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Preface

(iii)

/ r ! Y congruent Al (or) A c Q (or) { } empty set or null set or void set n(A) number of elements in the set A P(A) power set of A P(A) probability of the event A identically equal to pi plus or minus end of the proof (iv) .SYMBOLS = ! 1 # 2 $ . j k U d z 1 3 Y 1 M equal to not equal to less than less than or equal to greater than greater than or equal to equavalent to union intersection universal Set belongs to does not belong to proper subset of subset of or is contained in not a proper subset of not a subset of or is not contained in complement of A T N R W Z 3 + = || ( ` a - symmetric difference natural numbers real numbers whole numbers integers triangle angle perpendicular to parallel to implies therefore since (or) because absolute value approximately equal to | (or) : such that / (or) .

4 4.5 1.3 1.7 4.1 4.3 2.5 4.CONTENT 1.7 2.3 Introduction Cartesian Coordinate System Distance between any Two Points 124-142 124 125 133 (v) .1 Scientific Notation 3.2 2.3 Logarithms 3. SCIENTIFIC NOTATIONS OF REAL NUMBERS AND LOGARITHMS 3.1 1.2 5.4 1.6 2.2 4.5 2. THEORY OF SETS 1.6 4.2 1.8 Introduction Description of Sets Representation of a Set Different kinds of Sets Set Operations Representation of Set Operations using Venn Diagram 1-32 1 1 3 7 17 25 2. ALGEBRA 4.8 4. REAL NUMBER SYSTEM Introduction Decimal Representation of Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Real Numbers Surds Four Basic Operations on Surds Rationalization of Surds Division Algorithm 33-65 33 36 43 44 53 56 60 63 3.6 2.1 5.4 2.3 4.1 2.4 Common Logarithms 66-88 66 69 71 80 4.9 Introduction Algebraic Expressions Polynomials Remainder Theorem Factor Theorem Algebraic Identities Factorization of Polynomials Linear Equations Linear Inequations in One Variable 89-123 89 89 90 96 99 101 107 116 121 5.2 Converting Scientific Notation to Decimal Form 3. COORDINATE GEOMETRY 5.

1 7.1 Introduction 9.2 Special line segments within Triangles 9. TRIGONOMETRY 6.3 Application of Graphs 213-220 213 213 217 11.6.1 12.4 11.5 Introduction Graphical Representation of Frequency Distribution Mean Median Mode 221-246 221 221 228 237 242 12.2 7.3 6.2 8.4 7.1 8.3 The Points of Concurrency of a Triangle 200-212 200 201 205 10.2 6. PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 9.3 11.4 6. GEOMETRY 7.5 Introduction Geometry Basics Quadrilateral Parallelograms Circles 164-183 164 165 169 170 174 8.2 Linear Graph 10. STATISTICS 11. GRAPHS 10.2 11.4 Introduction Basic Concepts and Definitions Classification of Probability Probability .1 12.3 7.1 11.An Empirical Approach 247-262 247 248 250 250 (vi) .3 8.4 Introduction Sectors Cubes Cuboids 184-199 184 185 193 195 9.1 6. MENSURATION 8.5 Introduction Trigonometric Ratios Trigonometric Ratios of Some Special Angles Trigonometric Ratios for Complementary Angles Method of using Trigonometric Tables 143-163 143 143 149 154 157 7.3 12.1 Introduction 10. PROBABILITY 12.

we will learn how the natural numbers. B) simple word The basic ideas of set theory were developed by 1.Theory of Sets THEORY OF SETS No one shall expel us from the paradise that Cantor has created for us . the rational numbers and the real numbers can be defined as sets. set builder form and roster form ● To identify different kinds of sets ● To understand and perform set operations ● To use Venn diagrams to represent sets and set operations ● To use the formula involving problems Georg Cantor (1845-1918) n (A . Understanding set theory helps us to see things in terms of systems. Cantor’s work was 1.DAVID HILBERT Main Targets ● To describe a set ● To represent sets in descriptive form. a collection of coins. In chapter 2. a list of states in a country. a group of students.2 Description of Sets We often deal with a group or a collection of objects. etc. such as a collection of books. In this chapter we will learn about the concept of set and some basic operations of set theory. 1 fundamental to the later investigation of Mathematical logic. Most mathematicians accept set theory as a basis of modern mathematical analysis. the German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918). .1 Introduction The concept of set is vital to mathematical thought and is being used in almost every branch of mathematics. He worked on certain kinds of infinite series particularly on Fourier series. In mathematics. to organize things into sets and begin to understand logic. Set may be consider of as a mathematical way of representing a collection or a group of objects. sets are convenient because all mathematical structures can be regarded as sets.

The objects of a set are called elements or members of the set. (4) is not well-defined because the word good is not defined. 6. we write x ! A . Generally. (3) The collection of districts in Tamil Nadu. . g ‘is not an element of’ or ‘does not belong to’ If x is not an element of the set A.e. we write x g A . Which of the following collections are well-defined? (1) The collection of male students in your class. i..Chapter 1 Key Concept Set A set is a collection of well-defined objects. b. 5. 4. (4) is not a set. 3. etc. written as 1 ! A 3 is an element of A. it must be clear whether that object is a member (element) of the set or not. no two objects are the same. Reading Notation ! ‘is an element of’ or ‘belongs to’ If x is an element of the set A. Consider the set A = "1. 9 . (2) The collection of numbers 2. etc. written as 8 g A 2 . The objects of a set are all distinct. 10 and 12. (2) and (3) are well-defined and therefore they are sets. c. sets are named with the capital letters A. B. C. (1). Therefore. (4) The collection of all good movies. 1 is an element of A. The elements of a set are denoted by the small letters a. The main property of a set in mathematics is that it is well-defined. This means that given any object. written as 3 ! A 8 is not an element of A. For example.

.. . 3.. (i) (ii) Descriptive Form Set-Builder Form or Rule Form (iii) Roster Form or Tabular Form 1.. For example. A (ii) 7 .3.... (iii) The set of all letters in the English alphabets. A (iii) 0 . This is known as the Descriptive form of specification. (i) 3 . 5... (i) The set of all natural numbers.. 3 . The description must allow a concise determination of which elements belong to the set and which elements do not.... 6 . A Solution (i) 3 ! A ( a 3 is an element of A) (ii) 7 g A ( a 7 is not an element of A) (iii) 0 g A ( a 0 is not an element of A) (iv) 2 ! A ( a 2 is an element of A) 1.1 Descriptive Form Key Concept Descriptive Form One way to specify a set is to give a verbal description of its elements.Theory of Sets Example 1. (ii) The set of all prime numbers less than 100..1 Let A = "1. Fill in the blank spaces with the appropriate symbol ! or g . A (iv) 2 .. 4. 2.....3 Representation of a Set A set can be represented in any one of the following three ways or forms....

O. E }. . 8. A = " x : x is a letter in the English alphabet .3. (i) In roster form each element of the set must be listed exactly once. For example. (element F is listed twice) (iii) In a roster form the elements in a set can be written in ANY order.1 # x 1 5 . 4.Chapter 1 1. the elements in a set should NOT be repeated. (ii) Let A be the set of letters in the word “COFFEE”. 6. F. In roster form we write A = ".2 Set-Builder Form or Rule Form Key Concept Set-Builder Form Set-builder notation is a notation for describing a set by indicating the properties that its members must satisfy. Reading Notation ‘|’or ‘:’ such that A = " x : x is a letter in the word CHENNAI . In roster form we write A = "2. i. 2. (not all elements are listed) "C. P = " x : x is a prime number less than 100 .1.3. So. (i) (ii) R a em rk Let A be the set of even natural numbers less than 11.3 Roster Form or Tabular Form Key Concept Roster Form Listing the elements of a set inside a pair of braces { } is called the roster form. By convention. "C. 0. 1. E . A={ C. E . 10 . (i) (ii) (iii) N = " x : x is a natural number . 1. 4. We read it as “A is the set of all x such that x is a letter in the word CHENNAI” For example. A = " x : x is an integer and . 4 .e. in roster form of the set A the following are invalid. O. F. 3. O. F.

e. Representation of sets in Different Forms Descriptive Form The set of all vowels in English alphabet The set of all odd positive integers less than or equal to 15 The set of all perfect cube numbers between 0 and 100 Example 1. or "3. 4. 5. (v) Ellipsis can be used only if enough information has been given so that one can figure out the entire pattern. 11. i. 15} {1. "2. u} {1. the set contains the elements 1. 3. 27. 14. 15. 2. 3. 4. 2 . 3 . 8. g. 60 . 3. 17. 2. 6. 5. 21. 8. 12. 19} Example 1. 3. "4.Theory of Sets The following are valid roster form of the set containing the elements 2. 8} 5 . as in "5. 3 and 4. "2. then three consecutive dots called ellipsis are used to indicate that the pattern of the listed elements continues. So. 5. 4.g } (ii) The set of all prime numbers less than 20 in roster form is {2. (ii) The set of all prime numbers less than 20. 9. o. 9. 4 . 7. g . 64} Solution (i) The set of all positive integers which are multiples of 7 in roster form is {7. 3. 7. 13.2 List the elements of the following sets in Roster form: (i) The set of all positive integers which are multiples of 7. 7. . 7. 6. 6. 28. Solution A = { x : x is a natural number # 8 }.Builder Form { x : x is a vowel in the English alphabet} { x : x is an odd number and 0 1 x # 15 } { x : x is a perfect cube number and 0 1 x 1 100 } Roster Form {a.3 Write the set A = { x : x is a natural number # 8} in roster form. 5. 6. Hence in roster form A = {1. Each of them represents the same set (iv) If there are either infinitely many elements or a large finite number of elements. 3. 13. Set . 7. 11.

2. Saturday} The set X contains all the days of a week. 1 . 0. Friday. So. we write X = {x : x is a day in a week} (ii) A = $1. 2. 3. 4. For example.Chapter 1 Example 1. g .4 Represent the following sets in set-builder form (i) (ii) X = {Sunday. the prime factors of 12 are 2. The set A has 7 elements. Thursday. 4. Tuesday. 1 . 1. 1 .3. The denominators of the elements are 1. 5 . 2.. 1. Friday.1. 3} and hence n(A) = 2. Saturday} A = $1. 5}. 3. Thursday. n 1. B = {0. 3. Monday. 3. Monday.e. 2 3 4 5 Solution (i) X = {Sunday.5 Find the cardinal number of the following sets. (ii) B = {x : x ! W. Wednesday. We write the set A in roster form as A = {2. Wednesday. 3. n (A) = 7 . Example 1. In Tabular form. x # 5} . g . 4. x # 5} Solution (i) Factors of 12 are 1. (i) (ii) A = {x : x is a prime factor of 12} B = {x : x ! W. 1 . ` The cardinal number of A is 7 i. 1 . 2. 4. 6 The set B has six elements and hence n(B) = 6 . 1 . 12. Reading Notation n(A) number of elements in the set A The cardinal number of the set A is denoted by n(A). n ! N .4 Cardinal Number Key Concept Cardinal Number The number of elements in a set is called the cardinal number of the set. Tuesday. Hence in set builder form. 6. 1 .. 1 . Consider that the set A = #. g 2 3 4 5 ` The set-builder form is A = $ x : x = 1 . .

(i) Consider the set A of natural numbers between 8 and 9. There is no natural numbers between 8 and 9.Theory of Sets 1.2 Finite Set Key Concept Finite Set If the number of elements in a set is zero or finite. 0. x ! N . ` A ={ } Note Think and Answer ! What is n (Q) ? The concept of empty set plays a key role in the study of sets just like the role of the number zero in the study of number system. For example. then the set is called a finite set. There are no natural numbers which are less than 1.. Reading Notation Q or { } Empty set or Null set or Void set The empty set is denoted by the symbol Q or { } For example.1 . So.4. 2} and n(X) = 4 ` X is a finite set The cardinal number of a finite set is finite 7 Note .4.1 The Empty Set Key Concept Empty Set A set containing no elements is called the empty set or null set or void set. (ii) ` A is a finite set Consider the set X = {x : x is an integer and . 1. Consider the set A = # x : x < 1.4 Different Kinds of Sets 1. X = {.1 # x # 2 }. 1. A = { } and n(A) = 0.

. 53. Then X = {51. A = { 2 } i..6 State whether the following sets are finite or infinite (i) (ii) A = {x : x is a multiple of 5. g } The set of all whole numbers contain infinite number of elements ` W is an infinite set Note The cardinal number of an infinite set is not a finite number.4. .. Let W = The set of all whole numbers. 15. i. A has only one element ` A is a singleton set 8 . 2. (ii) B = {x : x is even prime numbers}. x ! N } B = {x : x is an even prime number} (iii) The set of all positive integers greater than 50.} ` A is an infinite set..3 Infinite Set Key Concept Infinite Set A set is said to be an infinite set if the number of elements in the set is not finite. . Example 1. 20. ` B = { 2 } and hence B is a finite set. For example. Solution (i) A = {x : x is a multiple of 5. e.Chapter 1 1.. 52. ` X is an infinite set. The only even prime number is 2 (iii) Let X be the set of all positive integers greater than 50. Consider the set A = {x : x is an integer and 1 < x < 3}.} 1.. 1.4 Singleton Set Key Concept Singleton Set A set containing only one element is called a singleton set For example. e. 3. W = {0. 10.4. x ! N } = {5.

10 } and B = { 3. are said to be equal if (i) every element of A is also an element of B and (ii) every element of B is also an element of A. 9 .4. 9. In other words. Equivalent A and B are equivalent is written as A c B For example. Not equal When they are unequal. Otherwise the sets are said to be unequal. we write A ! B .Theory of Sets ark m Re It is important to recognise that the following sets are not equal.4. Here n(A) = 4 and n(B) = 4 1. regardless of order.6 Equal Sets Key Concept Equal Sets ` A. (i) The null set Q (ii) The set having the null set as its only element { Q } (iii) The set having zero as its only element { 0 } 1. Reading Notation . Reading Notation = ! Equal When two sets A and B are equal we write A = B. two sets A and B. 6. Consider the sets A = { 7.B Two sets A and B are said to be equal if they contain exactly the same elements.5 Equivalent Set Key Concept Equivalent Set Two sets A and B are said to be equivalent if they have the same number of elements In other words. A and B are equivalent if n(A) = n(B). 5. 8. 11 }.

B = {2. 8. x ! N and x # 14 } In roster form. 14} and B = {x : x is a multiple of 2. 8. 10. 6. A = B 1.Chapter 1 For example. 10. In symbol we write A 3 B Reading Notation 3 is a subset of (or) is contained in Read A 3 B as ‘A is a subset of B’ or ‘A is contained in B’ M is not a subset of (or) is not contained in Read A M B as ‘A is not a subset of B’ or ‘A is not contained in B’ For example. c.4. x ! N and x # 14 } State whether A = B or not.7 Let A = {2. 9. But.7 Subset Key Concept Subset A set A is a subset of set B if every element of A is also an element of B. a. 4. 4. 4. d } and B = { d. if n(A) = n(B). Solution A = {2. 10. 6. then n(A) = n(B). Consider the sets A = {7. 8. 10 } 10 . b. 12. 12. 12. 14} Since A and B have exactly the same elements. c } Set A and set B contain exactly the same elements ` A = B Note If two sets A and B are equal. 8. Consider the sets A = { a. b. 9} and B = { 7. 14} and B = {x : x is a multiple of 2. then A and B need not be equal Thus equal sets are equivalent but equivalent sets need not be equal Example 1. 6. 8.

e. 8 } Every element of A is also an element of B and A ! B ` A is a proper subset of B m Re ark (i) Proper subsets have atleast one element less than its superset (ii) No set is a proper subset of itself.Theory of Sets We see that every element of A is also an element of B.. ` A is a subset of B. 7. but the relations x = {x} and x 3 {x} are not correct.e. for any set A (iii) If A 3 B and B 3 A . 8} and B = { 5. A 3 B . c} is true. A is a proper subset of B For example. Consider the sets A = {5. The converse is also true i. In symbol we write A 1 B . Q and the set itself. then A = B. Thus Q 3 {a.4. The notation x ! A denotes x is an element of A.e. Q 1 A if A is a set other than Q (iv) It is important to distinguish between ! and 3 . (iii) The empty set Q is a proper subset of every set except itself ( Q has no proper subset). Q 3 A . It is true that x ! {x}. A 3 A for any set A (ii) The empty set is a subset of any set i. b. b. 7. The notation A 3 B means A is a subset of B. i. c} is not true. but Q ! {a. 1.e.8 Proper Subset Key Concept Proper Subset A set A is said to be a proper subset of set B if A 3 B and A ! B .e. 6. if A = B then A 3 B and B 3 A (iv) Every set (except Q ) has atleast two subsets.. i. Reading Notation 1 is a proper subset of Read A 1 B as. B is called super set of A. 11 . Note (i) Every set is a subset of itself i.

b. 13} ` {8. (a) {4. 7} is also an element of {4. 6. 6. b. b} Hence we can only place 3 in the blank. 6. c. 7} ----.13. c} -----. 6. 13. 14} {a. c} ----. 8} (b) The element a belongs to {a. b. b} Solution (i) Every element of the set {8.{8. So.9 Decide whether 1. f. c} M {b. 13} is proper subset of {8. 11. 11. b. 8} Since every element of {4. 6. 7. 7. 7} 3 {4. ` {4. b. 11. 5. 14} So.Chapter 1 Example 1. we can also place 1 in the blank. 13. {a. 11. 13} 1 {8.4. place 3 in the blank. 13. 14} but does not belong to {8. g} Solution (a) {4. 5. e. ` {8.{b. 1. 14} Also. 13} is also an element in the set {8. c} is also an element of {a. c} is not a proper subset of {a. place 3 in the blank ` {8.11.8 Write 3 or M in each blank to make a true statement. 11. 8}. 5. 6. 7} ----. 5. the element 14 belongs to {8. 13} 3 {8. 6. b} and hence they are equal. 11. 13} ----. c. 11. 13. 14} (ii) Every element of {a. 14}. g} Example 1.9 Power Set Key Concept Power Set The set of all subsets of A is said to be the power set of the set A. c. 7. place M in the blank ` {a.11. b. g} So. 7. (i) (ii) {8. 8} (b) {a. c. 5. 5. c} but not to {b. can be placed in each blank to make a true statement. Reading Notation P(A) Power set of A The power set of a set A is denoted by P(A) 12 . f. 11. So. 5. 6. e. 3 or both. f. 11.{4. 13. 5.{4.{a. 11.

4} .10 Write down the power set of A = {3. 7} This information is shown in the following table Number of Elements Number of subsets 0 1 = 20 1 2 = 21 2 4 = 22 3 8 = 23 This table suggests that as the number of elements of the set increases by one. {4. {4}..1 13 .. {5. 7}. 4} . 6} (iv) The set A = {5. {4. 7} has subsets Q.. {. ""4. 5}} The subsets of A are Q. 5}} . {3. Number of Subsets of a Finite Set For a set containing a very large number of elements. 6}. it is difficult to find the number of subsets of the set. {6.3}. i. {. {4}. Example 1. {5.. "3 . "3 . ""4. 6} has subsets Q. 7} and {5. the number of subsets doubles. 6. ` The number of proper subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m . {.. Let us find a rule to tell how many subsets are there for a given finite set. {4. {5}. {6}. {. Then the power set of A is P (A) = "Q. {5. {5}.Theory of Sets For example. 5 . {6}.e. {4. 5}} ` P (A) = "Q.3. 5}} Solution A = {3. (i) The set A = Q has only itself as a subset (ii) The set A = {5} has subsets Q and {5} (iii) The set A = {5.3. Let A = {.3}.. {3. the number of subsets in each case is a power of 2. 5 .3. Thus we have the following generalization The number of subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m n (A) = m & n [P (A)] = 2 m The 2m subsets includes the given set itself. 6. {7}. 4 } The subsets of A are Q.

4. 3. 3.1 1.A 4 ----.1 = 32 .A (ii) 6 ----.A Write the following sets in Set-Builder form (i) The set of all positive even numbers (ii) The set of all whole numbers less than 20 (iii) The set of all positive integers which are multiples of 3 (iv) The set of all odd natural numbers less than 15. 5. n (A) = 8 . 7} . 4. 9. Which of the following are sets? Justify your answer. 5}. ` The number of subsets = 28 = 25 # 23 = 32 # 2 # 2 # 2 = 256 The number of proper subsets = 28 . 14} .1 = 255 Exercise 1.1 = 256 . (i) The collection of good books (ii) The collection of prime numbers less than 30 (iii) The collection of ten most talented mathematics teachers.A (v) 7 ----. 6. 1. 4.Chapter 1 Example 1. 2. 2. 2 2 14 . The number of subsets = n 6 P (A) @ = 25 = 32 . 2 1 x # 10} B = $ x : x ! Z. 5. 5.1 = 31 (ii) A = {1. 2.11 Find the number of subsets and proper subsets of each set (i) A = {3. 9. (v) The set of all letters in the word ‘TAMILNADU’ Write the following sets in Roster form (i) (ii) A = {x : x ! N. 3. 7} (ii) A = {1. . 5. 4. So. 12. Hence. 4.1 1 x 1 11 . 12. 14} Solution (i) A = {3. Now. n (A) = 5 . 6. 2. 3. The number of proper subsets = 25 . (iv) The collection of all students in your school (v) The collection of all even numbers Let A = {0. 4.A (iii) 3 ----. Insert the appropriate symbol ! or g in the blank spaces (i) (iv) 0 ----.

