibit a yield point. The secant modulus represents the . 1.2: Typical stressstrain curves of metals and polymers Most materials return to their original size and shape.2 is the maximum load which may be applied without leaving any permanent deformation of the material. If the material is loaded beyond its elastic limit. and is said to have been permanently deformed. 1. The elastic limit represented by the point E in Fig. 1. even if the external load exceeds the proportional limit.
ratio of stress to strain at any point (S in Fig. 1.3) on the stressstrain diagram and is equal to the slope of the line OS. It is an approximation to a linear response over a narrow, but prespecified and standard level of strain [2], which is usually 0.2%. The initial modulus is a straight line drawn tangent to the initial region of the stressstrain curve to obtain a fictive modulus as shown in Fig. 1.4. As this is ambiguous, the resin manufacturers provide a modulus with the stress, for example, G05 corresponding to a strain 0.5 % to characterize the material behavior on a practical basis (Fig. 1.4) [3], This stress G0 is also known as the proof stress.
2 N m /m
Stress 6
S t r a i nS
%
Fig. 1.4: Stress at a strain of 0.5% [3]
mm2 psi
Tensile stress
Elongation
%
Fig. 1.5: Tensile stress diagram of a number of materials at 23°C [ 4 ]: a: steel, b: copper, c: polycarbonate, d: PMMA, e: PEHD, f: rubber, g: PELD, h: PVCP
Tensile stress
Stressstrain diagrams are given in Fig. 1.5 for a number of materials [4]. It can be seen from Fig. 1.5 that the advantage of metals lies in their high strength, where as that of plastics lies in their high elongation at break. 1.2.2 Tensile Modulus According to Eq. (1.2.1) and Eq. (1.2.3) one obtains for the modulus of elasticity E which is known as Young's Modulus E = az/ 8 (1.2.6) The modulus of elasticity in a tension test is given in Table 1.1 for different polymers [7]. Table 1.1: Guide Values of Modulus of Elasticity of Some Plastics [4] Material PELD PEHD PP PVCU PS ABS PC POM PA6 PA66 PMMA PET PBT PSU CA CAB PhenolFormaldehydeResins UreaFormaldehydeResins MelaminFormaldehydeResins Unsaturated Polyester Resins Modulus of elasticity N mm'2 200/500 700/1400 1100/1300 1000/3500 3200/3500 1900/2700 2100/2500 2800/3500 1200/1400 1500/2000 2700/3200 2600/3100 1600/2000 2600/2750 1800/2200 1300/1600 5600/12000 7000/10500 4900/9100 14000/20000
The 3.5 % flexural stresses of thermoplastics obtained on a 3point bending fixture (Fig. 1.6) [6] lie in the range 100 to 150 N mm"2 and those of thermosets from around 60 to 150 N mm"2 [7].
A p p l i e dl o a d
Fig. 1.6: Three point bending fixture [6]
1.2.3 Effect of Temperature on Tensile Strength
The tensile strength is obtained by dividing the maximum load (point M in Fig. 1.2) the specimen under test will withstand by the original area of crosssection of the specimen. Fig. 1.7 shows the temperature dependence of the tensile strength of a number of plastics [4].
1.3 Shear Properties
Figure 1.8 shows the influence of a shear force Ft acting on the area A of a rectangular sample and causing the displacement AU. The valid expressions are defined by: Shear strain: (1.3.1) Shear stress (1.3.2)
1.3.1 Shear Modulus
The ratio of shear stress to shear strain represents the shear modulus G. From the equations above results: (1.3.3)
N mm2 psi Tensile stress Temperature
0
Tensile stress
C
Fig. 1.7: Temperature dependence of the tensile stress of some thermoplastics under uniaxial loading [4]; a: PMMA, b: SAN, c: PS, d: SB, e: PVCU f: ABS, g: CA, h: PEHD, i: PELD, k: PELDV
Fig. 1.8: Deformation of a Hookean solid by shearing stress [10]
1.3.2 Effect of Temperature on Shear Modulus
The viscoelastic properties of polymers over a wide range of temperatures can be better characterized by the complex shear modulus G* which is measured in a torsion pendulum test by subjecting the specimen to an oscillatory deformation Fig. 1.9 [2]. The complex shear modulus G* is given by the expression [2] (1.3.4) The storage modulus G' in Eq. (1.3.4) represents the elastic behavior associated with energy storage and is a function of shear amplitude, strain amplitude and the phase angle
The storage modulus G' which is a component of the complex shear modulus G* and the loss factor d are plotted as functions of temperature for high density polyethylene in Fig.5 between stress and strain.3. The loss modulus G" which is a component of the complex modulus depicts the viscous behavior of the material and arises due to viscous dissipation. These data for various polymers are given in the book [4].10: Generalized relationship between deformation resistance and temperature for amorphous (solid line) and semicrystalline (broken line) high polymers [2] .9: Torsion pendulum. 8 T I M E (t) Fig. 1. This kind of data provides information on the molecular structure of the polymer. 1. 1. 1.5) The modulustemperature relationship is represented schematically in Fig. Loading mode and sinusoidal angular displacement t [2] The tangent of the phase angle 8 is often used to characterize viscoelastic behavior and is known as loss factor.10 [2]. from which the influence of the transition regions described by the glass transition temperature Tg and melting point Tm is evident. DEFORMATION RESISTANCE H A R D B R I T T L E S O L I D 8 T O U G H S O L I D V S IC O U S M E L T R U B B E R Y TEMPERATURE Fig.11 [4]. The loss factor d can be obtained from (1.
PELD (less crystalline) 1. obtained in the torsion pendulum test DIN 53445 [4]: PEHD (highly crystalline).12: Hookean solid under compression [44] Mechanical loss factor d . 1.12 is given by the engineering compression ratio K . 1.4.11: Temperature dependence of the dynamic shear modulus. (1.psi N/mm2 Dynamic shear modulus G' Temperature °C Fig. G' and the loss factor d. P P V0LV Fig.1) where AV is the reduction of volume due to deformation of the body with the original volume F0.4 Compressive Properties The isotropic compression due to the pressure acting on all sides of the parallelepiped shown in Fig. PEHD (crystalline). 1.
4.23 0. density p. the relationship between E.33 0.33 0. bulk modulus K and specific bulk modulus for some materials [10] Material Poisson ratio ju Density p at 200C g/cm3 7.5107 1.65 2.4.07 0.1). when the pressure is increased by 100 bar follows from Table AV / V0 = 100/(0.3109 0.7407 24 O6 1.5 1.43% .25 0.45 0. Although the moduli of polymers compared with those of metals are very low.1109 3.91010 3. for instance for PELD.5 1. ratio of modulus to density.661011 71010 1.33109 Specific bulk modulus KJp m2/s2 2.91 0. G and K is expressed as [3] E = 2 G(I + JU) = 3K(I.49 0.4) Typical values of moduli and Poisson's ratios for some materials are given in Table 1.85407 3.2 [10].27 0.71010 3109 4. (1. /j —> 0.3) This leads for an incompressible solid ( K —> oo.2: Poisson ratio ju.e.9 2. 2.08 0. The reduction of volume. at equal weights. polymers compare favorably.7109 2109 1.17 1.1 Bulk Modulus The bulk modulus K is defined by K =p IK (1.5 ) to E = 3G.8. .5406 Mild steel Aluminum Copper Quartz Glass Polystyrene Polymethylmethacrylate Polyamide 66 Rubber PELD Water Organic liquids 0.2) where A: is calculated from Eq.2ju) .5407 2. Furthermore.7 • 104) = 1.494 O7 2.47107 1.33 0.5 0.33 0.033109 0.4.044 O7 3.4.92 1 0.7 8. i.Table 1.344011 3.3407 0. (1.6107 1.05 1. (1.9 Bulk modulus K N/m2 1.1107 2.4.
Under the action of a constant load a polymeric material experiences a time dependent increase in strain called creep.13 the creep data can be represented by creep plots.5. 1.5. from which the creep modulus according to Eq. a Strain £ T m ie/ b Stress 6 Stress 6 T m iet Strain £ Fig.15.14 [5].13: Longterm stressstrain behavior [3] .1 Creep Modulus In addition to stress and temperature.1. As shown in Fig. Creep behavior can be examined by subjecting the material to tensile. Creep is therefore the result of increasing strain over time under constant load [6]. 1. The 2 % elasticity limits of some thermoplastics under uniaxial stress are given in Fig.5 Time Related Properties 1. time is an important factor for characterizing the performance of plastics. 1. Creep data measured under various conditions for different polymers are available in [4]. (1.1) can be obtained. compressive or flexural stress and measuring the strain for a range of loads at a given temperature. The time dependence of tensile creep modulus of some thermoplastics at 2O0C is shown in Fig. The creep modulus E c № in tension can be calculated from E c (t) = W£(t) (1.5.1) and is independent of stress only in the linear elastic region. 1.
c: SB. Creep rupture curves are obtained in the same manner as creep. f: PELD 1. Acetal copol ymer acretal copolymer and nylon 66 20 MN/m2 from Modern Plastics Encyclopaedia 1W e e k 1Y e a r Time (hours) Fig.Tensile Creep Modulus GN/m2 Nylon 662 20 MN/m 200P Polyethersulfone 28 MN/nf Polysulfone 28 MN/m2 Polycarbonate 20.15:2% elasticity limits of some thermoplastics under uniaxial stress at 200C [4] a: SAN. d: chlorinated polyether.2 Creep Rupture Failure with creep can occur when a component exceeds an allowable deformation or when it fractures or ruptures [6].14: Tensile creep modulus vs time for engineering thermoplastics [5] N mm2 psi Tensile stress h Stress duration Fig.6 MN/m2 Data for polysulfooe. except that the magnitude of the stresses used is higher and the time is measured up Tensile stress . 1. 1. polycarbonate. b: ABS. e: PEHD.5.
This data is of significance in the design of parts which are to undergo longterm deformation.17: Relaxation modulus of PEHDHMW as a function of stress duration at 23°C [4] . According to [4] the extrapolation of creep data should not exceed one unit of logarithmic time and a strain elongation limit of 20 % of the ultimate strength. t> t r 7 tFig. 1. 1.to failure.16 [3]. The relaxation modulus of PEHDHMW as a function of stress duration is given in Fig.5.3 Relaxation Modulus The relaxation behavior of a polymer is shown in Fig. 1.17 [4]. Similar plots for different materials are to be found in [4]. Relaxation is the stress reduction which occurs in a polymer when it is subjected to a constant strain. Data on creep rupture for a number of polymers are presented in [4]. 1.16: Relaxation after step shear strain y0 [3] psi N/mm2 Relaxation modulus Stress duration h Fig. 1.
The asymptotic value of stress shown in the schematic fatigue curve (SN plot) in Figs. S N cuive Stress Log cycles Fig. 1. Examples of fatigue situations are components subjected to vibration or repeated impacts. Cyclic loading can cause mechanical deterioration and fracture propagation resulting in ultimate failure of the material.4 Fatigue Limit Fatigue is a failure mechanism which results when the material is stressed repeatedly or when it is subjected to a cyclic load. 1.18: Fatigue curve [6] Stress Fatigue limit Log cycles (to failure) Fig.18 and 1.19 [6] is known as the fatigue limit. At stresses or strains which are less than this value failure does not occur normally.1.19: Fatigue limit [6] . Fatigue is usually measured under conditions of bending where the specimen is subjected to constant deflection at constant frequency until failure occurs. 1.5.
cone or pyramid depending on the test procedure under defined load conditions. The results of both methods are expressed on a scale between 0 (very soft plastics) and 100 (very hard surface). Fatigue limits decrease with increasing temperature. Stress Endurance limit Log cycles (to failure) Fig.6 Hardness Various methods of measuring the hardness of plastics are in use. for example. increasing frequency and stress concentrations in the part [4]. 1.20) [6]. Their common feature is measuring the deformation in terms of the depth of penetration which follows indentation by a hemisphere.3 for some thermoplastics [2].22) used the Shore hardness. In these cases. According to the type of indenter (Fig. . is given as Shore A or Shore D. 1.20: Endurance limit [6] For most plastics the fatigue limit is about 20 to 30 % of the ultimate strength measured in shortterm tensile investigations [6]. the endurance limit which gives stress or strain at failure at a certain number of cycles is used (Fig.21. The ballindentation hardness which represents the indentation depth of a spherical steel indenture is given in Table 1.Some materials do not exhibit an asymptotic fatigue limit. 1. The Woehler plots for oscillating flexural stress for some thermoplastics are given in Fig. 1. 1. Shore A data referring to soft plastics and Shore D to hard plastics.
N mm2 psi Stress amplitude Cycles to failure Fig. b: PP. d: PVCU Table 1.3: BallIndentation Hardness for Some Plastics [7] Material PELD PEHD PP PVCU PS ABS PC POM PA6 PA66 PMMA PET PBT PhenolFormaldehydeResins UreaFormaldehydeResins MelaminFormaldehydeResins Unsaturated Polyester Resins Hardness N/mm2 13/20 40/65 36/70 75/155 120/130 80/120 90/110 150/170 70/75 90/100 180/200 180/200 150/180 250 320 260/350 260/410 200/240 . 1. c: PEHD.21: Flexural fatigue strength of some thermoplastics [4] a: acetal polymer.
23) [2] the pendulum strikes the specimen centrally leading to fracture. smooth surface and low coefficient of friction of the resin components involved are to be recommended.8 Coefficient of Friction Although there is no consistent relationship between friction and wear. b) Fig. and indicates the toughness of the material at high rates of deformation. b: shore C and A 1.a. relative velocities of the parts in contact and area under pressure are often the same.4 shows the coefficients of sliding friction and sliding wear against steel for different materials [4]. 1.22: Types of indenter [7] a: shore. r a d i u s r Fig. 1.7 Impact Strength Impact strength is the ability of the material to withstand a sudden impact blow as in a pendulum test.23: Charpy impact test [2] 1. . The test procedures are varied. the factors affecting the two processes such as roughness of the surfaces. Table 1. In applications where low friction and high wear resistance are required. 1. In the Charpy impact test (Fig.
1.24: Impact curve [6] P V C Charpy Impact Strength (kj/m2) Polyethersulfone Nylon 66 (dry) Acetal A B S Glassfiled nylon Acrylic Radius (mm) Fig.24 [6].A typical impact curve as a function of temperature is shown in Fig.25 [5]. 1. The results of impact tests depend on the manufacturing conditions of the specimen. 1. Charpy notched impact strengths of some plastics as functions of notch radius are given in Fig. Impact value Ductile behaviour Ductile/brittle transition Brittle behaviour Temperature Fig. This type of data provides the designer with information about the temperature at which the ductile fracture changes to brittle fracture thus enabling to evaluate the performance of the material in a given application. 1. Impact strengths for various plastics are given by Domininghaus [4]. notch geometry and on the test method.25: Charpy impact strength vs. notch radius for some engineering thermoplastics [5] .
1) .16 0.58 0.0 0.10 0.32/0.0 1.5 23 4.9 11.25/0.54 0.GF 35 Standard polystyrene Styrene/Acrylonitrile copolymer Polymethylmethacrylate Polyphenylene ether Coefficient of sliding friction 0.42 0.16 0.13 N for 5 years without fracture and without causing a deflection of greater than 2.54 mm.44 0.45 0.4: Coefficient of Sliding Friction of Polymer/Case Hardened Steel after 5 or 24 Hours [4] Polymer Polyamide 66 Polyamide 6 Polyamide 6 {in situ polymer) Polyamide 610 Polyamide 11 Polyethyleneterephthalate Acetal homopolymer Acetal copolymer Polypropylene PEHD (high molecular weight) PEHD (low molecular weight) PELD Polytetrafluoroethylene PA 66 + 8% PELD Polyacetal + PTFE PA 66 + 3% MoS2 PA 66 .19 0.7 0. The minimum depth of the simple beam of SAN shown in Fig.35 Sliding frictional wear 0.36 0.36/0.38 0.35 0.25 0.30/0. Solution: The maximum stress is given by (1.36/0.32 0.5 8.26 is to be determined for the following conditions: The beam should support a midspan load of 11.Table 1.38/0. 1.32/0.21 0.8.5 4.09 0.54 0.43 0.28 11.4 21.0 4.6 7.35 0.30 0.GF 35 PA 6 .8 0.32 0.10 0.22 0.32/0.52 0.46 0.34 0.29 0.23 0.8 90 Example [8]: The following example illustrates the use of physical and performance properties of polymers in dealing with design problems.
1) The deflection is calculated from Eq. 1.27: Ec = 2413 NI mm2.440.2) Under these assumptions the calculated/is less than the allowable value of 2.h. This example shows why creep data are required in design calculations and how they can be applied to solve design problems.5 = 11. 1.5: ow = 23. The creep modulus Ec is calculated from (1. The maximum stress from Fig. Working stress crw with an assumed safety factor S = 0. Creep modulus with a safety factor S = 0.44 N/mm2. (1.27 at a period of 5 years (= 43800 h) is crmax = 23.75: Ec = 24130. 1. The depth of the beam results from Eq. Creep modulus Ec a t cr < crw ^ d a period of 5 years from Fig.8.26.8.75 = 1809.where F = load (N) l. 1.8.75 NJmm2 . Fig.d = dimensions in (mm) as shown in Fig. (1.54 mm.72 NJmm1 .26: Beam under midspan load [8] .2) where f is deflection in mm.
: A Text Book of Materials and Metallurgy.28: Creep modulus of SAN [8] h Literature 1. Ludhiana. Munich.S. T. Hanser. Margolis. 1. Hanser.: Haworth. Nat.: Physics of Plastics.mm2 Initial applied stress h T i m e at rupture Fig. B. D. 1. 1991 Domininghaus. Munich 1993 Rigby. 4. 6. 2. Marcel Dekker.: James M. NS. 3. K: Plastics for Engineers. Katson Publishing House. Hanser. K: Handbuch der Kunststoffpriifung (Ed. Hanser. R. W. Munich 1991 Rao.: Design Formulas for Plastics Engineers. India 1980 Birley. Basel 1985 General Electric Plastics Brochure: Engineering Materials Design Guide Schmiedel.: Bachelor.: Polyethersulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications.B.27: Creep curve of SAN [8] N mm2 Creep modulus Time t Fig. 7. Munich 1992 .). 5. Ed. A.
Gleifile. Brochure: Advanced CAE Technology Inc.: Praktische Rheologie der Kunststoffe und Elastomere. Dusseldorf 1995 . W. M.. Design Guide. VDIKunststofftechnik.. KM.8. Modem Plastics Encyclopedia. Pahl. 1992 10. 197879 9. Laun.
p*. 2.1 [1] and for an amorphous PS in Fig. specific volume v and temperature T of a polymer can be written as (2.1. for example to estimate the shrinkage of plastics parts in injection molding [19]. 2. 2. W. [18]. The pvT diagrams are needed in many applications. the cohesion pressure.2 [I]. According to SpencerGilmore equation which is similar to the VanderWaal equation of state for real gases the relationship between pressure p.2 Thermal Properties of Solid and Molten Polymers In addition to the mechanical and melt flow properties thermodynamic data of polymers are necessary for optimizing various heating and cooling processes which occur in plastics processing operations. In design work the thermal properties are often required as functions of temperature and pressure [2].1 [9]. Data on pvT relationships for a number of polymers are presented in the handbook [8]. the molecular weight of the monomer and R. . The values p* and b* can be determined from pVT diagrams by means of regression analysis. regression equations are used to fit the data for use in design calculations.1 Specific Volume The volumetemperature relationship as a function of pressure is shown for a semicrystalline PEHD in Fig. Spencer and Gilmore and other workers evaluated these constants from measurements for the polymers listed in Table 2.1) In this equation b* is the specific individual volume of the macromolecule. the universal gas constant [9]. As the measured data cannot always be predicted by physical relationships accurately enough.
2. temperature for a semicrystalline polymer (PP) [1] Specific volume (cm3/g) Temperature (0C) Fig. temperature for an amorphous polymer (PS) [1] .2: Specific volume vs.S P E C I F I CV O L U M E (cm3/g) TEMPERATURE(0C) Fig.1: Specific volume vs. 2.
Table 2.1: Constants for the Equation of State [9] Material PELD PP PS PC PA 610 PMMA PET PBT W g/mol 28.1 41.0 104 56.1 111 100 37.0 113.2 b* cmVg 0.875 0.620 0.822 0.669 0.9064 0.822 0.574 0.712
atm 3240 1600 1840 3135 10768 1840 4275 2239
Example: Following values are given for a PELD: W b* p* = = = 28.1 g/Mol 0.875 cm7g 3240 arm
Calculate the specific volume at T = 190°Candplbar Solution: Using Eq. (2.1.1) and the conversion factors to obtain the volume v in crnVg, we obtain 10 8.314.(273, 190) + y = = 28.13240.991.013 The density p is the reciprocal value of specific volume so that 1 P = v The pvT data can also be fitted by a polynomial of the form v = A(0) v + A(l) v p+ A(2) v T+ A ( 3 ) v T p (2.1.2) if measured data is available (Fig. 2.3) [10], [11], [17]. The empirical coefficients A(0)v... A(3)v can be determined by means of the computer program given in [H]. With the modified twodomain Tait equation [16] a very accurate fit can be obtained both for the solid and melt regions.
cm3/g
/> = 1bar
O J O b a r Specific volume v 800 bar
m e a s u r e d polynomial
0
C
Temperature T
Fig. 2.3: Specific volume as a function of temperature and pressure for PELD [2], [13]
2.2 Specific Heat
The specific heat cp is defined as (Si),
where h = enthalpy T = Temperature The specific heat cp gives the amount of heat which is supplied to a system in a reversible process at a constant pressure in order to increase the temperature of the substance by dT. The specific heat at constant volume cv is given by
C  [^l
where u = internal energy T = Temperature In the case of cv the supply of heat to the system occurs at constant volume. cp and cv are related to each other through the SpencerGilmore equation Eq. (2.1.1)
(2.2.3)
The numerical values of cp and cv differ by roughly 10 %, so that for approximate calculations cv can be made equal to cp. Plots of cp as function of temperature are shown in Fig. 2.4 for amorphous, semicrystalline and crystalline polymers.
a )
b )
c)
Fig. 2.4: Specific heat as a function of temperature for amorphous (a), semicrystalline (b) and crystalline polymers (c) [14]
(2.2.4)
JiL k gK m e a s u r e d Specific heat cp p o y ln o m a il
As shown in Fig. 2.5 measured values can be fitted by a polynomial of the type [11]
T e m p e r a t u r eT
'C
(2.3.1) The 2.3 expansion Fig. Thermal 2.5: Comparison coefficient Expansion between aY a* constant measured Coefficient pressure values ofis cpgiven [13] and by polynomial [14] for PELD [2]
The isothermal compression coefficient yk is defined as [14]
r,   1 [£)
v \dpJT
ay and yk are related to each other by the expression [14]
Cp Cv + ^ ^
(23.2)
(2.3.3)
The linear expansion coefficient alin is approximately
tflin = CCv (2.3.4)
Table 2.2 shows the linear expansion coefficients of some polymers at 20 0C. The linear expansion coefficient of mild steel lies around 11 x 10"6 [K"1] and that of aluminum about 25 x 10~6 [K"1]. As can be seen from Table 2.2 plastics expand about 3 to 20 times more than metals. Factors affecting thermal expansion are crystallinity, crosslinking and fillers
Table 2.2: Coefficients of Linear Thermal Expansion [1], [5] Polymer PELD PEHD PP PVCU PVCP PS ABS PMMA POM PSU PC PET PBT PA 6 PA 66 PTFE TPU Coefficient of linear expansionat 20 0C alin 106K1 250 200 150 75 180 70 90 70 100 50 65 65 70 80 80 100 150
the theoretical power requirement would be 20 kW.6: Comparison between measured values of h [13] and polynomial for PA6 [11] The specific enthalpy defined as the total energy supplied to the polymer divided by the throughput of the polymer is a useful parameter for designing extrusion and injection molding equipment such as screws. for example.5 Thermal Conductivity The thermal conductivity X is defined as (2. (2. 2. 2. This can be assumed to be a safe design value for the motor horse power.4 Enthalpy Eq.7 [14].2) kg p o l y n o m i a l m e a s u r e d hhn 0 T e m p e r a t u r eT C Fig. It gives the theoretical amount of energy required to bring the solid polymer to the process temperature.4.4. although theoretically it includes the power supply to the polymer by the heater bands of the extruder as well.1) .1) As shown in Fig.5.2. 2.1) leads to dh = cp dT (2. Values of this parameter for different polymers are given in Fig.2. If. the throughput of an extruder is 100 kg/h of polyamide (PA) and the processing temperature is 260° C. 2.6 the measured data on h = h(T) [13] for a polymer melt can be fitted by the polynomial (2.
