Unit 10 Learning Objective Check-Writing Assignment Jilian McGugan ITT Technical Institute

GE150 Nelsen May 24, 2012

This collapse subjects the stars atoms. creating a plasma made up primarily of protons (the nucleus of the 2 hydrogen atom) and electrons. Hydrogen burning begins in shells outside the core while the cores helium may also combined in nuclear fusion reactions to form Carbon. Large stars burn hotter and admit more energy. a star is relatively cool outer layers glow red. When a star like the sun consumes most of its core hydrogen. and internal temperature is rise again. Page 294 Stars are made primarily of the almond hydrogen the most common material universe. primarily hydrogen to tremendous temperatures and pressures. Electrons are torn from the hydrogen and other atoms. Describe the nuclear fusion reaction that occurs in stars. They start to fuse. Stars that are burning hydrogen to produce energy are said to be main sequence stars. Describe how the nebular hypotheses explain 3 major types of stars: main-sequence stars. The star once again begins to collapse under gravity. the protons move faster as the temperature increases. Main-sequence stars are found any simple band-like pattern on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. red giants. The life of the star is a continuous struggle against this gravitational force. which graphs a stars energy output versus its temperature. Eventually they acquire enough energy to come over the electrical repulsion between them. These new nuclear processes may cause a star like the sun to expand briefly and become a red giant. Page 298 Stars such as our own Sun form from giant clouds on interstellar dust called nebulae-call that generally collapsed under the force and gravity. protons would repel each other. a hydrogen rich central region remains. 2. while smaller stars are cooler and Radiate less energy. Eventually . and white dwarfs.WRITING ASSIGNMENT 10 1. Normally. gravity pulls the hydrogen into a dense ball that heats up. The nuclear fusion process in the sun's core does not take place all at once with four particles suddenly coming together to make a helium-4 nucleus. As a star forms. As matter accumulates ending the new star however.

5. A central bulge known as the nucleus holds most of our galaxies hundreds of billions of stars. After the universe was three minutes old nuclei could stay together where as before this was only elementary particles existed. Moving backward in time from the present. and dark energy. a sort of antigravity. the most recent freezing took place when the universe was 3 about 500. About 75% of the brighter galaxies in the sky are spiral type. mark areas where new stars are being formed. could survive. 4. When the universe was 10-5 Second old. The Milky Way is a rather typical galaxy. Discuss the structure and history of the solar system. 3. Gravity will dominate and the carbon rich star will collapse to a very small. Page 310 The history of the universe as being composed of a series of events called freezings. Recent data tells us that the expansion of the universe is accelerating in fact that scientists attribute to something called dark energy.WRITING ASSIGNMENT 10 however nuclear fuel must be exhausted. As the cloud began . once formed. Before this time. whereas after this time atoms. it was too hot for atoms to stay together. known as spiral arms. very hot white dwarf. Page 321 Dark matter is material that exists in forms that do not interact with electromagnetic radiation and that may constitute 90% of the matter of the universe. It is a flattened desk about 100. quarks coalesced into elementary particles.5 billion years ago. The search for dark matter mass that we cannot see with our telescopes is a research frontier that may help us determine whether the universe will continue expanding forever. Bright region in the disk. Dark energy is another force.a large gas and dust cloud rich in hydrogen and helium-approximately 4.000 light-years across. Describe the size and history of the universe. Page 340 First formed along the Sun and other planets in our solar system form a nebula.000 years old. Differentiate normal matter. acting to push galaxies apart. dark matter.

the faster it is moving away. 6. the matter in the flap desk began to form clumps under the influence of its own local gravitational forces. the collection of stars then is the Milky Way. which became the sun. Describe the effect of redshift. According to Hubble’s . First he demonstrated that our home. Terrestrial planet. the farther the galaxy. Venus. are dense rock places with a relatively low content of gaseous elements. helium. the collection of stars then is the Milky Way. 7. The largest of these masses swept up more and more debris as they orbit the early sun. By measuring the red shift of galaxies he also discovered that these distant objects are moving away from each other. the science was called cosmetology. Edward Hubble made to extraordinary discoveries about the structure 4 and behavior of the universe. it also began to rotate and flatten out into the disk that's now defines planetary orbits. there is nearest the sun. Page 311 Early in the 20th century. is just one of countless galaxies in the universe. First he demonstrated that our home. each containing billions of stars. each containing billions of stars. By measuring the red shift of galaxies he also discovered that these distant objects are moving away from each other. and water vapors were swept out into space. According to Hubble’s law. Early in the 20th century. Earth and Mars. the science was called cosmetology. is just one of countless galaxies in the universe.WRITING ASSIGNMENT 10 to contract as a result of gravitational forces. More than 99% of the original nebulas Mass concentrated at the center. Explain how new knowledge in astronomy and cosmology is attained. Gradually. Edward Hubble made to extraordinary discoveries about the structure and behavior of the universe. and they begin to define a string of planets. were subjected to high temperatures and strong solar Wayne's comments so that most gases such as hydrogen. This relative motion of implies that the universe is expanding. Thus the dinner four planets. including Mercury.

5 billion years ago based on radiometric dating) a large cloud of dust and gas collected in the region now occupied by the solar system. called nebulae. it may fall toward the sun and create a speck cat killer display in the night sky. When a piece of interplanetary debris hits earth's atmosphere. it creates a meteor. which burns up with a fiery trail. Occasionally a meteor fragment will hits earth and become a meteorite. are common throughout our galaxy. This typically contains more than 99% hydrogen and helium. Page 332 According to the nebular hypothesis. 10. 9. long ago (about 4. If a comets distant orbit is disturbed. . which are concentrated in an asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. the lesser amounts of all the other natural occurring elements. Small rocky asteroids. swarms of dirt snowballs called comets are concentrated in the Oort cloud. the farther the galaxy. Far outside the solar system. Assess the effects of a meteorite on Earth’s surface. Explain the nebular hypothesis. the Milky Way. sometimes called a shooting star. Such dust and gas clouds. Page 346-347 Meteoroids are small pieces of ancient space debris in orbit around the Sun. Page 345 5 Interspersed with planets and their moons are made other kinds of objects. Describe the structure and behavior of comets. circle the sun like miniature planets. This relative motion of implies that the universe is expanding. 8. Hubble interpreted this red shift as an example of the Doppler effect. the faster it is moving away.WRITING ASSIGNMENT 10 law.

. The Sciences. & Hazen. (2010).WRITING ASSIGNMENT 10 References Trefil. R. An Integrated Approach (Vol. 6). 6 . New Jersey. Hoboken. J. United States of America: John Wiley & Sons.

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