10}. n ! N and n # 5} M = {x : x = 2y . 9. 0 # x 1 5 } 9. 8. B = {1. ... Which of the following sets are equal? (i) A = {1. 3. x ! W } Q = { x: . 25} P = {x : x is a letter in the word ‘SET THEORY’} Q = {x : x is a prime number between 10 and 20} A = {x : x = 5 n. 6. 11} C = {1. 9} X = {x : x ! N.. 3. 2.1. 6. 3. 6. 3. y ! W} P = {x : x is an integer. 7. 7. 5. 2. . 1} 15 . (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) C = {x : x is a prime number and a divisor of 6} X = {x : x = 2 n. 4. e.3 # x # 5. x ! Z } Write the following sets in Descriptive form (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Find the cardinal number of the following sets (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Identify the following sets as finite or infinite (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) A = {4.} B = {0. Y = {x : x is vowel in the English Alphabet} P = {x : x is a prime number and 5 1 x 1 23 } Q = {x : x ! W. 2. 5. n ! N and n 1 5} B = {x : x is a consonant in English Alphabet} X = {x : x is an even prime number} P = {x : x < 0. 7. x2 # 16} A = {a. u} B = {1. y # 5. 3.1 1 x 1 6}. 4}. o..Theory of Sets 5. 9. 8. 4. 5. B = {4. 1. 4. 75} X = {x : x is a even natural number} Y = {x : x is a multiple of 6 and x > 0} P = The set of letters in the word ‘KARIMANGALAM’ Which of the following sets are equivalent? (i) (ii) (iii) A = {2. 16. i.

.. C = {14. 18} ----. b.{0. 20. c} (iii) A = {5. 12. (i) A = {x.{18. From the sets given below. b. 22}. 11.. . 14. A = {12. find n(A) (ii) If n (A) = 3. 8} (iv) A = Q Find the number of subsets and the number of proper subsets of the following sets. 14}. 11 }. {Q} Fill in the blanks with 3 or M to make each statement true. x ! N } Q = {10. 16. what can you say about the set A? 16 (iv) If n 6 P (A) @ = 1024 .3 # x 1 2} (i) Is X a subset of Y ? (ii) Is Y a subset of X ? 15. G = {11. find n 6 P (A) @ If n 6 P (A) @ = 1 . c. 18. Examine whether A = {x : x is a positive integer divisible by 3} is a subset of 16. . c} (iv) {d} ----. B = {x : x is a multiple of 5. 11} Is Q = {Q} ? Why ? Which of the sets are equal sets? State the reason. {0}. 12.2.Chapter 1 (ii) (iii) A = {4.1. c} Let X = {. select equal sets. H = {10. 22. 4. x g N} If A = Q . . 17. 8} Y = {x : x is a positive even integer 0 < x < 10} P = {x : x is a multiple of 10. 6} (iii) {8. .{a. b.11. 15. y} (ii) X = {a. (i) {3} ----. 4. 13. f. E = {. 6. B = {8. Q.11 }. 25 30. g} X = {x : x ! W. 17. find n 6 P (A) @ If n 6 P (A) @ = 512 . 1. find n(A) . (i) (ii) (iii) (i) (iii) A = {13. 12. F = {10. 2} and Y = {x : x is an integer and . 0. e. 6. 16}. d. 13. b. 8} (ii) {a } ----. 14. 4. 18} X = {2. 12. 11. x ! N } Write down the power sets of the following sets. 2. 19. 0. 19}. 15. 14}. } (iv) 10. 18.3. 7. B = {11. 24} D = {13. 16. 8. 18} B = {a. 18.{a. 14.

Theory of Sets

20.

Let

A = {x : x is a natural number < 11} B = {x : x is an even number and 1 < x < 21} C = {x : x is an integer and 15 # x # 25 } List the elements of A, B, C Find n(A), n(B), n(C). State whether the following are True (T) or False (F) (a) 7 ! B (c) {15, 20, 25} 1 C (b) 16 g A (d) {10, 12} 1 B

(i) (ii) (iii)

1.5 SET OPERATIONS

1.5.1 Venn Diagrams We use diagrams or pictures in geometry to

John Venn (1834-1883)

explain a concept or a situation and sometimes we also use them to solve problems. In mathematics, we use diagrammatic representations called Venn Diagrams to visualise the relationships between sets and set operations. 1.5.2 The Universal Set

a John British

Venn

(1834-1883) used

mathematician

diagrammatic representation as an aid to visualize various relationships between sets and set operations.

Sometimes it is useful to consider a set which contains all elements pertinent to a

given discussion. Key Concept Universal Set

The set that contains all the elements under consideration in a given discussion is called the universal set. The universal set is denoted by U. For example, If the elements currently under discussion are integers, then the universal set U is the set of all integers. i.e., U = {n : n d Z}

Remark

**The universal set may change from problem to problem.
**

17

Chapter 1

**In Venn diagrams, the universal set is generally represented
**

A 3 1 5 6 4 7 8

U

by a rectangle and its proper subsets by circles or ovals inside the rectangle. We write the names of its elements inside the figure. 1.5.3 Complement of a Set Key Concept

Fig. 1.1

Complement Set

The set of all elements of U (universal set) that are not elements of A 3 U is called the complement of A . The complement of A is denoted by Al or A c . Reading Notation In symbol, Al = {x : x ! U and x g A} For example, Let U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} and A = {b, d, g, h} . Then Al = {a, c, e, f} In Venn diagram Al , the complement of set A is represented as shown in Fig. 1.2 (i) (Al )l = A (ii) Ql = U

Al (shaded portion)

Fig. 1.2

Al

U A

Note

(iii) U l = Q

1.5.4 Union of Two Sets Key Concept Union of Sets

The union of two sets A and B is the set of elements which are in A or in B or in both A and B. We write the union of sets A and B as A , B . Reading Notation , Union Read A , B as ‘A union B’ In symbol, A , B = {x : x ! A or x ! B}

18

Theory of Sets

**For example, Let A = {11, 12, 13, 14} and B = {9, 10, 12, 14, 15}.
**

A B

U U

**Then A , B = {9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15} The union of two sets can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig. 1.3
**

Note

A , B (shaded portion)

Fig. 1.3

(i)

A , A = A

(ii)

A , Q = A

(iii)

A , Al = U

(iv) If A is any subset of U, then A , U = U (v) Example 1.12 Find the union of the following sets. (i) A = {1, 2, 3, 5, 6} and B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} (ii) X = {3, 4, 5} and Y = Q Think and Answer ! Can we say A 1 (A , B) and B 1 (A , B) ? A 3 B if and only if A , B = B (vi) A,B = B,A

Solution (i) A = {1, 2, 3, 5, 6} and B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 ; 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 (repeated)

` A , B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} (ii) = {3,4,5}, Y = Q . There are no elements in Y

` X , Y = {3, 4, 5} 1.5.5 Intersection of Two Sets Key Concept Intersection of Sets

The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all elements common to both A and B. We denote it as A + B . Reading Notation + Intersection

**Read A + B as ‘A intersection B’ Symbolically, we write A + B = {x : x ! A and x ! B}
**

19

5 1. e} and B = {a.4 Note A + B (shaded portion) Fig. 1. 13}.5. 13} (ii) A = {5.1. B = {12. f} . 9. then A + B = Q 20 .6 Disjoint Sets Key Concept A .7 Disjoint Sets Two sets A and B are said to be disjoint if there is no element common to both A and B. c. e} The intersection of two sets can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig.4 (i) A + A = A (iii) A + Al = Q (ii) (iv) A+Q = Q A+B = B+A Think and Answer ! Can we say (A + B) 1 A and (A + B) 1 B ? (v) If A is any subset of U. B (shaded portion) Fig. In other words. 9. 11} and B = Q . 12. 12 and 13 are common in both A and B. 1. b. 11}.1. 13. 15} (ii) A = {5. 11. 14. then A + U = A (vi) If A 3 B if and only if A + B = A Example 1.6 A + B (shaded portion) Fig.1. When B 3 A .Chapter 1 For example. 11. 15}. ` A + B = {a.7respectively A B B A B A There is no element in common and hence A + B = Q Remark B3A Fig. B = Q Solution (i) A = {10. the union and intersection of two sets A and B are represented in Venn diagram as shown in Fig.13 Find A + B if (i) A = { 10. d.6 and in Fig. e. d. 13} and B = {12. d.1.1. A B U Let A = {a. ` A + B = {12. if A and B are disjoint sets. 13. 14. 12.

we write : B . Hence A and B are disjoint sets. then the two sets A and B are said to be overlapping sets A . 6. 3} 21 . 13} To find A .8 Disjoint sets Fig. 11. B (shaded portion) Fig. 8} and B = {11. 9. we remove the elements of B from A.1.Theory of Sets For example. 7. U A B Two disjoint sets A and B are represented in Venn diagram as shown in Fig.5. 5. 7. So A and B are disjoint sets. The difference of the two sets is denoted by A . 9}. ` A . 9}. 1. 3. Solution A = {4. We have A + B = Q .1. Find A + B .A = {x : x ! B and x g A} For example.7 Difference of Two Sets Key Concept Difference of two Sets The difference of the two sets A and B is the set of all elements belonging to A but not to B. 11} and B = {5. 7. 7} and B = {1.B = {x : x ! A and x g B} Similarly. 13}. 5.B . Consider the sets A = {5.B = {2. 8.B .9 Example 1.14 Given the sets A = {4. Reading Notation A-B A difference B (or) A minus B In symbol. 3. So A + B = Q . 8. 6.1.1. 3.9 A U B (ii) If A + B ! Q . Consider the sets A = {2. we write : A . 12.8 Note (i) The union of two disjoint sets A and B are represented in Venn diagram as shown in Fig. 7} and B = {1. 5. 6.

0. find (i) A .B) . 4} (ii) B .15 A -B Fig.B = {.1.5.A = Al The difference of two sets A and B can be represented by Venn diagram as shown in Fig. (B . f} . e.8 Symmetric Difference of Sets Key Concept Symmetric Difference of Sets The symmetric difference of two sets A and B is the union of their differences and is denoted by A D B . e.A If A = {. The shaded portion represents the difference of the two sets A B U A B U Example 1.Al = A (iii) U . 4} and B = {. f } ` A D B = (A .2.1. c.A) = {a.A . (i) A .2. Reading Notation ADB A symmetric B Thus. 3. 0. 5} .1. We have A . d} and B = {b.1. 3. f} The symmetric difference of two sets A and B can be represented by Venn diagram as shown in Fig.12 The shaded portion represents the symmetric difference of the two sets A and B . . Consider the sets A = {a.B ! B . A D B = (A .1. 0.1. A .A = {e.B) .A) Fig. 3.1. 5} .10 B -A Fig. 3. d.B = {a. c} and B . (B .B = B . c. 22 U A B A-B B-A A 3 B = (A .1.1.11 (ii) B . b.A = { 5 } 1. (B .Chapter 1 Note (i) Generally. (ii) A .B) .11.2.1.B Solution A = {. B = {. .10 and in Fig. 4}.12 .A + A = B (iv) U .A) For example.

18. x # 20 and n ! W } Find (i) X . b. P = {numbers divisible by 7}. x # 20 and n ! N} and Y = { x : x = 4n. 12.2 1. 35. c. 2. 2. S = {d. we can write A 3 B = " x: x g A + B . 4. 11.3. x # 5} and B = { x : x is a prime number less than 11} (iv) A = {x : x ! N. 7. Q = {prime numbers}. 6. 7. 3. B and A + B for the following sets. 7. 2.1. 4. x # 30 and x ! N } B = {1. 4. 21. find A 3 B . 2. 7. 0 # x # 6} If A = {x : x is a multiple of 5 . 4. (B . 6. 3. 6. 5. 7.B A 3 B Exercise 1. 6} and B = {. we can find the elements of A 3 B . 2 1 x # 7} and B = {x : x ! W. 4. c} .A = {9. 13}. 17. 9.16 If A = {2. So = {2. 1. 5} (ii) A = {2. 9. 25}. (iii) P = {x : x is a prime < 15} Q = {x : x is a multiple of 2 and x < 16} 23 (iv) R = {a. x ! N } Y = {0. 5.Theory of Sets Note (i) A 3 A = Q (ii) A 3 B = B 3 A (iii) From the Venn diagram 1. B = {x : x is an even number < 10.B) . 6. 8} . b. 5. 3} and B . 9}. 0. 11} and B = {5. 8} and B = Q (iii) A = {x : x ! N. 9. 7. 15. 3. Example 1. Y (ii) X + Y U = {1. 3. Find (i) A . B (ii) A + B If X = {x : x = 2n. 11. (i) A = {0. . by listing the elements which are not common to both A and B. Find A . 13}. = {2. d. 5.A) = {2. 56}. 3. 12. 7. 11} and B = {5. a. 10. List the elements of the set {x : x ! P + Q} State which of the following sets are disjoint (i) A = {2. e. 8. 4. 13} Solution Given A A . 2. 13} . 10} (ii) X = {1. 3.12. 52. So. 3. e}. Hence = (A .

A = {a. 15. 2. 5}.13 14.4. 7. 9.Chapter 1 6.C (iii) C . B = {. 5. e. b.C) (vi) n (B . 11} and N = {7. e. 17}. Bl (iv) Al + Bl Given that U = {3. 4. 15. 9. 3.B (ii) B . B)l . 10}. 2. b. A = {x : x is divisible by 4} and B = {x : x leaves a remainder 2 when divided by 14}. x ! W} and A = {x : x is a multiple of 3}. 17. Y = {b. F and E + F (ii) Find n (U) . (v) M + (M . 9.M (iii) N l . . c. d.N) If A = {3. 3. h}.A Find the symmetric difference between the following sets. 0. 8. B = {4. g. 25}. 7. Q = {x : x 1 5. 18}. 3} Use the Venn diagram 1. G l + H l . . 16. h.M (iv) M l . . find Al (ii) If U is the set of natural numbers and Al is the set of all composite numbers.14 24 .1. F) and n (E + F) Fig. then what is A ? If U = {a. C = {2. 20. A + B . g} . G and H (ii) Find G l . (i) List the elements of U. H l . 11. 11.13 to answer the following questions E F 1 2 3 4 7 9 11 10 U (i) List the elements of E. x ! W} (iii) A = {. 10. M = {3. 3.14 to answer the following questions G H 1 4 5 8 2 6 10 9 3 U (i) List U. 10. B . f. g. x ! N} . 12} and D = {5. H)l and n (G + H)l Fig. (ii) Bl (iii) Al . 13. 7. 6. (i) X = {a. n (G . x ! N}.3. 20}. B find (i) Al find (i) M . d. n (A + B) . 8. f. 18}. 15.N 10. 1. 9.D (iv) D . 12. 8. h} .2. (ii) N . 5. 6. A = {1.A) Let U = {x : x is a positive integer less than 50}. find (i) A .3. A . (i) If U = {x : 0 # x # 10. 12. k} (ii) P = {x : 3 1 x 1 9. 0. g. 11. c. A and B (ii) Find A . (N . find (i) A . 7. 9. 9} and B = {2.N (ii) (A . d} and B = {b.N) (vi) N . 12. B)l (iii) A + B (iv) (A + B)l If U = {x :1 # x # 10. Use the Venn diagram 1. f.M) (vii) n (M . (A . 15. 1. E .B and B . d. F. n (E .A (v) n (A .

Bl (shaded portion) Fig. Bl A Fig.20. 1. 1. B U A B A B (b) ^ A .6 Representation of Set Operations Using Venn Diagram (a) We shall now give a few more representations of set operations in Venn diagrams A .15 U B A Fig. Bhl U (c) Al . 1.17 U A B Similarly the shaded regions represent each of the following set operations. 1. 1. 25 Al + B (shaded portion) Fig. A B U A B U A + B (shaded portion) Fig.16 Step 1 : Shade the region Al U B Step 2 : Shade the region Bl Al .Theory of Sets 1.19 U A B A + Bl (shaded portion) Fig 1. 1.18 U A B ^ A + Bhl (shaded portion) Fig.21 .

26 26 Al . Bl Al . 1. 1.22 Contains the elements outside of both the sets A and B Contains the elements of the set A but not in B Contains the elements common to both the sets A and B. Contains the elements of the set B but not in A U A B Draw a Venn diagram similar to one at the side and shade the regions representing the following sets (i) Al (ii) Bl (iii) Al . 1.23 Tip to shade Set Al Shaded Region 1 and 4 Solution (i) Al Al (shaded portion) Fig. Bl (shaded portion) Fig.25 U A B Tip to shade Set Al Bl Shaded Region 1 and 4 1 and 2 1. B)l U A B (v) Al + Bl Fig. This numbering is arbitrary. These four regions are numbered for reference. 2 and 4 (iii) Al . Bl (iv) (A .17 Fig.Chapter 1 Re rk ma We can also make use of the following idea to represent sets and set operations in Venn diagram.22 the sets A and B divide the universal set into four regions. Bl . Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Region 4 Example 1.24 U A B Tip to shade Set Bl Shaded Region 1 and 2 (ii) Bl Bl (shaded portion) Fig. 1. 1. 1. 1 A 2 3 4 B U In Fig.

find the following (i) A (ii) B (iii) A . 8. 9} and 27 Fig. B)l (shaded portion) Fig. 6. 3 and 4 1 (A . 1.28 Important Results Al + Bl For any two finite sets A and B. 3. B) = n (A) + n (B) . 4.n (A + B) Solution From the Venn diagram (i) (iii) A = {2. B) = n (A) + n (B) .27 (v) Al + Bl A B U Tip to shade Set Al Bl Shaded Region 1 and 4 1 and 2 1 Al + Bl (shaded portion) Fig. 7. 5.B) + n (A + B) + n (B .Theory of Sets (iv) (A . B) = n (A . 9. when A + B = Q n (A) + n (Al ) = n (U) A-B U A B A+B Fig. 7. 6. 6. B) = n (A) + n (B). 1. B)l Shaded Region 2. 1.B) + n (A + B) n (B) = n (B . 9}. B = {2.n (A + B) n (A . A . 8.A) n (A .30 (iv) A + B = {3.29 B-A Example 1.18 From the given Venn diagram. (ii) B = {3. B (iv) A + B Also verify that n (A . 4.B (A . 1. we have the following useful results (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) n (A) = n (A .}. 3. 6. B)l A B U Tip to shade Set A. 9} .A) + n (A + B) n (A . 5.

n (A + B) Solution From the Venn diagram (i) (iii) So. n (A) + n (B) . the number of people who view either of these movies is n (T . B) = 21 By using the formula n (A . h} n (A) = 6. n (A + B) = 3 . n (A + B) = 3 . Solution Let the population of the city be 100. Now n (A) + n (B) .20 = 85 Hence the number of people who do not view any of these movies is 100 .n (T + E) = 65 + 40 . So. g. i. Now n (A) + n (B) . B) = 10. d. n (T + E) = 20 . j } and (iv) A + B = {b. B (iv) A + B U A A a c d b e h f i j B B Also verify that n (A . i. 20% of the people view both Tamil and English movies.n (A + B) n (A + B) = 12 + 17 . n (A . B) = 21 .85 = 15 Hence the percentage of people who do not view any of these movies is 15 28 . n (B) = 17 and n (A . Let T denote the set of people who view Tamil movies and E denote the set of people who view English movies. B) Hence.19 From the given Venn diagram find (i) A (ii) B (iii) A .n (A + B) = n (A . c. B) = n (A) + n (B) . n (B) = 3. e. n (A .3 = 10 Hence. e. h. h.Chapter 1 We have n (A) = 8. n (E) = 40.3 = 8 n (A) + n (B) . g. Find the percentage of people do not view any of these two movies. E) = n (T) + n (E) .n (A + B) = 8 + 3 . B) = n (A) + n (B) . Then n (T) = 65. n (B) = 7. f. b.21 = 8 Example 1. B = {a.31 A . n (B) = 17 and n (A . e.21 In a city 65% of the people view Tamil movies and 40% view English movies. Example 1.20 If n (A) = 12. b. A = {a.n (A + B) = n (A . find n (A + B) Solution Given that n (A) = 12. B) = 8. f. h} (ii) B = {b. 1. B) Example 1. j} g Fig. d. e. c.n (A + B) = 6 + 7 .

it is found that 484 families use electric stoves. If all the families use atleast one of these two types of stoves. each of the student passed either in mathematics or in science or in both.x = .x & x = 1036 .x = 1000 & 1036 .32 Example 1.n (E + G) 1000 = 484 + 552 .x + x + 552 . the percentage of people who do not view any of these movies = 100 . Let x be the number of families using both the stoves . 1.23 In a class of 50 students.1000 = 36 Hence. G) = n (E) + n (G) . Fig. 10 students passed in both and 28 passed in science.x x 552 . Using the result n (E . find how many families use both the stoves? Solution Let E denote the set of families using electric stove and G denote the set of families using gas stove.x Example 1. 36 families use both the stoves.x = 1000 & .36 x = 36 Hence. 1. Find how many students passed in mathematics? Solution Let M = The set of students passed in Mathematics S = The set of students passed in Science 29 . 552 families use gas stoves. n (G) = 552.22 In a survey of 1000 families. 36 families use both the stoves.33 E E G G 484 . 484 . Then n (E) = 484.85 = 15 Fig. Aliter From the Venn diagram.Theory of Sets Aliter From the Venn diagram the percentage of people who view at least one of these two movies is 45 + 20 + 20 = 85 TT E E 45 20 20 Hence. G) = 1000 . Then n (E + G) = x . n (E .