A pressure increase from 1 bar to 250 bar leads only to an increase of less than 5 % of its value at 1 bar.8 can be expressed as [2] (2. 2. Analogous to the specific heat cp and enthalpy h the thermal conductivity X as shown in Fig.5.kWh kg P A P S P C Enthalpy ^ V C 9 T e m p e r a t u r eI C Fig.7: Specific enthalpy as a function of temperature [14] where Q = heat flow through the surface of area A in a period of time t (T1T2) = temperature difference over the length 1. 2. [13] and polynomial for PP [2] The thermal conductivity increases only slightly with the pressure. 2.2) Thermal conductivity A measured m K polynomial 0 C T e m p e r a t u r e JFig.8: Comparison between measured values of A. .
2.12 0. for example.11 .As in the case of other thermal properties the thermal conductivity is.14 0. Thermal diffusivities of some polymers at 20 0C are listed in Table 2. Although for approximate calculations average values of thermal diffusivity can be used. in addition to its dependence on temperature.14 0. Table 2.12 0.12 0.6 Thermal Diffusivity Thermal diffusivity a is defined as the ratio of thermal conductivity to the heat capacity per unit volume [1] a = ^P 'Cp (2.15 0. Foamed plastics have.12 0. [15].6.16 0.3: Thermal Diffusivities of Polymers at 20 0C Polymer PELD PEHD PP PVCU PVCP PS PMMA POM ABS PC PBT PA 6 PA 66 PET I Thermal diffusivity at 20 0C a 106m2/s 012 0.14 0.22 0.3 [14].13 0. thermal conductivities at least an order of magnitude less than those of solid polymers [I].12 0.1) and is of importance in dealing with transient heat transfer phenomena such as cooling of melt in an injection mold [2]. strongly influenced by the crystallinity and orientation and by the amount and type of filler in the polymer [I]. more accurate computations require functions of Z. p and cp against temperature for the solid as well as melt regions of the polymer.
23 0.35 1. Table 2.95 0.30 2. specific heat.46 1.20 0.5 the coefficients of heat penetration of metals are much higher than those of polymer melts.Exhaustive measured data of the quantities cp.55 1.02 1.40 1.80 1.30 2.20 1. 220 2. Experimental techniques of measuring enthalpy. [16]. [15].16 0.91 1.25 0.17 2.36 0. Owing to this the contact temperature of the wall of an injection mold at the time of injection lies in the vicinity of the mold wall temperature before injection.92 0.25 Density (20 0C) p g/cm3 1. Approximate values of thermal properties of use to plastics engineers are summarized in Table 2.32 0.7 Coefficient of Heat Penetration The coefficient of heat penetration is used in calculating the contact temperature which results when two bodies of different temperature are brought into contact with each other [2].20 0.12 0.4: Approximate Values for Thermal Properties of Some Polymers [14] Polymer Thermal conductivity (20 0C) X W/mK 0.37 0.40 0. X and pvT diagrams of polymers are given in the VDMAHandbook [8].06 1. 130 160/170 215/225 250/260 250/260 ca.40 1. melting point and glass transition temperature by differential thermal analysis (DTA) such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are described in detail in the brochure [12].15 0.21 Specific heat (20°C)cp kJ/kgK 1. 125 ca.49 0.42 1. 110 ca.08 1.15 0. Methods of determining thermal conductivity.45 1.40 1. .70 1. pvT values and other thermal properties of plastics have been treated in this brochure [12].18 1.29 0.40 1.25 2. As shown in Table 2.13 1.4 [14].92 0. 175 ca.14 1. h.10 1.12 0.35 Glass transition temperature Tg C 101 80 105 115 73 115 150 120/90 120/90 120/90 10 50 55 70 45 0 Melting point range Tm 0 C PS PVC PMMA SAN POM ABS PC PELD PELLD PEHD PP PA6 PA 66 PET PBT ca.
57 x 103 7.The contact temperature #Wmax of the wall of an injection mold at the time of injection is [17] 0W ~ _ bw flWmin + b p Bu " bw + bp n {JA) where b = coefficient of heat penetration= J / l p c ^wmjn = temperature before injection 0u = melt temperature Indices w and p refer to mold and polymer respectively.5: Coefficients of Heat Penetration of Metals and Plastics [17] Material Beryllium Copper (BeCu25) Unalloyed Steel (C45W3) Chromium Steel (X40Cr 13) Polyethylene (PEHD) Polystyrene (PS) Stainless Steel Aluminum Coefficient of heat penetration b W • s05 • m'2 • K1 17. Table 2.2 x 103 13.8 x 103 The values given in Table 2.5 refer to the following units of the properties: Thermal conductivity X: Density p: Specific heat c: The approximate values for steel are 1 = 50 W/(mK) r = 7850 kg/m3 c = 0.485 kJ/(kgK) The coefficient of heat penetration is W/(mK) kg/m3 kJ/(kgK) .8 x 103 11.56 x 103 21.99 x 103 0.7 x 103 0.
8 Heat Deflection Temperature Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) or the Deflection Temperature under load (DTUL) is a relative measure of the polymer's ability to retain shape at elevated temperatures while supporting a load.6: Heat Deflection Temperatures (HDT) According to the Method A of Measurement [3]. 2. In amorphous materials the HDT almost coincides with the glass transition temperature Tg. Owing to the similarity of the measuring principle Vicat softening point.2.9: Principles of measurement of heat distortion of plastics [6] .9) [6]. The heat deflection temperatures are listed for some materials in Table 2. [6] Material PELD PEHD PP PVC PS ABS PC POM PA6 PA66 PMMA PET PBT VlCAT load load standardized needle heat transfer liquid a) specimen b) I HDT (Method A) °_C 35 50 45 72 84 100 135 140 77 130 103 80 65 M A R T E N S H D T load specimen oven c) heat transfer liquid specimen Fig. HDT and Martens temperature lie often close to each other (Fig. Additives like fillers have more significant effect on crystalline polymers than on amorphous polymers. Table 2.6. 2. Crystalline polymers may have lower values of HDT but are dimensionally more stable at elevated temperatures [5].
The Vicat softening point gives an indication of the material's ability to withstand contact with a heated object for a short duration.9 Vicat Softening Point Vicat softening point is the temperature at which a small lightly loaded. which is required to initiate combustion of the plastic and propagate flameburning to a prespecified extent (a flamespread time or a distance along the test sample) [I]. Vicat softening points of crystalline polymers have more significance than amorphous polymers.7 [6]. Data are presented in the form of Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value. It is used as a guide value for demolding temperature in injection molding.7: Guide Values for Vicat Softening Points [6] Polymer PEHD PP PVC PS ABS PC POM PA 6 PA 66 PMMA PET Vicat softening point ^C 65 90 92 90 102 138 165 180 200 85 190 PBT I 180 2. The aim of various flammability tests is to measure the burning characteristics of plastics materials once ignition has occurred. as the latter tend to creep during the test [5]. The Critical Oxygen Index is the most accepted laboratory test. These values . Guide values of Vicat softening temperatures of some polymers according to DIN 53460 (Vicat 5 kg) are given in Table 2.2. Table 2. Both Vicat and HDT values serve as a basis to judge the resistance of a thermoplastic to distortion at elevated temperatures. It measures the minimum volume concentration of oxygen in a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. heated test probe penetrates a given distance into a test specimen [5].10 Flammability Most plastics are flammable and can act as fuel in a fire situation.
2.0 24/29 30/32 36.8 20.3 18.8 [I].0 95. (H) UL 94 HB horizontal small flame ignitibility / flame spread [1] . Resistance to flammability can be enhanced by adding flame retarding additives to the polymer [I].0 CLAMP PLASTICS SPECIMEN IGNITION S O U R C E (V) (H) Fig.8: Limiting Oxygen Indices (LOI) of polymers (23 0C) [1] Material POM PMMA PE PP PS ABS PET PA 66 PSU PI PVDC PVC (chlorinated) PTFE I LOI 14. The nonflammability of PTFE is manifested by its exceptionally high LOI value. Other flameresistant plastics include thermosets.are summarized in Table 2. PVC and PVDC.3/18.6/18.4 17.7 17.4 17.0/70.0 60.4 17. Table 2.9/15.5 60.10: Typical arrangements for the UL flammability test: (V) UL 94 v vertical small flame ignitibility (variable sample thickness).
Underwriters' Laboratory test (UL 94) is a rating system which classifies flammability behavior of plastics according to their ability to maintain combustion after the flame is removed (see Fig. Temperature 0C Fig. plastics which extinguish rapidly and do not drip flaming particles obtain high ratings. 2. The temperature index determined on the basis of the tensile halflife concept of the Underwriters' Laboratories is shown for various polymers in Fig.11 [4]. In general. These thicknesses are important for designing plastics component design. The smoke emission for a number of plastics is given in Fig.11: UL temperature index for some thermoplastics [4] .12 [4]. 2. Ratings are given on the basis of minimum wall thickness of the material which corresponds to a particular flame class [I]. 2. 2.10 [I]).
Hanser. 13. 5.. RM. Munich 1979 Mckelvey. DM (corr. Munich 1993 Kurfess. G: Berechnen von SpritzgieBwerkzeugen.: Design Formulas for Plastics Engineers. 11. N.L.: Kunststoffe 61 (1971).). Kunststofftechnisches !Colloquium. p 421 . Hanser. New York 1962 Miinstedt.: Thermoplastics Properties and Design. 7. 18. 1978 Rao. John Wuley. Throne.: Designing Machines and Dies Polymer Processing.Specific Optical Density.: VDIWarmeatlas.S.: Polyethersulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications. 15.C. H. S. R. Modern Plastics Encyclopedia.B. Hanser. 9. JM. Hanser.Properties. John Wuley.: James M. IKV. J. Aachen 1978 Rauwendal. Munich 1993 Rigby. 1992 Proceedings. 3. Diisseldorf.: Haworth. 12.: Polymer Engineering Principles . 14. 17. Munich 1991 Rao. A. Diisseldorf 1984 Wubken. Margolis.: Polymer Processing. Munich. Teil I. K: Handbuch der Kunststoffpriifung (Ed.: Bachelor. Tests for Design. 16. 4. 197879 Kenndaten fur die Verarbeitung thermoplastischer Kunststoffe. Basel 1985 General Electric Plastics Brochure: Engineering Materials Design Guide Schmiedel. W. 19.12: Smoke emission behavior of some thermoplastics [4] Literature 1. Hanser. Birley. Hanser. Processes. Munich 1992 Design Guide. T. Munich 1981 Brochure: Advanced CAE Technology Inc. Munich 1986. Hanser. New York 1973 Martin. VDIVerlag. Thermodynamik. 10. B. Ogorkiewicz. N. 2. 8.: Physics of Plastics. Ed. VDIVerlag. W. K: Berechnen von Extrudierwerkzeugen. Marcel Dekker. 9. K: Plastics for Engineers. Diisseldorf 1974 Progelhof. 2. 6. C: Polymer Extrusion. 1991 Domininghaus. VDIVerlag.) Test Conditions: American National Bureau of Standarts Smoke 32 mm Samples Flamming Condition Fig. Hanser. R.
Plastics solids Plastication Melt Shaping Cooling Part removal Fig. 3. the shape of which corresponds to that of the part.3 Transport Properties of Molten Polymers The basic principle of making parts out of polymeric materials lies in creating a melt from the solid material and forcing the melt into a die. 3.1 Newtonian and NonNewtonian Fluids Analogous to the ideal elastic solids there exists a linear relationship between stress and strain in the case of Newtonian fluids (Fig. 3. Thus.2). melt flow and thermal properties of polymers play an important role in the operations of polymer processing.1: Principle of manufacturing of plastics parts 3.1 indicates. . as Fig.
3: Shear flow The shear or deformation rate of the fluid is equal to H dy The shear viscosity is then defined as TJ = (3.1.SHEARSTRESS Dilatant Bingham Newtonian Pseudoplastic SHEAR RATE Fig.4) where .3) r For an extensional flow. 3. we get (3. which corresponds to the tension test of Hookean solid. 3.11) Ux H Fig. LIB also).2: Flow curves of idealized fluids [1] The fluid between the upper plate in Fig. (3.1.3 moving at a constant velocity Ux and the lower stationary plate experiences a shear stress x (see Fig. 3.
The flow of melt in the channels of dies and polymer processing machinery is mainly shear flow.$ where Q is the volume flow rate per second and R. Therefore. (1. For practical applications the following summary of the relationships was found to be useful.lg/i M o = 31« <9£o.5) 3.GZ = normal stress A = Trouton viscosity e = strain rate Analogous to Eq. Igq. knowledge of the laws of shear flow is necessary for designing machines and dies for polymer processing. 3. 3.5. 3. . This is noticed in the marked decrease of melt viscosity when the melt is subjected to shear or tension as shown in Fig.2 Viscous Shear Flow Macromolecular fluids like thermoplastic melts exhibit significant nonNewtonian behavior.1 Apparent Shear Rate The apparent shear rate for a melt flowing through a capillary is defined as .4.4: Tensile viscosity and shear viscosity of a polymer melt as a function of strain rate [14] .4) one obtains I = 3TJ (3.tgft Fig. the radius of capillary.2.1. 3.4 and in Fig.
2. 3. The values of these constants are given in Table 3.2. T N E W T O N A IN ST.7. These constants can be determined from the wellknown Bagley curves as shown in Fig.6. 3. The dimensions of shear stress and entrance loss used in the calculation of c and m are Pa. The plot shows the apparent shear rate y a as a function of the true shear stress r . 3. 3.2) where c and m are empirical constants and r the shear stress.3 True Shear Stress The flow curves of a particular PELD measured with a capillary rheometer are given in Fig.B N IG H A MP L A S T I C SHEAR STRESS.5: Shear stress as a function of shear rate for different types of plastics [24] 3. This is correlated empirically by the relation [4] Pc=cT m (3.2 Entrance Loss Another rheological parameter which is of practical importance is the entrance loss pc representing the loss of energy of flow at the entrance to a round nozzle. V E N A N TB O D Y D I L A T A N T P S E U D O P L A S T I C S H E A RR A T E du/dr Fig.1 for some of the thermoplastics.2.
187 1.9404 O2 1. 3.399 1.78810° 6. = pressure of the melt (see Fig.905 1.2.434 1. Thus.176101 6.7 1.976 2.6.7 2.98410° 5.688104 3.6) where L R p R= 1mm R=0. the true shear stress z is given by 2(1/ R) = length of the capillary = radius of the capillary respectively.1: ResinDependent Constants c and m in Eq.2) [4] Product Polypropylene (Novolen 1120 H) Polypropylene (Novolen 1120 L) Polypropylene (Novolen 1320 L) PELD (Lupolen 1800 M) PELD (Lupolen 1800 S) PELD (Lupolen 1810 D) PEHD (Lupolen 601 IL) PEHD (Lupolen 6041 D) Polyisobutylene (Oppanol BlO) Polyisobutylene (Oppanol B15) C m 2.40110"3 1.072 1.02M0.6: Bagley plots of a polystyrene with the capillary length L and radius R [15] Table 3.55 HO" 5 1.469 1. The entrance loss pc was obtained from the Bagley plot shown in Fig.87M0.6 mm Pressure p Pc Capillary geometry L/R Fig. 3. 3.614 .575 2.at the capillary wall with the melt temperature as a parameter.116 1.463104 2. (3.
7: Flow curves of a PELD [2] 3. 3. Va= P a s U X5O3SI/\ S h e a r rate j s"1 Fig.2.10. Viscosity functions for several polymers are given in Figs.s] Shear rate f • P a S h e a r stress T Fig.8 as a function of shear rate and temperature for a PELD. 3. 3. 3.9 and 3.4 Apparent Viscosity The apparent viscosity rja is defined as (32.8: Viscosity functions of a PELD [2] .4) Ya and is shown in Fig.
Shear viscosity of different polymer melts PEHD (19O0C) ABS0 (250 C) Melt viscosity (Pa s) POM (21 OX) P A 6 6 (2800C) PP (260°C) PA6 (275°C) PBT (290°C) PELD (2000C) S h e a r rate ( s1 ) shear viscosity of different polymer melts P E H D P O M PELD P A 6 P P P B T P A 6 6 A B S melt viscosity (Pa s) melt temperature (0C) Fig. 3.9: Shear viscosity of some polymer melts .
Pa s S H E A RR A T E1 O D SECS.10: Shear viscosity of some engineering thermoplastics [3]. 3. 0C Fig.1 P O L Y S U L F b N E P O L Y C A R B O N A T E TEMPERATURE.Viscosity Ns/m2 0 Polyethersulfone 300P: 3500 C Polyethersulfone 200P: 3500C Polysulfone : 350 C Polycarbonate : 2700 C Rigid P V C i : 1800C Shear Stress N/m2 VISCOSITY. [16] Poise .
2.6) In Fig.3.11 the true and apparent viscosities are plotted as functions of the corresponding shear rates at different temperatures for a polystyrene.11: True and apparent viscosity functions of a polystyrene at different temperatures [4] 3. 3.2.2. 3. As can be seen.3. The following sections deal with an important few of these relationships. which are frequently used in design calculations.5 True Shear Rate The true shear rate y t is obtained from the apparent shear rate by applying the correction for the nonNewtonian behavior of the melt according to Rabinowitsch The meaning of the power law exponent n is explainedin Section 3. the apparent viscosity function is a good approximation for engineering calculations.6 True Viscosity The true viscosity rjw is given by ^ =Yt (3. P a s Apparent viscosity 7}a True viscosity 7?w Polystyrene s"1 A p p a r e n ts h e a r rate fa T r u es h e a r rate fx Fig.2.3 Rheological Models Various fluid models have been developed to calculate the apparent shear viscosity r\a [2]. 3. .
3. This relation can be expressed as fa=Kr" or ra=K\rnl\T (3. 3.3.1 Hyperbolic Function of Prandtl and Eyring The relation between shear rate ya and shear stress r according to the fluid model of Eyring [19] and Prandtl [20] can be written as ra=Csinh(r/A) (3.3. (3.2 Power Law of Ostwald and De Waele The power law of Ostwald [21] and De Waele [22] is easy to use. It can be seen from Fig. The evaluation of the constants C and A.for the flow curve of PELD at 1900C in Fig. Another form of power law often used is (3. 3.4) .2) where K denotes a factor of proportionality and n the power law exponent. 1 S " Shear rate j P E L O 0 1 9 O C z N / m S h e a r stress T Fig. hence widely employed in design work [5].3.3.3.12 that the hyperbolic function of Prandtl and Eyring holds good at low shear rates.3) (3.1) where C and A are temperaturedependent material constants.1) [2] 3.3.12: Comparison between measurements and values calculated with Eq.3.12 leads to C = 4s"1 and A = 3104 N/m2.3.
5) In this case. (3. nR is the reciprocal of n and KR.3.or (3. 3.3. 3. (3.3.2) the exponent n can be expressed as «= ^ P dlgr (3. As can be seen from Fig. 3.K nR . From Eq. the power law fits the measured values much better than the hyperbolic function of Prandtl [20] and Eyring [19].2) Furthermore 1 = d\gr n d\gya = d\grja + d\gya d\gya = d\grja  ^ d\gy a The values of K and n determined from the flow curve of PELD at 1900C shown in Fig.3.14 were found to be K= 1. T.13 in a double logplot the exponent n represents the local gradient of the curve y a vs.6) As shown in Fig. s'1 P E L O M50°C Shear rate j P a S h e a r stress T Fig.14.57. 3.061011 and «=2.13: Determination of the power law exponent n in the Eq. The deviation between the power law and experiment is a result of the assumption that the exponent n is constant throughout .
3. For a definite temperature this is expressed as (3.9) . (3. The power law can be extended to consider the effect of temperature on viscosity as follows: ria=KORe*v(pT)y**x where K0R = consistency index P = temperature coefficient T = temperature of melt. (3.8) s] Shear rate f measured PEIO 0 1 9 O C N/m2 S h e a r slress T Fig.3.14: Comparison between measured values and power law Example: Following values are given for a PELD: nR = 0. 3.3.3 Polynomial of Muenstedt The fourth degree polynomial of Muenstedt provides a good fit for the measured values of viscosity.8) r\a = 373APas 3.the range of shear rates considered. whereas actually n varies with the shear rate.3286 P = 0.008630C1 KOR = 135990NsnR nf1 The viscosity % at T= 2000C and ya =500 s1 is calculated from Eq.3.
A3.3.3. A2. Fig.13).10) and (3. the assumption of a constant value for the power law exponent holds good for a wide range of shear rates.3. Ci1 and so on for the best fit. for amorphous polymers is derived from the WLF equation and can be written as C2 +(TT0) where C1. The curves shown are computed with Eqns. 3.7) we get (3.1 Shift Factor for Crystalline Polymers The influence of temperature on viscosity can be taken into account by the shift factor aT [4]. This program in its general form fits an equation of the type y=ao+apcl+ajc2+.3..3.3. .2 Shift Factor for Amorphous Polymers The shift factor O1. 3. (3. As can be inferred from Fig. (3.3. (3.where A0..arpcn and prints out the coefficients a0.3. 3. Ax.9) (3. These constants can be determined with the help of the program of Rao [13].3.3. For crystalline polymers this can be expressed as aT = bx(T0)exV(b2/T) (3. c2 resindependent constants T = melt temperature ( 0 Q T0 = reference temperature (0C) The expression for calculating both the effect of temperature and shear rate on viscosity follows from Eq.13) The power law exponent is often required in the design work as a function of shear rate and temperature.3.15. which is based on multiple linear regression.12) With Eq. A4 represent resindependent constants.15 illustrates this relationship for a definite PELD.10) where bh b2 = resindependent constants T = melt temperature (K) T0 = reference temperature (K) 3.
0 1 5 O C 0 1 9 O C 0 2 3 O C Power law exponent n 0 2 7 O C P E L D s1 S h e a r rate f Fig.10) aT= 5.3.ya) X = lg(0. A1 and so on w= 3.4978 0.3.2541 0. 3.13106exp(5640/473) = 0.0011 5. (3.13) n = (1 + A1 +2A2X+ 3A3X2 +4^ 4 X 3 )" 1 Using the values of A0.78 Pa s The power law exponent is obtained from Eq.588 rja from Eq.15: Power law exponent of a PELD as a function of shear rate and temperature Example: A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 b.774500) = 2. = 351.3.196 . Solution: aT from Eq.0731 0. (3.12) = lQ(^aT + A0+A\X+A2X2+A3X3+A4X4) Substituting the values of A0. b2 = = = = = = = 4.774 With X = lg(aT. (3. A1 and so on one gets 77.0133 0.1310"6 5640 K at y a =500 s1 and T= 200 0 C.
17) Va = ^ . at which the viscosity is given and T2 (0C).c <3315) (\ + BaTfaf For a number of resins the shift factor can be calculated as a function of temperature from the following equation with good approximation [5].3. l6) where T1 (0C) is the temperature.17) . 3.4 Viscosity Equation of Carreau [23] As shown in Fig..14) the temperatureinvariant form of the Carreau equation can be given as (Fig. [6] lor (T r .14) where A.3.3.4. C are resindependent constants. By introducing the shift factor aT into Eq..16.15): (3. 3. at which the viscosity is to be found out. 3.86(r 2 ~7V) .18) (3. 8. (3.16: Determination of Carreau parameters from a viscosity function [9] The equation is expressed as rja = p (3. the temperature. B.86(riTa) 8. (3.3. The power law exponent n can be obtained from Eq. the Carreau equation gives the best fit for the viscosity function reproducing the asymptotic form of the plot at high and low shear rates correctly.3.3. The standard temperature TST is given by [6] TST = Tg+50° C Data on typical glass transition temperatures of polymers are given in Table 2. S l o p e : C Viscosity 7} S h e a r rate / Fig.3.