12. N = {5. 300 students play Foot ball.Bh = 30. Find (i) (ii) (iii) the number of students who play Foot ball only the number of students who play Volley ball only the total number of students in the school 30 . 8. 1500 persons read both the newspapers. then find the minimum and maximum number of elements in A . n (S) = 28.28 = 22 Fig. Let A and B be two finite sets such that n^ A . Find n^ Bh M = {5. Bh = 180.10 n^ M h = 32 x 10 18 From the Venn diagram = 50 x + 10 + 18 x = 50 . 11. Place the elements of the following sets in the proper location on the given Venn U diagram. If n (A) = 26. 5. The population of a town is 10000. find n (B) . 13} Fig. 8. B has 65 elements and A . 7. 270 students play Volley ball and 120 students play both games. 6.n^ M + S h M M S S & Aliter 50 = n^ M h + 28 . n (A) = 16.) = 38. find n (A + B) and n (. how many elements does A + B have? If A and B are two sets containing 13 and 16 elements respectively. n (M + S) = 10 . Find the number of persons who do not read either of the two papers. 6. 2. n (Al ) = 17 . 1. B) = 30. 10} 8.Chapter 1 Then. n (Bl ) = 20 . 9. If n (. n (A + B) = 12. B) . 10. n (B) = 10. n^ A + Bh = 60. n^ A .35 If A and B are two sets such that A has 50 elements. Out of these 5400 persons read newspaper A and 4700 read newspaper B. 10. n (M .34 Number of students passed in Mathematics = x + 10 = 22 + 10 = 32 Exercise 1. Sh = n^ M h + n^ S h . find n (A . 6. 4.3 1. 7. 9. 3. n (A .) . 7. 9. n (A . M M N N U = {5. S) = 50 We have n^ M . B has 100 elements. B) = 35. 1. 11}. In a school. B ? If n (A + B) = 5. n (A) = 13 . all the students play either Foot ball or Volley ball or both.

18 take tea. Is this information correct? 15. if each person takes atleast one of the drinks. Given that n (A) = n (B) . The following table shows the percentage of the students of a school who participated in Elocution and Drawing competitions. Out of which 1300 use brand A soap and 1050 use brand B soap and 250 use both brands. 55 can cut tall trees. Find the percentage of population who use neither of these soaps. 95 students applied for Group I and 82 students applied for Group II in the Higher Secondary course.Theory of Sets 10. Out of these 50 students obtained first class in both English and Mathematics.A) = 5x and n (A + B) = x Illustrate the information by means of a Venn diagram. 16. Out of these 28 families speak only Tamil and 20 families speak only Urdu. 50 can climb poles. 31 . Pradeep recently reported the following information to the management of the utility. In a School 150 students passed X Standard Examination. 115 students secured first class in Mathematics. 12. how many students applied for both groups? Pradeep is a Section Chief for an electric utility company. How many families speak both Tamil and Urdu. 10 take tea but not coffee. n (B . A village has total population 2500. B) . 11 can do both. Competition Percentage of Students Elocution 55 Drawing 45 Both 20 Draw a Venn diagram to represent this information and use it to find the percentage of the students who (i) participated in Elocution only (ii) participated in Drawing only (iii) do not participate in any one of the competitions. 14. Calculate (i) the value of x (ii) n (A . In a village there are 60 families. How many students secured first class in English only? In a group of 30 persons. In an examination 150 students secured first class in English or Mathematics. A and B are two sets such that n (A . Find how many take coffee but not tea. If 20 students applied neither of the two. Out of 100 employees in my section. 6 can’t do any of the two. 11. 17. The employees in his section cut down tall trees or climb poles. 13.B) = 32 + x.

A) For any two finite sets A and B. Symmetric difference of two sets A and B is defined as A 3 B = (A . The number of proper subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m .A) n (A . The number of subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m . A set A is a subset of a set B if every element of A is also an element of B. It is denoted by Al . B) = n (A) + n (B). then A + B = Q The difference of two sets A and B is the set of all elements belonging to A but not to B. the set is an infinite set.Chapter 1 Points to Remember A set is a well-defined collection of distinct objects Set is represented in three forms (i) Descriptive Form (ii) Set-builder Form (iii) Roster Form The number of elements in a set is said to be the cardinal number of the set. A set A is a proper subset of set B if A 3 B and A ! B The power set of the set A is the set of all subsets of A.1 The set of all elements of the universal set that are not elements of a set A is called the complement of A. The union of two sets A and B is the set of elements which are in A or in B or in both A and B.A) + n (A + B) n (A . It is denoted by P(A). B) = n (A) + n (B) .B) + n (A + B) n (B) = n (B . the set is called a finite set. If A and B are disjoint sets. Otherwise. we have (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) n (A) = n (A . Two sets A and B are said to be equal if they contain exactly the same elements. The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all elements common to both A and B. B) = n (A . A set containing no element is called the empty set If the number of elements in a set is zero or finite. (B . when A + B = Q 32 .B) + n (A + B) + n (B .n (A + B) n (A .B) .

D. Natural numbers came into existence when man first learnt counting. Dedekind came up with the notion now called a Dedekind cut. loss. ● To rationalise the denominator of the given irrational numbers. etc. 33 He did important work in abstract algebra.. area. algebraic number theory and laid the foundations for the concept of the real numbers.D. are called Real Numbers. 2.D. The development of calculus around 1700 A. profit. time. used the entire set of real numbers without having defined them clearly. temperature.Real Number System REAL NUMBER SYSTEM Life is good for only two things. speed. ● To classify rational numbers as recurring / terminating decimals. George Cantor can be considered the first to suggest a rigorous definition of real numbers in 1871 A. Richard Dedekind (1831-1916) Richard Dedekind (1831-1916) belonged to an elite group of mathematicians who had been students of the legendary mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. Whole numbers.1 Introduction All the numbers that we use in normal day-to-day activities to represent quantities such as distance. The system of real numbers has evolved as a result of a process of successive extensions of the system of natural numbers. discovering mathematics and teaching mathematics . the Greek mathematicians led by Pythagoras realized the need for irrational numbers. ● To represent terminating / non terminating decimals on the number line. ● To understand the existence of non terminating and non recurring decimals. a standard definition of the real numbers. The Egyptians had used fractions around 1700 BC. around 500 BC. He was one of the few mathematicians who understood the importance of set theory developed by Cantor.SIMEON POISSON Main Targets ● To recall Natural numbers. ● To understand the four basic operations in irrational numbers. Negative numbers began to be accepted around 1600 A. While teaching calculus for the first time at Polytechnic. Integers. . The extensions became inevitable as the science of Mathematics developed in the process of solving problems from other fields.

0. 1. i. 1. g } The line extends endlessly on both sides of 0. 2.2. 2. 0 d W . The smallest whole number is 0 Remark 1) Every natural number is a whole number.e. 3.1.. but there is no largest number as it goes up continuously. . N = {1. 3. First. 2. g are called natural numbers. The set of all natural numbers is denoted by N .1. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 34 2 3 4 5 . but 0 g N 3) N 1 W W N 2. Z is derived from the German word ‘Zahlen’.1 Natural Numbers Remark The counting numbers 1. 2) Every whole number need not be a natural number. The smallest natural number is 1. . means ‘to count’ The set of all integers is denoted by Z Z = { g .3. their negative numbers together with zero are called integers. 3.Chapter 2 In this chapter we discuss some properties of real numbers. The set of whole numbers is denoted by W . 3. W = { 0.1.1.3 Integers The natural numbers. 2. 2. 2. let us recall various types of numbers that you have learnt in earlier classes. For. g } 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The line extends endlessly only to the right side of 0. g } 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The line extends endlessly only to the right side of 1.2 Whole Numbers The set of natural numbers together with zero forms the set of whole numbers.

negative or zero. . p Q = ' : p ! Z.3 g are called negative integers. and q ! 0 1 q -2 3 -1 . 2) Every whole number is an integer.2. 3 g are called positive integers. Example 2.1 Find any two rational numbers between 1 and 3 . 2 There are infinitely many rational numbers between any two given rational numbers.4 Rational Numbers p A number of the form .1. then a + b is a rational number 2 between a and b such that a < a + b < b . .5 . since we can write n as n . 2.Real Number System 1. 1) Every natural number is an integer. 3 = 3 . 1 3) N 1 W 1 Z 1 Q Z W Q N Important Results 1) If a and b are two distinct rational numbers. q ! Z. . .1 -4 -1 2 4 0 1 4 We find numbers in between integers 1 2 3 4 1 2 Remark 1) A rational number may be positive. 6 8 1 The set of all rational numbers is denoted by Q . 2) Every integer n is also a rational number. where p and q are both integers and q ! 0 is called a q rational number. 4 4 35 Think and Answer ! Can you correlate the word ratio with rational numbers ? 2) .1. For example. 3) N 1 W 1 Z Think and Answer ! Is zero a positive integer or a negative integer? Remark Z W N 2. 7 are rational numbers.

7 7 2. When we divide p by q using long division method either the remainder becomes zero or the remainder never becomes zero and we get a repeating string of remainders. Then 7 = 0. (v) Every rational number is an integer. 3.2 . 36 .1 1.Chapter 2 Solution A rational number between 1 and 3 = 1 ` 1 + 3 j = 1 (1) = 1 4 4 2 4 4 2 2 Note Another rational number between 1 and 3 = 1 ` 1 + 3 j = 1 # 5 = 5 2 4 2 2 4 2 4 8 The rational numbers 1 and 5 lie between 1 and 3 2 8 4 4 There are infinite number of rationals between 1 and 3 . Case (i) The remainder becomes zero Let us express 7 in decimal form. Find any two rational numbers between . Is zero a rational number ? Give reasons for your answer. we observe that the remainder becomes zero after a few steps. (ii) Every whole number is a natural number.2 Decimal Representation of Rational Numbers If we have a rational number written as a fraction p . The rationals 1 and 4 4 2 5 that we have obtained in Example 2. State whether the following statements are true or false.4375 16 16 In this example. (vi) Every integer is a whole number. 2.1 are two among them 8 Exercise 2. (i) Every natural number is a whole number. (iii) Every integer is a rational number.5 and . we get the decimal representation q by long division. (iv) Every rational number is a whole number.

comes to an end) q the decimal expansion is called terminating.e. 527 = 1.142857 142857g 7 22. 7 = 1.4545g .0000 44 60 55 50 44 60 55 50 j 1. 6 ` 5 = 0.1666g 6 7.0.Real Number System 0. we observe that the remainders never become zero. we have a repeating (recurring) block of digits in the quotient. 9 = 0. using long division method we can express the following 64 rational numbers in decimal form as 60 48 1 = 0.4375 Also the decimal expansion of 7 terminates. the decimal expansion terminates or ends after a 80 80 finite number of steps. So.5.. Also we note that the remainders repeat after some steps.4545g 11 5. 0 Key Concept When the decimal expansion of Terminating Decimal p terminates (i.054 120 2 5 25 64 500 112 In these examples.1666g . In the above examples.0000 Similarly.4.32. 37 .0000 60 10 6 40 36 40 36 40 36 40 j 7 = 1. Case (ii) The remainder never becomes zero Does every rational number has a terminating decimal expansion? Before answering 3.8 = . . 16 16 7.00000000 21 10 7 30 28 20 14 60 56 40 35 50 49 10 22 = 3. 7 and 22 in decimal form. the decimal expansion of a rational number need not terminate. let us express 5 .140625.142857 1g j 7 the question. 11 6 7 0. 11 Thus.

45 .5 0. Obviously.Chapter 2 Key Concept In the decimal expansion of Non-terminating and Recurring p when the remainder never becomes zero.16 11 6 22 = 3. 38 Reciprocal 1. we place a bar over the first block of the repeating (recurring) part and omit the remaining blocks. In this case. q we have a repeating (recurring) block of digits in the quotient. 7 = 1.4545g = 0. A rational number can be expressed by either a terminating or a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion.1 Type of Decimal Terminating Terminating Non-terminating and recurring Terminating Terminating Non-terminating and recurring Non-terminating and recurring Terminating Non-terminating and recurring Terminating .142857 0.16 0.125 0.0 0. the reciprocals n of natural numbers are rational numbers. 11 6 7 5 = 0.142857 7 The following table shows decimal representation of the reciprocals of the first ten natural numbers. the decimal expansion is called non-terminating and recurring.1 0. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Thus we see that.142857 1452857 g = 3. 7 and 22 as follows. we can write the expansion of 5 .2 0. To simplify the notation.3 0. We know that the reciprocal of a number n is 1 . So.25 0.16666g = 1.

47 = 47 99 .2.474747g Since two digits are repeating. We shall illustrate this with examples.1 Representing a Terminating Decimal Expansion in the form P q p Terminating decimal expansion can easily be expressed in the form (p.5625 and q ! 0.Real Number System The converse of this statement is also true.57 (iv) 0.6 (vi) 1.75 (ii) 0.625 (iii) 0.245 (v) 0.001 p .2. q ! Z and q ! 0).5625 = 5625 = 45 = 9 10000 80 16 (iv) 0. That is. multiplying both sides by 100. q (iii) 0.75 = 75 = 3 100 4 (ii) 0.3 Express the following in the form (i) 0.4 Solution (i) Let x = 0. 2. then the number is a rational number. where p and q are integers and q ! 0.47 . p . we get 100 x = 47.474747g = 47 + x 99 x = 47 x = 47 99 39 ` 0.474747g = 47 + 0. if the decimal expansion of a number is terminating or non-terminating and recurring. Example 2.28 Solution (i) 0.28 = 28 = 7 100 25 2. where p and q are integers q (iv) 0.47 (ii) 0. Then x = 0.2 Representing a Non-terminating and Recurring Decimal Expansion in the form P q p The expression of non-terminating and recurring decimal expansions in the form q (p.2 Express the following decimal expansion in the form (i) 0. q ! Z and q ! 0) is not quite easy and the process is explained in the next example. q This method is explained in the following example Example 2.625 = 625 = 5 1000 8 (iii) 0.

multiplying both sides by 1000.2454545g 99 x = 24. we get 10 x = 5.x = 1 999 x = 1 ` 0.55555g Multiplying both sides by 10.3 99 0.2 + x 9 x = 5.2454545g Multiplying both sides by 100.001001001g = 1 + 0.57777g Multiplying both sides by 10. we get 10 x = 15.001001001g = 1 + x 1000 x .245 = 243 = 27 990 110 = 24.6 = 2 9 3 3 (vi) Let x = 1.5 = 1 5 9 .66666g = 6 + 0.57 = 52 = 26 90 90 45 (iv) Let x = 0.2 + 0.3 + x (v) Let x = 0.245 .57777g = 5. Then x = 1.001 . we get 100 x = 24.545454g = 24.5 .66666g Multiplying both sides by 10.2 9 52 x = ` 0. Then x = 0.001001001g Since three digits are repeating.7777g = 5.6666g = 6 + x 9x = 6 x = 6 = 2 ` 0. Then x = 0.5555g = 14 + x 9 x = 14 x = 14 9 40 ` 1.Chapter 2 (ii) Let x = 0. Then x = 0.001 = 1 999 x = 1 999 (iii) Let x = 0.6 . Then x = 0.3 x = 24. we get 1000 x = 1.3 + 0. we get 10 x = 6.5555g = 14 + 1.2 x = 5.57 .

So 17 has a terminating decimal expansion.Real Number System So. the rational number will have a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion.11 75 (iv) 17 200 terminating or non-terminating and recurring. . Otherwise. where p ! Z and q 2 # 5n m. If a rational number p p can be expressed in the form m . every number with a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion can be p expressed in the form .112 75 3#5 Since it is not in the form expansion. (iii) . classify the decimal expansion of the following numbers as (i) 7 16 (ii) 13 150 (iii) . n ! W . So. 13 has a non-terminating and recurring decimal 2 # 5 n 150 m Since it is not in the form expansion. then the rational number will have a terminating decimal expansion. 7 = 7 = 16 16 24 2 4 # 50 (ii) 150 = 2 # 3 # 52 13 = 13 150 2 # 3 # 52 p .4 Without actually dividing. where p and q are integers and q not equal to zero q To determine whether the decimal form of a rational number will terminate or nonterminate we can make use of the following rule. Solution (i) 16 = 24 7 .11 = . 7 has a terminating decimal expansion. This result is based on the fact that the decimal system uses ten as its base and the prime factors of 10 are 2 and 5. 200 8 # 25 200 23 # 52 41 . (iv) p .11 has a non-terminating and recurring decimal 2 m # 5 n 75 17 = 17 = 17 . Example 2.

9 into a rational number. find which of the following rational numbers have terminating decimal expansion.9 = 1 For your Thought ( a 1 is rational number) We have proved 0. 4. it can be shown that any terminating decimal can be represented as a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion with an endless blocks of 9s.99999g = 9 + 0. 5.333g = 0. 3 Similarly.9999 g .5 = 2.45 (ii) 0.427 (v) 7.9 .0001 (vi) 0. Then x = 0. 13 Find the decimal expansions of 1 and 2 by division method. 5 .3 (vii) 19 (viii) . Also this result is consistent with the fact that 3 # 0.7 11 13 3 32 Without actual division. Convert the following rational numbers into decimals and state the kind of decimal expansion.9 = 1.3 (iii) 0.5 Convert 0. 2. Solution Let x = 0.9999g is less than 1. Exercise 2. But this is not the case. while 3 # 1 = 1 .416 Express 1 in decimal form.4999 g . (i) 0.9 = 1.9999g = 9 + x ( 9x = 9 ( x = 1. (i) 42 (ii) 8 2 (iii) 13 (iv) 459 100 55 500 7 (v) 1 (vi) . It is clear from the above argument that 0.99999g Multiplying by 10 on both sides. Isn’t it surprising? Most of us think that 0. 7 42 .Chapter 2 Example 2. 4 . Without using the long 7 7 division method. 2. deduce the decimal expressions of 3 . That is. Find the number of digits in the repeating block. 3. we get 10x = 9. For example 6 = 5.18 (iv) 1. (i) 5 (ii) 11 (iii) 27 (iv) 8 64 12 40 35 Express the following decimal expansions into rational numbers. 6 from the decimal 7 7 7 7 expansion of 1 .999g . 0.2 1.

this decimal expansion is non-terminating and non-repeating (non-recurring). Key concept Irrational Number A number having a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal expansion is called an irrational number. . So it cannot represent a rational number. Pythagoras 569BC . q For example. r.479 BC This is non-terminating. 5 . 3 . In fact. where p and q are integers and q ! 0 . So. which are not rationals. Thus. were the first to discover the numbers which cannot be written in the form of a fraction. In fact there are infinitely many more numbers left on the number line. In other words there are numbers whose decimal expansions are non-terminating and non-recurring. 0. 17 .808008000800008g (1) . Consider the following decimal expansion 0. We have also seen that there are infinitely many rational numbers between any two given rational numbers.3 Irrational Numbers Let us have a look at the number line again. there is a need to extend the system of rational numbers. 2 . Is it recurring? It is true that there is a pattern in this decimal expansion. Thus.Real Number System 2. These numbers are called irrational numbers. the pythagorians. Around 400 BC. Know about r : In the late 18th centurary Lambert and Legendre proved that r is irrational. we can generate infinitely many non-terminating and non-recurring Note decimal expansions by replacing the digit 8 in (1) by any natural number as we like. but no block of digits repeats endlessly and so it is not recurring. We usually take 22 ( a rational number) as an approximate value for r (an irrational 7 43 number). e. it cannot be written in p the form . Numbers of this type are called irrational numbers. We have represented rational numbers on the number line.2020020002g are a few examples of irrational numbers. followers of the famous Greek mathematician Pythagoras.

Chapter 2 Classification of Decimal Expansions Decimal Expansions Terminating (Rational) Non-Terminating Repeating (Rational) Non-Repeating (Irrational) 2. Thus. And every real number can be represented by a unique point on the number line. The set of all real numbers is denoted by R . there is a unique point on the real number line and corresponding to every point on the number line there exists a unique real number. if a real number is not a rational number. In other words. German mathematicians. Thus. George Cantor and R. The following diagram illustrates the relationships among the sets that make up the real numbers Real Numbers R Rational Numbers Q Integers Z Whole Numbers W Natural Numbers N Irrational Numbers 44 . then it must be an irrational number. each point corresponds to a unique real number. on the number line.4 Real Numbers Key Concept Real Numbers The union of the set of all rational numbers and the set of all irrational numbers forms the set of all real numbers. every real number is either a rational number or an irrational number. Dedekind proved independently that corresponding to every real number.

45 . i. 25 = 5 g . 9 . 5. 6 . g are rational numbers. 1. 4 = 2.00 00 00 00 00 1 24 100 96 281 2824 28282 282841 400 281 11900 11296 60400 56564 383600 282841 2828423 10075900 8485269 28284265 159063100 141421325 17641775 h ` 2 = 1. 25 . (ii) The square root of every positive integer is not always irrational. Join OB.1 Representation of Irrational Numbers on the Number Line (i) Let us now locate the irrational numbers Locating 2 on the number line. and non-recurring digits and hence Note (i) The decimal expansions of 3.4.4142135g 1 2.g are non-terminating and non-recurring and hence they are irrational numbers. Thus 4 . Draw a number line..Real Number System Let us find the square root of 2 by long division method. 2 and 3 on the number line. For example. Mark points O and A such that O represents the number zero and A represents the number 1.4142135g If we continue this process.e. 9 = 3. OA = 1 unit Draw AB = OA such that AB = 1unit. (iii) The square root of every positive but a not a perfect square number is an irrational number 2. we observe that the decimal expansion has non-terminating 2 is an irrational number.

(v) The decimal expression is non-terminating and non-recurring. B 2 OB2 = OA2 + AB2 = 12 + 12 OB2 = 2 -3 -2 -1 1 A C 2 O 0 1 OB = 2 Fig.505500555g is an irrational number. 1 2 3 Draw a number line. 46 ` 1. (iv) 0. ` 0.8333g The decimal expansion is non-terminating and recurring. draw an arc to intersect the number line at E on the right side of O. Join OD B 2 In right triangle OCD.0625 is a terminating decimal. C corresponds to 2 on the number line.6 Classify the following numbers as rational or irrational. . Thus. by Pythagorean theorem. Thus.0625 (iv) 0.7 With O as centre and radius OD. E represents 3 on the number line. Clearly OE = OD = 3 .83 = 0.83 (v) 1. by Pythagorean theorem.Chapter 2 In right triangle OAB. ` OC = 2 2 unit. 2. 1 (iii) 0.83 is a rational number. Mark points O and C on the number line such that O represents the number zero and C represents the number 2 as we have seen just above. Clearly OC = OB = 2 . Example 2. (11is not a perfect square number) 81 = 9 = 9 . ` 0.505500555g Solution 11 is an irrational number. 2. draw an arc to intersect the number line at C on the right side of O. 2 2 2 2 OD = OC + CD ` OD = 3 D 1 C E 2 32 1 A = ^ 2 h + 1 = 3 -3 -2 -1 O 0 1 1 3 3 Fig. a rational number.0625 is a rational number. Draw CD = OC such that CD = 1 unit. (ii) Locating 3 on the number line. (i) 11 (i) (ii) (ii) 81 (iii) 0.6 With O as centre and radius OB.

(ii) x2 = 81 (iii) y2 = 3 (iv) z2 = 0. & x = 9.7 Find any three irrational numbers between 5 and 9 .714285. z represent rational or irrational numbers. there are infinitely many such numbers. between 0. Three such numbers are 0.8181. 3 Example 2.Real Number System Example 2..09 (i) x3 = 8 (8 is a perfect cube) x3 = 8 = 2 & x = 2 .e. & z= 10 47 . an irrational number.000000 0. a rational number..72022002220002g 0...09 = 9 = ` 3 j 100 10 3 .73033003330003g 0.8181g = 0.714285 9 = 0.0000 88 10 7 20 30 11 28 90 20 88 14 20 60 j 56 40 35 50 j 5 = 0. a rational number. a rational number.8181g 49 11 9.8 Solution (i) (ii) x2 = 81 = 92 (iii) y2 = 3 & y = 2 (iv) z2 = 0.81 7 11 To find three irrational numbers between 5 and 9 (i. 7 11 0. y. and 7 11 0. Infact.714285g Solution 7 5..75055005550005g In the following equations determine whether x. (81 is a perfect square) 3 .) We find three numbers whose decimal expansions are non-terminating and non recurring.

2.4 3.8 3. 2. 3 and 5. Now 3.74 3.Chapter 2 Exercise 2.4 3.7 3.9 48 . Find any three irrational numbers between Find any two irrational numbers between 3 and 3.9 4 Fig.2122122212222g 2. Find any two irrational numbers between 0.3 3.78 3. We know that 3. 5.7 and 3.8 Fig.2 3. 2.72 3.15 and 0. 2.8 3. 6. 7.5.71 3.776 on the number line. Find a rational number and also an irrational number between 1.3 1.1011001110001g and 2.776 lies between 3. 7 7 Find any two irrational numbers between 3 and 2. Let us locate 3.3 3.2 Representation of Real Numbers on the Number Line We have seen that any real number can be represented as a decimal expansion.9 4 3. So.77 3. let us focus on the portion between 3.1 3.79 3.8 Divide the portion between 3 and 4 into 10 equal parts and mark each point of division as in Fig 2. the second 3.2 3. 4.2.73 3.1.776 lies between 3 and 4. To view this clearly take a magnifying glass and look at the portion between 3 and 4.5 3.8.8.1 3. 2.7 and 3. This will help us to represent a real number on the number line. 3.76 3.5 3. Insert any two irrational numbers between 4 and 5 .7 3.4. 8.12122122212222g and 0. Let us look closely at the portion of the number line between 3 and 4.7 3.1011001110001g Find any two rational numbers between 0. and so on.6 3. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 3 3.75 3. Then the first mark to the right of 3 will represent 3. Locate 5 on the number line.16.8 (Fig.8. It will look like as shown in Fig.9) 3 3.6 3.

2625 and 4.2 and 4.78 Fig.73 3.262 and 4. 2.7 and 3. and so on.79 3. This process of visualisation of representation of numbers on the number line.777 3.775 3. Example 2. This has been illustrated in Fig.3 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4.771 3.771. To view this portion clearly. We magnify this portion. the next mark 3.776 is the 6th mark in this sub division. 3.26 on the number line.78.26 lies between 4 and 5 Step 2: Divide the portion between 4 and 5 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4.779 3.7 and 3. we magnify the portion between 3.77 3. through a magnifying glass is known as the process of successive magnification.2627 49 .10 The first mark represents 3.74 3. 2.75 3.Real Number System Again divide the portion between 3.772 3.9 Again.2626 Solution We locate 4. by sufficient successive magnifications.26 lies between 4. So.776 3.8 into 10 equal parts. So. and so on. by the process of successive magnification.26 and 4. upto 4 decimal places. to see clearly as in Fig.776 lies between 3. let us divide this portion into 10 equal parts.27 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4.9 Visualise 4.78 3.11 Step 1: First we note that 4.773 3. 2.10.772. let us consider a real number with a non-terminating recurring decimal expansion and try to visualise the position of it on the number line. that is upto 4.26 and 4.26 lies between 4. Now.7 3.76 3.262 and 4.263 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4.27 Step 4: Divide the portion between 4. The first mark will represent 3.263 Step 5: Divide the portion between 4.778 3.8 3. the next 3.72.71 3.71.26 lies between 4.774 3.72 3. 3.2 and 4.26 on the number line. So 3.77 and 3.77 3.3 Step 3: Divide the portion between 4.26 lies between 4. we can visualise the position of a real number with a terminating decimal expansion on the number line.8 as shown in Fig 2.

¯ The division of a real number by a non-zero real number is also a real number.26 4.25 4.262 4. commutative and distributive laws under addition and under multiplication that the rational numbers obey.7 4.456 on the number line. difference. Every real number has its negative real number.4 4. Further every point on the number line represents one and only one real number.26 is visualized closer to 4.2629 4.2626 4.263 Fig.26 4.2622 4.262.2 4.2 4.27 4.23 4.2621 4.4.268 4. Using the process of successive magnification (i) Visualize 3.261 4. Exercise 2.6 4.263 than to 4.3 4. 2. associative.11 We note that 4.21 4.28 4.2624 4.264 4. The same procedure can be used to visualize a real number with a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal expansion on the number line to a required accuracy.267 4.2628 4.24 4.263 4.2627 4. upto 4 decimal places. (ii) Visualize 6. product of two real numbers is also a real number. 2.27 4. 50 .2623 4.2625 4.269 4. The number zero is its own negative and zero is considered to be neither negative nor positive.266 4.Chapter 2 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 4.22 4.3 4.73 on the number line.9 5 4.5 4.4 1. From the above discussions and visualizations we conclude again that every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line.1 4.8 4.262 4.265 4. a = b or a > b or a < b ¯ The sum. ¯ ¯ The real numbers obey closure.3 Properties of Real Numbers ¯ For any two real numbers a and b .29 4.

difference.Real Number System Further the sum. difference. However.3 is irrational (iv) 2 is irrational 3 2. Key Concept 1. Then a = b means b2 = a and b > 0 . difference. The sum or difference of a rational number and an irrational number is always an irrational number 2. to mean (. Let a and b be positive real numbers.b h = a . product and quotient of two irrational numbers may sometimes turnout to be a rational number. the sum. The product or quotient of non-zero rational number and an irrational number is also an irrational number. 3.b is irrational (iii) a b is irrational (iv) a is irrational (v) b is irrational a b (i) 2 + 3 is irrational (iii) 2 3 is irrational (ii) 2 . 2 is a square root of 4 because 2 # 2 = 4 . Let us state the following facts about rational numbers and irrational numbers. Sum.2) # (. (i) a + b is irrational (ii) a .4 Square Root of Real Numbers Let a > 0 be a real number. the principal or positive square root.2) = 4 . product and quotient (except division by zero) of two rational numbers. To avoid confusion between these two we define the symbol Let us now mention some useful identities relating to square roots.b ^a + b h^a . Then 1 2 3 4 5 6 ab = a = b a b a b ^ a + b h^ a . The result may be rational or irrational.2 is also a square root of 4 because .b h = a2 . will be rational number. product or quotient of two irrational numbers need not be irrational. but .b ^ a + b h^ c + d h = 2 ac + ad + bc + bd ^ a + b h = a + b + 2 ab 51 . Remark If a is a rational number and b is an irrational number then For example.4.

( 3 .Chapter 2 Example 2. (v) product is an irrational number.2 .2 ) = 0 is a rational number.2 is an irrational number. Their quotient = 75 = 3 75 = 5 is a rational number. 18 and 2.2 = 2 3 is an irrational number. (vii) Consider the two irrational numbers Their quotient = 15 = 15 = 5 is an irrational number. (iv) Consider the two irrational numbers 5 + 3 and Their difference = ( 5 + 3 ) . (v) Consider the irrational numbers Their product = 3 # 5 = 15 is an irrational number. 2 and .10 Give two irrational numbers so that their (i) sum is an irrational number. (vii) quotient is an irrational number. (iv) difference is not an irrational number.5. (ii) Consider the two irrational numbers Their sum = 2 + (. 3 52 . 3 and 2. 3 . (ii) sum is not an irrational number. Solution (i) Consider the two irrational numbers 2 + 3 and Their sum = 2 + 3 + 3 -2 . 3 3 (viii) Consider the two irrational numbers 75 and 3 . (iii) Consider the two irrational numbers Their difference = 3 . 3 . (iii) difference is an irrational number. (viii) quotient is not an irrational number. 3 and 5. (vi) Consider the two irrational numbers Their product = 18 # 2 = 36 = 6 is a rational number. 15 and 3.5 ) = 10 is a rational number. (vi) product is not an irrational number.

8 = ^8 h 1 5 5 1 Think and Answer ! a 3 and a3 differ.5. the index form. which cannot be expressed as squares of any rational number. are the cube roots of rational numbers. 2.1 Index Form of a Surd 5 order n Radical sign a Radicand The index form of a surd n a is a n For example. then n a is called a ‘surd’ or a ‘radical’.5 Surds We know that 2. 3 7 etc. why? 1 8 can be written in index form as In the following table. order and radicand of some surds are given. a is called the radicand. number. which cannot be expressed as cubes of any rational Surds If ‘ a ’ is a positive rational number and n is a positive integer such that n a is an irrational number. 5 are irrational numbers. Notation The general form of a surd is n a is called the radical sign n is called the order of the radical. Surd 5 3 Index Form 52 ^14h3 1 1 Order 2 3 4 Radicand 5 14 7 50 11 14 7 50 4 74 ^50h2 ^11h5 53 1 1 1 2 5 5 11 . 3. 3 3.Real Number System 2. These are square roots of rational 3 numbers. This type of irrational numbers are called surds or radicals. Key Concept 2.

Thus. but every irrational number need not be a surd.5. (i) 5 . 5 3 5 . 3 3.5 Mixed Surds A Surd is called a mixed if its rational coefficient is other than unity For example. 3 For example. 2. For example. 4 5. but it cannot be converted into a mixed surd. . 4 12 . 80 are pure surds.2 Reduction of a Surd to its Simplest Form We can reduce a surd to its simplest form. A 5 3 B 2+ 3 3 7 5+ 7 10 . Otherwise the surds are called unlike surds. 2 3 . 2. 2. In the table given below both the columns A and B have irrational numbers. A mixed surd can be converted into a pure surd and a pure surd may or may not be converted into a mixed surd. .4 Pure surds A Surd is called a pure surd if its rational coefficient is unity 3.6 5 are like surds.3 Like and Unlike Surds Surds in their simplest form are called like surds if their order and radicand are the same.Chapter 2 Remark If n a is a surd. (ii) a is an irrational number. consider the surd Now 50 = 50 25 # 2 = 25 50 .5. 4 5 . then n (i) a is a positive rational number. (i) 80 = 16 # 5 = 4 5 (ii) 3 2 = 54 32 # 2 = 9 # 2 = 18 (iii) 17 is a pure surd. 3 81 are unlike surds. 3 4 12 are mixed surds. every surd is an irrational number.5. For example.5. (ii) 10 . 2 = 52 2 =5 2 Thus 5 2 is the simplest form of 2.3 3 15 + 5 3 100 12 3 4 The numbers in Column A are surds and the numbers in Column B are irrationals. For example. 5 .

(ii) (ii) 4 8 8 = 84 1 (iii) (iii) 3 6 6 = 63 1 (iv) 8 12 (iv) 8 12 = ^12h8 1 Solution In index form we write the given surds as follows 4 3 Example 2.11 (i) (i) 7 7 =72 1 a # n b = n ab n (iii) m n a = mn a = n m a (iv) n a = n a b b 2 3 Using (i) we have ^ a h = a .Real Number System Laws of Radicals For positive integers m. n and positive rational numbers a. 3 a3 = ^ 3 a h = a n n (i) ^n ah n =a= an (ii) Convert the following surds into index form.12 Express the following surds in its simplest form. (i) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 3 3 32 3 (ii) = = 3 64 3 (iii) 8#3 4 = 3 243 (iv) 3 256 Solution 32 64 8#4 = 82 = 8 81 # 3 = 3 23 # 3 4 = 2 3 4 92 # 3 = 9 3 3 243 = 256 = 81 # 3 = 3 64 # 4 = 64 # 3 4 = 43 # 3 4 = 4 3 4 Example 2.13 Express the following mixed surds into pure surds. (i) 16 2 (i) 16 2 = = = = = = 3 (ii) 3 3 2 162 # 2 256 # 2 = 33 # 2 3 (iii) 2 4 5 (iv) 6 3 Solution ^a 16 = 162 h 162 # 2 = 27 # 2 = 4 512 ^a 3 = 3 33 h (ii) 3 3 2 3 54 ^a 2 = 4 24 h (iii) 2 4 5 (iv) 6 3 = 24 # 5 4 = 4 16 # 5 = 80 ^a 6 = 62 h 62 # 3 36 # 3 = 108 55 . b we have Example 2.

16 (iii) 3 16 + 8 3 54 .3 128 56 . (ii) ^4 + 2 h . (i) 3 + 3 (v) 2 3 (ii) ^4 + 2 h .19 = . is rational.3 h = 4 + 2 .3 h (vi) 12 # 3 (iii) 18 2 2 (iv) 19 . 2 2 2 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 19 .14 Identify whether 32 is rational or irrational.4 + 3 = 18 = 2 2 9#2 = 2 2 2 + 3 . 2.6. is rational. Solution 32 = 16 # 2 = 4 2 4 is a rational number and 2 is an irrational number.1 Addition and Subtraction of Surds Like surds can be added and subtracted.6 Four Basic Operations on Surds 2. 3 + 3 is irrational. 9 # 2 = 3 .Chapter 2 Example 2.27 + 5 18 Example 2.^4 .^4 . 2 here 2 is rational and 3 12 # 3 = 12 # 3 = 3 is irrational.3 72 . ` 4 2 is an irrational number and hence Example 2.2 . 3 36 = 6. is rational.2 .^2 + 19 h Solution (i) 3+ 3 3 is a rational number and 3 is irrational. Hence.15 Identify whether the following numbers are rational or irrational. 2 is irrational.^2 + 19 h = 19 . is irrational.2 2 + 4 32 (ii) 48 . Simplify (i) 10 2 . 32 is an irrational number. Hence.

18 2 .2 + 16h 2 = 24 2 48 .2 2 + 4 # 4 # 2 = ^10 . n a#n b = n ab (ii) 4 Example 2.3 36 # 2 .3 64 # 2 8 3 2 + 8 3 27 3 2 .4 3 2 = ^2 + 24 .2 Multiplication of Surds Product of two like surds can simplified using the following law.18 + 15h 2 + ^4 .4h 3 2 = 22 3 2 2.9 3 + 5 9 2 (ii) (iii) 3 = 4 3 .6.3 128 = = 3 8 # 2 + 8 3 27 # 2 .9 # 3 + 5 9 # 2 16 3 .3 Division of Surds Like surds can be divided using the law n n a = b n a b 57 .17 Multiply (i) 3 13 # 3 5 Solution (i) (ii) 3 32 # 4 8 13 # 3 5 = 3 13 # 5 = 32 # 4 8 = = 4 3 65 4 32 # 8 2 5 # 23 = 4 4 28 = 4 24 # 24 = 2 # 2 = 4 2.6.Real Number System Solution (i) 10 2 .2 2 + 4 32 = 10 2 .27 + 5 18 = = 16 # 3 .2 2 + 4 16 # 2 = 10 2 .3 72 .3 36 2 .3 2 + 3 16 + 8 3 54 .3h 3 = .3 3 + 15 2 = ^.3 64 3 2 3 = 2 3 2 + 8 # 3 # 3 2 .4 3 2 = 2 3 2 + 24 3 2 .

the greatest irrational number is the one with the largest radicand.18 Simplify (i) (i) 15 54 ' 3 6 (ii) 3 128 ' 3 64 Solution 15 54 ' 3 6 = 15 54 = 5 3 6 128 ' 3 64 = 3 3 (ii) 3 54 = 5 9 = 5 # 3 = 15 6 Note 128 = 64 3 128 = 64 3 2 When the order of the surds are different. We have to convert each of the irrational number to an irrational number of the same order.6.4 Comparison of Surds Irrational numbers of the same order can be compared. If the order of the irrational numbers are not the same. we just compare the radicands.Chapter 2 Example 2. Then. Example 2. 3 and 4. (i) 3 a = 12 m a m n 8 5 = 53 = 12 12 54 (ii) 4 11 = 11 4 = 8 8 112 2. n Result For example. Solution The orders of the given irrational numbers are 2. 3 4. 4 5 to the same order. Among the irrational numbers of same order. 58 . 3 and 4 is 12 3 = 12 36 = 12 729 4 = 12 44 = 12 3. we first convert them to the same order. we convert them to the same order and then multiplication or division is carried out.19 3 Convert the irrational numbers LCM of 2.20 Which is greater ? 4 5 or 3 4 Solution The orders of the given irrational numbers are 3 and 4. 256 4 5 = 12 53 = 12 125 Example 2.

4. 2. 3 in 2 . Now we convert each irrational number as of order 12. Now.3 54 (iv) 2 3 40 + 3 3 625 . and 4 is 12.50 . Identify which of the following are surds and which are not with reasons.Real Number System LCM of 3 and 4 is 12. 4. 4 4 and 3 are 3.1 48 2 (iii) 4 72 . 4 4. 4 5 = 12 53 = 12 125 4 = 12 44 = 12 12 3 256 & 3 ` 256 > 12 125 4 > 4 5 Example 2. 4 Exercise 2. 4 4.5 1. 4 and 2 respectively (ii) descending order 3 Solution The orders of the irrational numbers LCM of 2.21 Write the irrational numbers (i) ascending order 3 2. 3. 3. (i) 5 75 + 8 108 . (i) 3 108 (ii) 98 (iii) 192 59 (iv) 4 625 . we convert each irrational number as of order 12. 3 2 = 12 24 = 4 = 12 43 = 3 = 12 36 = 12 16 64 729 3 4 12 12 ` Ascending order: Descending order: 2.2 h^ 13 + 2 h Simplify the following. 3.4 3 320 (ii) ^ 5 + 3 h (iv) ^8 + 3 h^8 . (i) 8 # 6 (ii) 90 (iii) 180 # 5 (iv) 4 5 ' 8 (v) 3 4 # 3 16 Simplify (i) ^10 + 3 h^2 + 5 h (iii) ^ 13 .3 h 2 Express the following surds in its simplest form. 3 3 2 .7 128 (ii) 7 3 2 + 6 3 16 .