17: Use of shift factor aT for calculating temperature invariant viscosity [17] Reduced viscosity rj/a T Viscosity r .Reduced shear rate y/aT KM [Pas] master curve T^ = 150 0 C [Pas] LDPE Is"1] Shear rate y [] PS aT LDPE PP Shift factor HDPE 0 C [10 3 IC 1 ] Reciprocal absolute temperature 1/T Fig. 3.
20) . v i+z .19) Computer disks containing the resindependent constants A9 B.86(190(133)) _ 6 ? / ) 101.62 3.89 (1 + 13795)0.3.16) Y_ 8.1 3 7 9 .5 The viscosity r\a follows from Eq.6 + (T2 ~ TST) 101.For high shear rates n becomes [4] «=j ^ (3.3.5 Viscosity Formula of Klein The regression equation of Klein et al.3. C can be obtained for the respective resins from the resin manufacturers [12]. (3.62 TST = 133 C T1 = 190 C The viscosity is to be calculated at T2 = 2000C and Y0=SOOs1 Solution: One obtains from Eq. These constants can also be determined by using the software VISRHEO [13]. v 1 + 1379.3. (3.86(TITST) _ 101.6+ (190(133)) 8.6 2 .86(200(133)) _ 6 ? 9 101.(133)) The power law exponent is calculated from Eq.6+ C r 1 . Example: Following constants are given for a particular PELD.63 .3.15) 324000. A = 32400 Pa • s B = 3. (3.1s C = 0.7 V ) and y_ 8.6 + (200.86(T2TsT) _ 8.5 + l) = 2. [25] is given by IgT1n = a0+U1In/a+an(lnya)2+a2T+a22T2+auT\nya T= Temperature of the melt ( F) rja = Viscosity (lbfs/in2) 0 (3. and can be stored in a data bank for viscosity data.3.18) n=^ + lV' = r°.
Example: Following constants are valid for a particular type of PELD. What is the viscosity rja at ra=500sJ and T= 200 0 C? a0 = 3.4. as has been the case in finding out the Acoefficients in Eq.066 Ibfs/in2 and in Siunits T]n = 6857 • 0.8 • 200 + 32 = 392 With the constants above and Eq.187104 Solution: T(0F) = 1.066 = 449. the relative measure of viscosity can be obtained from [8].19). (3.975103 a22 = 2.4 Effect of Pressure on Viscosity Compared to the influence of temperature the effect of pressure on viscosity is not of much significance.= l + ax +2au\nya +au T n Putting the constants ah . (3.4.. The exponent n is given by .7) and Eq.3.388 a.81510'2 a2 = 5.3.3. (3.The resindependent constants a0 to a22 can be determined with the help of the computer program given in [13].8 Pa • s The expression for the power law exponent n can be derived from Eq.5 MO'6 a12 = 5.35M0 1 au = 1. = 6.3.21) 3.20) one gets T]n = 0..919 (3. [6].2) . (3.1) where r/p = viscosity at pressure/? and constant shear stress T0 T]0 = viscosity at constant shear stress T0 ap = pressure coefficient For styrene polymers T]p is calculated from [8] 17P = ^oGXP(P/KM)) where p = pressure in bar. [4] r/p = rjoexip(ap'p) (3. a12 into this equation one obtains « = 2.. (3. However.9).8 • T(0C) + 32 = 1.3.
Table 3.2) bar 30 100 200 300 500 1000 1.4.2810. It can be seen that a pressure of 200 bar causes an increase of viscosity of 22% compared to the value at 1 bar.35 Tj0 1. The approximate value of K' for PELD is ^'=2. 3.1) where Mw = molecular weight K' = resin dependent constant. the effect of pressure on viscosity can be neglected in the case of extrusion 'processes. (3. The pressure coefficient of PELD is less than that of PS by factor of 3 to 4 and the value PEHD is again less than a factor of 2 than that of PELD.72% 3000 I 20% Figure 3. This means that in the case of polyethylene an increase of pressure by 200 bar would enhance the viscosity only by 3 to 4%. Table 3.65% 2.5.03% 1. .4.2) for a polystyrene of average molecular weight. (3. in which generally low pressures exist.2). These values are based on zero viscosity.2 shows the values of viscosity calculated according to Eq.5 Dependence of Viscosity on Molecular Weight The relationship between viscosity and molecular weight can be described by [ 10] T111= K'Ml5 (3. Eq.4 and for Polyamide 6 JT= 5.4. Consequently.2: Effect of Pressure on Viscosity for Polystyrene.105% 1.18 shows the melt viscosity at constant stress and temperature as a function of pressure for some polymers [7].Thus the change of viscosity with the pressure can be obtained from Eq. However.2U0"14 according to the measurements of Laun [10].221% 1. in injection molding where usually one has to deal with high pressures the dependence of viscosity on pressure has to be considered. (3.
18: Melt viscosity at constant stress and temperature as a function of pressure [7] . 3.Viscosity/viscosity at reference pressure Temperature above 210 0 C only Excess pressure ( b a r ) Fig.
7 Melt Flow Index The Melt Flow Index (MFI) which is also known as the Melt Flow Rate (MFR) indicates the flowability of a constant polymer melt. 3. that the melt at 200 0C flows at a rate of 2 g in ten minutes under a dead load of 2. Table 3.20 [18].19). and is measured by forcing the melt through a capillary under a dead load at constant temperature (Fig. as an example.3 [18].1/1 . The effect of MFI on the properties of polyethylene.1) where T1 = viscosity C = weight percent Indices: M: mixture A. 3. Ranges of melt indices for common processing operations are given in Table 3. A MFR or MFI of 2 at 2000C and 2. The unit here isml/lOmin.1/1 0.16 kg. B: components 3. In the case of Melt Volume Rate which is also known as Melt Volume Index (MVI) the volume flow rate of the melt instead of mass flow rate is set as the basis. is illustrated in Fig.6 Viscosity of TwoComponent Mixtures The viscosity of a mixture consisting of the component A and the component B can be obtained from [11] Ig T1M = CA Ig T1A + C 5 Ig T1n (3.16 kg means.6. for example.5/6 0.3: Ranges of MFI Values (ASTM D1238) for Common Processes [18] Process Inj ection molding Rotational molding Film extrusion Blow molding Profile extrusion MFI range 5/100 5/20 0. The MFI value is the mass of melt flowing in a certain time.3.
although the design of machines and dies by considering melt elasticity is rather difficult and seldom in use. . 3. 3.8 Tensile Viscosity Although the flow of melt in the channels of dies and machines of polymer machinery is mainly shear flow. Similar attempts to dimension the dies taking elastic effects into account have been made as described in the work of Wagner [26] and Fischer [27].weight barrel heater piston capillary Fig. elongational flow is of importance in such applications as film blowing and blow molding. The tensile viscosity is defined as // =  (3.9 Viscoelastic Properties Polymer machinery can be designed sufficiently accurate on the basis of the relationships for viscous shear flow alone. The elongational or tensile viscosity can be measured with a tensile rheometer [1]. However.19: Melt flow tester [6] 3. a complete analysis of melt flow should include both viscous and elastic effects.8.1) * ri where / = length at any instant of a volume element t = time 3. As shown in Fig.4 the tensile viscosity of a Newtonian fluid is three times the shear viscosity. and is much higher than shear viscosity.
2 Shear Compliance Je: U=7TO (3. polymer properties [18] To give a more complete picture of melt rheology the following expressions for the viscoelastic quantities according to Laun [10].A.9. [2]: 3. 3. Clarity reduced shrinkage Increasing density B D F E. [14] are presented.9.1 Primary Normal Stress Coefficient 0 : 0 =^ N1: normal stress difference. y0 : shear rate 3.3) .20: Melt index and density vs.9. Flexibility elongation C.1) (392) yrs: recoverable shear strain. Toughness stress crack resistance Increasing melt index Fig. Rigidity creep resistance heat resistance D. T0: shear stress Further on we have [14] (3. Surface gloss F.9. The material functions characterizing the elastic behavior of a polymer melt are shear compliance and primary normal stress coefficient which are defined as follows [14]. Barrier properties hardness tensile strength chemical resistance C A E B.
ig0 ig % Fig. For certain applications smaller L/R ratios of dies are preferred in order to have a high molecular orientation.21: Schematic diagram of a cone and plate rheometer [1] The limiting values of these equations are 0 O . .21) [I]. 3. and the swell attains a constant value.The equations above shown as functions of shear rate can be determined from measurements with a cone and plate rheometer (Fig. With increasing L/R ratios the molecular orientation decays.3 Die Swell Die swell which can be measured with a capillary viscometer gives a measure of the elastic deformation of the melt. II = nonlinear region) 3. 3. 3.23 [14] as a function of length L to radius R of the capillary.9. The value is highest for an orifice of negligible length where the effect of converging entrance flow is largest.22). Die swell is shown in Fig. Tj0 and J° (Fig. 3. igUg7?. Cone Sample Plate Fig. 3.22: Parameters for steady shear flow [14] (I = linear region.
K: Computer Modeling for Extrusion and other Continous Polymer Processes.: Polyethersulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications. Marcel Dekker. 439 CAMPUS Databank Rao. 478 (1979) . A. 606 (1988) Laun.. Keith T.Ph.M. D. 2. T. Literature 1. 3. John Wuley. C: Polymer Extrusion. KS.: Progr. O'Brien. R.W. KM. p. Ed. Hanser. 11. 7. Agassant. Hanser. Margolis. Hanser.T. Hanser. J. KB. Sergent.: Haworth. Munich 1991 Rao. 10.. Munich.: James M. Acta 18. KG.T C9CJ PA 6 die swell i" UR Fig. 8. T. 13. VDIVerlag. 14. Colloid & Polymer Sai. O'Brien. 1991 Rigby. New York 1973 Avenas. K: Berechnen von Extrudierwerkzeugen. J. 3. P. Hanser. Munich 1986 Ogorkiewicz.: Thermoplastics Properties and Design. and Harry. Birley. 4.: Kunststoffe 78.. KS. 12. J. KS. Technique & Documentation (Lavoirier). 6.. 1978 Rao.: Design Formulas for Plastics Engineers.: ANTEC 84.F. K. Basel 1985 Miinstedt. 75. Ed.F. Paris 1982 Hertlein. B. 111 (1987) Carley.: Rheol. KM.23 Die swell vs length to radius IVR [14] The viscoelastic behavior of polymer melts is treated in [2] in more detail. Fritz.: Physics of Plastics.: Bachelor. Munich 1992 Laun. Munich 1981 Rauwendal. 9. 5. Diisseldorf.: La Mise en Forme des Materieres Plastiques.: Designing Machines and Dies Polymer Processing.
K: I. M.. 1977 16. Harris.: James M.: Dissertation.15. Fischer.. Ed.: Plastics Processing Data Handbook. Stuttgart (1983) . Phys. Friehe. V. PJ. E. K. 99 (1925) 22. 36.: Oil and Color Chem. Geiger. 4. BASF Brochure: KunststoffPhysik im Gesprach. Margolis. Basel 1985 17. Reinbold.: Processing of Thermoplastic Materials. D. J. 1299 (1965) 26. Marshall. Blatter 5. Klein. New York (1963) 25. 6. Prandtl. V. Wisconsin. Wagner. 21. Ostwald. J. C. Carreau.: Private Communication.. De Waele. Marcel Dekker. Univ. Assoc. Univ. Eyring.E. D. Rosato. 161 (1949) 21.: Dissertation. Rosato.K: Dissertation. A. J. L: Phys. Bernhardt. L.: KolloidZ. 283 (1963) 20. Univ.: Polysulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications. Chem. 33 (1923) 23. 18. D.I. E. CA. W. Madison (1968) 24. New York 1990 19.: Soc Plastic Engrs. Stuttgart (1976) 27. Van Nostrand Reinhold.
[3]. Volume resistance is the ratio of the direct voltage applied to the electrodes in contact with the test material.1. The unit of volume resistivity is ohmm (Wm) or ohmcm (Wcm). It is the measure of a material's ability to resist the flow of current along its surface when a direct voltage is applied between surface mounted electrodes of unit width and unit spacing. Dielectric strength data for some materials are given in Table 4.4 Electrical Properties The use of plastics in the electrical industry as insulators for wire and cable insulation is well known.3 Dielectric Strength Dielectric strength is the measure of the electrical breakdown resistance of a material under an applied voltage [I]. Some of the electrical properties which are of importance in selecting a resin for these applications are treated in this section.1 Surface Resistivity Surface resistivity is defined as the ratio of electrical field strength to the current density in a surface layer of an insulating material. It is the ratio of the voltage reached just before breakdown to the material's thickness and is expressed as kv/mm or Mv/m. [3]. although not so well known. conductive housings of computer equipment and the like. The application of engineering resins to make miniature electric components. 4. The unit of surface resistivity is ohm [1]. printed circuit boards. 4. 4. to the steadystate current flowing between them [1].2 Volume Resistivity Volume resistivity is the volume resistance reduced to a cubical unit volume of the material. . is increasing.
Table 4. frequency and voltage [3]. formerly known as dielectric constant is the ratio of capacitance (C) of a given configuration of electrodes with the plastics material as the dielectric medium. SR = ^r Cv (4A1) The performance of plastics as insulators increases with decreasing relative permittivity.4 Relative Permittivity Relative permittivity (%). moisture. to the capacitance (Cv) of the same configuration of electrodes with vacuum as the dielectric [1]. Typical values of volume resistivity. [5] (see also Fig. [3]. It is the tangent of the loss angle (S) and is analogous to tan5 which is the ratio between loss and storage moduli described in Section 1.5 Dielectric Dissipation Factor or Loss Tangent Dielectric dissipation factor is the ratio of the electrical power dissipated in a material to the total power circulating in the circuit. Relative permittivity and dissipation factor are dependent on temperature.1 [2]). A low dissipation factor is important for plastics insulators in high frequency applications such as radar and microwave equipment. . 4.1: Dielectric Strength Data for Plastics (Method ASTM D149) [6] Material PELD PEHD PP PVC PS ABS PC POM PA 6 PA 66 PMMA PET PBT Dielectric strength kv/25jim >700 > 700 800 300 500 400 350 700 350 400 300 500 500 4. relative permittivity and loss tangent are given in Table 4. 4.2 for some polymers [1].2.3.
1: Loss tangent as a function of temperature for some engineering thermoplastics [2] Table 4.0 3.0 3.2: Typical Values of Volume Resistivity.35 3.3 4.2 2 400 230 1 200 7 50 300 800 40 200 200 PELD PEHD PP PVC PS ABS PC POM PA 6 PA 66 PMMA PET PBT .27 2.8 8.7 3.0 Dielectric dissipation factor or loss tangent tan<5 • 10 4 at 20 0 C and 1 M H z 1.3 2.5 2. Relative Permittivity and Loss Tangent [1].5 2. [5] Material Volume resistivity ohm x cm 1017 1017 10 17 1015 10 17 1015 1017 1015 1012 1012 1015 1016 1016 Relative permittivity at 50 Hz 2.9 3 3. 4.Loss Tangent (tan S at 60 Hz) Polycarbonate Polysulfone Polyethersulfone Polyethylene terephthalate Polyimido Type H Temperature C Fig.
The CTI is given in terms of maximum voltage.5. This situation can be alleviated by using antistatic agents in the polymer formulation. on CAMPUS computer disks is presented in Table 4. allow increased conduction over the surface which may lead to tracking. A list of properties for which data can be obtained from the resin manufacturers. the appearance of conducting paths over the surface. [3].3: Typical Values of Comparative Tracking Index [5] "Material PELD PEHD PP PVC PS ABS PC POM PA 6 PA 66 PMMA I Test method KB >600 > 600 > 600 600 200 300 > 600 > 600 > 600 > 600 > 600 PBT I 450 Owing to their high electrical resistance plastics retain electrostatic charge which leads to such undesirable effects as marked attraction of dust or creation of discharges when the material comes into contact with other surfaces. Polymers with intrinsic electrical conductivity can also be used as antistatic coatings [I]. Example of material data used as input to the software VISMELT [4] for designing extruders is given in Table 4.6 Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) Comparative tracking index indicates a plastics material's ability to resist development of an electrical conducting path when subjected to current in the presence of a contaminating solution [1]. . Contaminants. The test procedures to measure the optical properties are treated in [I]. such as salt and moisture.4. according to different test procedures. for example.4.3 [5]. Typical values of CTI are given in Table 4. at which no failure occurs. Table 4. The deterioration of the surface quality is hence the cause of failure of high voltage insulation systems [I]. In addition to the properties treated in the foregoing sections the optical properties of plastics products such as transparency and gloss of films play an important role in selecting a resin in applications where these properties are required.
4: List of Properties Obtainable from Resin Manufacturers Tensile strength Tensile elongation Tensile modulus Flexural strength Flexural modulus Compressive strength Hardness Abrasion Izod impact strength Material density Bulk density pvT diagrams Specific heat Enthalpy Thermal conductivity Vicat temperature HDT (Heat distortion temperature) Flammability UL 94 rating LOI (Limiting Oxygen Index) Dielectric strength Surface resistivity Volume resistivity Relative permittivity Dielectric dissipation factor or loss tangent Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) .Table 4.
K Muenstedtcoefficients : AO = 4.0 Grad Celsius b = 2425.7126 S Al A3 = = .5: Example of Input Data to the Software Design Package VISMELT [4] PEHD HOECHST GM 9255 F Type of Polymer: Trade name of polymer: thermal properties : melting point specific heat of melt specific heat of solid thermal conductivity of melt thermal conductivity of solid heat of fusion densitiy of melt density of solid bulk density Viscosity coefficients : Carreaucoefficients : A = 28625.000 .0 2.3 0 .6535 TO = 200.033758 TO = 200.2410 A2 = .55251 A4 = .51 2.78 .9430 . Pa S C = .0 Grad Celsius b = 2447.222252 .2800 200.2700 .Light transmission Refractive Index Melt Flow Rate (MFR) Melt Volume Rate (MVR) Shear viscosity as a function of shear rate and temperature of melt Table 4. K Kleincoefficients : TM CPM CPS KM KS LAM RHOM RHOS RHOS0 = = = = = = = = = 130.40 Grad Celsius kJ / (kg K) kJ / (kg K) W / (m K) W / (m K) kJ/kg g / cm**3 g / cm**3 g / cm**3 B = .01304 .
989580E02 . Margolis. Basel 1985 General Electric Plastics Brochure: Engineering Materials Design Guide Rao.: Haworth. R.: Polyethersulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications. Birley.B. Keith T. Munich 1993 . 2. 6.H. Hanser.722213E+00 . Marcel Dekker. N. 3. N s**n / m**2 Literature 1.AO All A22 = = = .T. B. Hanser. O'Brien. and Harry.4022 BETA = . Munich 1992 BASF Brochure: KunststoffPhysik im Gesprach. Munich 1991 Rigby.653721E+01 . D. O'Brien.213261EOl .003919 l/Grad Celsius KOR = 60889. Ed. 4.. Ed.S.: Computer Modeling for Extrusion and other Continous Polymer Processes.: Plastics for Engineers.473881E03 Power law coefficients : NR = .: Physics of Plastics. K.204288E04 Al A2 A12 = = = . A. T.: James M. 1977 Domininghaus. 5. Hanser. H.: Bachelor.W.
Haze is a measure of the clarity of a plastic. The intensity of light entering the plastic is further reduced as the light passes through the plastic since some light is absorbed. Therefore the refractive index is measured and reported . The luminous transmittance is defined as the percentage of incident light which is transmitted through the plastic. n = v/c The speed of light in vacuum is 300 Mm/s. Some typical haze values are presented in Table 5.1 for most common optical plastics. The refractive index decreases as the wavelength of the light increases. 5.5 Optical Properties of Solid Polymers 51 Light Transmission The intensity of light incident on the surface of a plastic is reduced as the light enters the plastic because some light is always reflected away from the surface. For comparison purposes the exact test parameters are documented in ASTM D 1003.5 degrees.2 Haze Haze is defined as the percentage of transmitted light which deviates from the incident light beam by more than 2. by the plastic. Light transmission is a measurement of the transparency of a plastic. Its measurement is also defined by ASTM D 1003.2 for most common optical plastics.3 Refractive Index The refractive index n of an isotropic material is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in the material v to the speed of light in a vacuum c. Some typical light transmission values are presented in Table 5. or scattered. that is. 5.
which is required for lens design.607 1.4.491 1.at a number of standard wavelengths.3. as indicated in Table 5.497 1.3: Refractive Indices as Functions of Wavelength AES line F D C Wavelength 486 nm 589 ran 651 nm PMMA 1. Table 5. Since speed of light in the polymer v is a function of the density.489 PS 1.576 The refractive index is usually measured using an Abbe refractometer according to ASTM D542.586 1. Since density is a function of crystallinity. polymers which exhibit a range of densities also exhibit a range of refractive indices. An extensive list of refractive indices is provided in Table 5. The Abbe refractometer also measures the dispersions. and on . the refractive index is dependent on whether the polymer is amorphous or crystalline.1: Light Transmission.2: Haze of Some Common Optical Plastics Material ~ABS PC PMMA PMMA/PS PS Haze T O 13 18 2 3 SAN I 3 Table 5.584 PC 1.593 1. Transmittance D 1003 85 89 92 90 88 SAN I 88 Table 5.590 1. or atomic emission spectra (AES) lines. or Luminous Transmittance of Some Common Optical Plastics Material ABS PC PMMA PMMA/PS PS Luminous.
52/1.48 1.4: Refractive Indices of Some Plastics as Functions of Density [1] Polymer PELD PEHD PP PVC PS PC POM PA 6 PA 66 PMMA PET Refractive index n2D° 1. They are used for quick and simple measurements of color differences. The color is reported as three numbers. polished black glass with a refractive index of 1.55 1.567. 5.51 1. Spectrocolorimeters measure color as a certain wavelength of light.its degree of crystallinity.5 Color Color may be measured using tristimulus colorimeters (a. The bvalue measures the yellowness when . Colorimeters use filters to simulate the color response of the eye.58 1.k. the gloss is measured within a specific angular range of the ideal reflected angle. The avalue measures the redness when positive and the greenness when negative.53 1. or spectrophotometers (a.a. colorimeters).51 1.49 1.52 1. with pure white scoring 100 and pure black scoring 0.64 Density kg/m 3 914/928 940/960 890/910 1380/1550 1050 1200 1410/1420 1130 1140 1170/1200 1380 Transparency transparent opaque transparent/opaque transparent/opaque transparent transparent opaque transparent/opaque transparent/opaque transparent transparent/opaque 5. It is then compared to a standard. The Lvalue measures the grayness. spectrocolorimeters).50/1. Table 5. which possesses a specular gloss of 100%. These instruments measure color by illuminating a sample and collecting the reflected light. decreasing as temperature increases. The specular gloss is measured according to ASTM D 52380. the refractive index also decreases with increasing temperature.53 1.59 1. Since density is also a function of temperature. Also called specular reflectance or specular gloss.a. The gloss reduces rapidly as the surface roughness increases.k.4 Gloss Surface gloss is the percentage of light intensity reflected relative to that reflected by an ideal surface.
a. Hanser. Domininghaus. Munich 1993 . Literature 1. K: Plastics for Engineers. and b values a color can be defined. So from the L.positive and the blueness when negative.