(iii) x + y and x . 4 5.b and a . 6 3. (v) For rationalizing the denominator of a number.y are rationalizing factors of each other. Express the following as pure surds. we multiply its numerator and denominator by its rationalizing factor. 6. 3 (ii) 3 2.7 Rationalization of Surds Rationalization of Surds When the denominator of an expression contains a term with a square root or a number under radical sign. 7. then each one is called the rationalizing factor of the other. we get . (i) 3 4. If the product of two irrational numbers is rational. the process of converting into an equivalent expression whose denominator is a rational number is called rationalizing the denominator. 8.Chapter 2 5.x h are rationalizing factors of each other. Remark (iv) a + b is also called the conjugate of a . 4 4. (i) 5 # 18 (ii) 3 7 #3 8 48 ' 8 72 (iii) 4 8 # 4 12 3 #6 5 (v) 3 35 ' 2 7 (vi) Which is greater ? (i) 2 or 3 4 3 (ii) 3 3 or 4 4 (iii) 3 or 4 10 Arrange in descending and ascending order. y be positive integers. 3 . (ii) ^a + b x h and ^a . (i) 6 5 (ii) 5 3 4 (iii) 3 4 5 (iv) 3 8 4 (iv) 3 Simplify the following. 3 4 (iii) 3 2.b is called the conjugate of a + b .b x h are rationalizing factors of each other.22 Rationalize the denominator of 2 3 Solution Multiplying the numerator and denominator of the given number by 2 = 2 # 3 = 2 3 3 3 3 3 60 Let a and b be integers and x . 9 4 2. Example 2. Then (i) ^a + x h and ^a .

the rationalizing factor is 1 = 3+ 5 1 # 3+ 5 3. So. 7 -1 7 +1 = 7 -1 7 -1 # 7 +1 61 Solution 7 -1 + 7 +1 7 -1 + 7 -1 7 +1 # 7 -1 7 +1 7 +1 .5 3. find the values of a and b . 3+ 5 Solution Here the denominator is 3 + 5 .3 . Rationalize the denominator of 1 1 = #5. The rationalizing factor is 8 + 2 5 1 1 = # 8+2 5 8-2 5 8+2 5 8-2 5 8+2 5 2 8 . 8-2 5 Solution Here the denominator is 8 .3 = 5 .5 3.5 = 3.23 1 5+ 3 Solution The denominator is 5 + 3 .3 5+ 3 5+ 3 5 .^2 5 h 2 = = 8+2 5 64 .3 5.26 If 7 -1 + 7 +1 3 .5 2 3.3 2 = 25 22 -3 5 -^ 3h 2 = Example 2.Real Number System Example 2.25 Simplify 1 by rationalizing the denominator.24 Simplify 1 by rationalizing the denominator.5 -2 = 7 + 1 = a + b 7 .2 5 .20 = 2^4 + 5 h 4 + 5 = 22 44 = 8 + 2 5 44 Example 2.3 5.3 2 = ^ 3h -^ 5h 2 = Example 2. Its conjugate is 5 .5 3-5 5.3 or the rationalizing factor is 5 .

1 2 2 = 7 + 1 .27 If x = 1 + 2 .1 = ^1 + 2 h .2 h 1-2 -1 ` x . b = 0.2 7 + 7 + 1 + 2 7 7-1 7-1 = 8 .2 1+ 2 1. x 2 Exercise 2. ` x .2 = -^1 .2 7 + 8 + 2 7 6 6 = 8 . x = 1 + 2 + 1 .2 = 2 Hence.6 1.2 (iv) 2 3 5 (viii) 2 + 3 ."-^1 .1 j x Solution x = 1 + 2 ( 1 1 = x 1+ 2 1 #1. Write the rationalizing factor of the following.1 ^ 7h .2 h.1 j = 22 = 4. find ` x .4 3 (ii) (vi) 7 2 + 3 62 (iii) (vii) 75 5 .Chapter 2 = ^ 7 .2 7 + 8 + 2 7 6 = 16 = 8 + 0 7 6 3 Exmaple 2.2 2 ` 8 + 0 7 = a + b 7 ( a = 8 . 3 3 = = 1 .2 = 1 .1h ^ 7 + 1h + 2 2 ^ 7h . (i) 3 2 (v) 5 .

414.5 4+ 5 If x = 2 + 3 . 5. Then we write For example.236. find the values of ` x .1 = a + b 5 . In this section we state an important property of integers called the division algorithm. 5 +1 If 4 + 5 . Fraction = Quotient + remainder divisor 13 = 2 3 + 5 5 (1) We can rephrase this division.6 If If ^ 3 + 1h 2 4-2 3 5 +1 + 5 -1 = a + b 3 find the values of a and b . 7.5 = a + b 5 . (i) 1 1 (ii) (iii) 11 + 3 9+3 5 1 11 + 13 (iv) 5 + 1 (v) 3 . 6. 10 . find the values of a and b . x 2. Rationalize the denominator of the following (i) 3 5 (ii) 2 3 3 (iii) 1 12 (iv) 2 7 11 3 (v) 33 5 9 Simplify by rationalizing the denominator.732. 5. As we know from our earlier classes.3 5 -1 2+5 3 2 . when we divide one integer by another non-zero integer. 4.8 Division Algorithm A series of well defined steps which gives a procedure for solving a problem is called an algorithm. 13 = 2(5) + 3 63 . totally in terms of integers. without reference to the division operation. 9. 5 . x 2 If x = 3 + 1 .2 (vii) 3 + 1 3 -1 (iv) (viii) If 5 + 6 = a + b 6 find the values of a and b . 3. 4. find the values of x2 + 12 . 5 . 8. 3. 10 . find the values of a and b . 1. Given that 3 .4 . (i) 1 (ii) 6 (iii) 5 .Real Number System 2. 2. 10.5 3+2 5 (vi) 5+ 2 5. we get an integer quotient and a remainder (generally a rational number).162.3 3 2 3 (v) 3 . 1.2 j .5 2 1 10 + 5 Find the values of the following upto 3 decimal places.

[5 divides 19 three time and leaves the remainder 4] remainder = 4 (ii) 3. 30 = 6(5) + 0 ` quotient = 5. 0 # r < b as follows. In this case. the decimal � When the decimal expansion of expansion is called non-terminating and recurring.7 1. p � In the decimal expansion of . 13 (iii) 30. 64 .e. remainder = 3 (iii) 30.. (i) 10. We refer to this way of writing a division of integers as the division algorithm. [6 divides 30 five times and leaves the reaminder 0] remainder = 0 Exercise 2. 3 (ii) 5. 13 We write the given pair in the form a = bq + r . 6 We write the given pair 30. q ! 0 terminates i. we have q a repeating (recurring) block of digits in the quotient. In the above statement q (or) r can be zero. 0 # r < b as follows. Using division algorithm find the quotient and remainder of the following pairs. Using division algorithm. q ! 0 when the remainder is not zero. 19 = 5(3) + 4 ` quotient = 3. 3 Points to Remember p .Chapter 2 We observe that this expression is obtained by multiplying (1) by the divisor 5. 6 Example 2. 5 (ii) 3. 0 # r < b . then there exist two non-negative integers q and r such that a = bq + r . 12 (iii) 27. If a and b are any two positive integers. 0 # r < b as follows. the q decimal is called a terminating decimal. find the quotient and remainder of the following pairs. (i) 19.28 Solution (i) 19. 3 = 13(0) + 3 ` quotient = 0. 5 We write the given pair in the form a = bq + r . comes to an end. 6 in the form a = bq + r .

then n a is called a ‘surd’ or a ‘radical’. If a real number is not a rational number. then each one is called the rationalizing factor of the other. where p and q are both integers and q ! 0 .e. If the product of two irrational numbers is rational. then it must be an irrational number. If a and b are any two positive integers. p i. product or quotient of two irrational numbers need not be irrational. difference. b we have n (i) ^ n a h = a = n a n (ii) n a # n b = n ab n (iii) m n a = mn a = n m a (iv) n a = n a b b When the denominator of an expression contains a term with a square root or a number under radical sign. q The union of all rational numbers and all irrational numbers is called the set of real numbers. The result may be rational or irrational. For positive integers m. q 2 # 5n m.Real Number System If a rational number p p . Sum. An irrational number is a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal. there exist two non-negative integers q and r such that a = bq + r . Otherwise. q ! 0 can be expressed in the form m . n and positive rational numbers a. The sum or difference of a rational number and an irrational number is always an irrational number The product or quotient of non-zero rational number and an irrational number is also an irrational number. (Division Algorithm) 65 . the rational number will have a non-terminating repeating (recurring) decimal. A rational number can be expressed by either a terminating or a non-terminating repeating decimal. it cannot be written in the form . n ! W then the rational number will have a terminating decimal.. the process of converting to an equivalent expression whose denominator is a rational number is called rationalizing the denominator. Every real number is either a rational number or an irrational number. If ‘a’ is a positive rational number and n is a positive integer such that n a is an irrational number. 0 # r < b . where p ! Z and.

900. divisions.49 # 10.JOHN NAPIER Main Targets ● To represent the number in Scientific Notation. square and cubical extractions of great numbers.1617) John Napier was born in the Tower of Merciston.000 centimeter per second.000 mile.49 1000000 10000 Merchiston campus.1 Scientific Notation Scientists. = 5. than the multiplications. The speed of light is 29. in 1550. Napier..Chapter 3 SCIENTIFIC NOTATIONS OF REAL NUMBERS AND LOGARITHMS Seeing there is nothing that is so troublesome to mathematical practice. J ohn N apier (1550 . nor that doth more molest and hinder calculators. the distance of sun from earth is about 92. ● To convert exponential form to logarithmic form and vice-versa. engineers and technicians use scientific notations when working with very large or very small numbers.. Sir Issac Newton and Albert Einstein.900.900. I began therefore to consider in my mind by what certain and ready art I might remove those hindrances .000. with who the is credited of invention logarithms. ● To understand the rules of logarithms. thus avoiding the writing of many zeros and transposition errors.99 # 1010 92. 29.000 = 929 # 105 = 9.4 66 . It is easier to express these numbers in a shorter way called Scientific Notation.29 # 107 0 $ 000549 = 549 = 5. Napier is placed within a short lineage of mathematical thinkers beginning with Archimedes and more recent geniuses. only considered the study of mathematics as a hobby.. ● To apply the rules and to use logarithmic table. which is now at the center of Napier University’s 3.900. For example. the mass of an electron is 0 $ 000549 atomic mass units.000.000 = 299 # 108 = 2.

the power of 10. Step 3: If the decimal is shifted to the left. Solution In integers.zero digit to its left. the exponent n is negative. ` 9781 = 9. Example 3. n To transform numbers from decimal notation to scientific notation. the very large or very small numbers are expressed as the product of a decimal number 1 # a 1 10 and some integral power of 10. the decimal point at the end is usually omitted. 9 7 8 1 . we define a. the laws of exponents form the basis for calculations using powers. 3 2 1 The decimal point is to be moved 3 places to the left of its original position.1.1 Writing a Number in Scientific Notation The steps for converting a number to scientific notation are as follows: Step 1: Move the decimal point so that there is only one non . Step 2: Count the number of digits between the old and new decimal point. N = a # 10 . a 3.781 # 103 67 . The laws of exponents are given below: (i) (ii) am # an = am + n (Product law) (Quotient law) (Power law) (Combination law) am = am-n an (iii) ^a mhn = a mn (iv) a m # b m = ^a # bhm For a ! 0 .Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms That is.m = 1m . This gives n. and a0 = 1 . Key Concept Scientific Notation A number N is in scientific notation when it is expressed as the product of a decimal number between 1 and 10 and some integral power of 10. If the decimal is shifted to the right. where 1 # a 1 10 and n is an integer. So the power of 10 is 3. the exponent n is positive. Let m and n be natural numbers and a is a real number.1 Express 9781 in scientific notation.

3 . (vi) 0.0063 = 0 .32078 # 10.000108 = 0 .44909896 # 106 . 0 1 0 2 0 3 1 4 0 8 = 1.96 (vi) 0.00008035 = 0 . (i) 9345 (ii) 205852 (v) 0.3 # 10 three places to the right.000432078 = 4.05852 # 105 . = 9. then this movement is compensated by the factor 10 p .Chapter 3 Example 3. = 2. n = –5 because the decimal point is shifted five places to the right. So the power of 10 is – 4 ` 0. (v) 0.000108 (iv) 0. . 0 0 6 3 = 6.96 = 3 4 6 4 5 9 4 0 3 9 2 8 . then this movement is compensated by the factor 10.00008035 4 2 3 Example 3.345 # 10 .4 .4 Remark Observe that while converting a given number into the scientific notation. 9 6 = 3. n = –4 because the decimal point is shifted four places to the right. and if the decimal point is moved r places to the right.035 # 10. (iii) 3449098. 68 . n = 6 because 1 the decimal point is shifted six places to the left. if the decimal point is moved p places to the left. (ii) 205852 = 2 0 5 5 4 8 5 3 2 2 .r . n = –3 because the decimal point is shifted (iv) 0.3 (iii) 3449098.0063 Solution (i) 9345 = 9 3 3 5 .5 . 4 3 2 0 7 8 4 1 2 3 Solution 0 . 0 1 1 2 3 0 2 0 3 0 4 8 5 0 3 5 =8.2 Express 0 $ 000432078 in scientific notation. Write the following numbers in scientific notation. .08 # 10. n = 3 because the decimal point is shifted 1 three places to the left. 0 0 0 The decimal point is to be moved four places to the right of its original position. n = 5 because the decimal 1 point is shifted five places to the left .

Example 3.4 (ii) 1.2.72 # 10 = 1720000000 9 -6 Example 3. Step 3 : Rewrite the number in decimal form.00000000936 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 9 .236 # 105 = 523600 1.2 Converting Scientific Notation to Decimal Form Often.415 # 10.6 (iv) 9.0001h4 Solution First we write the number (within the brackets) in scientific notation. Add zeros if necessary.36 # 10.415 6. raising to the power 3 on both sides we get.5 Write the following in scientific notation. numbers in scientific notation need to be written in decimal form.415 # 10 = 0. 4 1 5 1 0 = 0. Step 1 : Write the decimal number.72 (iii) 6. 4000000 = 4.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms 3.236 5.0 # 106 Now.9 Solution 5.00003h5 (i) (ii) ^5000h4 # ^200h3 (iv) ^2000h2 ' ^0.72 # 109 (iii) 6.36 9. to the left if negative.236 # 105 (i) 5. (i) 5. 3 1 6 3. 69 .1 Multiplication and Division in Scientific Notation One can find the product or quotient of very large(googolplex) or very small numbers easily in scientific notion. To convert scientific notation to integers we have to follow these steps.2 1 3 2 6 3 0 4 0 5 (ii) 1. Write the following numbers in decimal form.000006415 (iv) 9. Step 2 : Move the decimal point the number of places specified by the power of ten: to the right if positive.36 # 10 -9 1 . (i) ^4000000h3 (iii) ^0.7 1 2 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 6 .

0 # 102) 3 4 3 4 = ^5. (i) 3.0 # 102 .4) 4 = ^2.0 # 106 -^.0 # 103h 2 ` ^2000h2 ' ^0.5h = ^3.25 = 2.86 # 107 (ii) 4. ` ^5000h4 # ^200h3 = ^5.4 ^2.5h 5 5 = 243 # 10.0000013307 (viii) 0. Represent the following numbers in the scientific notation. (i) ^1000h2 # ^20h6 (iii) ^16000h3 ' ^200h4 (v) ^11000h3 # (0.87 # 109 (iii) 4.134 # 10.0 # 10.16h = 4.432 # 10. 2000 = 2.25 = 2.001h3 .43 # 102 # 10.0h3 # ^106h 3 3 = 64 # 1018 (ii) In scientific notation.0 # 103 and 0.25 # 10.0 # 1022 = 4 #10 16 Exercise 3.0h4 # ^103h # ^2.0h4 # ^10.6 (iv) 1.0h5 # ^10.0 # 10.0000000000009 Write the following numbers in decimal form.5 ` ^0.003h7 # ^0.0h2 # (103) 2 4 ^1.4h 106 = 4.0001 = 1.23 (iv) In scientific notation.4 # 1019 5000 = 5.0 # 106h = ^4.Chapter 3 ` ^4000000h3 = ^4.43 # 10.0h3 # ^102h = 625 # 1012 # 8 # 106 = 5000 # 1018 = 5.0 # 103h # (2.003) 2 ' ^30000h 70 (ii) ^1500h3 # ^0.0 # 103 and 200 = 2.0001h4 = (1.0000000022 (ii) 13000000 (v) 0.0 # 1021 (iii) In scientific notation.134 # 104 (vi) 1.0 # 10.00003h5 = ^3. 2.4 # 101 # 1018 = 6. = 6. (i) 749300000000 (iv) 543600000000000 (vii) 0.0 # 10.0096 (iii) 105003 (vi) 0. 0. 3.0002h5 ' ^0.0001h2 (iv) ^0.00003 = 3.9 Represent the following numbers in scientific notation.0 # 103 # 1018 = 5.4 (v) 9.1 1.

For example. We will not show how a x may be defined for irrational x because the definition of a x requires some advanced topics in mathematics. gamma absorption. In both the forms. if a > 0. we say that the exponent x is the logarithm of b to the base a and we write x = log a b . If a x = b . They were designed to transform multiplicative processes into additive ones. b > 0 and a ! 1 . So. the base is same. and reactor power changes on a stable period. Examples are radioactive decay. 71 . Now they are important in nuclear work because many laws governing physical behavior are in exponential form. we define a q = ^ a h . We knowpthat a n is a positive number whose nth power is equal to a. Key Concept Logarithmic Notation Let a be a positive number other than 1 and let x be a real number (positive. so if the power rule is to hold then q q 1 p p 1 a q = ` a q j = ^ a hq p q p 3 3 -7 3 So. for any a > 0 .1 Exponential Notation Let a be a positive number. Notice that p 1 p = p # 1 . where x is an integer. a x is defined for all real numbers x and satifies the laws of exponents. Before the advent of calculators. x = log a b is the logarithmic form of the exponential form b = a x .3. we shall first introduce the exponential notation for real numbers.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms 3. 3. we accept now that. then the logarithm of b to the base a is the number to which a to be raised to obtain b. or zero). Now we can see how to define a q . negative. logarithms had great use in multiplying and dividing numbers with many digits since adding exponents was less work than multiplying numbers.2 Logarithmic Notation If a > 0.3. 3. Also for a > 0 it is possible to extend the definition of a x to irrational exponents x so that the laws of exponents remain valid. To introduce the notation of logarithm. we have been able to give suitable meaning to a x for all rational numbers x. We have already introduced the notation a x . 8 5 = ^5 8 h and 5 = ^3 5 h -7 Thus. where p is an integer and q is a positive integer.3 Logarithms Logarithms were originally developed to simplify complex arithmetic calculations.

(i) log4 64 = 3 (ii) log16 2 = 1 4 (iii) log5 ` 1 j =.1 =.1 = 1 ( log13 ` 1 j = .1 Example 3. Exponential Form 24 = 16 83 = 2 4 Example 3.2 iv) log10 0.1 = 0.7 Change the following from exponential form to logarithmic form.= 3 1 ( log 1 =–4 6 ` 1296 j 1296 (iii) ` 1 j4 = 1 ( log 1 ` 1 j = 3 81 27 4 81 27 (vi) (216) 3 = 6 ( log216 6 = 1 3 (v) ^13h.6 Change the following from logarithmic form to exponential form.1 ( ^10h. (i) 3 = 81 (iv) (216) 3 = 6 1 4 1 1296 (v) ^13h.2 ( ^5 h.Chapter 3 For example.1 = 1 13 (ii) 6.3 8 2 =1 8 Solution (i) log4 64 = 3 ( 43 = 64 1 (ii) log16 2 = 1 ( (16) 4 = 2 4 (iii) log5 ` 1 j =.2 = 1 25 25 (iv) log10 0.= 4 (iii) ` 1 j4 = 1 81 27 3 Solution (i) 3 = 81 ( log3 81 = 4 4 4 (ii) 6.1 =.1 25 3 -2 1 Logarithmic Form log2 16 = 4 log8 2 = 1 3 log4 ` 1 j =.1 13 13 72 1 .

Then 8 = 512 x (exponential form) 8 x = 83 ( x = 3 ` log8 512 = 3 Let x = log27 9 .5 ( x = .x = 43 ( x = .8 Evaluate (i) log8 512 (ii) log27 9 (iii) log16 ` 1 j 32 Solution (i) (ii) Let x = log8 512 .5 4 32 Example 3.3 (ii) x = log 1 64 1 4 (iii) log x 8 = 2 Solution (i) (ii) (iv) x + 3 log8 4 = 0 (v) log x 7 6 = 1 3 log5 x =. Then 32 x 16 = 1 (exponential form) 32 x ^24h = 1 (convert both sides to base two) ^2h5 2 = 2.( 4x = . Then 27 = 9 x x (iii) (exponential form) ^33h = ^3 h2 (convert both sides to base three) 3x 2 3 = 3 ( 3x =2 ( x = 2 3 2 ` log27 9 = 3 Let x = log16 ` 1 j . = x x = 13 ( x = 1 125 5 x = log 1 64 1 x (exponential form) ` 4 j = 64 1 = 43 ( 4.5 4x 5 4 ` log16 ` 1 j = .9 Solve the equations (i) log5 x =.3 x 4 73 4 3 (exponential form) .3 5.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms Example 3.

Chapter 3 (iii) log x 8 = 2 x2 = 8 x = 8 =2 2 (exponential form) (iv) x + 3 log8 4 = 0 ( . a em q rk R (ii) If a is a positive number and a ! 1 . That is. blogb a = a . log a 1 = 0 (iii) If a and b are positive numbers a ! 1. b ! 1 .log a N N Power Rule: The logarithm of a number in exponential form is equal to the logarithm of the number multiplied by its exponent. 74 .x = 64 ( x = -2 1 (exponential form) = 1 (v) log x 7 6 3 1 6 ( x 3 = 7 6 1 1 1 1 (exponential form) 1 3 3 We write 7 = `7 2 j . That is.x = 3 log8 4 = log8 4 ( –x = log8 64 ( ^8 h. log a ` M j = log a M .x = 82 1 1 3 ( ^8 h. That is. b ! 1 ^log a bh # ^log b ah = 1 and log a b = 1 log b a (iv) If a and b are positive numbers and b ! 1 . 4. Then x 3 = `7 2 j ` x = 72 = 1 7 The Rules of Logarithms 1. then log a M = ^log b M h # ^log a bh (i) If a is a positive number and a ! 1 . a and b are positive numbers and a ! 1 . 3. log a ^ M hn = n log a M Change of Base Rule: If M. Product Rule: The logarithm of the product of two positive numbers is equal to sum of their logarithms of the same base. log a (M # N) = log a M + log a N Quotient Rule: The logarithm of the quotient of two positive numbers is equal to the logarithm of the numerator minus the logarithm of the denominator to the same base. log a a = 1 2.

then x = log1 9 would give 1 x = 9 .3 log10 2 = 3 log10 10 .12 Prove that log10 125 = 3 .3 log10 2 = log10 103 . Example 3.2^1 h = .log8 16 = log8 128 16 Example 3.2 log5 5 25 5 = .x and y are positive numbers other than 1 then log b x = log b y if and only if x = y . such that 1 x = 9 .3 log10 2 = log8 8 = 1 [ a log a ` M j = log a M .2 Example 3.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms (v) If a > 0 . (vi) If b . say log1 9 with 1 in the base.3 log10 2 75 . (vii) We are avoiding 1 in the base of all logarithms because if we consider one such logarithm.2 = .log a N ] N [ a log a a = 1] Solution 3 .log8 16 [ a log a a = 1] Solution log8 128 . log a 0 is undefined.log10 8 = log10 1000 8 = log10 125 ` log10 125 = 3 .10 Simplify (i) log5 25 + log5 625 Solution (ii) log5 4 + log5 ` 1 j 100 [ a log a ^ M # N h = log a M + log a N ] (i) log5 25 + log5 625 = log5 ^25 # 625h = log5 ^52 # 54h = log5 56 = 6 log5 5 [ a log a ^ M hn = n log a M ] = 6^1 h = 6 [ a log a a = 1] [ a log a ^ M # N h = log a M + log a N ] [ a log a ^ M hn = n log a M ] (ii) log5 4 + log5 ` 1 j = log5 `4 # 1 j 100 100 = log5 ` 1 j = log5 c 12 m = log5 5. We know that there is no real number x .log10 23 = log10 1000 .11 Simplify log8 128 .

4 = 14 = 1 81 3 [ a blogb a = a] Solution log16 x + log4 x + log2 x = 7 ( 1 + 1 + 1 = 7 log x 16 log x 4 log x 2 1 + 1 + 1 = 7 log x 24 log x 22 log x 2 1 + 1 + 1 = 7 4 log x 2 2 log x 2 log x 2 [ a n log a M = log a M n ] [ a log a b = 1 ] log b a 1 1 7 1 1 8 4 + 2 + 1 B log 2 = 7 ( 8 4 B log 2 = 7 x x 1 = 7 # 4 log x 2 7 log2 x = 4 24 = x ` x = 16 76 [ a log a b = 1 ] log b a (exponential form) .14 Find the value of 25.2 log5 3 = ^52h.13 Prove that log3 2 # log4 3 # log5 4 # log6 5 # log7 6 # log8 7 = 1 3 Solution log3 2 # log4 3 # log5 4 # log6 5 # log7 6 # log8 7 = ^log3 2 # log4 3h # ^log5 4 # log6 5h # ^log7 6 # log8 7h = log4 2 # log6 4 # log8 6 = ^log4 2 # log6 4h # log8 6 [ a log a M = log b M # log a b ] = log6 2 # log8 6 = log8 2 = 1 1 = 3 log2 2 log2 23 = 1 [ a log2 2 = 1] 3 = 1 log2 8 [ a log a b = 1 ] log b a [ a log a ^ M hn = n log a M ] Example 3.4 log5 3 [ a n log a M = log a M n ] Example 3.2 log5 3 = 5.Chapter 3 Example 3.2 log5 3 Solution 25.15 Solve log16 x + log4 x + log2 x = 7 =5 log 3-4 5 = 3.

Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms Example 3.1 x-2 Cross multiplying.1h .1 ( 8x .2 = 1 x1 = 10 ` x = 10 (exponential form) Solution Then.2h = 3 [ a log a ` M j = log a M . Then log2 x = 3 23 = x ` x = 8 (exponential form) (exponential form) ( log x 10 = 3 .16 8x .1 x-2 8 = 3x .3x = .1h . we get 8^ x .1 .17 Solve log3 ^log2 xh = 1 Let log2 x = y 31 = y ` y = 3 Put y = 3 in (1). Cross multiplying. we get 2 + log x 10 3 Solution 2 + log x 10 = 3 Example 3.2h = 3 Solution log2 ^3x .log2 ^ x .2h = 3x .18 Solve log2 ^3x .16 Solve 1 = 1 2 + log x 10 3 1 = 1 .1 j = 3 N x-2 (exponential form) 23 = 3x .log a N ] log2 ` 3x .log2 ^ x .1 + 16 ( 5x = 15 ` x=3 77 = 3x . log3 y = 1 Example 3.

1 log5 16 + 6 log49 7 2 1 Solution 2 log5 6 .1 3 (ii) log 1 8 = 3 log2 25 (iv) log2 ` 25 j = log2 3 3 (vi) log a ^ M . (i) log5 125 = 3 (iii) log4 ^6 + 3h = log4 6 + log4 3 (v) log 1 3 = .1 = log5 x + 2 2 log5 7x . 1 2 1 2 [ a log a M = n log a M ] n log5 ` 7x .4 .19 Prove that log5 1125 = 2 log5 6 .4 j = 1 x+2 1 5 = 7x .log5 x + 2 = 1 2 log5 c 7x .4 m = 1 2 x+2 log5 ` 7x .1 = log5 x + 2 2 Solution log5 7x .20 Solve log5 7x .log5 (16) 2 + 3 # 2 log49 7 = log5 36 .2 State whether each of the following statements is true or false.Chapter 3 Example 3.log a N ] N Cross multiplying.4 . Exercise 3.5x = 10 + 4 2x = 14 ` x = 7 ( 1.4 j2 = x+2 1 log 7x .log5 16 + 6 log49 7 2 = log5 6 .log5 4 + 3 log49 7 = log5 ` 36 j + 3 log49 49 = log5 9 + 3^1 h 4 = log5 9 + 3 log5 5 = log5 9 + log5 ^5h3 = log5 9 + log5 125 = log5 ^9 # 125h = log5 1125 ` log5 1125 = 2 log5 6 .4 = 5x + 10 ( 7x .N h = log a M ' log a N 78 2 .4 .4 = 2 8 5 ` x + 2 jB 1 2 1 2 [ a log a ` M j = log a M .1 log5 16 + 6 log49 7 2 Example 3.4 (exponential form) x+2 7x – 4 = 5(x + 2) 7x .

001 = –3 Simplify the following.1 (iv) log 3 9 = 4 2 8 Find the value of the following.2 = 1 144 (iii) log5 1 = 0 (vi) log0. Find the value in each of the following in terms of x . (i) log10 3 + log10 3 (ii) log25 35 . 8.1 = log3 ^ x + 4 h 2 Given log a 2 = x . 5.1 (vi) 12.0001 Solve the following equations. 4. Obtain the equivalent logarithmic form of the following. (i) log3 ` 1 j (ii) log7 343 81 (iv) log 1 8 (v) log10 0. (i) log a 15 (iv) log a ` 27 j 125 (ii) log a 8 (v) log a `3 1 j 3 79 (iii) log a 30 (vi) log a 1.5 8 = .2 (vi) x + 2 log27 9 = 0 (iii) log7 21 + log7 77 + log7 88 . (i) 24 = 16 (iv) 8 -2 3 (ii) 35 = 243 1 = 1 (v) 25 2 = 5 4 Obtain the equivalent exponential form of the following. 3.2 h .Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms 2. 7.5 .log7 121 . log a 3 = y and log a 5 = z .log6 ^ x . y and z .log7 24 1 log13 8 (v) 5 log10 2 + 2 log10 3 .log25 10 2 (iii) 10.1 = 0.6 log64 4 (iv) log8 16 + log 52 8 (vi) log10 8 + log10 5 .log10 4 Solve the equation in each of the following. 6. (i) log4 ^ x + 4h + log4 8 = 2 (ii) log6 ^ x + 4h .1h =1 (iii) log2 x + log4 x + log8 x = 11 6 (v) log10 5 + log10 ^5x + 1h = log10 ^ x + 5h + 1 (vi) 4 log2 x . (ii) log 1 x = 3 (i) log2 x = 1 2 5 (iv) log x 125 5 = 7 (v) log x 0.log2 5 = log2 125 (vii) log3 25 + log3 x = 3 log3 5 (iv) log4 ^8 log2 xh = 2 (viii) log3 ^ 5x .3 (iii) log6 6 5 (vi) log 3 9 3 (iii) log3 y = . (ii) log9 3 = 1 (i) log6 216 = 3 2 1 (v) log64 ` j = .

16 # 10 . i.4997 + 2 = 2.4997 log 31. (i) log10 1600 = 2 + 4 log10 2 (ii) log10 12500 = 2 + 3 log10 5 (iii) log10 2500 = 4 . Number N Exponential Form of N log N 0.4997 .1 1 10 0 0 10 10 1 1 100 10 2 2 1000 10 3 3 10000 10 4 4 10.01 104 0. What about logarithm of 3. log 316 = 2.6 = 1.16 or 1.e. log 3. in the discussion which follows. the base of the decimal number system.4997 2. Consider the following table.00125 = 3 ..16 = 2 log10 4 .Chapter 3 9. we have log 316 = log (3.2 10. log N is an integer if N is an integral power of 10.16 = 10 . For example. Thus. Notice that logarithm of a number between 1 and 10 is a number between 0 and 1 . log 3.4997 . log N means log10 N .16 + log 10 2 2 = 0.4997 .5 log5 10 (iv) log10 0. characteristic is 1 and mantissa is 0. characteristic is 2 and mantissa is 0. Prove the following equations. 3. Scientific notation provides a convenient method for determining the characteristic.16 # 10 ) = log 3. Therefore. In 2 scientific notation 316 = 3.1 –3 –2 –1 –4 So.6 = 10 . the most logical number for a base is 10. the power of 10 determines the characteristic of logarithm.4997 . 80 . 316 = 10 Therefore.4 Common Logarithms For the purpose of calculations.4997 .4997 31. log 31.4997 log 316 = 2.4997 . Logarithms to the base 10 are called common logarithms.2 (vi) log5 1875 = 1 log5 36 .2 log10 2 (v) log5 0. Every logarithm consists of an integral part called the characteristic and a fractional part called the mantissa.0001 0.001 0. logarithm of a number between 10 and 100 is a number between 1 and 2 and so on.16 = 0.1 log5 8 + 20 log32 2 2 3 3. Thus.6 = 1. no base designation is used. 31.4997 . characteristic is 0 and mantissa is 0.4997 The logarithm of a number less than 1 is negative. It is convenient to keep the mantissa positive even though the logarithm is negative.3 10.6 or 316? For example.4997 0.16 = 0.

Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms

Example 3.21 Write the characteristic of the following. (i) log 27.91 (ii) log 0.02871 (iii) log 0.000987 (iv) log 2475.

**Solution (i) In scientific notation, 27.91 = 2.791 # 10 ` The characteristic is 1
**

2 1

(ii) In scientific notation, 0.02871 = 2.871 # 10` The characteristic is –2 (iii) In scientific notation, 0.000987 = 9.87 # 10` The characteristic is – 4

3

4

(iv) In scientific notation, 2475 = 2.475 # 10 ` The characteristic is 3

The characteristic is also determined by inspection of the number itself according to

the following rules. (i) For a number greater than 1, the characteristic is positive and is one less than the number of digits before the decimal point. (ii) For a number less than 1, the characteristic is negative and is one more than the number of zeros immediately following the decimal point. The negative sign of the characteristic is written above the characteristics as 1, 2, etc. For example, the characteristic of 0.0316 is 2 . (iii) Mantissa is always positive.

Example 3.22 Given that log 4586 = 3.6615, find (i) log 45.86 (ii) log 45860 (iii) log 0.4586

(iv) log 0.004586 (v) log 0.04586 (vi) log 4.586

Solution The mantissa of log 4586 is 0.6615. Hence, (i) log 45.86 = 1.6615 (ii) log 45860 = 4.6615 (iv) log 0.004586 = - 3 + 0.6615 = 3 .6615

(iii) log 0.4586 = - 1 + 0.6615 = 1 .6615

**(v) log 0.04586 = - 2 + 0.6615 = 2 .6615 (vi) log 4.586 = 0.6615
**

81

Chapter 3

3.4.1 Method of Finding Logarithm Tables of logarithm usually contain only mantissas since the characteristic can be readily determined as explained above. Note that the mantissas of logarithms of all the numbers consisting of same digits in same order but differing only in the position of decimal point are the same. The mantissas are given correct to four places of decimals. A logarithmic table consists of three parts . (i) First column contains numbers from 1.0, 1.2 ,1.3,... upto 9.9 (ii) Next ten columns headed by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 contain the mantissas. (iii) After these columns, there are again nine columns under the head mean difference. These columns are marked with serial numbers 1 to 9. We shall explain how to find the mantissa of a given number in the following example.

1

Suppose, the given number is 40.85. Now 40.85 = 4.085 # 10 . Therefore, the characteristic is 1. The row in front of the number 4.0 in logarithmic table is given below.

Mean Difference

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

8

8

9

9

10

4.0 .6021 .6031 .6042 .6053 .6064 .6075 .6085 .6096 .6107 .6117

We note the number in row beneath the digit 8 in front of N = 4.0. The number is 0.6107. Next the mean difference corresponding to 5 is 0.0005. Thus the required mantissa is 0.6107 + 0.0005 = 0.6112. Hence, log 40.85 = 1.6112 . 3.4.2 Antilogarithms The number whose logarithm is x, is called the antilogarithm of x and is written as antilog x . Thus, if log y = x, then antilog x = y .

3.4.3 Method of Finding Antilogarithm The antilogarithm of a number is found by using a table named ‘ANTILOGARITHMS’ given at the end of the book. This table gives the value of the antilogarithm of a number correct to four places of decimal. For finding antilogarithm, we take into consideration only the mantissa. The characteristic is used only to determine the number of digits in the integral part or the number of zeros immediately after the decimal point.

82

Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms

The method of using the table of antilogarithms is the same as that of the table of

logarithms discussed above.

Since the logarithmic table given at the end of this text book can be applied only to four digit number, in this section we approximated all logarithmic calculations to four digits

Note

Example 3.23 Find (i) log 86.76 (ii) log 730.391 (iii) log 0.00421526

Solution (i) 86.76 = 8.676 # 10

1

(scientific notation)

**F rom the table, log 8.67 is 0.9380 Mean difference of 6 is
**

`

` The characteristic is 1. To find mantissa consider the number 8.676.

0.0003

log 8.676 = 0.9380 + 0.0003 = 0.9383 log 86.76 = 1.9383 (scientific notation)

(ii) 730.391 = 7.30391 # 102

approximate it as 7.304 (since 9 in the fourth decimal place is greater than 5) From the table, log 7.30 is 0.8633 Mean difference of 4 is

` log 730.391 = 2.8635

` The characteristic is 2. To find mantissa consider the number 7.30391 and

0.0002

log 7.304 = 0.8633 + 0.0002 = 0.8635

(iii) 0.00421526 = 4.21526 # 10- 3

(scientific notation)

approximate it as 4.215 (since 2 in the fourth decimal place is less than 5). From the table, log 4.21 is 0.6243 Mean difference of 5 is 0.0005 log 4.215 = 0.6243 + 0.0005 = 0.6248

` log 0.00421526 = - 3 + 0.6248 = 3.6248

83

` The characteristic is –3. To find mantissa consider the number 4.21526 and

6709 (i) Characteristic is 1.6709 = 4. Taking logarithm on both sides.328 Mean difference of 2 is antilog 1.6709 = 0.122 (iii) Characteristic is .010 = 4.004 ` antilog 0.010 antilog 0.6294 + 0. the number contains one digit in its integral part.003 antilog 0.6 # 2.328 + 0.9645 = 92.163 .6709 From the table.118 + 0.2 . Solution From the table. So.009321 Solution Let x = 42. Mantissa is 0.163 (i) (ii) 23. the number contains one zero immediately following the decimal point. So.670 is 4.6 + log 2.9645 ` x = antilog 1.8652 = 73.25 Find (i) 42.326 is 2.8652.677 Mean difference of 9 is ` antilog 2.163 = 1.17 # 0. So. antilog 0. we get log x = log ^42. antilog of 0.004 = 2.3269 (iii) antilog 2.3351 = 1. Mantissa is 0. Mantissa is 0.331 ` (ii) Characteristic is 0.118 Mean difference of 9 is 0. antilog 0.15 84 .24 Find (i) antilog 1.04687 0.865 is 7.6 # 2.31 0.003 = 7.6 # 2.8652 (ii) antilog 0.687 Example: 3.3269 = 2.Chapter 3 Example 3.3269 From the table. the number contains two digits in its integral part.163h = log 42.677 + 0.8652 = 7.

4335 = .009321h = log 23.27 = 6^1. Taking logarithm on both sides.2159 Example: 3.4335 5 5 = ^.27h6 = 6 log 36.3343 = 1.2.3343 = 0.26 Find the value of (i) ^36.3749h4 (iii) 5 0.2956 = 0.4 + 2 + 0. we get 1 1 log x = log (0.3570 = 2275000000 (ii) Let x = ^0.2713) 5 .5 + 4.1 + 0.2956 = 2.3343 =.2956 = .2713) 5 = 1 log 0.2713 5 = 1 ^1.9694 = 1 + 0.2 + 1 + 0.1 .1 + 0.2713 = (0.5 + 4.5739h = .4 + 2. we get log x = log ^23.8867 ` x = antilog 1.1 + 0.17 # 0.2956 = .2 + 1.5739h = 4^.3343 ` x = antilog 1.3649 + 3.3749h4 = 4 log 0.9694 =.3649 .009321 .8867 = 0.3749 = 4^1.2956 = .3570 ` x = antilog 9.27h6 .009321 = 1.2713 Solution (i) Let x = ^36.4h + 4 + 0.1 + 0. we get log x = log ^0.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms (ii) Let x = 23.5595h = 9.3 + 0. Taking logarithm on both sides.8867 = 1. Taking logarithm on both sides.4335 5 5 5 =.3749h4 .3343 =.4335 5 = .2956 ` x = antilog 2.17 # 0.17 + log 0.4335h = .2 + 0.01975 = (iii) Let x 5 0. Taking logarithm on both sides. we get log x = log ^36.7703 85 .27h6 (ii) ^0.

8603) .23 = log 46.6263 = 2.3.5764 – 1.2) 2 Let x = = 3 (2.7206 .3 (0.0.23 3 H 1 3 = log 46. we get 46.Chapter 3 Example : 3.81) 3 # (4.log 4.3) 2 = 4 log 84.3 log 2.23) (ii) (84.81) # 4. we get (84.5) + log (0.7 # (65.3584 ` x = antilog2.7) # 65.81) # 4.8973 3 = 3.0064) 3 log x = log > 1 H 2 (72.3 3 2 = 4(1.log (2.log 4.0064 (84.0064 2 (72.7 + 1 log 65.2 (2.2) 2 .7 # (65.7076 + 1 (.log (62.3 + 0.5) # 3 0.5) # 62.23) (2.0064 .log (72.2 86 .5 .23 log x = log > 1 1 Taking logarithm on both sides.3461 – 0.0064) 3 .27 Simplify (i) (46.5) # (62.2687 = 2+0.0064) 3 (ii) Let x = = 2 1 2 (72.3) 2 Taking logarithm on both sides.5) # (0.3584 = 228.2 log 72.0897 + (–1+0.6263 2 = 1.6040 = 4.3 4 Solution (i) (46.2 (1.9724 = 0.3 (72.0.6693 + 0.8062) .3584 = 2.7) # 65.5 + 1 log 0.018 4 4 1 (84.4487) .2 46.1 (1.9269) + 1 (3.2687) = 3+0.81) .23 2 = 1.81) 3 # (4.2 .6040 ` x = antilog 0.9071 – 1.0897–1+0.8062) .5) # 3 0.5) # (0.7945) 3 2 = 7.1 log 62.2) 2 (2.81 .8142) .5) # 62.6693 + 1 (1.7 + log (65.5) # (62.3) 2 4 4 1 2 1 1 = log (84.5) .