1 Physical Interactions 6. The solvation leads to swelling.1 Solubility Most thermoplastics have a solubility parameter [1]. This may lead to deterioration or even failure of the part. It is the combination of stress and the liquid medium. 6. so that the contents do not deteriorate during the prescribed time span.2 [7] and Fig.1) [I]. where as in the case of crystalline polymers the failure is denoted as stress corrosion failure. 6.1. One of the standard ESC tests is the Bell Telephone technique. The failure is initiated by microcrazing into which the aggressive liquid or vapor penetrates [I]. Furthermore. in which an interaction between the polymer and a fluid like water. stress level and processing history [I]. alcohols and chlorinated organic liquids. [3]. ketones. weight and dimensional changes together with property loss. The behavior of polymers under external influences is dependent on the combination of polymer and fluid.6 External Influences Plastics parts are often used in an environment.1. . 6. plastics used in certain applications as in packaging foodstuffs should be resistant to the entry of oxygen or moisture.2 Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) ESC is a failure mechanism which occurs under conditions when an external or residual stress is imposed on the part which is in contact with an external environment such as liquid or vapor. exposure time. The environmental behavior of some plastics is presented in Fig. Common solvents are paraffins. gas or organic liquids can take place. 6. The properties of polymers which manifest themselves under external effects are the topic of this section. The term ESC is applied to amorphous polymers. 6. in which bent strips of material containing a defect are totally immersed in a chemical medium before being examined for visible signs of damage (Fig.3 [4]. which gives rise to premature failure. ethers. temperature.
6.SAMPLE JIG LIQUID Fig.2: ESC resistance of polyarylate vs. 6. 6.3: ES rupture comparison of several engineering thermoplastics in a 70/30 isooctane/toluene mixture at 25°C [4] .1: Bell test for determining ESC [1] ENVIRONMENT' ISOOCTANE/TOLUENE 7 0 / 3 0 by volume POLYARYLETHERSULFONE POLYARYLATE STRESS (psi) POLYSULFONE P O L Y C A R B O N A T E M O D I F I E D P P O M O D I F I E D P O L Y A R Y L A T E TIME TO RUPTURE (seconds) Fig. other thermoplastics [7] STRESS (psi) P O L Y S U L F O N E P O L Y C A R B O N A T E N O R Y L SEI TIME TO RUPTURECSECONDS) Fig.
19 5.64 147 200 1038 434 208 245 3604 4400 Gas permeability CO 2 H 2 O (25 0 C.H. Table 6.48 0. The mass of the fluid permeating through the polymer at equilibrium conditions is given by [3] m = where m P = = mass of fluid permeating [g] r permeability g i —— [msPaJ t = time of diffusion [s] A = Area of the film or membrane [m2] P1 p 2 = partial pressures on the side 1 and 2 of the film [Pa] s = thickness of the film [m] Besides its dependence on temperature the permeability is influenced by the difference in partial pressures of the fluid and thickness of the film.64 4.^ (6. Permeability is a barrier property of plastics and is important in applications like packaging. Permeation data for some resins is summarized in Table 6.3 Permeability Plastics are to some extent permeable to gases.28 93 5.1: Relative Permeability of Various Polymers Compared to PVDC [3] Polymer PVDC PCTFE PET PA6 PVCU CA PEHD PELD PP PS Butyl Rubber Polybutadiene Natural Rubber N2 1 3.52 500 111 34.1 [3].1.17 22.5 5357 235 9.1) S .) 1 1 2.15 7.6.21 5.3 121 57 1214 49 317 857 303 179 4800 4517 P t A  ( P ' . The diffusional characteristics of polymers can be described in terms of a quantity known as permeability.32 8. vapors and liquids. 90% R.51 42. Other factors which affect permeability are the structure of the polymer film such as crystallinity and type of the fluid.55 298 287 2021 479 309 332 862 8600 O2 1 10.1.
04919 s2 t0. and above all.4 Absorption and Desorption The process by which a fluid is absorbed or desorbed by a plastics material is timedependent..4) [8]. Performance data of the resin under weathering is supplied by resin makers (see also Table 6.Table 6. ~ (612) where t 05 s D = = = halflife of the process thickness of the polymer assumed to be penetrated by one side diffusion coefficient The value of t 05 for moisture in PMMA for D = 0.049193310~ 6 __. .2: Relative Permeability to CO2 of Different Polymers Compared to PET [3] Polymer PET PVCU PP PEHD PELD Relative permeability 1 6. can be very long. as the absorption rate decreases with saturation.2 [3]. . The period until equilibrium value is reached.5 = .5 Weathering Resistance Weathering is the deterioration of the polymer under atmospheric conditions which by the action of oxygen. ultraviolet radiation on the resin lead to loss of properties and finally failure of the part. humidity. However.310~12360024 when the sheet is wetted from one side only [3]. 6.1. = to 5 T^ 171 days 0. = 6. temperature. the equilibrium absorption takes much longer.1.53 60 23 230 One of the reasons for using PET for making bottles for carbonated drinks is that PET is relatively impermeable to carbon dioxide. Its magnitude can be estimated by the halflife of the process given by [3] 0. . governed by its solubility and by the diffusion coefficient [3]. as can be seen from Table 6.3 x 10"12 m2/s and s = 3 mm is 0.
2 Chemical Resistance Good chemical resistance of polymers is of importance in many applications. 5: completely nonresistant Data on chemical resistance of resins can be obtained from resin manufacturers. the plasticating screw surfaces. the interior die surfaces and the mold cavity surfaces.3 [6]. 6. Table 6. It is important that the correct materials be chosen for these surfaces or reduced performance and premature failure may Esthers 3 1 1 5 5 1 5 1 1 Esters .3: Chemical Resistance of Resin to Different Liquid Agents [6] Halogenated hydrocarbons Aliphatic hydrocarbons Aromatic hydrocarbon Concentrated acids Monvalent alcohols Concentrated bases Oils and greases Organic acids Salt solution Ketones Polymer PELD PEHD PVCU PMMA PS PA PC POM PTFE Rating: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 5 2 5 1 1 1 2 5 5 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 1 1 3 3 5 5 5 1 5 2 1 3 1 1 5 5 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 5 5 5 1 5 3 1 3 1 5 5 5 1 5 5 1 1: resistant.3 shows the performance of some polymers according to a rating when they are in direct contact with the chemical agents listed in the Table 6.2.6.1 Chemical and Wear Resistance to Polymers As polymers are converted into products they contact the walls of the various machines in which they are converted. Such walls include barrel walls. 4: mostly not resistant. 2: sufficiently resistant. 3: conditionally resistant. Table 6.
aromatic Epoxy.11. Some properties of the reinforced plastics are illustrated in Fig. 6. fillers or reinforcements. Thermal and Biological Resistance of Some Plastics [8] Polymer Service temperature range 0 C 90/104 50/150 120 75/100 110 75 170 55 100/150 100/150 100/130 260 45/150 Ultraviolet resistance fair poor excellent poor poor fair fair poor fair to good excellent fair excellent excellent Fungus resistance Acetals Polyamides PC Polyethylene Polypropylene PS Polysulfone PVC Epoxy. One of the approaches is to select the barrel which provides the greatest resistance to corrosion and wear by particular plastic. 6.5 to 6.arise. In the case of screws and barrels. and finally to select a coating for the remaining surfaces of the screw which exhibits the greatest corrosion and wear resistance to the plastic. Then to select a material for the screw flights which performs well against that particular barrel material. Table 6.3 General Property Data General property data for some plastics is presented in Tables 6.12. including any additives. The comparability of different test methods is discussed in Table 6.4 [5]. cycloaliphatic Polyurethanes Silicones Butyl rubber excellent excellent excellent poor excellent excellent excellent poor poor poor poor excellent excellent . the contacting surfaces must also exhibit wear resistance to each other.4: Ultraviolet.
6.4: Reinforced plastics and composites vs.Strength Plastics Composites / Reinforced Plastics W o o d Steel Aluminum Concrete M P a 3 x 10 psi Modulus of Elasticity Plastics Composites / Reinforced Plastics Wood Steel Aluminum Concrete G P a 6 x 10psi Specific Gravity Plastics C o m p o s i t e s/R e i n f o r c e d Plastics W o o d S t e e l A l u m i n u m G l a s s Concrete .Stone Fig. other materials [5] .
9 27.9 23.2 840 12.86 86 78 8.Table 6.6: Properties of Some Thermoplastic Structural Foams (Physical Properties Guidelines at 0.2 34.6 54.25 Wall with 20% Density Reduction) [9] PEHD 0.3 1960 31 modified PPO 0.85 96 82 6.4 PC 0.85N/mm 2 Coefficient of thermal expansion [K"1105] Tensile strength [N/mm2] Flexural modulus [N/mm2] Compressive strength 10% deformation [N/mm2] .7 2500 36.4 Property Specific gravity Deflection temperature [0C] under load at 0.9 ABS 0.2 22 9.9 138 127 3.8 1827 36.5: Polymer Parameters and Their Influence Properties [8] Molecular weight distribution Increases Decreases Increases Decreases Broadens Narrows Environmental stress Impact strength Stiffness Hardness Tensile strength Permeation Warpage Abrasion resistance Flow processibility Melt strength Melt viscosity Copolymer content Density Molecular weight Table 6.462 N/mm2 atl.64 42.
103 Hz Volume resistivity. W • cm Dielectric strength. ppm/°C Flammability.4/1. 103 Hz Dissipation factor.848 N/m2 Continuoususe temperature. 0C Heat distortion temperature.455 N/m2 at 1.04 1.02/0. N/mm2 Value 147/308 150/300 400/500 M62/99 2. s Water absorption. 0C Coefficient of thermal expansion. V/mil Arc resistance. N/mm2 Unnotched izod.7: General Properties of LiquidCrystal Polymers [8] Property Flexural strength. % Specific gravity Glass transition temperature.6 140/245 1. J/m Rockwell hardness Dielectric constant.9 9.9/4. N/mm2 Tensile strength.8/40. 0C Melt temperature. UL94 Oxygen index Tensile modulus. 0C at 0.Table 6. yield N/mm2 Tensile elongation. equilibrium at 23 0C. J/m Notched izod.8/35 .2/6. % Flexural modulus.9 275/330 250/280 180/240 200/240 025 x 106 flow direction 255OxIO'6 transverse V/O 35/50 9.5 46x 103 1012/l 0 13 780/1000 63/185 0.
462 n/mm2 Charpy impact.0 0.043 Phenolics glass mineral filled filled 1.Table 6.76 0.2 204 210 530.8 81 13.1 0.1 75 0.7 172 70 16 4.03 0.8 1092 18.6 37.6 36.2 12.8 1001 17.864 2.8: Some Physical Properties of Polyurethane Structural Foams [9] Property vs specific gravity Specific gravity Flexural strength pST/mm2] Flexural modulus pS[/mm2] Tensile strength [N/mm2] Heat deflection temperature [0C] at 0.5 32. D scale Property vs thickness Thickness Specific gravity Flexural strength (N/mm2) Flexural modulus (N/mm2) Tensile strength (N/mm2) Charpy impact.55 0.95 0.8 0.8 10.04 121 105 21.0 3/8in 0.9: Properties of Some Thermosetting Resins [8] general Epoxy mineral purpose glass filled filled Specific gravity Water absorption [% 24h] Heat deflection temperature at 1.5 204 49 187 1.85 N/m2 [0C] Tensile strength [N/mm2] Impact strength [T/m)] [Izod] Coefficient of thermal expansion [105 • K"1] Thermal conductivity [W/m • k] 1.6 91 18.45 0. unnotched (ft • lb/in2) l/4in 0.83 0.4 3.0 l/2in 0.4 4 1.2 742 12.4 847 16.5 602 9.25 70 0.5 260 77 801 1.4 24.1 0.05 .6 36.4 847 16.6 37.8 96 21 80 Table 6.5 11. unnotched [kT/m2] Skin hardness.
39 8968 11.5 0.0607 Composite structure glassmat woven roving 1522 24 7000/10500 84/140 84/140 2.092 Glass reinforced epoxy filament wound 1800 16.0588 Stainless steel 316 7916 16.6 0.0752 Hastelloy C Aluminium Glassmat laminate 1384 31 4900/7000 63/84 63/84 2.0624 2712 24 70000 84 28 234 0.4/22 21000 420/700 420/700 2.6/3.5 0.5 196000 560 354 11.Table 6.5 700/21000 100/800 excellent 45 62 30A/95A 20/60 Fluoroelastomers 10.83 210000 462 231 48.10: Properties of Some Elastomers [8] Property Tensile strength (N/mm2) Tensile modulus (N/mm2) Elongation Resilience Brittleness temperature (0C) Thermal expansion coefficient (105 • K 1 ) Durometer hardness Compression set EPM/EPDM 3.3 0.3 0.12: Comparability of DIN/ISO and ASTM Test Methods for Plastics [2] Test Density Standard DINl 306 DIN53479 ASTM D 792 ASTM D 1505 DIN 53735 (ISO/R 292) ASTM D 1338 Symbol d d 23C Units g/cm3 at 200C g/ml at 23°C g/lOmin g/lOmin Comparability comparable at same temperature Melt index MFI comparable under same conditions (cont.5 1400/14000 150/450 fair 15/50 55 55A/95A 15/30 Natural rubber 16.7 196000 595 245 16.11: Comparative Physical Properties of Metals and Reinforced Plastics at Room Temperature [10] Property Density [kg/m3] Coefficient of thermal expansion [k1 • 10'6] Modulus of elasticity [N/mm2] Tensile strength [N/mm2] Yield strength [N/mm2] Thermal conductivity [W/m • k] Ratio of tensile strength to density Carbon steel 1020 7860 11.2 3360/5950 300/750 outstanding 60 67 30A/100A 10/30 Table 6.8/32.5/24.6 0. next page) .5/24.5 700/21000 100/700 good 55 58 30A/90A 20/60 Chloroprene 3.031 Table 6.
measured length. measured lenght. test rate %E1 <*R <*R °u SR SR Yield stress (Yield point) Yield point Yield strength Percentage Elongation (at yield) Flexural properties Flexural strength Limiting flexural stress Flexural stress (at 5% strain or at conventional deflection) Flexural impact Impact resistance Impact strength comparable only under same conditions: shape and state of specimen. test rate Es °bB <*bG limited comparability DIN 53453 (ISO/R 179) ASTM D 256 (ISO/R 180) kJ/m2 J/m not comparable * ) kgf=kiloforce = dN . measured length. test rate E0 psi kgf/cm2 • > Shear modulus Torsion modulus Torsional stiffness Stiffness properties Tensile properties Tensile strength (at maximum load) G G T G(!) <*B kN/mm2 comparable dyn/cm2 psi kN/mm2 comparable dN/cm2 N/mm 2 N/mm 2 psi dN/cm2 % % % % N/mm 2 N/mm 2 psi dN/cm2 % % % % N/mm 2 N/mm2 psi dN/cm2 % % N/mm 2 psi N/mm 2 psi ^B Elongation at maximum force Percentage elongation Ultimate tensile strength Tensile strength (at break) Percentage elongation (at break) eB 5 Pmax comparable only under same conditions: shape and state of specimen.Test Mechanical properties Elastic modulus Standard DIN 53457 ASTM D 638 (Tensile) ASTM D 695 (Compression) ASTM D 790 (Fluxural) ASTM D 882 (Film) DIN 53445 (ISO/DR 533) ASTM D 2236 DIN 53447 (ISO/DR 458) ASTMD 1043 DIN 53455 (ISO/DR 468) DIN 53371 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 882 DIN 53455 DIN 53371 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 882 DIN 53455 DIN 53371 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 882 DIN 53455 DIN 53371 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 882 DIN 53455 DIN 53371 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 882 DIN 53455 ASTM D 882 DIN 53452 ASTM D 790 DIN 53452 ASTM D 790 Symbol E E Units kN/mm2 psi (=lb/sq.) Comparability comparable only under same conditions: shape and state of specimen.in.
mg 23°C. 4d. mg 23°C.Test Impact strength (notched) Standard DIN 53453 (ISO/R179) ASTM D 256 (ISO/R180) DIN 53505 ASTM D 1706 ASTM D 2240 DIN 53456 ASTM D 785 DIN 53460 (ISO/R 306) ASTMD 1525 DIN 53458 DIN 53461 (ISO/R 75) ASTM D 648 DIN 53472 DIN 53475 (ISO/R 62) ASTM D 570 Symbol aK Units kJ/m2 Comparability not comparable J/m Shore scale A. if pre. specimen shape and slate are the same 22°C. % 2h PD comparable (converted). D Scale A5 D gramforce Rockwell scale VSP 0 Shore hardness Durometer (Shore hardness) Ball indention hardness ctRockwell hardness Thermal properties Vicat softening point comparable H H N/mrri2 C C C C C50F not comparable comparable if measured under same load in liquid 0 0 Martens heat distortion temperature Heat distortion temperature Deflection temperature (HDT) Water absorbtion 0 MSO 0 comparable if load. 24h. 24h.and posttreatment. specimen and times are the same Electrical properties Volume resistivity Surface resistivity Dielectrical constant Dissipation factor (tan 8) DIN 53482 (VDE 0303 Part ASTM D 257 DIN 53482 (VDE 0303 Part ASTM D 257 DIN 53483 (VDE 0303 Part ASTMD 150 DIN 53483 (VDE 0303 Part ASTMD 150 Qcm comparable Qcm Q comparable Q comparable 3) P R0 3) a 4) 6 4) D comparable Dielectrical loss factor (e= tan 8) Dielectrical strength ASTM D 150 DIN 53481 (VDE 0303 Part 2) ASTM D 149 DIN 53484 (VDE 0303 Part 5) ASTM D 495 DIN 53480 (VDE 0303 P a r t i ) ASTM D 2132 Ed kV/mm not comparable V/mil (1 mil=25im) sec not comparable sec not comparable Arc resistance Tracking resistance . C.
V. Ed. Rosato. WM. A. New York 1985 10. 3.: Corrosionresistant Plastic Composites in Chemical Plant Design. Hanser. Munich 1992 7.: Polysulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications.: Haworth. James M. A purchasing and Design Guide. New York 1969 . New York 1990 6.H. B.: James M. Margolis. Marcel Dekker. New York 1994 9. New York 1973 Harris. Rosato. LM.: Bachelor. Maresca. H. Basel 1985 5. Birley. T. Wendle.: Plastics for Engineers.). Basel. Properties and Design Applications.Materials. 2.: Structural Foam. LM. Margolis. J.. BA.: Plastics Processing Data Handbook. Hanser. 4. Munich 1993 Ogorkiewicz. Marcel Dekker. Mallinson. J.Literature 1. Alvino. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Munich 1991 Domininghaus. John Wiley.: Plastics for Electronics . Hanser. 1985 8.E.: Physics of Plastics. RM. Properties and Applications.W. Marcel Dekker.: Thermoplastics Properties and Design.. D.: Polyarylates in Engineering Thermoplastics.V. Robeson. Ed. D. K: Handbuch der Kunststoffprufung (Ed. Marcel Dekker. Mcgraw Hill. Schmiedel.
1). Basically it consists of transporting the solid polymer in an extruder by means of a rotating screw. . melting the solid. 7. melt mixing and pumping of the melt to the die However the functions of a zone are not limited to that particular zone alone. P l a s H c a t i o n Metering Feed zone Molten polymer Fig.1: Plasticating extrusion [2] The extruder screw of a conventional plasticating extruder has three geometrically different zones (Fig. 7.1a) whose functions can be described as follows: feed zone transport and preheating of the solid material transition zone compression and plastication of the polymer metering zone melt conveying. and forcing the melt through a die (Fig. 7. The processes mentioned can continue to occur in the adjoining zone as well.7 Extrusion Extrusion is one of the most widely used unit operations of polymer processing. homogenizing the melt.
Twin screw extruders are mainly used in the compounding of polymers. 7. 7. The appropriate processing temperatures and pressures suited to a particular resin and process are usually quoted by the resin manufacturers. If. degradation of the material leading to adverse material properties of the product might occur.1 Extrusion Screws To perform these processing operations optimally screws of varied geometry as shown in Fig.2c/d). Higher melting capacities compared to the three zone screws (Fig. sense of rotation and speed distinguish the different kinds of screws (Fig. 7. if necessary. They are. such as.3 [9]) from one another.2 are used. Too low a processing temperature on the other hand may create a melt containing unmelted solids.1) are achieved with screws having shearing and mixing devices (Fig. 7.R A N S T I O IN S E C T O IN M E T E R N IG S E C T O IN F E E DS E C T O IN T S H A N K C O N S T A N TR O O TO A I! A P E R E DR O O TD A l C O N S T A N TR O O TD A IT Fig. 7.1a: Three zone screw 7. 7.2. Barrier type screws enable the separation of solids polymer from the melt. 7. The positive conveying characteristics of the twin screw extruders are achieved by forcing the material to move in compartments formed by the two screws and the barrel. for example.1 ResinDependent Parameters Resindependent parameters are not the physical constants which one obtains by measuring the physical properties of the polymeric material.2b) [27]. similar to these constants with the difference that they relate more to the process and processing conditions. Devolatilizing screws are applied to extract volatile components from the melt (Fig. These values can be maintained during the process by optimizing the processing conditions and.2 Processing Parameters The factors affecting extrusion can be classified into resindependent and machine related parameters. and thus lead to lower and constant melt temperatures over a wide range of screw speeds (Figs. for example.2a). in the pelletizing and compounding of PVC or in the profile extrusion of PVC. the processing temperature of a polymer is too high. . however. 7. The degree of intermeshing between the flight of one screw and the channel of the other screw. the machinery such as extrusion screw or die [I]. 7.
2: Geometries of some extrusion screws [20]. Maillefer screw (variable pitch and constant depth) e. 7. KIM screw Fig. Barr screw (variable depth and constant pitch) d. Maddock mixing screw MAIN FLIGHT b. Devolatilizing screw Extraction section SOLIDS CHANNEL BARRIER FLIGHT MELT CHANNEL c.feed transition/compression feed transition Metering screw first meter vent transition Two stage screw transition Pin mixing screw second meter or pump feed metering feed transition metering a. [27] .
4. and depend not only on the type of the resin but also on the grade of the resin used. which is characterized.a b counterrotating corotating nonintermeshing closely intermeshing Fig. 7. by the MFR value. 7. Guide values of these parameters are given below for a few resins and extrusion processes. They refer to the temperature and pressure of the melt at the die entrance as shown in Fig. for example.3: Geometries of some twin screws [9] Melt temperature and pressure are important resindependent parameters which affect the quality of the product. These values are also known in the practice as stock temperature and stock pressure. .
rolls basket bubble winder extruder air entry Fig.die flange breaker plate screen pack melt pressure melt temperature Fig.5: Blown film [9] .1.4: Position of measurement of melt pressure and melt temperature [9] Blown Film (Fig.7. 7. 7.5) Characteristic values of melt temperature and pressure are given in Table 7.
1: Typical Values of Melt Temperature and Pressure for Blown Film Material PELD PEHD PELLD PP PA 6 PC PET EVA EVOH Pipe Extrusion (Fig. 7.6: Pipe extrusion [9] Table 7.2: Typical Values of Melt Temperature and Melt Pressure for Pipe Extrusion Material PVCU PVCP PEHD PP Melt temperature 0 C 180/185 160/165 180/200 230/240 Melt pressure bar 100/200 100/200 150/250 150/200 .6) Table 7.Table 7. h o p p e r with feed control Melt temperature 0 C 140/210 180/230 190/230 220/240 270/280 260/290 260/280 150/200 200/220 Melt pressure bar 100/300 150/300 250/350 200/300 160/200 150/250 150/250 100/200 100/200 water bath calibration die extruder haul off air Fig.2 shows some guide values of melt temperature and pressure for pipe extrusion. 7.
Typical values for sheet extrusion are presented in Table 7. This data includes values on extruder barrel Melt temperature 0 C 230/260 260/280 220/250 220/230 Melt pressure bar 150/200 100/200 100/250 150/250 . 7. However. 7. depending on the type of extrusion the pressure can range from 100 bar to 400 bar.3.4. Depending on the thickness of the product the term film or sheet is applied. die melt Chill . Wire Coating Melt temperatures for wire coating are approximately the same as those used for pipe extrusion.7: Flat film extrusion [9] Table 7.Flat Film Extrusion (Fig. Melt temperatures and pressures for other resins and processes can be obtained from resin makers.3: Typical Values of Melt Temperature and Pressure for Flat Film Extrusion Material PP PA 6 PELD PEHD Sheet Extrusion A flat die is used in both flat film and sheet extrusion processes.roll Fig. Data on processing conditions suited to attain resin compatible melt temperatures is also supplied by resin manufacturers.7) Typical values of melt temperature and pressure for flat film extrusion are given in Table 7.