2375 (ii) log 23.26 = log10 13. 5.00002375 Using logarithmic table find the value of the following. Taking logarithm on both sides. 2. (i) log 23. (i) log 23750 (iv) log 0.321 (v) log 0.(.6021 = 0. Write each of the following in scientific notation: (i) 92.0.7797 = 0.7797) = 0.0503 + 1 . Find the value of the following.00257 (vi) log 6.009243 (iii) 9243 (vi) 0.3826 (vi) antilog 2.0503 .26 # 1 log10 4 = 1.072 (iv) antilog 3.2732 87 (iii) antilog 1 .865 Exercise: 3.001364 (ii) log 9.0756 (ii) log 24.6021 log x = log ` 1.9243 (v) 0. 3.09243 (iv) 924300 Write the characteristic of each of the following (i) log 4576 (iv) log 0.0503 . (i) antilog 3.0503 .6037 (ii) antilog 1.5 (vi) log 6576 Using antilogarithmic table find the value of the following.1225 .26 # log4 10 = log10 13.0.2706 = 1.375 (vi) log 0.3 1.log 0.6021 = log 1.1.759 (v) antilog 0.3576.6021 Then x = 1.1225 = x (say) 0.1 + 0. 4.7797 = 1.1225 . we get 0.453 The mantissa of log 23750 is 0.43 (ii) 0.9876 (iii) log 329.2706 ` x = antilog 0.56 (v) log 0.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms Example 3.26 [ a log a M = log b M # log a b ] [ a log a b = 1 ] log b a Solution log4 13.7797 = 0.28 Find the value of log4 13.2798 (iii) log 0.17 (iv) log 0.75 (v) log 23750000 (iii) log 2.1798 .1225 j 0.

� Product rule : log a (M # N) = log a M + log a N � Quotient rule : log a ` M j = log a M .23 # 22. Evaluate: (i) 816.log a N N � Power rule : log a (M) = n log a M � Change of base rule : log a M = log b M # log a b.7214 # 20.49h5 (viii) 3 (iii) 0.42 (v) ^50.3 ' 37.75h5 # 0. b ! 1 n x 88 . then x is said to be the logarithm of b to the base a.56 (x) 3 0.04623 46.928 ^42.28 (xii) log3 7 Points to Remember � A number N is in scientific notation when it is expressed as the product of a decimal number 1 # a 1 10 and some integral power of 10.000645 # 82.4 3 3 28 # 5 729 (ix) ^76.09782 (vii) 175. where 1 # a 1 10 and n is an integer .3 # 37.Chapter 3 6.35 (xi) log9 63.25h # 1.8 (ii) 816.3 (vi) 3 561. � If a = b (a > 0. which is written x = log a b .3421 ' 0.42 (iv) 0. N = a # 10 n . a ! 1) .159 1828.37 69. a ! 1.

By the early decades of the twentieth century. instead of simple approximations 4. algebra had evolved into the study of axiomatic systems. 4. and the subject has found applications in all branches of mathematics and in many of the sciences as well.) Diophantus was a Hellenistic mathematician who lived circa 250 AD. Diophantus (200 to 284 A. perspicuously. and it is different from Babylonian mathematics in that Diophantus is concerned primarily with exact solutions. ● To use Remainder Theorem.D. a treatise that was originally thirteen books but of which only the first six have survived. Algebra has been developed over a period of 4000 years. But. Important new results have been discovered. ● To use Factor Theorem. He is known for having written Arithmetica. only by the middle of the 17th Century the representation of elementary algebraic problems and relations looked much as it is today.D. The history of algebra began in ancient Egypt and Babylon. or 214 to 298 A. both determinate and indeterminate. Arithmetica has very little in common with traditional Greek mathematics since it is divorced from geometric methods.1 Introduction The language of algebra is a wonderful instrument for expressing shortly. whereby several unknowns are involved. ● To use algebraic identities. but the uncertainty of this date is so great that it may be off by more than a century. where people learned to solve linear (ax = b) and quadratic (ax2 + bx = c) equations. as well as indeterminate equations such as x2 + y2 = z2. This axiomatic approach soon came to be called modern or abstract algebra. suggestively and the exceedingly complicated relations in which abstract things stand to one another.2 Algebraic Expressions An algebraic expression is an expression formed from any combination of numbers and variables by using the 89 . ● To factorize a polynomial.CARL BOYER Main Targets ● To classify polynomials. ● To solve linear equations in two variables.Algebra ALGEBRA Mathematics is as much an aspect of culture as it is a collection of algorithms . ● To solve linear inequation in one variable.

An algebraic expression with two or more terms is called a multinomial.y . it is called an algebraic sum. the trinomial . which involves no y 2 2 variables. For instance. . 7. the coefficient of z 2 y y is . 2 The degree of a term in a polynomial is the sum of the exponents of all the variables in 7 3 2 that term.+ 3 x . is called a numerical coefficient. subtraction.+ 3 x .y .Chapter 4 operations of addition. the trinomial 2 4 3x y + 2 xy . in the term .4 is not a polynomial.12x y . and an algebraic expression with three terms is called a trinomial. the term . An algebraic expression with two terms is called a binomial.1 . however. x . whereas . we mean an algebraic expression that contains no variables at all. Each part. The coefficients of the polynomial above are 3. A term such as . The constant term is always regarded as having degree zero. Terms such as 5x y and .3 Polynomials A polynomial is an algebraic expression. y y Any part of a term that is multiplied by the remaining part of the term is called the 2 2 coefficient of the remaining part. together with the sign preceding it is called a term. A constant. 2 and . 2 1 4. and the term 3x has degree one. For instance. 2 2 2 For instance. in the polynomial 9xy . or extraction of roots. 5x . If an algebraic expression consists of part connected by plus or minus signs. the term 9xy 7 has degree 1 + 7 3 2 = 8. An algebraic expression such as 4rr can be considered as an algebraic expression 2 consisting of just one term. which differ only in their numerical coefficients. one should regard a variable with no exponent as being power one. the resulting number is called the value of the expression for these values of variables.2xy. The numerical coefficients of the terms in a polynomial are called the coefficients of the polynomial. 2x . the terms are 3x y .2 .4x . the expression 3x + 2xy is a binomial.1 is a polynomial in the variables x and y . are called like terms or similar terms.1 which 2 2 contains no variables. If numbers are substituted for the variables in an algebraic expression.12x yz + 3x .1 . is called a constant term of the polynomial.2xy. 4xy + 1 By an algebraic expression in certain variables. For instance. exponentiation (raising powers).4xz and rx. in the 2 2 2 2 1 1 algebraic sum 3x y . Such a one-termed expression is called a monomial. division.4xz + rx.3y + 1 . A coefficient such as –4.12x yz has degree 3 + 1 + 2 = 6.4xz . multiplication. For instance. in which no variables appear in denominators 1 or under radical signs. and all variables that do appear are powers of positive integers. whereas the coefficient of xz is –4. For instance. 90 . we mean an expression that contains only 3 those variables. rr and rr r + h are algebraic expressions. In adding exponents.4 is a trinomial.

are the n terms of the polynomial p^ xh . Key Concept Polynomial in One Variable A polynomial in one variable x is an algebraic expression of the form p(x) = an x + an . Trinomial Polynomials which have only three terms are named as trinomials. the coefficient of x2 is 5.1 .Algebra The degree of the highest degree term that appears with nonzero coefficients in a For instance.1 x n n-1 + g + a2 x + a1 x + a0 . a2 x2.1 Polynomials in One Variable In this section we consider only polynomials in one variable.3. 3x and . 3. an ! 0 2 where a0. The three terms of the polynomial are 5x2. 2 Here n is the degree of the polynomial and a1. x respectively. gx . an are the coefficients of n-1 x.1 . the coefficient of x is 3 and –1 is the constant term.2 Types of Polynomials Key Concept Monomial Polynomials which have only one term are known as monomials. this particular polynomial is not assigned a degree. 4. x . a2. 91 Types of Polynomials Based on Number of Terms Note . g. Binomial Polynomials which have only two terms are called binomials. in the polynomial 5x2 + 3x .1. 2. A binomial is the sum of two monomials of different degrees. an x n. a0 is the constant term. the polynomial considered above has degree 8. g. For example. an . Although the constant polynomial is called the degree of the polynomial.1. 4.1 x n . a0. an are constants and n is a non negative integer.3. a1.1. A polynomial is a monomial or the sum of two or more monomials. a1 x. an . A trinomial is the sum of three monomials of different degrees. monomial 0 is regarded as a polynomial. a2. an . g. 1.

Example 4. 4x . b. Quadratic Polynomial A polynomial of degree two is called a quadratic polynomial.u are binomials as they contain only two terms.x2 + 4x + 1 2 (vi) p (x) = –7 (v) p (x) = x + 3 (iv) p (x) = 3x (vii) p^ xh = x3 + 1 (x) p (x) = 3 2 (viii) p (x) = 5x . y and 6 are monomials because they have only one term. y + y + y and 2u + u + 3 are trinomials as they contain only three terms. 2 General form: p (x) = ax + bx + c where a. c and d are real numbers and a ! 0 . b and c are real numbers and a ! 0. where a. x3 . General form : p (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d . General form : p (x) = c. General form : p (x) = ax+b. where a and b are real numbers and a ! 0 .1 Classify the following polynomials based on number of terms. 4 23 4 4 3 20 18 2 3 2 4x + 2x + 1. (i) x .3x + 2 (xi) p (x) = 3 x + 1 92 2 (ix) p (x) = 4x (xii) p (y) = y3 + 3y . Linear Polynomial A polynomial of degree one is called a linear polynomial. y + 1 and u .Chapter 4 Key Concept Types of Polynomials Based on the Degree Constant Polynomial A polynomial of degree zero is called a constant polynomial. Example 4.u4 4 (iv) 4x3 (viii) y + y + y (xii) y 20 18 2 Solution 5x . where c is a real number. 5 2 (i) p (x) = 3 (ii) p (y) = 2 y + 1 (iii) p^ xh = 2x3 . 3x .x (v) x + 2 (ix) 6 2 3 3 2 (ii) 5x (vi) 3x2 (x) 2u3 + u2 + 3 (iii) 4x4 + 2x3 + 1 (vii) y + 1 (xi) u23 . Cubic Polynomial A polynomial of degree three is called a cubic polynomial.2 Classify the following polynomials based on their degree.x2. x + 2.

2 = 0 2 p (1) = (1) . p (x) = –7.x .2 = 4 . p (. Exercise: 4.3x2 (ii) 5y + 2 (iii) 12 . p (y) = 5 y + 1. since the highest degree of the variable x is one.2 2 p (2) = (2) .x3 + x .1 . p (x) = 3x are quadratic polynomials.3 Zeros of a Polynomial Consider the polynomial p^ xh = x2 .3.1) . –2 and 0 are the values of the polynomial p^ xh at x = –1.2 =.1 1. (i) 2 + 3x . 4. (i) 2x5 .3x + 2.2 .2 . 1 and 2 respectively.1 (v) 3 t + 2t (vi) x3 + y3 + z6 x Write the coefficient of x2 and x in each of the following.Algebra Solution p (x) = 3.4 (ii) 4x3 .2 .(. 93 . 4.6 (ii) 3x2 . p (x) = 3 are constant polynomials.1 . since the highest degree of the variable is three. p (y) = y3 + 3y are cubic polynomials. p (x) = 4x .1) . (i) 4 . p (x) = x3 + 1 . p (x) = 5x .1 (v) 4x3 (iii) y + 3 (vi) 2x Give one example of a binomial of degree 27 and monomial of degree 49 and trinomial of degree 36. 3. since the 2 highest degree of the variable is two.2 = 0 2 That is. Give reasons for your answer. 2 p (x) = x + 3 .1 (iv) 1 x2 + x + 6 3 Write the degree of each of the following polynomials. 0. 2. x = 1 and x = 2 .x2 + 4x + 1 .2x + 1 (iii) y3 + 2 3 (iv) x .x + 4x3 (iv) 5 Classify the following polynomials based on their degree. p (x) = 3 x + 1 are linear polynomials.1 . 2 2 2 p^ xh = 2x3 .4x2 + x3 (ii) 3 x + 1 (iii) x3 + 2 x2 + 4x . 5. Let us find the values of p^ xh at x =.2 = 1 + 1 . (i) 3x2 + 2x + 1 (iv) y2 .2 = 1 .1) = (. State whether the following expressions are polynomials in one variable or not.

94 .3 (.7 .3 (2) + 7 (2) .1h = 5 (.3 = 2` x .9 ` p^2h = 33 3 2 3 2 Example 4.x .9 = .9 . x = –1 is a zero of the polynomial p^ xh = x2 .1h (ii) p^2h Note Solution Given that p^ xh = 5x3 . find (i) p^. p (2) = 0 at x = 2.2 .9 = 40 .1h = .Chapter 4 If the value of a polynomial is zero for some value of the variable then that value is known as zero of the polynomial. 2 (ii) Given that p^ xh = x .We have 2 3 3 3 p` j = 2` .2 Solution (i) Given that p^ xh = 2x . This result was so important that it became known as the fundamental theorem of algebra. Key Concept Zeros of Polynomial Let p^ xh be a polynomial in x.3 (ii) p^ xh = x .j = 2^0h = 0 2 2 2 Hence x = 3 is the zero of p^ xh .2 . then we say that a is a zero of the polynomial p^ xh .1) .1) + 7 (.9 ` p^. Similarly. Now.3 If p^ xh = 5x3 . = 2-2 = 0 p^2h Hence x = 2 is the zero of p^ xh .24 p^2h = 5 (2) . Since p^.1h = 0.3x2 + 7x . (i) p^ xh = 2x .3 . Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) had proven in his doctoral thesis of 1798 that the polynomial equations of any degree n must have exactly n solutions in a certain very specific sense. Number of zeros of a polynomial # the degree of the polynomial.3 j . If p^ah = 0. The exact sense in which that theorem is true is the subject of the other part of the story of algebraic numbers.5 .12 + 14 . ( 2 is also a zero of p^ xh .3x2 + 7x .4 Find the zeros of the following polynomials.9 (i) (ii) p^.1) . Example 4.

2 = 0. Consider the polynomial p^ xh = x . Key Concept Root of a Polynomial Equation If x = a satisfies the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0.3 (2) .3x .3. ` p^2h = 2 (2) .3x . consider the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0. x = 2.14 = 0.Algebra 4.9 .2 = 7 ! 0 ` x = 3 is not a root of 2x2 . x .6 = 0 ` x (ii) Given that 2x + 1 = 0 ( 2x = . Example 4. x = 1.6 = 0 ( x = 6 = 6 is a root of x . then x = a is called a root of the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0 .1 = 0.6 Verify whether the following are roots of the polynomial equations indicated against them.Now. The value x = 1 is called the root of the polynomial equation p^ x h = 0 . (i) 2x2 .1 . 2 Solution (i) Let p^ xh = 2x2 .1 = 0 implies x = 1 . Clearly 1 is the zero of the polynomial p^ xh = x . that is. Hence zeros of a polynomial are the roots of the corresponding polynomial equation.3x .5 Find the roots of the following polynomial equations (i) x . x .1 2 = . Then p^ xh = 0 is called a polynomial equation in x .2 = 8 .2 .4 Roots of a Polynomial Equations Let p^ xh be a polynomial expression in x.2 = 18 .6 .3x .6 = 0 (ii) 2x + 1 = 0 Solution (i) Given that x .2 = 0 95 .2 = 0 2 2 But p^3 h = 2 (3) . 3 (ii) x3 + 8x2 + 5x .1 is a root of 2x + 1 = 0 ` x 2 Example 4.3 (3) .1 ( x = .2 = 0 x = 2 is a root of 2x2 .1 . Now.

Solution Let p^ xh = 4x3 . If p^ xh is divided by ^ax + bh . 3 (ii) x2 + 4x + 3 = 0.2 1.1 (i) x .14 = 0 x = 1 is a root of x3 + 8x2 + 5x . ax .5 (1) + 6 (1) .1 . Note Example 4. then the remainder is p^. (i) x2 . then the remainder is p`.7 Find the remainder when 4x3 .5x + 6 = 0.ah .1 .b and a a ax + b respectively.3 = 0 (ii) p (x) = 3x + 5 (ii) 5x .14 = 1 + 8 + 5 .2x2 .14 = 36 ! 0 x = 2 is not a root of x3 + 8x2 + 5x . 2. then the remainder is p` b j . x = . If p^ xh is divided by ^ x + ah .14 = 0 3 2 3 2 ` ` But p^2h = (2) + 8 (2) + 5 (2) . Find the zeros of the following polynomials (i) p (x) = 4x .2 is divided by x .1h the remainder is p^1 h . and .a . = 4 (1) .5x2 + 6x . If p^ xh is divided by ^ax .2x2 . 96 . Verify Whether the following are roots of the polynomial equations indicated against them.2 . then the remainder is p^ah . 3 (iii) x3 .bh . .1 .14 = 0 Exercise 4.5x2 + 6x .are the zeros of the divisors x + a .b j .2 p^1 h = 4-5+6-2 = 3 3 2 ` The remainder is 3. Now.4 Remainder Theorem Remainder Theorem Let p^ xh be any polynomial and a be any real number. a 3.9x = 0 Find the roots of the following polynomial equations. x = 1.x + 2 = 0. If p^ xh is divided by the linear polynomial x . 3.2 . x = . 2 (iv) x3 . a b b 4 Here . 2.Chapter 4 (ii) Let p^ xh = x3 + 8x2 + 5x .5x + 6 = 0.a . The zero of x . 1.14 = 8 + 32 + 10 . 2. When p^ xh is divided by ^ x . 3 4. x = 2.1 is 1.14 p^1 h = (1) + 8 (1) + 5 (1) .6 = 0 (iii) p (x) = 2x (iii) 11x + 1 = 0 (iv) p (x) = x + 9 (iv) .

The zero of x + 2 is .9 = 13 16 .7 (.6 (2) + 5a (2) .8 .7x2 . 3 Given that p^2h = 13 2 2 (2) .6^4h + 10a .2h = (. p^.8 . p^.17 = 13 10a = 30 ` a = 3 Example 4.6x2 + 5ax .(. When p^ xh is divided by ^ x + ah the remainder is p^. Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 .a) .3x + a .a) + a (.x + 6 is divided by ^ x + 2h . the remainder is p^.28 Example 4.ah . Now.10 Find the remainder when x3 + ax2 . Solution Let p^ xh = x3 + ax2 . When p^ xh is divided by x + 2 .28 + 2 + 6 = .3 (.ah = (.9 = 13 ( 2^8 h . 97 3 2 .2) .24 + 10a .9 .a3 + a3 + 4a = 4a ` The remainder is 4a .2) .3x + a is divided by x + a .2 .8 Find the remainder when x3 .9 = 13 10a . Solution Let p^ xh = x3 .2h the remainder is p^2h .2) + 6 = .9 leaves the remainder 13 when it is divided by x .x + 6 .a) + a = .7^4h + 2 + 6 = .9 Find the value of a if 2x3 .2h .2 .28 3 2 ` The remainder is .Algebra Example 4.7x2 .6x2 + 5ax . When p^ xh is divided by ^ x .

3h the remainder is q^3 h .11 Find the remainder when f^ xh = 12x3 .2 j .2 j + 7 3 3 3 3 = 12`. . That is. p^3 h = 2 (3) + a (3) + 4 (3) . Now.24 ` a = .8 j . 3 3 2 f`.3h = 54 . we get p^3 h = 54 + 9^.5x + 7 .2 j .54 8a = . Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 + ax2 + 4x . Now.12 and x3 + x2 .Chapter 4 Example 4.12 (1) 2 3 2 = 2^27h + a^9h + 12 .2 j = 12`.3 in p^3 h . 54 + 9a = 30 + a ( By (1) and (2) ) 9a .52 + 10 + 7 = 9 = 1 9 9 3 9 ` The remainder is 1. Also find the remainder. Now.12 = 54 + 9a When q^ xh is divided by ^ x .27 = 27 98 ` The remainder is 27.12 .13x2 .a = 30 . Example 4.24 = . q^ xh = x3 + x2 .3 8 Substituting a = .2x + a leave the same remainder when divided by ^ x .13` 4 j + 10 + 7 27 9 3 = .3h the remainder is p^3 h .2 j .5`.5x + 7 is divided by ^3x + 2h .12 If the polynomials 2x3 + ax2 + 4x .2x + a When p^ xh is divided by ^ x .3h .32 . When f^ xh is divided by ^3x + 2h the remainder is f`. find the value of a . Solution f^ xh = 12x3 . q^3 h = (3) + (3) .13`.2 (3) + a (2) 3 = 27 + 9 .13x2 .6 + a = 30 + a Given that p^3 h = q^3 h .