[2]. die temperature.2.1 Extruder Output Depending on the type of extruder the output is determined either b y the geometry of the solids feeding zone alone as in the case of a grooved extruder [11] or b y the solids and melt zones to b e found in a smooth barrel extruder.6 m m .temperature. In the following example an empirical equation which gave good results in the practice is presented [1]. barrel diameter Db screw lead s number of flights v flight width w FLT channel width W is given b y the following data: = 30 m m = 30 m m = 1 = 3 mm = 28.8). A detailed analysis of the solids conveying mechanism w a s performed b y Darnell and M o I [16]. they are more influenced b y the geometry of the machine elements involved such as extrusion screw and die than b y resin properties. screw speed.2. and depending on the process hauloff rates and drawratios. Example: The geometry of the feed zone of a screw (Fig. Table 7. 7. Feed Zone The solids transport is largely influenced b y the fiictional forces between the solid polymer and barrel and screw surfaces. Following examples taken from single screw extrusion illustrate the influence of the geometry of machinery on the target quantities of the process.2.2 Machine Related Parameters Although machine related parameters include effects due to resin properties. 7.4: Typical Values of Melt Temperature and Pressure for Sheet Extrusion Material PS PMMA SB ABS PET PVCU PVCP Melt temperature 0 C 190/220 200/230 210/230 220/240 280/285 180/185 160/165 Melt pressure bar 150/250 200/250 150/250 150/250 150/200 100/200 75/150 7.
1) as defined here is the ratio between the actual extrusion rate and the theoretical maximum extrusion rate attainable under the assumption of no friction between the solid polymer and the screw.025 • ° > 0 2 5 6 • 0. (7.44 • n2 • 0./7F.4A.2) The conveying efficiency rj¥ in Eq.436 250 rpm 800kg/m 3 screw lead s screw flight clearance 5FLT screw channel barrel Fig. (7. bulk density.H ) — sin ^ .03 • 0.2) we get G = 60 • 800 • 250 • 0.2. cos (f> (7. 7. (7.1) W + WFLT with the helix angle O $ = tan"1 [s/ (n Db)] (7.1) and Eq.Db ( D b . It depends on the type of polymer. Solution: Inserting the values above with the dimensions in meters into Eq.depth of the feed zone conveying efficiency screw speed bulk density of the polymer H rF N p0 = = = = 5 mm 0.005 • 0.2.3034 • 0.8: Screw zone of a single screw extruder The solids conveying rate in the feed zone of the extruder can be calculated according to [2] W G = 60/vN.953 0. barrel and the screw.2.2.2. Experimental values of r/¥ for some polymers are given in Table 7.0286 Hence G « 50 kg/h . barrel temperature.r2H. friction between the polymer.
6 0.51 0. 7.18 0.75 0.2.52 0.8 0.8 0.Table 7.45 0.17 0.25 0. v2p P R E S S U R EF L O W 1 Sxp S C R E WR O O T COMBINED DRAG AND PRESSURE FLOW h OPEN DISCHARGE CLOSED DISCHARGE Fig.5 0.65 (7.35 0.4A: Conveying Efficiency r\Y for Some Polymers Polymer PELD PEHD PP PVCP PA PET PC PS Metering Zone (Melt Zone) Starting from the parallel plate model and correcting it by means of appropriate correction factors [3] the melt conveying capacity of the metering zone can be calculated as follows [3]: Although the following equations are valid for an isothermal quasiNewtonian fluid.22 Grooved barrel 0.2 0. These equations can be summarized as follows: Volume flow rate of pressure flow Q (Fig.8A: Drag and pressure flow in screw channel .8A): Smooth barrel 0. 7.3) BARREL S U R F A C E D R A G F L O W .44 0. there were found to be useful for many practical applications [I].
extrusion screws have a small clearance between the top of the flight and the barrel surface. 7.Mass Flow Rate rhp mp = 36001000 QpPm (7.9) . rh riid' : Barrel diameter [mm] Channel depth [mm] Flight width [mm] Screw lead [mm] Flight clearance [mm] Length of metering zone [mm] Volume flow rate of pressure and drag flow. respectively [m3/s] Mass flow rate of pressure and drag flow respectively [kg/h] Extruder output [kg/h] (7.5) Mass Flow Rate ma r h d = 36001000 Q d p m Leakage Flow Q L To avoid metal to metal friction.6) (7.4) Drag Flow Q d (Fig. This clearance reduces the pumping rate of the melt because it enables the polymer to leak across the flights.7) The melt conveying rate of the metering zone can be finally calculated from [1] (7.2.2.8A) (7.H Symbols and units used in the equations above Db : H : e : s : 8FLT : L : Q ' Qd : ihp.2.2.8) where ad = .m p / m d and J = 5FLT /H Average shear rate in the metering channel K = n Db N/ 60.2.2. The net flow rate Q is therefore (7.
8) Leakage flow mi = rhd + m p . 7.562 k g / h With the help of Eq.9AH by changing one variable at a time and keeping all other variables constant.9A: Effect of screw speed on extruder output . (7.Ap v r a ya pm ad N : : : : : : : Pressure difference across the metering zone [bar] Number of flights Melt viscosity [Pa • s] average shear rate [s 1 ] density of the melt [g/cm 3 ] Ratio of pressure flow to drag flow Screw speed [rpm] Example: For the following conditions the extruder output is to be determined: melt viscosity r a = 1406. The dimensions of the screw used in these calculations are taken from the example above.2. (7. 5 FLT = 0 . p m = 0. H = 3mm. (7. 7.2. v=1 Substituting these values into the equations above one obtains nip = 3. N = 80 rpm Ap = 300 bar. L = 600 mm.8) the effect of different parameters on the extruder output is presented in Figs.8) Db = 6 0 m m . extruder output (kg/h) s c r e ws p e e d (rpm) Fig. s = 60mm. (7.rh = 1.6) m = 41. e = 6mm.2.2.34 P a s .148 k g / h Eq.4) ihd = 46.88 k g / h Eq.59 k g / h Eq. 7.7 g/cm 3 Geometry of the metering zone (Fig. 1 m m .
7. 7.9B: Effect of channel depth on extruder output extruder output (kg/h) flight clearance (mm) Fig.extruder output (kg/h) channel depth (mm) Fig.9C: Effect of flight clearance on extruder output .
9E: Effect of melt viscosity on extruder output . 7.extruder output (kg/h) m e l tp r e s s u r e (bar) Fig.9D: Effect of melt pressure on extruder output extruder output (kg/h) melt viscosity (Pa s) Fig. 7.
extruder output (kg/h) melt temperature ("C) Fig. 7.9F: Effect of melt temperature on extruder output extruder output (kg/h) screw lead (mm) Fig.9G: Effect of screw lead on extruder output . 7.
For the range of commonly occurring H/Wratios in extruder screws the flight edge effect accounts for only less than 5% and can therefore neglected [27]. 7. Eq.2.2.625 ^ (7.10) and the factor Fp for the pressure flow Fp = 10. The influence of screw curvature is also small so that Fx can .12) and QpK = FpOp (7213) The correction factor for the screw power which is treated in the next section can be determined from [1] Fx = ex .1.11) W The expressions for the corrected drag flow and pressure flow would then be Qdk = FdQd (7.2 x2 .2.x3 + 2.571 ^ (7. (7.14) with x =H/W.2.14) is valid in the range 0 < HAV < 2.extruder output (kg/h) channel length ( m m ) Fig.2.9H: Effect of channel length on extruder output Correction Factors To correct the infinite parallel plate model for the flight edge effects following factors can be used along with the equations above: With sufficient accuracy the shape factor Fd for the drag flow can be obtained from [27] Fd = 10.05x (7.
(7.l ^ G  C«. their use for polymer melt flow is accurate enough for practical purposes.10).15) and (7.2.16) are as follows: 0 Barrel temperature Tb C 0 Melting point of the polymer Tm C Viscosity in the melt film r f Pa • s Velocity of the barrel surface Vb cm/s .2. Although the above mentioned factors are valid only for Newtonian fluids.2.10: Velocity and temperature profiles in the melt and solid bed after TADMOR [2] The numerator represents the heat supplied to the polymer by conduction through the barrel and dissipation. The symbols and units used in the Eqns (7.2. The dimensionless melting parameter \\J is defined as [2] " = K HrW05 .be taken as 1. [1] (see also Fig.2.2 Melting Parameter The melting rate is described by TADMOR [2] through the parameter Op which is expressed as [2]. where as the denominator shows the enthalpy required to melt the solid polymer. 7.15) Fig. 7.I6) This parameter is the ratio between the amount of melted polymer per unit down channel distance to the extruder output per unit channel feed depth. 7. The melting rate increases with increasing Op.
15) and (7.16) have been given b y R A O in his book [I].Velocity component Relative velocity Output of the extruder Depth of the feed zone Width of the screw channel Melt density Specific heat of the solid polymer Temperature of the solid polymer Thermal conductivity of the melt Heat of fusion of the polymer V bx V. 7.2.11: Solid bed and melting profiles XAV and G s /G [2] G: total mass flow rate. The total power Z N is therefore for a melt filled zone [5] .3 Melting Profile The melting profile gives the amount of unmelted polymer as a function of screw length (Fig.2. melt temperature and melt pressure are given in the book b y R A O [4]. Methods of calculating melting profile.4 Screw Power The screw power consists of the power dissipated as viscous heat in the channel and flight clearance and the power required to raise the pressure of the melt. The plasticating and mixing capacity of a screw can b e improved b y incorporating mixing and shearing devices into the screw. The melting profile enables to judge the suitable positioning of these devices in the screw [4].2. (7.2. G H1 W pm pp Ts Xm im cm/s (Fig. 7.2.2. It shows whether the polymer at the end of the screw is fully melted.10) cm/s g/s mm mm g/cm 3 kJ/(kg • K ) 0 C W/(m • K ) kJ/kg Numerical examples illustrating the calculation of melting rate and melting parameter according to Eqns. 7. M e t l S o l i db e d M e t l film Barrel X/W. G s : mass flow rate of solids 7. and is the basis for calculating the melt temperature and pressure along the screw.11). 7.Gs/G S c r e w Axial d i s t a n c ea o ln gt h es c r e w C r o s s s e c t i o no fs c r e w c h a n n e l Fig.
In general the power due to dissipation £ d can be expressed for a Newtonian fluid as [1] Ed = V Y2 (7.1mm. (7.22) and the channel width W (7. H = 3mm. s = 60mm. Solution: Power Zc in the screw channel: DFLT = 59.22) . v=1 8FLT = 0.2.2.18) Using the respective shear rates for the screw channel (Eq.2.21) The flight diameter DFLT is obtained from (7.2.23) The symbols and units used in the equations above are given in the following example: Example: For the following conditions the screw power is to be determined: Resin: PELD Operating conditions: Screw speed N = 80 rpm melt temperature T = 200 0C die pressure Ap = 300 bar Geometry of the metering zone: Db =60 mm. e = 6mm.2. (7.2.8 mm from Eq. and can be neglected.ZN = Zc + ZFLT + ZAp (7.9)) and flight clearance the equation for the screw power can be derived [I].2.19) The power dissipated in the flight clearance can be calculated from [1] (7.2.20) The power required to raise the pressure of the melt ZAp can be written as (7.2. AL = 600 mm. The power dissipated in the screw channel Zc is given by [1] (7.17) where Zc = power dissipated in the screw channel ZFLT = power dissipated in the flight clearance = ZAp power required to raise the pressure of the melt The power ZAp is small in comparison with the sum Zc + ZFLT.
9) and T = 200 0C from the viscosity function of resin rc = 1406. 7. (7. if the output were to remain the same.66° Power in the flight clearance ZFLT: Flight width WFLT(Fig.34600(lcos 2 17.0375 kW Hence the power ZAp is negligible in comparison with the sum Zc + ZFLT. To compensate for this reduction the screw speed has to be increased.828f6005.59.66 o +4sin 2 17.8280251.46 from Eq.Viscosity of the melt in the screw channel rc at the average sheer rate 83. (7. (7.2.7 mm Viscosity at the average shear rate in the flight clearance y = "DbN . (7.249 106m3/s Die pressure Ap: Ap = 300 bar ZAp from Eq.461406.7219.249 • 10"6 A.2.20): lV.2.2.7 3610140.10.46 = 0. as it might occur due to wear in extruders the melt conveying capacity is reduced.19) _ lV59.058 from Eq. 2 5 1 3 .7 Pas Power in the flight clearance ZFLT from Eq.300 = 0.66°)_^ Qg1 w c 361014. This leads to an increase in the power Z N as shown in Table 7.2.8 s"1 according to the Eq. With increasing flight clearance. (7.34 Pa • s Channel width W = 51.1 Qp = 1.23) Number of flights v = 1 Length of the metering zone AL = 600 mm FactorFx: Fx = 1 for HAV = 3/51.303 Power to raise the melt pressure ZAp: Pressure flow Q : = = L56 kW Q from the example in Section 7.4B.2.2. 3 s > and T = 200 0C from the viscosity function of the resin rFLT = 219.14) Power in the screw channel Zc from Eq.20): ZAp = 100 • 1. since the leakage flow over the flight increases.3sinl7. . (7.8) WFLT = e cos O = 6 • cos 17.66° = 5.2.
"""fa * Z r * NH) mCpm (7224) where Z c .2.3 kW 0. Table 7.4B: Effect of Flight Clearance on Screw Power for a PELD 5 FLT ZFLT mm 0.5 (Tin + Tout) can be taken as the stock temperature in the increment.2.2.6 zc kW 2.44 3. The parameter N Q is given by (7. 1 K N Q < 0. Z FLT = (see Section 7.54 3.0 .2.2.83 2.25) .71 0.73 2. Temperature Fluctuation Fluctuations of melt temperature in an extruder serve as a measure of the stability of extrusion and extrudate quality.2 0.15 ZN kW 3.4) (kW) NH = heat through the barrel (kW) rh = extruder output (kg/h) Tout = temperature of the melt leaving the increment ( 0 C) Tm = melting point of the polymer ( 0 C) The average temperature 0.5 Melt Temperature and Melt Pressure Melt Temperature The exact calculation of melt temperature can be done only on an iterative basis as shown in the computer program given in [4].711 0.626 0.5.The power in the flight clearance Z FLT does mot vary much as the opposing effects of viscosity and flight clearance nearly balance each other.63 3.0 3.93 3.25 0.58 3.65 0.15 0.5 83 84 86 7.1 0. The temperature variation AT can be estimated for a 3zone screw from the following empirical relationship developed by Squires [19]: AT = 9 [4. where Tin denotes the temperature of the melt entering the increment.75 N rpm 80 81. (T _ T J . 0 2 4 J for 0 . The temperature rise AT in an increment of the screw can be found from [5] 4T .31 N Q .
4) [1]. (7.26) has to be defined in such a way that NQ correlates well with the measured temperature fluctuations. flow rate Q1 = 39. (7.22° C or ±3.1 0 " 4 ~ 43.153 2 0. (7.6 (mean value) 0. G15 g/s.2.2.2.2. (7.I \ 1 = 7. Melt Pressure The melt or stock pressure can be obtained from the pressure flow by means of Eq.27) Example: pressure drop Ap1 = 200 bar.2.3 L/H 10 3.153 AT from Eq.2.7 .33 = 0. Pressure Fluctuation The effect of pressure fluctuations of the melt on the flow rate can be estimated by the relation [2] (7. [5].33 30 Hence L/H = 43.25) depend on the type of polymer used.26) NQ = 14.310.61° C 9_4. For screws other than 3zone screws the geometry term in Eq.(7.33 NQ from Eq.9 0.024j The constants occuring in the Eqs.2.26) where AT = temperature variation 0C Db = barrel diameter cm G = output g/s L = Length of screw zone in diameters H = depth of the screw zone cm Example: D b = 6cm. (7.2.26) and (7. The more exact calculation of the melt pressure profile in an extruder should consider the effect the ratio of pressure flow to drag flow. L 9 3 9 H 0.25) AT = . the socalled drossel quotient as shown in [5].3 C m 3 /s Ap2 = 210 bar .
39 7 flow rate variation = (Q2 .power law exponent n for PELD = 2. 7. 7. 7.5 Calculate the flow rate variation.14AE[Il].885 Q2 = 44. The influence of machine related parameters and operating variables on the melting of solid polymer is shown in Figs.13 [2]. screw REDUCED SOLID BED WIDTH X/W increasing output AXIAL D I S T A N C E Fig.9 cm 3 /s 44 9 . resins and processes is given in Figs. 7. For given resin the fluctuation of the melt temperature depends mainly on the screw geometry and output rate as shown in Fig.7/Q 2 = (200/ 21O) 25 = 0.Q1) / Q1 = — — = 13% Ap2Ap1 210200 L pressure variation = — = = 5% Ap1 200 This means that a pressure variation of 5% can cause a flow rate fluctuation of 13%. Solution: Q1ZQ2 = 39. Empirical design data for different screw geometries.12A: Influence of increasing output on solids melting in an extruder [2] .12AL [2].
12B: Influence of increasing screw speed on solids melting in an extruder [2] screw REDUCED SOLID BED WIDTH X/W increasing screw speed and output AXIAL DISTANCE Fig.screw REDUCED SOLID BED WIDTH XTW increasing screw s p e e d AXIAL DISTANCE Fig. 7. 7.12C: Influence of increasing screw speed and output on solids melting in an extruder [2] .
LENGTH OF MELTING range of extruder operation S C R E W LEAD Fig. 7.12E: Relationship between flight clearance and length of melting for different resins in an extruder [2] . 7.12D: Relationship between length of melting and screw lead in an extruder [2] P P L D P E LENGTH OF MELTING L D P E P V C FLIGHT CLEARANCE Fig.
7.12F: Relationship between length of melting and number of channels in an extruder [2] screw increasing screw lead MELT PRESSURE AXIAL DISTANCE FROM START OF THREAD Fig. 7.Length of melting Number of channels in parallel Fig.12G: Relationship between melt pressure and screw length at increasing screw speed[2] .
7.121: Relationship between melt pressure and screw length at constant screw speed and increasing output [2] . 7.12H: Relationship between length of melting and barrel temperature at constant screw speed [2] MELT PRESSURE increasing output AXIAL DISTANCE FROM BEGINNING OF THREAD Fig.constant srew speed LENGTH OF MELTING BARREL TEMPERATURE Fig.
7.12J: Relationship between melt temperature and screw length at increasing output [2] screw MELT PRESSURE CONSTANT SCREWSPEEO AND OUTPUT increasing screw lead SCREWLENGTH Fig.MELT TEMPERATURE increasing output S C R E WL E N G T H Fig. 7.12K: Relationship between melt pressure and screw length at constant output and screw speed and increasing screw lead [2] .
7.12L: Relationship between power and barrel temperature at increasing output [2] deep metering channel shallow metering channel Temperature Fluctuation Amplitude very shallow metering channel Output Fig. 7.increasing output POWER BARREL TEMPERATURE Fig. screw geometry and output [2] .13: Relationship between melt temperature fluctuation.
L = 2 0 D to 24 D front edge of the feed opening Fig.14A: Empirical screw design data [11] . 7.
14B: Empirical screw design data [11] nm« . m m D kg/h .m m h t l h.1 m m "W D Fig. 7.
h 3 D m m Fig..L / D = 2 0 D m m m m h. 7.14C: Empirical screw design data [11] m / n [kg min /h] e [kWh / kg] n [min ] NA [kW] m [kg/h] .
7.80 n mi.5 D D effective length L/D = 20 Screw built from standard modules for grooved blow molding extruders 170=20.02.screw flights L =1617D homogenizing shearing section section screw tip L =22.14D: Empirical screw design data [11] h[mm] m I n [kg min /h] . [min ] Nmix[kVv] D Design data for a series of grooved extruders Fig.5D L =2. s=0.
15. 7.10" 6 D 1 9 .14E: Empirical screw design data [11] 7.k gm n i /h m/n D m m2 Comparison of specific throughput rates m/n of conventional and grooved extruders (material: HDPE. Lupolen 5021 D) a grooved extruder m/n = 6. The interaction between screw and die is shown in Fig. Common shapes of flow channels occurring in extrusion dies are shown in Fig.1 • 10"6 • D 17 Fig.6. Of these quantities the die pressure is most important as the desired throughput cannot be attained if the die pressure does not match with the melt pressure. Detailed treatment of die design is presented in the book [1] and in [17]. 7.16. 7. Following areas of application of extrusion dies serve as examples to illustrate the relationship between die geometry and processing parameters: . die pressure and residence time of the melt as functions of the flow path of melt in the die [6].3 Extrusion Dies Extrusion dies can be designed by calculating shear rate. b conventional extruder m/n = 3.
7.15A: Effect of screw and die temperature deep channel H = 5 m m Material: PA6 melt Temperature: 275°C extruder output (kg/h) shallow channel H = 3 m m large die DiA=5mm small die DiA=4mm melt pressure (bar) Fig.Material: PA6 s c r e w characteristics extruder output (kg/h) die characteristics channel depth: 3mm die opening: 5mm melt pressure (bar) Fig. 7.15B: Effect of channel depth and die opening .
16: Common shapes of flow channels in extrusion dies [1] 7.3. It is also used in blown film processes.17 is employed for making tubes and pipes and also for extruding a parison required to make a blowmolded article.17: Mandrel support die with spider or break plate [17] . 7. 7.1 Pipe Extrusion The spider die shown in Fig. Mandrel support die Mandrel Mandrel support" (spider) Spider legs Or breaker plate Fig.Fig. 7.
3. For an annulus.6) (7.For a circular channel the shear rate is calculated from Eq. The height H and the width W are obtained in this case from Eqns.3.3.3.7) for (R 0 + R 4 )/(R 0 R 1 ) £ 3 7 .3) (7. For W/H < 20.3.5) (7.1) where G.1). Factor Fp H W Ratio H / W Fig.18 Correction factor Fp as a function of HAV [ 19] . the die constant follows from (7.3. 7.2) (7. W = Ti(R0 + ^ ) Gannuius follows then from Gannulus ~ (7. 7. Gslit has to be multiplied by the correction factor F p given in Fig.3.4) for W/H > 20. The die constant Gannulus is calculated from H = R0R.18 as a function of HAV.18.5) and (7.3. (7.3. For smaller values of this ratio Gannulus has to be multiplied by F p given in Fig.6).2. (3. which represents the pipe crosssection it is given by The pressure drop is obtained from [7] (7. 7.
Table 7. The substitute radius is expressed by [18] (7. [19]. . The correction factor Fp and the flow coefficient fj.8) where R111 = substitute radius A = crosssectional area B = circumference On the basis of the substitute radius the pressure drop in the channel is calculated as in the case of the circular channel [I]. have the same values in comparable ranges of height to width of the channel.19 [17]. 7. Another method of calculating the pressure drop in channels of varied cross section is presented in Fig.In Table 7.3.5: Shear Rates and Die Constants for Some Die Channel Shapes (Fig.16) [1] Channel shape Circle Shear rate y [s1] Die constant G Slit Annulus Triangle Square General Cross Section By means of the substitute radius defined by Schenkel [18] the pressure drop in cross sections other than the ones treated above can be calculated.5 the shear rates and die constants for different channel shapes are summarized. 7.
7.4217) Circle (f = 127T ) [ p 128 } Semicircle (f. Solution: Volume flow rate Q = — = — = 14.Narrow slit Flow coefficient fP Rectangle Ellipse According to Squires Square (Tp= 0.447) Shape factor .g Fig.19: Flow coefficient fp as a function of shape factor H/B [17] The symbols and units used in the equations above are explained in the following example: Example: It is required to calculate the pressure drop Ap of a PELD melt at 200 0C flowing through an annular channel with an outside radius R0 = 40 mm.7 .=0.29 — Pm 0. an inside radius R1 = 39 mm and length L = 100 mm at a mass flow rate m = 10 g/ s.
7.354.2) are n = 2.bar Pressure drop AP LDPE m = 40kg/h TM= 1600C mm Length of flow path I Fig.47.43 Pa • s K=1.1) 6 L429 10 5 ^ ~2 = ' ' " .20A: Melt pressure in a spider die [6] or Q = 1.907 T] = 579.3410' 13 .04 + 0. = .001)2 The given resindependent values which can also be calculated from flow curves (see Section 3.7.3.4291(T 5 In 3 /s where p m = melt density = 0.7 g/cm3 Shear rate from Eq.039) (0.2. (7.2 n (R0 + R1) (R0 .R1) n (0.
19 is greater than 37. (7.39)2907 (0.00I) 2907 O A 1 As the ratio Tc(R0+ R J V ( R 0 . 7. Gannulus = 1. (7.443 • 10 5 .2) Ap = 400.s Residence time t LDPE m = 40 kg/h TM= 1600C hr = 2 mm mm Length of flow path I Fig.26 bar The residence time t in a channel of length AL can be written as t = AL/ u .20B: Residence time in a spider die [6] The die constant Gannulus follows from Eq.7) ( w\ 2^907 — 2 Il r vJannulus = S^l .04 + 0.R 4 ) = 248. Therefore.3.3.(0. no correction is necessary. The pressure drop Ap is obtained finally from Eq.
channel cross section and volume flow rate.9) '/VCpm = = = = . 7.1600C hr = 2mm m m Length of flow path I Fig. The adiabatic temperature increase of the melt in the die can be obtained from AT = where AT Ap pm cpm AP 1O (K) temperature rise (K) pressure difference (bar) melt density (g/cm3) specific heat of the melt kJ/(kg K) (7.20C: Shear rate in a spider die [6] The average velocity u can be expressed in terms of shear rate.3.S"1 Shear rate if LDPE TM .
7.21) D dIe m a n d r e l OD pipe 'Dpipe pipe die Fig.21: Drawdown in pipe extrusion DR = D *! " 1 ^tel (7. Drawdown and HaulOff Rates Drawdown occurs when the velocity of the hauloff is greater than the velocity of the extrudate at the die exit. As seen from these figures the die gap has a marked influence on the pressure [6]. For other resins this ratio has to be determined experimentally.22 [8] the ratio of die diameter to pipe diamteter which is referred in practice as the draw ratio is shown as a function of the hauloff rate for a PA resin. 7.20AC. Ratio of Die diameter to pipe diameter Hauloffrate ( m / m i n ) Fig. 7. the shear rate. 7. This leads to a reduction of the extrudate crosssection. The draw ratio DR can be expressed as (Fig. In Fig.3. 7.Using the equations above.22: Relationship between draw ratio and hauloff rate [8] . residence time and pressure of the melt along a spider die are calculated and shown in Figs.10) ODpipe " IDpipe The draw ratio is dependent on the resin and on the hauloff rate.
Table 7.23) is given in Table 7.1/0.3 130 130 130 55/60 12/15 10/12 WaIl thickness 1 mm wall thickness 2 mm dependent on wall thickness 2 .3 21 167.2 25/30 1.14 0.2 mm 100/150 500/600 150 40 150 640 PA12 1 PA122 PA122 1 8 20 22 14.0 PVC PE PP mm 20 160 21 168 21 168 mm 20.6 20.2 28. Design data for pipe dies and sizing units (Fig.0 2.0/3.1/0.6 shows typical data obtained on twin screw extruders for pipes.7 [12].85 23.2 21 167. Table: 7.0 8.7: Die and Calibration Unit Dimensions Based on Empirical Results [12] Pipe raw material Outer diameter of pipe mm 20 160 20 160 20 160 A B a at S in % of nominal pressure 6 to 10 wall mm thickness 30 4 150 79 20 100 40/1751 100 20 100 40/1751 100 S [mm] 25 25/303 35/503 b Hauloff speed m/min 20/35 2.16 161.14 0.0 3.14 0. 7.5 25/30 1.1/0.2/2.6: Typical Data for TwinScrew Extruders for Pipes out of Rigid PVC [12] Screw diameter D mm 60/70 80/90 100/110 120/140 Screw length L/D 18/22 18/22 18/22 18/22 Screw speed min"1 35/50 30/40 25/38 20/34 Screw power kw 15/25 28/40 58/70 65/100 specific energy kwh/kg 0.1/0.14 Table 7.3 3.0/2.2 30.
7. 7. Depending on the material and the type of film blow ratios range from 1. 7.24: Blowup in blown film .2 Blown Film diameter of buble Fig.b Q B 7. •A bubble cooling ring die diameter of d i e lip extruder Fig.25 [9].7) [12] The blow ratio is the ratio between the diameter of blown film to the die lip diameter (Fig.3. The effect of operating variables such as coolant temperature in the case of watercooled films on some film properties like gloss and haze is shown in Fig.23: Design data for pipe dies and sizing units (see Table 7.7.3 : 1 to 6 : 1 [26].24).
to the direction of the extrudate (Fig. The principle here is to divide the die into a number of segments and by applying the pressure balance.3.25A: Effect of film thickness on haze [9] Extruder throughputs for blown film lines for polyethylene are given in Table 7. The mixing of spiral flow and annular flow of the melt in these dies leads to uniform flow distribution at the die exit. Table 7. These processes include making annular parisons for blow molding.26 [17]).8 [13]. 7. to mention a few examples. 7.haze film thickness Fig.1. usually 90°. This can be done conveniently by means of a computer program such as VISPIRAL [20].8: Data for High Performance PELD Blown Films Lines [13] Screw diameter D mm 60 90 120 150 Maximum throughput kg/h 200 400 550 900 Extruder power kW 55 110 170 300 Side fed and spiral mandrel dies are employed in processes. Side fed and spiral dies can also be designed using the equations given in the Section 7. .26 [17]) are widely used today. In the extrusion of blown film spiral mandrel dies (Fig. ^ P spiral flow in the channel ^ P annular flow in the gap to each segment calculate the height of the channel required for uniform flow. in which the extruder is at an angle. cable coating and pipe jacketing. 7. and owing to the lack of spider legs which disturb the melt flow in a spider die there will be no weld lines on the film.
haze coolant temperature Fig.25C: Effect of coolant temperature on gloss [9] 7.16). 7.3. The shear rate in a rectangular channel is calculated from (7. 7. where the die width W is usually much larger than the height of the slit H.25B: Effect of coolant temperature on haze [9] gloss coolant temperature Fig.3.11) . 7.3 Sheet extrusion Dies for sheet and flat film extrusion have a rectangular exit crosssection (Fig.
stiffness c o o l a n tt e m p e r a t u r e Fig.25D: Effect of coolant temperature on stiffness [9] impact strength coolant temperature Fig.25E: Effect of coolant temperature on impact strength [9] . 7. 7.
25F: Effect of blowup ratio on ease of drawdown [9] ease of drawdown height of frost line Fig. 7. 7.ease of drawdown blowup ratio Fig.25G: Effect of frost line on ease of drawdown [9] .
7. . For a uniform flow distribution the radius R(x) along the manifold (Fig.Side fed die Spiral mandrel die Mandrel Spiral mandrel manifold Fig.27: Scheme of a typical coathanger die [6] In Fig.27) is deduced to be [10] (7.28A as a function of the die gap.26: Sidefed spiral mandrel dies [17] The pressure drop in a sheet die can be obtained from the relation given by Chung and Lohkamp [10]. 7. (3. 7.12) where n. Manifold Coathanger section Damper section Choker bars Dielip section Fig. The pressure drop in the die lip section is given in Fig.8). 7.28 the calculated manifold radius R(x) is shown as a function of the distance x along the manifold [6].2.3. is the reciprocal of the power law exponent n in Eq. 7.
m m Radius R m m Distance x Fig. 7.28: Manifold radius R(x) as a function of the distance x along the manifold [6] pressure [bar] die gap [mm] Fig. 7.28A: Pressure drop in a flat die as a function of die gap .
29A: Parametrical relationship for thermoforming: Draw ratio vs temperature Optimum Strain level reached in fixed time Strain Area of rupture Increasing straining rate under fixed load Temperature Fig. The effect of different factors related to thermoforming is presented in Figs. (Cold) rupture Draw ratio Holes and splits Discoloration degradation Details not reproduced Acceptable quality Temperature Fig. 7.9 to 7.4 Thermoforming In thermoforming the material initially in the form of a sheet or film is shaped under vacuum or pressure after it has reached a particular temperature. At this temperature the polymer must have a sufficiently strong viscous component to allow for flow under stress and a significant elastic component to resist flow in order to enable solid shaping. Some data including machine dependent parameters are given in the Tables 7.29B: Parametrical relationship for thermoforming: Strain vs temperature . 7.29AE [22] [23]. Thus the optimal conditions for thermoforming occur at a temperature corresponding to the material's transition from a solid rubber state to a viscous liquid state [21].7.12. 7.
7.INTERNAL STRESS OF FORMED PART SHEET TEMPERATURE Fig.29D: Parametrical relationship for thermoforming: Energy vs. sheet temperature .29E: Parametrical relationship for thermoforming: Hot strength vs.29C: Parametrical relationship for thermoforming: Internal stress vs. 7. sheet temperature ENERGY FOR FORMING SHEETTEMPERATURE Fig. 7. temperature HOT STRENGTH C R Y S T A L L N IE P O L Y M E R A M O R P H O U S P O L Y M E R S H E E TT E M P E R A T U R E Fig.
Table 7.9: Polymer Guide to Thermoforming Processing Temperatures [0C] [24] Mold temperature 71 82 88 85 129 60 160 Lower processing limit 127 127 149 127 168 100 200 Normal forming heat 146 163 177 146 191 135 246 Upper limit Set temperature 82 93 93 93 138 71 182 PEHD ABS PMMA PS PC PVC PSU 166 193 193 182 204 149 302 Table 7.0 mm) [14] Screw diameter D mm 75 90 105 120 150 Screw length PP 30/36 D 30/36 D 30/36 D 30/36 D 30/36 D 180/200 260/290 320/350 480/550 650/750 SB 300/320 450/500 600/650 750/850 1100/1200 Output kg/h ABS 220/250 360/400 450/480 600/650 850/900 PET 120/140 180/220 240/280 320/360 480/540 .30A/B [14] and in Table 7. 7.10: Extruder Outputs for Thermoformable Film Extrusion (Film Thickness Range: 0. m n i takeoff speed v PELD PP PA6 film thickness s Fig.The production rates for flat and thermoformable films are given in Figs. 7.9 [14].4 to 2.10 shows the thermoforming temperature ranges for various thermoplastics [14].30A: Production rates for flat films [14] Table 7.
7.11: Ranges of Melt and Roll Temperature Ranges Used in Thermoformable Film [14] Material PP SB ABS PET Melt temperature 0 C 230/260 210/230 220/240 280/285 Chill roll temperature 0 C 15/60 50/90 60/100 15/60 Table 7.8 0.5 1.6 0.5/0.5/2.3/0.5 .5 0.8/2.off speed v A B S P P m m film thickness s Fig.2/0.5/0.2 0.12: Shrinkage Guide for Thermoformed Plastics [24] Polymer PELD PEHD ABS PMMA SAN PC PS PP PVC U PVCP Shrinkage % imo 3.30B: Production rates for thermoformable films [14] Table 7.5 0.4/0.8 0.min S B take .3/0.8 0.0/3.
7. CoRotating TwinScrew Extruders (ZSK) for the Concentration of Melts [25] Screw diameter D mm 130 170 240 300 Screw speed n min"1 180/300 150/250 140/230 110/180 Drive power N kW 150/240 300/490 680/1100 1200/2000 Throughput G kg/h 850/1500 1750/3000 4000/7000 7000/12000 Table 7. Some machine data are given in the tables below.15: Data for the ReifenhaeuserBitruder with Intermeshing CounterRotating Screws for Compounding and Pelletizing of PVCU and PVCP [23] Extruder Screw diameter mm 77 77 98 98 150 Screw length L/D 12 16 14 18 17 Drive power N kW 25 25 33 37 133 Heating capacity kW 17 17 31 36 88 Output kg/h 120/230 200/400 300/550 450/750 650/1200 BT 80 12 G BT 8016 G BT 10014 G BT 10018 G BT 15017 G .5 Compounding In the compounding of polymers such as polyolefins and PVC twin screw extruders find a wide application. Table 7.13: Machine Data of NonInterrneshing CounterRotating TwinScrew Machines for Degassing [25] Screw diameter D mm 150 200 250 305 380 400 Screw speed n min1 100/180 87/150 78/135 70/120 63/110 58/100 Drive power N kW 120/250 220/460 370/750 600/1200 970/2000 1500/3000 Throughput G kg/h 670/1250 1200/2300 2000/3750 3300/6000 5400/10000 8300/15000 Table 7.14: Machine Data of Intermeshing.
7. 7. a) b) Fig.30C: Adapter dies: a) Flat slit die. b) Blown film die In the multimanifold dies (Fig.30C and in Fig. To create layered structures and benefit from the properties of several resins in combination. 7. These partial streams are then combined just prior to the land area.30D [17]. b) a) Fig. 7. b) Blown film die [17] . multiple layer blow molded articles and many more. coextrusion is evidely employed. To achieve these objectives.30D: Multimanifold dies: a) Flat slit die.30D) [17] each melt is first fed separately and distributed into the desired form. cables with multiple layer insulation.Coextrusion In many cases a plastics product made from a single polymer cannot meet the requirements imposed on it. dies of different designs are used as shown in Fig. A multilayer extrudate can be produced by conventional dies when an adapter is used to feed the individual melt streams into the die inlet. 7. Examples include multiple layer flat and tubular films.30C) [17]. They flow together through the die and leave it as a coextrudate (Fig. 7.
16: Examples of Compatibility Between Plastics for CoExtrusion [24] PELD PELD PEHD PP IONOMER PA EVA 1: 2: 3: 3 3 2 3 1 3 PEHD 3 3 2 3 1 3 PP 2 2 3 2 1 3 IONOMER 3 3 2 3 3 3 PA 1 1 1 3 3 1 EVA 3 3 3 3 1 3 Layers easy to separate Layers can be separated with moderate effort Layers difficult to separate.15A: Comparison Between Adapter (Feedblock) Dies and MultiManifold Dies [17] Type of die Adapter (Feedblock) dies Multimanifold dies Advantages Any number of individual layers can be combined. 1. Each melt can be adjusted individually.15A. if appropriate adjustment is available. It is difficult to solve the problem of thermal insulation of the individual channels from each other.Some advantages and disadvantages of adapter and multimanifold dies are summarized in Table 7. 1. 3. 3. The method of combining the melts inside the die under pressure improves the mutual adhesion of the layers. . Table 7. For a combination of more than four layers this type of die becomes very complex and costly.16) and melt temperature can be processed Disadvantages Polymers used must have almost identical flow behavior and processing temperatures. 2. 2. Die design is complicated. Table 7. Materials with different flow behavior (Table 7.
Calculate the length of the water bath to cool the wire from 19O0C to a centerline temperature of 140 0C for the following conditions: Heat transfer coefficient cca = 1700 W/(m2 • K) = Thermal diffusivity plastic 10"7m2/s Thermal conductivity \lastic = 0.23 Bi The temperature ratio 0Th : Bi = ( T ^ U = 14020 = 120 = ( ) 7 0 6 (TaTw) 19020 170 The temperature ratio #Tb based on the centerline temperature is given in Fig. Table 7.6 Extrudate Cooling The cooling of extrudate is an important operation in downstream extrusion processing.0846 10000.17: Heat Transfer Coefficients for Different Types of Cooling Heat transfer coefficient a [W/(m2 • K)] Air cooling by natural convection 5/10 Air cooling by forced convection 20/80 Water bath 1000/1800 Water sprays  2000/2500 Mode of cooling Example [28]: A wire of polyacetal of diameter 3. It is an unsteady heat transfer process. .13 .23 W/(m • K) Hauloff rate of the wire VH = 0.6 = 11.2 mm is extruded at 190 0C into a water bath at 20 0C.17 for different cooling media.31 as a function of the Fourier number with the recoprocal of Biot number as parameter [29]. 7. as it sets a limit to the production rate. Transient conduction can be described by means of Fourier number and simultaneous conduction and convection by Biot number. The magnitude of heat transfer coefficients which are necessary to estimate the rate of cooling is given in Table 7. L = 0. in which mostly conduction and convection determine the rate of cooling.5 m/s Solution: The Biot number Bi = ^ A where R = radius of the wire 170 Q.7.1 .
1 = 2.31: Midplane temperature for an infinite plate [29] The Fourier number Fo for # T b =0.84s .4 . 7.0846 from Fig.041 The Fourier number from Fig.1 s The length of the water bath is therefore V H tk = 0.6 • 10"3)2 = 0.16 R2 (1.6/ (1000 • 0.5610 tk = 4.23) = 24.15 tk = 3. 7. The cooling time tk follows from the definition of the Fourier number —— — — — — — 0.35 1/Bi = 0.31 is approximately Fo = 0. a heat transfer coefficient of oca = 3500 W / (m2 • k) can be assumed.31 is approximately F 0 «0.15 The cooling time tk follows from a • tk / R2 = 10"7 • tk / (1.16.05 m If the wire is cooled by spraying water on to ist as it emerges from the extruder.610" 3 ) 2 2.706 and 1/Bi = 0. 7.5. The Biot number is then Bi = 3500 1.Temperature ratio &\b Fourier number F0at/X2 Fig.
melt temperature: 2200C frost line temperature: 1100C air temperature: 200C oca = 120W/(m2K) W = 0.5IQ3 n Cooling time t k = . Example: Cooling of a sheet for the following conditions: thickness of the sheet s = 0. = (110 .45 Biot number Bi Bi = 120 • 35 • 10 6 / 0.4 m.242 = 0.6 F0 from Fig.20) / 220 .^ = 0. .242 W / ( m .29 • 10"3 cm2/s hauloff speed: 60 m/min The cooling time tk is to be calculated.K) Ct3 = 1000 W/(m 2 K) hauloff speed =130 m/min The length of contact between the sheet and the roll required to attain a sheet temperature of 70 0C is to be calculated.45 and 1 / Bi = 57. Solution: Temperature ratio Sn 0n.6 F0 = 42.01736 1/Bi = 57.13 • 10"3 mVs ^lastic = 0.^ .5 v . 7. Example: Cooling of a blown film for the following conditions: thickness of the film: 70 JJ.4 s At a hauloff speed of 1 m/s the height of the film to the frost line will be approximately 0.25 mm melt temperature T0 = 240 0C roll temperature Tw = 20 0C thermal diffusivity a = 1.K ) thermal diffusivity a: 1. since the resistance to heat flow is mainly due to conduction.20) = 0.x2 'F 353542.31 for Sn = 0.12W/(m 2 .0 = ^ .This value is not significantly less than the one in the case of cooling in the water bath.
.17 • 0.1252103 _. Their use in correlating experimental data and in scalingup equipment is well known.13 At a hauloff speed of 2. + 0.96 Gn = (70 120) / 240 .276 = 0.17 m/s the length of contact is L = 2. Table 7.6._.276 s k 1021.1250. n v 7.1 Dimensionless Groups Dimensionless groups can be used to describe complicated processes which are influenced by a large number of variables with the advantage that the whole process can be analyzed on a sound basis by means of a few dimensionless parameters. The above examples give only a rough estimate of the actual values. Cooling time tk = = = 0. More realistic results can be obtained by using the software POLYFLOW [20].96 and Qn from Fig.227 The Fourier number F0 for 1 / Bi = 0.04 1/Bi = 0.20) = 50 / 220 = 0. For a roll diameter of D = 250 mm this amounts to 1.31 .125/0.31 times the roll circumference.6 m.18 shows some of the dimensionless groups which are often used in plastics engineering.Solution: The Biot number Bi = ^ ^ X Bi = 10000. 7.12 = 1. The foregoing example shows their application in heat transfer applications.
alA.ATl /v 2 l /(at v ) a/5d P x • w2 • TiA.'p. wl/a v/a pwl/r) v/8 d P • 1/(Tl • W) thermal diffusity [m 2 /s] acceleration due to gravity [m/s 2 ] characteristic length pressure [N/m 2 ] memory time [s] process time [s] temperature difference [K] velocity of flow [m/s] outside heattransfer coefficient [W/(m 2 • K)] coefficient of volumetric expansion [K' 1 ] temperature coefficient in the power law of viscosity [1] [K"1] mass transfer coefficient [m/s] diffusion coefficient [m 2 /s] viscosity [Pa • s] thermal conductivity (index i refers to the inside value) [W/(m • k)] kinematic viscosity [m 2 /s] residence time [s] time [s] density [kg/m 3 ] .Table 7.18: Dimensionless Groups Symbol Bi Br Deb Fo Gr Gz Le Na Nu Pe Pr Re Sh Sc Sk Nomenclature: a g 1 p tD tp AT w ota P PT Ps 5d r\ X v tv t p : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Name Biot number Brinkman number Deborah number Fourier number Grashof number Graetz number Lewis number Nahme number Nusselt number Peclet number Prandtl number Reynolds number Sherwood number Schmidt number Stokes number Definition a a • IA 1 T]W2Z(X • AT) at/12 2 2 g.
T. F. N.M. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.. Munich 1992 Schenkel.Literature 1. J. New York (1963) Rao. C. Reitemeyer. 28. Klein.20 (1956) Michaeli. 267 Rao. New York (1970) Bernhardt.: Extrusion Dies. 25. p.: Plastics Processing Data Handbook. H: Compound Lines in Plastics Extrusion Technology. 13.: Computer Aided Design of Plasticating Screws.Z. Van NostrandReinhold. R. Hanser. L: Engineering Principles of Plasticating Extrusion. D.. KS. 28 (1972) p. Hanser. Hanser. New York 1980 . N. 1988 Winkler. Rosato... E. Hensen. John Wiley.: Plastics Extrusion Technology. RH. F.: Basic Heat Transfer. DJ. RM. KT. Munich. Plastics Eng. 12. Munich. H: Flat film extrusion using chillroll casting in Plastics Extrusion Technology.H. London 1984 Rosato.Effects of Processing. 16(1960). Hanser. E.: Soc. G. G. 1988 Rauwendaal. F. F. Hanser. andMoI. O'Brien. 21 (1981). Ed. S. O'Brien. Hanser. W.H: Computer Modelling for Extrusion and Other Continuous Polymer Processes. W. 1092 Darnell. Marshall. Hanser. V. CL. KS. 11. Hensen. Black. Hanser...: SPEJ. 6. 21. 4.L. B. 22. Munich 1992 Eckstein. 23.: Design Formulas for Plastics Engineers. R. W. F. Hanser. CJ. 5(1995) Ogorkiewicz. D. Ed. 1988 Predohl. 9. Harper & Row. 20. P.: Designing Machines and Dies for Polymer Processing with Computer Programs. 8. New York 1968 Rao. 2. Rao. 10. D. Reinhold. Ed. 7.A. C: Polymer Extrusion.: Extrusion of pipes. 17..: Polymer Engineering and Science.: Extrusion of blown films in Plastics Extrusion Technology. London 1969 Titow. Jackson. Ed.: SPE J. p. 5. and Harry. Hensen.: PVC Technology. Lohkamp. profiles and cables in Plastics Extrusion Technology. 12. HG. Munich 1981 Procter. W.: SPE 33. Munich 1988 Rauwendaal. 14. 16. 27. Gliffe Books Ltd. Munich 1986 Klein. Munich. Munich 1988 Hensen.: Thermoplastics and Design. L.: Thermoplastics . Munich 1991 Tadmor. Reinhold.: Processing of Thermoplastic Materials.: Extrusion blow molding in Plastics Extrusion Technology. Hanser. 19. Ed. F.: Plastics Engineering. 18.: Computer Programs for Plastic Engineers. 363 Fritz. Munich 1986 Ogorkiewicz. New York 1973 Kreith..S. Ed. Z. D. V. 1988 Bongaerts. G. ANTEC 21 (1975). Y. V. 324 Brochure: EMS Chemie 1992 Brochure: BASFA. 26. New York 1990 Hermann. p.J. Keith T. 1992 Chung. Hensen.: Private Communication Squires. 29. 15. Hensen. Hanser. F. 24. Munich. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 3. W.
1: Melt Temperature and Pressure for Extrusion Blow Molding of Some Polymers Material PELD PEHD PP PVCU PVCP Melt temperature 0 C 140/150 160/190 230/235 180/210 160/165 Melt pressure bar 100/150 100/200 150/200 100/200 75/150 . 8.5 [2].1 to 8.8 Blow Molding 8.1 Processes The different processes of blow molding.4 [1]. in addition to the aforementioned processes the principle of dip molding is briefly explained.1. injection blow molding and stretch blow molding are illustrated in the Fig.1. namely extrusion blow molding. [2]. Table 8. In Fig.1 Resindependent Parameters Melt Temperature and Pressure Typical values of melt temperature and melt pressure for extrusion blow molding are given in Table 8. 8. 8.
8.1: Extrusion blow molding [1] .PRESS PLATEN Parison being extruded Compressed air inflates parison Blown container being ejected Fig.
8.2: Injection blow molding [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fig.Injecting preform Blow molding and ejection Fig. 8.3: Extrusion stretch blow molding [2] .
11 [3] the swelling thickness of the parison is given by Bt = y h d (8. and can be measured.1. .3) it follows K = KK The swell ratio Bp depends on recoverable strain [4]. Referring to Fig. 8.4: Injection stretch blow molding [2] Parison Swell The wall thickness of the molding is related to the swelling ratio of the parison. 8.Inject preform Reheat preform Stretch blow molding and ejection Fig. (8.2) Using the relationship [4] B t = B2p (8.1.1) and the swelling of the parison diameter Bp = D1ZD.1.
cool MOULDED ARTICLE INJECTION BLOW MOULDING transfer to second(article) mould. TUBE WITH stretch and blow. blow (possibly cool) MOULDED ARTICLE PREFORM transfer to second (CLOSEENDED (article) mould. coot MOULDED ARTICLE DIP (DISPLACEMENT) BLOW MOULDING .5: Sequence of operations in different blow molding processes [2] •pjnoui (appJB) puo3ds O) JajsuBjj dip mandrel into melt in cavity PREFORM (CLOSEENDED TUBE WITH FULLY FORMED NECK) blow.PLASTICS FEEDSTOCK extrusion OPENENDED enclousc in mould TUBE Mow. blow. FULLY FORMED cool NECK) EXTRUSION BLOW MOULDING EXTRUSION STRETCHJ3LOW MOULDING MOULDED ARTICLE PLASTICS FEEDSTOCK injection moulding PREFORM (CLOSEENDED TUBE WITH FULLY FORMED NECK) transfer to second (article) mould. 8. cool (PARISON) enclose in first (preform) mould. blow. cooT MOULDED (ORIENTED) ARTICLE INJECTION STRETCH_BLOW MOULDING PLASTICS FEEDSTOCK extrusion or injection HOT MELT IN CAVITY complete shaping of preform round mandrel by piston push on melt Fig.
4 1.3: Data on Stretch Blow Molding for Some Polymers [1] Polymer PET PVC PP PAN Melt temperature 0 C 250 200 170 210 Stretch orientation temperature 0C 88/116 99/116 121/136 104/127 Maximum stretch ratio 16:1 7: 1 6: 1 9:1 Volume Shrinkage Table 8. Table 8.2: Average Parison Swell for Some Polymers [1] Polymer PEHD (Phillips) PEHD (Ziegler) PELD PVCU PS Swell % 15/40 25/65 30/65 30/35 10/20 _PC Processing Data for Stretch Blow Molding I 5/10 Table 8.2 2.Average parison swell for some polymers is given in Table 8.2 0.9 1.6 1.2 .9 1.4: Volume Shrinkage of Stretch Blow Molded Bottles (Seven Days at 270C) [1] Type of bottle Extrusion blow molded PVC Impactmodified PVC (high orientation) Impactmodified PVC (medium orientation) Impact modified PVC (low orientation) Nonimpact modified PVC (high orientation) Nonimpact modified PVC (medium orientation) Nonimpact modified PVC (low orientation) PET I Percent 4.2 [I].
Data on air blowing pressures and temperatures for cavities in blow molds are given in Tables 8.5: Data for Choosing Blow Molding Materials [8] Polymer Highimpact PVCU PELD Lowimpact PVCU Highimpact PP PEHD Lowimpact PP Appearance in blow molded form clear high gloss transculent.2 4.34 3. These can be of the spider type (Fig.6: Data on Air Blowing Pressures [1] Polymer Acetal PMMA PC PELD PEHD PP PS PVCU ABS Pressure bar 6.9 2.14 4.9 3.9 5.10 [8]. low gloss rather opaque.9 [7] and Fig.7 respectively.38/4. 7.2/6. low gloss transculent. these dies can be designed by using the equations given in Section 7. 8. high gloss very clear.26 [6].78.76/6. Table 8. moderate gloss Cost for equivalent stiffness (PELD=IOO) 104 100 87 79 76 71 8.6 and 8.1. 8. high gloss rather opaque.1.3. As mentioned earlier. The interaction of various factors influencing blow molding operations is presented in Figs.9/10.2/6.8/10.9 5.2 Machine Related Parameters Blow Molding Dies As the parison is always ejected downward and the position of the extruder being generally horizontal. 8. the term crosshead dies may be applied to blow molding dies.34 1.4/10.34 .13/6.Choice of Material Table 8.4/5.6) [5] or side fed dies as shown schematically in Fig.
7: Recommended Temperature for Cavities in Blow Molds [1] Polymer PE and PVC PC PP PS PMMA Temperature 0 C 15/30 50/70 30/60 40/65 40/60 Extruder Elbow joint Tip of Mandrel Spider legs die body mandrel die ring parison Fig.Table 8.6: Application of spider die in blow molding [3] . 8.
7: Relationship between machine and material variables in extrusion blow molding process [7] . 8.B o tl e w e g ih t D e i swell M e t lt e m p e r a t u r e Bottle w e g ih t P o y lm e r d i e swell P o y lm e rd e i swell D e i l a n dl e n g t h O u t p u t O u t p u t W a lt h i c k n e s s M e t lt e m p e r a t u r e O u t p u t B o lw n ig p r e s s u r e C r ic u m ferential wail t h c ik n e s s variation Extrusion rate Critical shear rate Parison drawdown (sag) Die gap Melt index Parison drawdown (sag) Extrusion rate Parison drawdown (sag) Parison weight Parison drawdown (sag) Parison formation time Pinch off properties Melt temperature Pinch off properties Melt index Die lines Parting line Blowing pressure Fig.
w.Mold temperature D e g r e e o f orientation in m o d ln ig k Jthicicness Injection Pressure pressure loss Packing through gate time Melt temperature Melt temperature Component f.8: Relationship between machine and material variables in injection blow molding process [7] . 8. impact strength Melt temperature With flow S h r n ik a g e Across flow Part weight Molding gloss Mold temperature Packing time Melt temperature Mold temperature C o m p o n e n t Z IO D m ip a c t s t r e n g t h a o ln g line o f flow Melt temperature Shrinkage With flow Across flow Cooling time Cavity thickness Packing time/pressure D e n s t iy o f crystaline p o y lm e r s Mold temperature Neat distortion temperature Melt temperature Shrinkage Restricted gate O p e n gate Packing time U n t im o d l c a lm p n ig p r e s s u r e Long flow path Short flow path Cavity thickness D e n s t i y o f crystalline p o y lm e r s Distance from gate W e d l tensile s t r e n g t h injection pressure Fig.
8.Cold mold Post molding shrinkage of crystalline polymer Ageing time Hot mold Annealed Pressure loss through gate Gate area Impact strength Along line of flow Across line of flow Melt temperature Weld tensile strength Shrinkage in line of flow Cooling time Distance from gate Gate area Cavity thickness Density of crystalline polymers Flexural and tensile strength in line of flow Cavity thickness Melt temperature Differential shrinkage Melt temperature Cavity pressure Density of crystalline polymers Packing time Melt temperature Heat distortion temperature Packing pressure Shrinkage Restricted gate O p e n gate Cavity thickness Pressure loss through runner Injection rate Impact strength Along line of flow Across line of flow Mold temperature Weld tensile strength M e t l t e m p e r a t u r e Fig.9: Relationship between machine and material variables in injection blow molding process .
material density and cost in blow molding process [8] . 8.10: Relationship between product stiffness.STIFFNESS DENSITY IN g / c m J Variation of stiffness with density for polyethylene THICKNESS FOR EQUIVALENT STIFFNESS DENSITY IN g/cmJ Relationship between thickness for equivalent stiffness and density for polyethylene COST FOR EQUIVALENT STIFFNESS DENSITY IN g/cm1 Relationship between cost for equivalent stiffness and density for polyethylene Fig.
Effects of Processing.: Injection Molding Handbook. W. D. 4. Rosato. 7. D.: Extrusion Dies. Rosato. V. New York 1981 Cogswell.H. London 1969 . John Wiley. BS. Van NostrandReinhold. Van NostrandReinhold.: Plastics Processing Data Handbook. 2.: Blow Moulding in Thermoplastics. V.M. Hanser. V. D.: PVC Technology. Ogorkiewicz.: Polymer Melt Rheology. 3. 5. D. R. Rosato.11: Wall thickness of parison and molding in blow molding [3] Literature 1. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. Munich 1992 Rosato. F. 8. New York 1990 Titow. London 1984 MortonJones. 8.D P molding mold Dm Fig.: Polymer Processing. New York 1981 BASF Brochure on Blow Molding 1970 Michaeli.N. W. Chapman and Hall. Gliffe Books Ltd. 6. V...V. New York 1986 Glyde. Ed. D.
1: The three stages of injection molding: injection. Holding Pressure end Plostication Mold fitted. Stoge 1 . 9. ejection [1] The molding equipment consists of an injection unit.1) has found the widest application for making articles which can be put to direct use. an injection mold and a mold temperature control unit. . plastication. 9. The quality of the part depends on how well the interaction between these components functions. Ejection Mote opens P a r t is ejected N o z z e lo r e o k so < f Fig. Port is cooling Screw rotates at the end of holding pressure S t a g e 3.9 Injection Molding Among the polymer processing operations injection molding (Fig. Injection Moid partially filled Barrel Feed hoDOer Screw advances Heater band Stoge 2 .
thus completing the cycle [7].1A: Injection molding process [22] The important processing variables in an injection molding process and their effect on the plastic material and part are shown in Fig.1) the screw remains stationary in the forward position (Fig. The screw then maintains pressure on the molded plastic for a specific time called dwell or hold time. 9. 9.1B [22].At an appropriate point in the typical molding cycle (Fig. This pressure pushes the screw to move back a predetermined distance which is dependent on the desired volume of the molded part. It affects both the speed of the . the processing parameters can be classified into resindependent and machinerelated parameters. The screw is then idle in the back position while the previously molded plastic continues cooling in the mold. A valve. the screw is forced forward by the hydraulic pressure. causing the newly recharged shot in front of the screw to flow into the empty mold. s t e p 1: start o fp t a s t c ia t o in s t e p 4: start o fn ie jc t o in s t e p2 e n do fp a ls t c ia t o in s t e pS :e n do fn ie jc t o in a n dc o o n ilg o ft h em o d ln ig s t e p 3: c o ls n ig t h em o d l s t e p6= e e jc t o in o fm o d ln ig Fig. 9.1. and while the mold is open and part ejected. As in extrusion. 9.1C.1 ResinDependent Parameters 9.1 Injection Pressure Injection pressure is the pressure exerted on the melt in front of the screw tip during the injection stage. At the end of dwell or holding pressure the screw begins to rotate conveying plastic material and developing a pressure ahead of the screw.1A) as indicated by phase 5 in Fig. prevents back flow during injection.7A). with the screw acting like a plunger [I]. in which the cavity pressure is illustrated as a function of time during the molding of a part [I]. 9. 9. After the mold closes. such as a cheek ring (Fig. 9.
and corresponds to the flow resistance of the melt in the nozzle. IB: Molding cycle [22] . small gates 100/130 130/150 100/120 120/150 100/120 120/150 110/140 >140 120/150 < 150 120/150 < 150 100/120 120/150 120/150 >150 140/175 175/230 100/120 120/150 injection cycle pnri start closing the mold injection unit forward filling ABS POM PE PA PC PMMA PS Rigid PVC Thermosets Elastomers opening the mold part ejection holding pressure plasticating cdounq injection unit backward Fig.2 times the pressure listed in Table 9.advancing screw and the process of filling the mold cavity with the polymer melt.1 [I].1: Injection Pressure Required for Various Plastics [1] Material Low viscosity heavy sections 80/110 85/100 70/100 90/110 100/120 100/120 80/100 100/120 100/140 80/100 N ecessary injection pres sure [MPa] Medium viscosity High viscosity standard sections thin sections. sprue. 9. The injection pressures needed for some resins are given in Table 9. The maximum injection pressure is approximately 1.1. Table 9. runner and cavity.
Injection stageEffects from: injection speed temperature of hydraulic oil.2 Mold Shrinkage and Processing Temperature Due to their high coefficients of thermal expansion components molded from plastics experience significant shrinkage effects during the cooling phase.1C: Cavity pressure profile over time [1] 9.2 [17]. owing to the greater specific volume difference between melt and solid. 9. parts: completeness of molded part •flash formation weight Time Holding pressure stage Injection stage Compression stage Holding pressure stageEffects from: temperature of cavity wait deformation of m o l d stability of clamping unit magnitude of clamping force Effects on a. material: viscosity molecular degradation crystallinity molecular orientation in part surface b. Shrinkage S can be defined by [2] S = 1 ^ (9. As a consequence of mold shrinkage it is necessary to make core and cavity slightly larger in dimension than the size of the finished part. the corresponding dimension of the part when it is at some standard temperature and pressure. melt and mold •viscosity of material pressure dependency of screw drive Effects on o. Semicrystalline polymers tend to shrink more.1.2 for a number of materials [I]. . The parameters influencing shrinkage behavior are shown in Fig. parts: weight dimensions voids sink marks relaxation ease of ejection Cavity pressure Fig. Processing temperature.1) where V is any linear dimension of the mold and L. material: crystallinity molecular orientatior inside the part shrinkage b. 9. parts: surface quality Compression stageEffects from* •switchover to holding pressure •control of pressure reserve Effects on crystallinity •anisotropy b.1. mold temperature and shrinkage are given in Table 9.
0 1.2/2 0.2 0.15/0.5 0.7 0.5/2.5 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.7 0.1/0.5/2.2/2.70 Mold temperature 0 C 10/10 5/75 50/80 50/90 40/90 50/70 30/70 50/75 50/80 70 15/50 30/50 90/100 200/230 50/70 >90 80/100 80/100 50/80 50/80 50/80 80/100 100/120 140 140 60/80 60/80 70/120 70/120 70/120 70/120 40/80 40/80 100/160 > 150 20/40 170/190 150/165 160/180 150/170 150/170 Shrinkage % 0.5/1.3/1 0.5/3.7 0.3 0.2 30 30 10/30 20/30 30/50 30/50 30/35 40 30/80 .8 0.5/3.55 1.5 3/6 3.5/6.0 1.5 0.5 0.7 0.5/1.5/0.5/2.5 0.7 <0.8/1.5/1.5/1.5 0.2/2.0 1.5 0.5/0.5/5.5 0.2: Processing Temperatures.5 0.0 0.3/0.0 >0.3/1.5/0.Table 9.2 1.2 0.4/0.2 1.6 1.9/2.9 1. and Shrinkage for the Most Common Plastics Processed by Injection Molding [1] Material PS HIPS SAN ABS ASA PELD PEHD PP PPGR IB PMP PVCsoft PVCrigid PVDF PTFE FEP PMMA POM PPO PPOGR CA CAB CP PC PCGR PET PETGR PBT PBTGR PA 6 PA 6GR PA 66 PA 66GR PAIl PA 12 PSO PPS PUR PF MF MPF UP EP Glass fiber content % Processing temperature 0C 180/280 170/260 180/270 210/275 230/260 160/260 260/300 250/270 260/280 150/200 280/310 170/200 180/210 250/270 320/360 210/240 200/210 250/300 280/300 180/230 180/230 180/230 280/320 300/330 260/290 260/290 240/260 250/270 240/260 270/290 260/290 280/310 210/250 210/250 310/390 370 195/230 60/80 70/80 60/80 40/60 ca.0 1.2 0.0/2.5/0.8 0. Mold Temperatures.6 0.4/0.
shrinkage shrinkage shrinkage holding pressure time holding pressure shrinkage melt temperature injection speed PEHD PP PS cavity pressure wall thickness shrinkage wall temperature Fig. Schrinkage shrinkage .3 Drying Temperatures and Times As already mentioned in Section 6.2: Qualitative relations between individual process parameters and shrinkage behavior [17] 9.3) [3].4 plastics absorb water at a rate depending on the relative humidity of the air in which they are stored (Table 9.1.1. 9.
1 0.3 0.2 0.03 PBT 0.10 PBT.4 shows the drying temperatures and times for different resins and dryers [I]. PET PC PMMA PPO SAN Drying temperature 0 C fresh air/mixed dehumidifying air dryers dryers 80 80 75 70/80 75 70/80 75/80 not recomm.2 PA6 3 0.3).15 PA66 2.5 2 2 2/3 3/4 2/4 2 1/2 1/1.5 1/2 1/1. materials are dried in their solid or melt state.5 Material ABS CA CAB PA 6 PA 66.5 1/2 1/1.08 0. it 75/80 120 120 120 120 80 80 120 120 80 80 9.4).4 Flow Characteristics of InjectionMolding Resins The flow behavior of injectionmolding materials can be determined on the basis of melt flow in a spiral channel.19 0. To remove moisture.2 acceptable for injection molding [%] Moisture and monomers have an adverse effect on processing and on the part.Table 9.5 1 1/1. The length L of the solidified plastic in the spiral is taken as a measure of the viscosity of the polymer concerned (Fig.8 0.02 PC PMMA PPO 0.1. Table 9.02 PET 0.8 0. 9.6. Table 9.02 Equilibrium moisture (%) Water content 0.3: Equilibrium Moisture Content of Various Plastics Stored in Air at 230C and Relative Humidity 50% [3] CA CAB 2.4: Drying Temperatures and Times of Various Dryers [1] Drying time h fresh air/mixed dehumidifying dryers air dryers 1/2 2/3 1 1/1.2 1. 9.05 0.2 ABS 1. .15 0. In practice a spiralshaped mold of rectangular crosssection with the height and width in the order of a few millimeters is often used to classify the resins according to their flowability (Fig.5 0.
3: Flow length in a spiral test as a function of the resin MFI .flow length increasing m o U S n g r u m e r c o o n ilg c h a n n e l c o o n ilg c h a n n e l spiral c o o n ilg c h a n n e l spiral height Fig. 9.
Br. Re. 9. Gz = f (RePrBr).m m P P Flow length L Spiral h e i g h tH m m Fig. mold temperature and injection pressure can be developed [4] by using the dimensionless numbers as defined by Thorne [5].4 shows the experimentally determined flow length L as a function of the height H of the spiral for polypropylene. (9. As shown in [4] the Graetz number correlates well with the product RePr.06 g/cm3 Specific heat cp = 2kJ/(kgK) Thermal conductivity X = 1. 9.5W/(mK) Melt temperature TM = 27O0C Mold temperature Tw = 7O0C Mass flow rate G = 211. melt temperature.1.2) from which an explicit relationship for the flow length L can be computed. F3 = 3600 The Graetz number Gz is calculated from .4: Flow Length L as function of the spiral height H [4] Fig. Pr and Br for the given data and for resindependent constants given in [4]: Width of the spiral W = 10 mm Height of the spiral H = 2 mm Flow length L = 420 mm Melt density p = 1. A quantitative relation between L and the parameters influencing L such as type of resin. F2=IOOO . Example [4]: This example illustrates the calculation of the dimensionless numbers Gz.5kg/h Solution: The conversion factors for the units used in the following calculation of the dimensionless numbers are F1=OOOl .
^ .1.03791 [4].with Q = —. WH p Br =1. melt temperature and flow rate the Graetz number corresponding to the calculated product of RePrBr is read and finally the flow length L calculated from this number.O. For the given values Re = 0. Symbols and units used in the formulas above: Br cp Y G Gz H H* Brinkman number Specific heat kJ/kgK Shear rate s"1 Mass flow rate kg/h Graetz number Height of the spiral mm Halfheight of the spiral mm .4) The viscosity r can be calculated from the melt temperature and shear rate [4].1.9833 Finally the product RePr. The Reynolds number is obtained from F T V ( 2 " n R ) .FT* nR Re = ^ .5) [4].6) Ve follows from Ve = .^ where Ve H* nR = = = £^ k velocity of the melt front in m/s halfheight of the spiral in mm reciprocal of the power law exponent (9.Br is 7768.87 The Brinkman number Br [5] Br = * — ^ S A(TMTW) (9. which is obtained by measuring the flow length at different values of spiral height.51.3) with G in kg/h and L in mm. From the plot of Gz vs RePrBr (Fig.06.1. With H* in m and Ve in m/s we get for the Prandtl number Pr Fvk*CnH*(1"nR) *2 K C p H AV^ n R ) Pr= 103 302.(9. 9. From the above data Gz = 186.
6 [1] shows the common forces with which the nozzle is in contact with the sprue bushing.5: Dimensionless groups for determining the flow length L in s spiral test 9. . 9.1 Injection Unit The average travel velocities of injection units (Fig. Table 9.2 Machine Related Parameters 9. Graetz number Gz RePrBr Fig.L Ux Pr Q0 Re TM Tw Ve W X p rj Length of the spiral mm Reciprocal of the power law exponent Prandtl number Volume flow rate m 3 /s Reynolds number Melt temperature 0 C Mold temperature 0 C Velocity o f the melt front m / s Width o f the spiral m m Thermal conductivity W/mK Melt density g/cm 3 Melt viscosity Pas In the case of thermosetting resins the flow can be defined as a measure of melt viscosity.2. 9.5 [I].6) [1] are given in Table 9. This contact pressure prevents the melt from leaking into the open at the interface between nozzle and sprue bushing [I]. gelation rate and subsequent polymerization or cure [18].
At long times of screw rotation it approaches the steady state condition of extrusion melting [6].2 Injection Molding Screw The plastication of solids in the reciprocating screw of an injection molding machine ia a batch process consisting of two phases.6: Components of a reciprocating screw injection [1] 9.6: Contact Force Between Nozzle and Sprue Bushing [1] Clamping force kN lOO 1000 5000 10 000 20 000 Contact force kN 50/80 60/90 170/220 220/280 250/350 F e e d h o p p e r C y l i n d e rh e a dH e a t e rb a n d s Barrel T h e r m o c o u p e l I Nozzle S c r e w tip N o n return valve R e c i p r o c a t i n g s c r e w Fig.5: Travel Velocity of the Injection Unit [1] Clamping force kN <500 501/2000 2001/10 000 > 10 000 Maximum velocity mm/s 300/400 250/300 200/250 200 Minimum velocity mm/s 20/40 30/50 40/60 50/100 Table 9. .2. 9.Table 9. The melting during screw rotation time of the molding cycle is similar to that in an extrusion screw but timedependent. During the stationary phase of the screw melting takes place mainly by conduction heating from the barrel. [7].
7A [21].8 0. 9. Essential dimensions are the lengths and depths of the feed zone and the metering zone (Fig.6 0.15 2.6 0. .4 7.1 10. 9.4 0.2:1 3.5:1 4.1 0.8 0.7 shows these data for several screw diameters [I].1 : 1 2.3 0.7 12 max 14 Flight depth Flight depth Radial flight clearance (metering) hM ratio mm mm 2: 1 2.7: Dimensions of an injection molding screw [1] Nonreturn Valves A nonreturn valve is a component at the tip of the screw that prevents back flow of the plasticated material during the injection and holding pressure stages.3 5.20 2.5:1 4.7).Design of injection molding screws can be performed by using the software of Rao [8].7: Significant Screw Dimensions for Processing Thermoplastics [1] Diameter Flight depth (feed) hF mm 4.25 30 40 60 80 100 120 >120 Screw geometries for other polymers are given by Johannaber [I]. Table 9. Table 9.20 2. L 2 0 % ) M( L ( 2 0 % ) c L s 2 0 D L p( 6 0 % )  Fig.4: 1 3. A comparison between the main categories of the nonreturn valves used (Fig.15 2.5 9.25 max 3 : 1 max 5. 9.15 2.7A) is given in Table 9.
7A: Nonreturn values [21]. [22] . 9.BALL I N S E R T D I S C H A R G E B O D Y iNLETS Front Discharge Ball Check DISCHARGE BALL BALL SEAT NOSE CONE INLETS BODY RETAINER P!N Side Discharge Ball Check Fig.
Advantages 1. [22].2. hence more degradation 2.7A: Comparison Between Sliding Ring Valves and Ball Check Valves [21] Sliding ring valve . less pressure drop across valve 5. CADMOULD [10]. easy to clean. poor for vented operation 5. harder to clean.1 Runner Systems The pressure drop along the gate or runner of an injection mold can be calculated from the same relationships used for dimensioning extrusion dies (Section 7. more barrel wear and galling 3. Nozzle The plasticating barrel ends at the mold in a nozzle. CMOLD [19] and others. suitable for heat sensitive materials 3.3 Injection Mold The quantitative description of the important mold filling stage has been made possible by the wellknown computer programs like MOLDFLOW [9].2. greater pressure drop. More positive shut off 2. Less streamlined. hence more heat 4.65 cmVs. Examples of commonly used types of nozzles are given in Fig. which is forced against the sprue bushing of the mold prior to injection and produces a force locking connection there [I].7B [1].3. 9. 9. 9.Advantages 1. lower shot control. well suited for vented operation 6. Lower positive shutoff in large machines 1. .3). The volume flow rate of the plastic melt through the runner is 2. Ball check valve . Example: A part is to be made from polycarbonate using a runner of length 100 mm and diameter 3 mm and with the melt at a temperature 300 0C. Greater streamling for lower material degradation 2. Better shot control Disadvantages Disadvantages 1. The purpose of this section is to touch upon the basic principles of designing injection molding dies using rheological and thermal properties of polymers. of materials 2. less barrel wear 4. The pressure drop in the runner is to be calculated.Table 9.
42100 Ap = = = 56 MPa H R 1. a shear rate of 1000 s"1 corresponds to a viscosity r = 420 Pa • s according to the resin manufacturer's data. The shear stress T=TfY = 4201000 = 0. 9.IDeIt byposs heater bond screw tip needle spring Shutoff nozzle with internal needle (with selfclosing spring action) n e a t e rb o n d s p r u eb r u s h n ig s c r e w tip sliding d a im e t e r s p r i n g Floating or sliding shutoff nozzle (with selfclosing spring action) Fig. (3.7B: Examples of nozzles [22] Solution: shearrate.2.5 .3) 2TL 20. = *± = ^ ^ = 1000 s"1 At 300 0C.42 MPa The pressure drop across the runner can be calculated by using Eq.
Different crosssections for runners. 9.9 [20]. 2 5 0 Unfavorable cross sections have to be avoided Fig. 5 rn m Disadvantages: Machining into both mold halves is difficult and expensive Parabolic crosssection Advantages: best approximation of circular cross section. disadvantages and practical design relationships are summarized in Fig.2. center of channel freezes last therefore effective holding pressure 0= s max • * •1 .8: Advantages and disadvantages of some runner crosssections [20] . their advantages. simpler machining in one mold half only (usually movable side for reasons of ejection Disadvantages: more heat losses and scrap compared with circular cross section W = 125D D = smQX +1. Circular crosssection Cross sections for runners Advantages: smallest surface relative to crosssection.3.It is accepted practice that the pressure drop across the runner should be less than 70 MPa [23]. (7.5mm Trapezoidal crosssection Alternative to parabolic cross section Disadvantages: more heat losses and scrap than parabolic cross section W=1 . Otherwise the size of the runner should be increased. 9. Empirical guidelines for dimensioning cross sections of runners are presented in Fig.35) given in Section 7.8 [20]. 9. The pressure drop in runners of noncircular crosssections can be calculated by using the Eq. slowest cooling ratet low heat and frictional losses.
9. CAB Diagram 2 applicable for PE. 9. determine G and s 2.3. take fL from diagram 3 5.9: Nomogram for dimensioning runner crosssections [20] 9. take D' from diagram for material considered 3. By means of the software mentioned in Section 9. . PC. PA.2. POM Diagram 3 rnrn^ Symbols s: D': G: L: fL: wall thickness of part (mm) diameter of runner (mm) weight of part (g) length of runner to one cavity (mm) correction factor L Procedure (Diagram 3) 1. SAN.2 Design of Gates Suggested dimensions of some commonly used gates are shown in Fig.10 [20] and those of sprues in Fig.3 the entire melt entry system of the mold as well as the mold can be designed with good success. PP. correct diameter or runner: D = D'fL k Fig.11 [20]. determine L 4.Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Gig) G(g) D'(mm) D'(mm) Diagram 1 applicable for PS. ABS.2. 9.
b: tunnel.0) mm H =(0. d: disk gate. e: ring gate with circular crosssection .5mm to f s + k L =0.5 to 2. 9.10: Guidelines for dimensioning gates [20] a: pinpoint.7) s Fig.5] D = s to § s + k k = 2 mm for short flow lengths and thick sections k = 4 for long flow lengths and thin sections L =(0. 175 Edge gate with circular distributor channel [1.2 s k = 2 for short flow lengths and thick sections k = 4 for long flow lengths and thin sections Fig.2 to 0. c: edge gate with circular distributor channel. 6] D = s+1.Fig.5 mm H = § s to 1 to 2 mm r =0.5 to 1. 185 Ring gate with circular cross section [5.
Fig. 9.11: Guidelines for dimensioning a sprue [20]
9.2.3.3 Injection Pressure and Clamp Force To determine the size of an injection molding machine suited to produce a given part, knowledge of the clamp force required by the mold is important in order to prevent the mold from flashing. As already mentioned, the mold filling process was treated extensively in the programs [9], and [10] and later on by Bangert [H]. Analytical expressions for the injection pressure and clamp force have been given by Stevenson [12] on the basis of a model for mold filling. The main parameters characterizing this model are fill time x and Brinkman number Br, which can be used as machine related parameters for describing injection molding in general. According to the solution procedure of Stevenson [12] injection pressure and clamp force are calculated assuming isothermal flow of melt in the cavity and then modified to obtain actual values. The empirical relationships used for this modification are functions of fill time and Brinkman number. Following example shows the calculation of fill time and Brinkman number for a discshaped cavity [4], [12]: The material is ABS with nR = 0.2655, which is the reciprocal of the power law exponent n. The viscosity constant k, [4] is k,. = 3.05 • 104 Constant injection rate Q = 160cm3/s Part Volume V = 160 cm3 Halfthickness of the disc b = 2.1mm Radius of the disc r2 = 120 mm Number of gates N = I Inlet melt temperature Tm = 245 0C Mold temperature Tw = 5O0C Thermal conductivity of the melt X = 0.174 W/(m • K) Thermal diffusivity of the polymer a = 7.72 • 10"4 cm2/s Melt flow angle [12] 0 = 360° Calculate fill time and Brinkman number.
Solution: The dimensionless fill time x which characterizes the cooling of the flowing melt in the cavity is defined as [12]
Inserting the numerical values we have
f,160.7.7210^ 2
160(0.105)
The Brinkman number which characterizes viscous heating is given by B , = ^ ^
104X(TMTW)
f
»*•>,
T'
(«.,
LNQ^b2T2J
Introducing the given values we get 01 305 104
55 2 I'" = 0.771 2 10 0.174195 U3602;r(0.105) 12j Table 9.7B shows the results of simulating the mold filling of a large rectangular open container (Fig, 9.1 IA) [24] according to the model of Stevenson [12].
Br = f4

{
160 360
'
Fig. 9.1 IA: Mold filling of rectangular open container according to the model of Stevenson [12]
Relative to the standard conditions the results in Table 9.7B show that Ap is decreased by 10 percent when T1 is increased 20 0C, by 4 percent when Tw is increased 20 0C, by 24 percent when the material is changed, by 37 percent when the number of gates is increased to four, and by 63 percent when all of the above changes are made. The optimal conditions which correspond to the lowest Ap and F occur when these changes are combined with the change of the resin.
Table 9.7B: Simulations of Injection Pressure and Clamp Force at Different Processing Conditions [24]
Resin A A A B A B
N
1 1 1 1 4 4
T1 K 501 520 500 500 500 500
0
Tw 0 K 301 301 321 301 301 301
Br 1.381 0.962 1.536 0.849 0.625 0.299
Ap MPa 302 273 290 229 192 113
F kN 191000 175000 181000 147000 67800 40400
Symbols in Table 9.7B: T1: inlet melt temperature Tw: mold wall temperature Ap: injection pressure drop F: clamp force N: Number of gates Operating Conditions: injection rate = 2000 crnVs fill time = 3.81 s halfthickness of the part = 0.127 cm dimensionless fill time T = 0.1824 A rough estimate of the clamp force can be made as follows: The pressure drop in a plate mold AP1N for the melt flow of an isothermal, Newtonian fluid can be calculated from Eqns. (7.3.2) and (7.3.4) given in Section 7.3 by putting n = 1. AP1N is then
Substituting the injection rate for the volume flow rate Q 0 we get Q=^ where V = W H L and t = injection time = L/u with u = injection velocity Introducing the equations above into Eq. (9.2.3) we obtain (9.2.4)
APiN=1
ir'r u ' ; 7
(925)
Example with symbols and units in Eq. (9.2.5)
part thickness flow length injection velocity melt viscosity Solution:
H = I mm L = 100 mm u = 100 mm/s r = 250 P • s
1O 100 1 100250 OAAU A P l N = 12 — ™ — ^  = 300bar
In Fig. 9.1 IC AP1N is plotted over the part thickness H for different ratios of flow length L to part thickness H [25]. The injection velocity is assumed to be 10 cm/s and the melt viscosity 250 Pa • s. The pressure Apm is then corrected by the following correction factors [26]:
Correction Factor CFshape
Depending on the complicacy of the part geometry the factor CFshape can have values between 1.1 to 1.3.
Correction Factor CFresin
The correction factors for the flow behavior of the resin CFresin are given in Table 9.7C for some resins. Table 9.7C: Correction Factor CFresin [26] "Resin PE, PP, PS PMMA, PPO PA, SB PC 5 PVC ABS, SAN, CA CFresin 1.0 1.5 1.2 1.7 11.3
Finally the actual cavity pressure Ap Ap = A PlN . CFshape • CFresin and the clamp force F [kN] A p(bar) • projected area of the part (c m 2 ) 100
[bar] uncorrected cavity pressure ratio of flow length to part thickness part thickness [mm] (a) [bar] ratio of flow length to part thickness uncorrected cavity pressure part thickness [mm] (b) Fig. 9.1 IB: Cavity pressure as a function of part thickness and ratio of flow length to part thickness [25] .
21. The following example shows as to how the maximum shot weight can be calculated if the clamping force is known. 9. 9.12b: 0.39 x 0. . 9.3 Solution: Ratio of flow length to part thickness L/H L/H=100 AP1N from Fig.1 IA) Thickness H = I mm Radius R =100 mm Correction factor CFshape =1.8 « 980 g The range for the maximum shot weight is approximately [1] 1230 ± 500 g. 4. Here a and a0 are the ratios between working (injection) capacity and clamping force and Fcx and Fco the clamping forces.Example: Diskshaped mold (see Fig.13 [18] are helpful in the practice for finding out the useful working range of an injection molding machine [18].8: 1230 x 0.39 Maximum shot weight for polystyrene assuming a density of 0. Twodimensional and threedimensional diagrams as shown in Fig. Example: Clamping force: 3500 kN Value of the ordinate corresponding to the dashed line 3 in Fig.9: 3500 x 0.12 the relationship between shot size and clamping force is presented for some commercially available injection molding machines [I].3 =468 bar Clamp force F (kN) F = ^ M * 147OkN 100 In Fig.9 « 1230 g Effective maximum shot weight with a factor of 0. 9.2 Resin: ABS CFresin from Table CFresin= 1.1 IB for L/H = 100 and H = 1 AP1N = 300 bar Actual cavity pressure Ap Ap = 3001.
shot size JCUL3 clamping force kN (F c f3 o 7" ^ Clamping force F c kN Fig. shot size ° 3 i d ^ kN clamping force ^N Clamping force F c cm3 kN Max shot size / clamping force Model law a= a a = Max. 9.cm5 kN Model law a=a _ Max.Max shot size / clamping force .12: Calculation of maximum shot weight by means of model laws [1] .
13: Mold Area Diagram (MAD) and Mold Volume Diagram (MVD) [18] a: MAD.Ram pressure F lash area Molding ' area Short shot area Mold temperature Fig. 9. b: MVD Ram pressure psi .
25 F0 = 0. Example with symbols and units: Cooling of a part in an injection mold for the following conditions [5]: resin: PELD thickness of the plate s = 12.321.7 0C thermal diffusivity of the melt a = 1. 9.M ^ fe£] Although this equation is valid only for amorphous polymers.2.9.25 1b = ^ Z J ^ = Tb T 3 Tw 243. (9.4 Thermal Design of Mold Cooling of Melt in Mold The analytical solution for the transient onedimensional heat conduction for a plate can be written as [13] * .14 at 0Th = 0. so that its general use for all thermoplastic materials is justified. .7 . 9.7 mm temperature of the melt Ta = 243.=0.6) refers to the centerline temperature of the part.1 cooling time tk according to Eq.2910"3 cm2/s The temperature Tb in Eq.= = 6.2. Fourier number F0 from Fig.6) tk = L2?2 2 3 . Solution: The temperature ratio 0Th : 7 6 7 2 U Q .66 Cooling time tk: s 12.14 in which the ratio 0Th is plotted over the Fourier number for bodies of different geometry [14].3.10C = demolding temperature Tb 76.2.5 s The cooling time tk can also be found from Fig. _ x=.3 0C = mold temperature Tw 21. (9.l n f ± — 1 = 206. it has given good results in the practice for semicrystalline and crystalline polymers as well.35 mm 2 2 .
9.Temperature ratio <9jb • Fourier n u m b e r F^at/X1 Fig. wall thickness .15: Cooling time vs. 9.14: Axis temperature for multidimensional bodies [14] cooling time (s) wall thickness (mm) Fig.
The cooling time as a function of wall thickness of the molding is shown in Fig. 9.15. Calculations of cooling time based on the average demolding temperature are given in the book by Rao [4]. Convective heat transfer is to be taken into account if the mold is cooled by a coolant such as circulating water by calculating the Biot number as shown in Chapter 7. In practice the temperature of the mold wall is not constant, as it is influenced by the heat transfer between the melt and the cooling water. Therefore the geometry of the cooling channel layout, thermal conductivity of the material and velocity of cooling water affect the cooling time significantly (Fig. 9.16).
demolding temperature
cooling time Fig. 9.16: Cooling time as a function of demolding temperature and wall thickness
The influence of the cooling channel layout on cooling time can be simulated by means of equations given in the book [4] by changing the distances x and y (Fig. 9.16) as shown in Figs. 9.17 and 9.18. The effects of the temperature of cooling water and of water velocity are presented in Figs. 9.19 and 9.20 respectively. From these results it follows that the cooling time is significantly determined by the cooling channel layout.
s
W20°C W=W 0 C
Cooling time
m m Distance between mold surface and cooling channel Y Fig. 9.17: Effect of cooling channel distance Y on cooling time [4]
s
W20°C W='o°c
Cooling time
m m Distance from channel to channel / Fig. 9.18: Effect of cooling channel distance X on cooling time [4]
s
Cooling time
5= 1.5mm /=25 m m K= 15 m m
0
C
Cooling water temperature Fig. 9.19: Influence of the temperature of cooling water on cooling time [4]
s Cooling time S= 1 . 5 m m /=25 m m Y 1 5 m m W20°C
m/s Velocity of coojing water
Fig. 9.20: Influence of the velocity of cooling water on cooling time[4]
9.2.3.5 Mechanical Design of Mold The cooling channels should be as close to the surface of the mold as possible so that heat can flow out of the melt in the shortest time possible. However, the strength of the mold material sets a limit to the distance between the cooling channel and the mold surface. The allowable distance z (Fig. 9.21) taking the strength of the mold material into account was calculated by Lindner [15] according to the following equations: ^ ^ (9.2.7) (9.2.8)
r=™**
Z z U2EZ 2 GJ where p = melt pressure N/mm2 d,z = distances mm, see Fig. 9.21 E = tensile modulus N/mm2 G = shear modulus N/mm2 cb = tensile stress N/mm2 T = shear stress N/mm2 f = deflection of the mold material above the cooling channel jam The minimization of the distance z such that the conditions
^ b ^ ^bmax * <  w
f= iooo^r__d^ + ai5l
J
(fmax: maximum deflection; abmax: allowable tensile stress; xmax: allowable shear stress) are satisfied, can be accomplished by a computer program [16]. The results of a sample calculation are shown in Table 9.8.
m o d lc s u r f a e b=0.7 d
Minimum cooling channel distance z (mm)
channel form
Channel dimension d (mm) Fig. 9.21: Cooling channel distance z for different cavity pressures and channel dimensions with steel as mold material
Table 9.8: Results of Optimization of Cooling Channel Distance Input melt pressure p = 4.9 N/mm2 maximum deflection ^12x = 2.5 j,m modulus of elasticity E = 70588N/mm2 modulus of shear G = 27147 N/mm2 allowable tensile stress abmax = 421.56 N/mm2 allowable shear stress Xn^ = 294.1 N/mm2 channel dimension d = 10 mm Output channel distance z = 2.492 mm deflection f= 2.487 pm tensile stress a = 39.44 N/mm2 shear stress % = 14.75 N/mm2
and Harry.: Computer Modeling for Extrusion and other Continuous Polymer Processes. Munich 1986 Donovan.S. The distance from wall to wall of the channel in this case should be roughly around channel length 1 or channel diameter depending on the strength of mold material.. Rosato. Munich 1983 CADMOULD: DCV Aachen Bangert.: Kunststoffe 84 (1994) 8. 361 Rao.: How to make Injection Molds. 14. Literature 1.. 7.: Plastics Processing Data Handbook. J. Dissertation RWTH Aachen 1981 Stevenson. New York 1979 Rao. Marcel Dekker Inc. 15. 109 Rao. Munich 1995 Cracknell.): Plastics Extrusion Technology. G. John Wiley. Munich 1988 Rao. 19. 1022 Rosato.V. Hanser. F. VDIVerlag. Van NostrandReinhold.. Menges. R. July 30. Heat and Mass Transfer. Dyson. C: CAE for Injection Molding. KS. R. 16. KS.: Polymer Engineering and Science 18 (1978).V. H. Hauptfleisch. Blackie Academic & Professional.R.: Computer Aided Design of Plasticating Screws. U. Hanser. 20. Dusseldorf 1974. Dusseldorf 1984 Welty.: Designing Machines and Dies for Polymer Processing with Computer Programs.F.A. F.. 9. P. 13.: Polymer Engineering and Science 11 (1971) p.. J. 7. 18. O'Brien. Munich 1992 Austin. 12. p. Munich 1993 Brochure ofSpirex Corporation U.W. G.: Polymer Processing. 4.: in VDIWarmeatlas. 1995 Potsch.H.. 1976 Brochure of MannesmannDemag 1992 . Munich 1981 Zoellner. Mohren. 6. (Ed. 3.L.. 8. Wicks.: Handbook of Thermoplastics Injection Mold Design. 573 Martin..T.F. D. 2. London 1993 Stevenson. Michaeli.: Design Formulars for Plastics Engineers. VDIVerlag. Hanser. Munich 1983 McKelvey. Sagenschneider. J. 17.The equations given above are approximately valid for circular channels as well. Keith T. E. 21. Ed. KS. 9.: Handbook Methods for Predicting Pressure Drop and Clamp Force in Injection Molding: Technical Report No. R. New York 1983 Lindner. 9. John Wiley. 23.S. K. Hanser. K: Systematische Konstruktion von SpritzgieBwerkzeugen unter Rechnereinsatz. Fig.: Berechenbarkeit von SpritzgieBwerkzeugen. CE. D. New York 1990 CMoId: Advanced CAE Technology Inc.E. W. New York 1962 Hensen.: Plastics Process Engineering. D. P. J.: Injection Molding Machines.21 shows for steel as mold material the minimum cooling channel distance z for different cavity pressures. C..: Injection Molding . O'Brien. KS. Hanser. 11. 24. 10. Hanser. Hanser. JM. p. Hanser. Wilson. 22. O.: Fundamentals of Momentum. 25. 5.An Introduction. Munich 1991 Thome. R... Johannaber.A. Hanser.
Index Index terms A Absorption 80 Links B Barrel diameter temperature Bagley plot Barr screw Biot number Blown film Blow molding Brinkman number Bulk modulus 98 98 98 42 92 152 135 155 152 10 108 108 C Chemical resistance Clamp force Color Comparative tracking index Compounding Composites Contact temperature 81 188 75 68 146 83 32 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. 205 .
.206 Index terms Cooling channels Cooling of melt in mold Cooling time Correction factors drag flow pressure flow Creep modulus Creep rupture 196 196 196 196 106 106 106 11 12 Links 200 198 127 D Deborah number Desorption Design of mold mechanical thermal Dielectric strength dissipation factor Diffusion coefficient Dimensionless numbers Die swell Drying temperature time 152 80 183 200 196 65 66 80 152 62 174 175 196 200 E Enthalpy Elastomers Entrance loss Environmental stress cracking 29 87 42 77 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
111 .207 Index terms External influences Extrudate cooling Extruder output Extrusion dies annulus pressure drop residence time distribution shear rate slit substitute radius Extrusion screws channel depth clearance channel length flight diameter Extrusion screws lead power speed 115 109 102 77 149 98 124 127 127 131 41 126 128 92 122 101 106 101 Links 47 127 128 103 122 F Fatigue Flammability Fluid Newtonian nonNewtonian Fluctuation pressure temperature Friction 14 35 39 39 39 112 113 112 19 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
208 Index terms G Gates Gloss 170 75 Links 186 H Hardness Haze Heat defection temperature Heat penetration 16 73 34 32 I Ideal solid Impact strength Injection molding mold pressure processing temperature resin runner systems screw unit 1 17 169 183 170 173 170 183 181 179 L Light transmission Liquid crystal polymers Loss tangent 73 85 66 M Melt flow index 59 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. .
.209 Index terms Melting parameter Melting profile Melt pressure temperature Mold shrinkage 107 108 111 111 172 Links N Normal stress coefficient Nozzle 61 183 184 P Parameter machine related resin dependent Permeability Permittivity relative Pipe extrusion 92 98 92 79 66 66 126 80 R Reinforced plastics Refractive index Relaxation modulus Rheological model Carreau Muenstedt power law Pradtl and Eyring Runner 83 73 13 47 53 50 48 48 183 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
.210 Index terms S Shear compliance Shear modulus effect of temperature Shear rate apparent true Shear stress true Sheet extrusion Shrinkage Solubility Specific volume Specific heat Spider die Spiral die Stress strain behavior Structural foam Surface resistivity Tensile modulus effect of temperature 61 6 6 41 41 47 42 42 137 172 77 23 23 131 136 2 84 65 5 6 Links T Tensile strength effect of temperature Thermal conductivity Thermo forming Thermal diffusivity 6 6 29 142 31 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
211 Index terms Thermal expansion coefficient Twin screws 27 92 Links V Volume resistivity Viscosity apparent effect of molecular weight shear true twocomponent mixtures 65 41 44 57 44 47 59 W Weathering resistance 80 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. .
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