If ^ x .28 (5) + 15 3 2 = 2^125h .mx + 9 leave the same remainder when they are divided by ^ x .28x + 15 .2h .18x + 14 is divided by x + 1 (vii) x3 .m and 2x3 . If the polynomials x3 + 3x2 .3 the remainder is 28.3 1. Note If ( x–a) is a factor of p^ xh .2x2 + 25x . 4. if p^5h = 0. Also find the remainder. 5. Find the value of a .4 is divided by x + 3 (v) 4x3 .6x2 + mx + 60 leaves the remainder 2 when divided by ^ x + 2h . 2.5x + 8 is divided by x . 4. p^5h = 2 (5) .28x + 15 .140 + 15 = 250 .5h is a factor of p^ xh .a When the polynomial 2x3 .5h is a factor of p^ xh = 2x3 . If p^ah = 0.140 + 15 = 0 ` ^ x .12x2 + 11x .1 (ii) 5x3 + 2x2 .5h is a factor of the polynomial p^ xh = 2x3 .5^25h .5 is divided by 2x .8 is divided by x .125 .ax2 + 9x . then ( x–a) is a factor of p^ xh .Algebra Exercise 4.26 without remainder find the value of m .5x2 . when (i) 3x3 + 4x2 . then ^ x . find the value of m .5x2 .5x + 2a is divided by x . Find the value of m if x3 . 3.ax2 .5 Factor Theorem Factor Theorem Let p^ xh be a polynomial and a be any real number.1h divides mx3 .2 (iv) 4x3 . Find the remainder using remainder theorem. 99 .2x2 .4x2 + 7x + 6 is divided by x .6x + 12 is divided by x + 2 (iii) 2x3 .5 (5) . Solution By factor theorem.3x2 + 2x . Now.13 Determine whether ^ x .1 (vi) 8x4 + 12x3 . then p^ah = 0 Example 4.

2h is a factor of p^ xh if p^2h = 0. (i) 6x4 + 7x3 .Chapter 4 Example 4.5x . 2.6x2 + 5x + 4 .9x2 + x + 12 . By factor theorem.6x2 + 5x + 4 .1h is a factor of 4x3 .9` 9 j + 3 + 12 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 = 27 . p^2h = 2 (2) .^ x . 100 .1 ) is a factor of x3 + 5x2 + mx + 4 .6^4h + 10 + 4 = 16 .9x2 + x + 12 . Example 4.9x2 + x + 12 . 3.2h is a factor of the polynomial 2x3 . Using factor theorem show that ^ x .15 Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 . ^2x . Since ^ x . By factor theorem.81 + 6 + 48 = 0 4 4 2 4 ` ^2x . 2 3 2 p` 3 j = 2` 3 j . Solution Let p^ xh = x3 + 5x2 + mx + 4 .6x . Now. Now.3h is a factor of p^ xh if p` 3 j = 0.6x2 + 9x .16 Determine the value of m if ( x .81 + 3 + 12 = 27 .2h is not a factor of 2x3 .14x2 + 3x + 12 Determine whether ^ x + 4h is a factor of x3 + 3x2 .3h is a factor of 2x3 .4 (iii) 3x3 + 8x2 .3h is a factor of 2x3 . Determine whether ^2x + 1h is a factor of 4x3 + 4x2 .7 .3x2 .5x + 36 . the remainder p^1 h = 0.10 3 2 1. Now.1h is a factor of p^ xh .4 Determine whether ^ x + 1h is a factor of the following polynomials (ii) 2x4 + 9x3 + 2x2 + 10x + 15 (iv) x3 .9` 3 j + 3 + 12 = 2` 27 j . 5.6x2 + 5x + 5 . Determine the value of p if ^ x + 3h is a factor of x3 .24 + 10 + 4 = 6 ! 0 3 2 ` ^ x .px + 24 . p^1 h = 0 ( (1) + 5 (1) + m (1) + 4 = 0 (1 + 5 + m + 4 = 0 m + 10 = 0 ` m = .5 Exercise 4. 4. Example 4.1 . Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 .14 Determine whether ^ x .6 (2) + 5 (2) + 4 = 2^8 h . Determine whether ^2x .x .

1 Expansion of the Trinomial (x ! y ! z) 2 (x + y + z) = (x + y + z) (x + y + z) = x (x + y + z) + y (x + y + z) + z (x + y + z) = x2 + xy + xz + yx + y2 + yz + zx + zy + z2 = x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx 2 2 2 2 2 (x + y + z) / x + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx 101 .5yh (iv) ^ y + 7h^ y + 5h Solution (i) (2a + 3b) = (2a) + 2^2ah^3bh + (3b) 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 4a + 12ab + 9b 2 2 (ii) (3x . We have learnt the following identities in class VIII.b) / a .6 Algebraic Identities Key Concept Algebraic Identities An identity is an equality that remains true regardless of the values of any variables that appear within it.24xy + 16y 2 (iii) ^4x + 5yh^4x .25y (iv) 2 ^ y + 7h^ y + 5h = y + ^7 + 5h y + ^7h^5h 2 = y + 12y + 35 4. Using these identities let us solve some problems and extend the identities to trinomials and third degree expansions.2ab + b Example 4.17 Expand the following using identities (i) (2a + 3b) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a + b) (a .4y) = (3x) .Algebra 4. (a + b) / a + 2ab + b (a .2^3xh^4yh + (4y) 2 2 2 = 9x .(5y) 2 2 = 16x .4y) 2 (iii) ^4x + 5yh^4x .6.5yh = (4x) .b) / a .b 2 2 ^ x + ah^ x + bh / x2 + ^a + bh x + ab (ii) (3x .

9m .6nh^7lh = 49l + 81m + 36n .6n) + 2^7lh^.2xy .z) / x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy .2zx (iv) (x .2xy + 2yz .9m .2r) 2 (iv) (7l .2r) + 2 (3p)^5qh + 2^5qh^.2zx 2 2 2 Example 4.7b + 4c) = (3a) + (.z) / x + y + z .56bc + 24ca 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (iii) (3p + 5q .9mh + 2^.7b) + (4c) + 2^3ah^.7bh + 2^.84nl 4.2r h^3ph = 9p + 25q + 4r + 30pq .9mh^.2yz + 2zx = 6 x + (.y) + z @2 2 2 2 (x .18 Expand (i) (2x + 3y + 5z) 2 2 (ii) (3a .20qr .12rp 2 2 2 (iv) (7l .7b + 4c) 2 (iii) (3p + 5q .6n) Solution (i) 2 (2x + 3y + 5z) = (2x) + (3y) + (5z) + 2^2xh^3yh + 2^3yh^5zh + 2^5zh^2xh 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 4x + 9y + 25z + 12xy + 30yz + 20zx 2 2 2 (ii) (3a .2 Identities Involving Product of Binomials ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch = 6^ x + ah^ x + bh@^ x + ch 2 2 2 3 2 2 = x + (a + b) x + abx + cx + c (a + b) x + abc = 6 x2 + ^a + bh x + ab @^ x + ch = x3 + (a + b + c) x2 + (ab + bc + ca) x + abc ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch / x3 + ^a + b + ch x2 + ^ab + bc + cah x + abc 102 .2yz + 2zx 2 2 In the same manner we get the expansion for the following (iii) (x + y .y) (z) + 2 (z) (x) 2 2 2 = x + y + z .7bh^4ch + 2^4ch^3ah = 9a + 49b + 16c .y + z) 2 / x2 + y2 + z2 .9m) + (.126lm + 108mn .y + z) 2 = x + (.y .2xy .2r) 2 = (3p) + (5q) + (.42ab .Chapter 4 (ii) (x .6nh + 2^.y) + 2 (.y) + z + 2 (x) (.2r h + 2^.2yz .6n) 2 2 2 = (7l) + (.6.

y3 (x .3h^.3h ^ x + 2h^ x + 5h^ x + 7h 2 2 = x + 14x + (10 + 35 + 14) x + 70 = x + 14x + 59x + 70 = a + (.5h^5h^.3.4.5h^a . we get (or) (x .3h^a .3h@ 3 3 2 = 8a + (.12a .3 .4.3) 4a + (.3h^.y) Using these identities of 4.50a + 75 103 2 .5h^5h + ^5h^.19 Find the product of (i) ^ x + 2h^ x + 5h^ x + 7h (ii) ^a .6. let us solve the following problems.3h@ a + ^. Example 4.7h@ 2 = a .7) a + 6^.y3 .7h^.5h@62a + 5 @62a + ^.y) 3 / x3 .5h@6 a + ^.Algebra 4.7h + ^.3h = 62a + ^.3x2 y + 3xy2 .3 Expansion of (x ! y) 3 In the above identity by substituting a = b = c = y.3h@6 a + ^.2 and 4.105 = a .15 + 15) 2a + 75 = 8a .5h^. we get ^ x + yh^ x + yh^ x + yh = x3 + ^ y + y + yh x2 + 6^ yh^ yh + ^ yh^ yh + ^ yh^ yh@ x + ^ yh^ yh^ yh (x + y) 3 = x3 + ^3yh x2 + ^3y2h x + y3 (or) = x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 (x + y) 3 / x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 (x + y) 3 / x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y) Replacing y by .15a + 71a .7h Solution (i) (ii) (iii) = x + ^2 + 5 + 7h x + 6^2h^5h + ^5h^7h + ^7h^2h@ x + ^2h^5h^7h 3 3 3 2 (iii) ^2a .25 .5h^.3xy (x .3h 3 2 3 2 ^2a .5h^2a + 5h^2a .7h 3 3 2 ^a .5 .5h@^2ah + ^.105 = (2a) + (.7h = 6 a + ^.3h + ^.5h + ^.3) (2a) + 6^.5h^2a + 5h^2a .5 + 5 .5h^a .15a + (15 + 35 + 21) a .3h^.y) 3 / x3 .3h^a .y in the above identity.

ab +bc +ca =25 find a + b + c .20 If a + b + c = 15.(3y) = 8x .yh) = 1000000000 .y / ^ x .2997000 = 997002999 Some Useful Identities involving sum .1h 3 3 (a^ x .Chapter 4 Example 4.3xy^ x .3y) 3 2 3 Solution (3a + 4b) = (3a) + 3 (3a) ^4bh + 3^3ah (4b) + (4b) = 27a + 108a b + 144ab + 64b 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 Example 4.22 (ii) (2x .21 (ii) (2x .1 .^1 h3 .difference and product of x and y x + y / ^ x + yh3 . 104 3 3 3 3 .3000 (999) = 1000000000 .50 = 175 Expand (i) (3a + 4b) (i) 3 3 Example 4. So. (i) ^105h3 (i) ^105h3 = ^100 + 5h3 (ii) ^999h3 Solution = ^100h3 + ^5h3 + 3^100h^5h^100 + 5h (a^ x + yh3 = x + y + 3xy^ x + yh) = 1000000 + 125 + 1500^105h = 1000000 + 125 + 157500 = 1157625 3 3 (ii) ^999h3 = ^1000 .3y) = (2x) .y .yh3 = x .27y Evaluate each of the following using suitable identities.1 .36x y + 54xy .yh3 + 3xy^ x .yh Let us solve some problems involving above identities. 2 2 2 2 2 15 = a + b + c + 2^25h 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Solution We have (a + b + c) = a + b + c + 2^ab + bc + cah . 2 2 225 = a + b + c + 50 2 ` a + b + c = 225 .3xy^ x + yh x .3^1000h^1 h^1000 .1h3 =^1000h3 .3 (2x) ^3yh + 3 (2x) (3y) .

1 m + 3 c y .3zx) 3 3 3 2 2 2 = (x) + (2y) + (3z) .y if x .24 Find x .23 Find x + y if x + y = 4 and xy = 5 3 3 3 3 Solution We know that x + y = ^ x + yh3 .xy .25 3 If x + 1 = 5.zx) Note If x + y + z = 0 then x3 + y3 + z3 = 3xyz Example 4.^2yh^3zh .^3zh^ xh@ ` (x + 2y + 3z)(x + 4y + 9z . find the value of y3 .3zxh 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 Solution We know that.yh ` x .13 y y 3 3 3 Solution We know that.yh3 + 3xy^ x .3xy^ x + yh Example 4. x .3xyz 2 = ^ x + 2y + 3zh 6 x + ^2yh2 + ^3zh2 .yh + 3xy^ x .yh 3 3 ` y .26 If y .1 = 9 .yz .zx) = x + y + z .2xy .6yz .3^5h^4h = 64 .60 = 4 3 3 Solution We know that x .y = ^ x .15 = 110 Example 4.3 (5) = 125 .27 Simplify ^ x + 2y + 3zh^ x + 4y + 9z .y = ^5h3 + 3^16h^5h = 125 + 240 = 365 3 3 Example 4.1 m y y y 3 = 729 + 27 = 756 (9) 3 (9) = + The following identity is frequently used in higher studies x3 + y3 + z3 .3xy^ x + yh 3 3 x + 13 = ` x + 1 j .18xyz 105 .13 = c y . (x + y + z) (x + y + z .3` x + 1 j ` x x x 3 = (5) .y = 5 and xy = 16 3 3 3 3 ` x + y = ^4h3 .2xy .Algebra Example 4.3xyz / (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 .yz .xy .y = ^ x .3 (x) (2y) (3z) 3 3 3 = x + 8y + 27z . find the value of x + 13 x x 3 3 Solution We know that x + y = ^ x + yh3 .^ xh^2yh .6yz .

Then 3 3 x + y + z = 12 + 13 . Expand the following (i) ^5x + 2y + 3zh2 Find the expansion of (i) ^ x + 1h^ x + 4h^ x + 7h (iii) ^ x + 5h^ x .5zh^ x + 9y + 25z + 3xy .4h^ p + 6h (iv) ^ x . 1 + 1 + 1 and a b c 2 2 2 a +b +c . 6. then x + y + z = 3xyz .3y .10x + 45x .7h (ii) ^2a + 3b .ah^ x . Evaluate using identities : (i) 6 . Expand : (i) ^3a + 5bh3 Evaluate : (i) 99 3 3 3 (ii) ^4x .8zxh 2 2 2 (ii) ^ x . x x 2 2 2 ^ Simplify : (i) ^2x + y + 4zh 4x + y + 16z .ch2 (iii) ^ x .13 .1h (v) ^3x + 1h^3x + 2h^3x + 5h (ii) ^ p + 2h^ p . 11.10 3 3 3 .y .25 Solution Let x = 12 . z =. 9.3 m y 3 (v) 1002 Find 8x + 27y if 2x + 3y = 13 and xy = 6 .25 = 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 If x + y + z = 0 .5h^2x .11700 Exercise 4. 4. x term and constant term.5 1.5xh^5x + 3h 3 2 If ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch / x .3h^ x . y = 13 .25h = . 2.25h3 = 3^12h (13)^. 10.1 = 3.Chapter 4 Example 4.2y .25 .3yh3 3 (ii) 101 (iii) 98 3 (iv) 102 3 3 (iii) c2y . 7.28 3 3 3 Evaluate 12 + 13 .y =. 3 If x + 1 = 4. x x 3 If x .2ah^ x . ` 12 + 13 .4ah (vi) ^2x + 3h^2x . find the value of x .2xy .2q + r h2 Using algebraic identities find the coefficients of x2 term.6 and xy = 4 .4yz .4zh2 (iv) ^ p . find the value of x + 13 .15 find a + b + c . find the value of x .25 = 12 + 13 + ^.5h^ x . 3.9 + 3 106 (ii) 16 . If x . 5.6 .4h^ x + 2h (iii) ^2x + 3h^2x + 5h^2x + 7h (iv) ^5x + 2h^1 . 8.15yz + 5zxh 3 3 3 3 3 12. (i) ^ x + 7h^ x + 3h^ x + 9h (ii) ^ x .

10bx = ^4a . 5m +15 = 5^mh + 5^3 h = 5(m +3).2a + a 2 3 2 Now. 5 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 (iv) 6a .8bh + (5ax .8b + 5ax .2a + 1) = a .1 Factorization Using Identities (i) a + 2ab + b / (a + b) (ii) a . we will learn how to convert a sum or difference of expressions into a product of expressions.10bx (iii) 2a + 4a Solution (i) pq + pr .5h = ^b .bh (iv) a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca / (a + b + c) 107 2 2 2 2 .3ps = p (q + r .5h^b + gh Example 4.3ps (ii) 4a . Now. In both the terms.18a + 42a 5 3 2 (iv) 6a .xz (iii) a (a .29 Factorize the following (i) pq + pr .3s) (ii) 4a .18a + 42a = 6a (a .2b) = (a .b / ^a + bh^a . Similarly. (i) x^ x + yh = x + xy 2 (ii) x^ y .5h + g^b .7. consider ab + ac. by writing in the reverse direction ab + ac is a (b + c) . ab and ac ‘a’ is the common factor. a (b + c) = ab + ac .zh = xy . In b ( b – 5) + g (b – 5) clearly ( b – 5) is a common factor.2b) + 5x (a .b) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (or) a .18a + 42a 2 Highest common factor is 6a 5 3 2 2 3 ` 6a .Algebra 4.3a + 7) 4. b^b .7 Factorization of Polynomials We have seen how the distributive property may be used to expand a product of algebraic expressions into sum or difference of expressions.10bx) = 4 (a .2ab + b / (. For example.2b) (4 + 5x) 3 2 (iii) 2a + 4a Highest common factor is 2a ` 2a + 4a = 2a ^a + 2h .2ab + b / (a . Using the distributive law.8b + 5ax .This process of expressing ab + ac into a (b + c) is known as factorization.a + b) 2 2 2 (iii) a .

a) (2b) + 2 (2b)^.Chapter 4 Example 4.6) Solution 4x + y + 9z .16b = (3a) .1h = x 6(x ) .bh@6^a + bh .15c + 6a .yh^.16b 2 5 2 2 (v) 25 (a + 2b .2b) + (6) + 2 (a) (.(1) @ 2 2 5 4 2 2 2 ( v i ) x .4ab .ch@2 = 65^a + 2b .6) 2 Example 4.2x + y + 3z) 2 108 .4ab .3c) .(4b) = ^3a + 4bh^3a .a + 2b .18ch^.bh@ ( v ) 25 (a + 2b .1h 2 2 4.1h2 (.1) ( i i i ) 9a .c) = 65^a + 2b .3z) + 2^2xh^.3c) .^a .4bh ( i v ) (a + b) .2b) + 2 (.3zh^2xh = (2x .32 Factorize 4x + y + 9z .12zx 2 2 2 2 2 2 (.b) 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) 16a .b .15c .b .a + 2b .63^2a .24b + 12a can be written as (a) + (.3b .4xy + 6yz .9 (2a .y) + (.3ch@2 .31 Factorize a + 4b + 36 .6h + 2^.b) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 o r ^1 .x 2 Solution (i) 4x + 12xy + 9y = (2x) + 2 (2x) (3y) + (3y) = (2x + 3y) 2 2 2 2 2 ( i i ) 16a .a + 13b .24b + 12a 2 2 2 2 2 Solution a + 4b + 36 .7.a + b) = ^2ah^2bh = ^4h^ah^ bh 2 = 6^a + bh + ^a .3z) 2 2 2 2 or (.ch@ = ^5a + 10b .3ch + 3^2a .3^2a .b .b) (a + b .6) 2 @ = ^.8a + 1 2 2 (iii) 9a .4xy + 6yz .1h (.6) 2 = (.a) + (2b) + (.(a .4ah 2 = (a + b + a .2 (4a)^1 h + (1) = (4a .y .2b + 6) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 or 2 That is (a .x = x^ x .ah = (.12ch 2 2 2 2 2 = x^ x + 1h^ x .b .30 Factorize (i) 4x + 12xy + 9y (iv) (a + b) .6a + 3b + 3ch = ^11a + 7b .(1) @ = x^ x + 1h^ x + 1h^ x .a + 2b .b .6) + 2 (.2 Factorization Using the Identity a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca / (a + b + c) Example 4.a + 2b .(a .1h = x^ x + 1h6(x) .6h^.yh + 2^.3zh + 2^.c) 2 2 (vi) x .3ch .2b + 6) 2 = 6^.9 (2a .8a + 1 = (4a) .12zx = (2x) + (.ch@ 65^a + 2b .3ch^5a + 10b .2b)^6h + 2^6h^ah = (a .

y) (x2 + xy + y2) Using the above identities let us factorize the following expressions.y3 / (x .3xy) = (x .3xy (x .(4y) 3 3 3 3 2 2 = (3x .y) (x2 .3x2 y + 3xy2 .y) (x2 + xy + y2) x3 .y We have x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 = (x + y) 3 .y) = (x .xy + y2) x3 + y3 / (x + y) (x2 .y3 = (x .64y 3 3 Solution (i) 8x + 125y = (2x) + (5y) 3 3 3 3 2 2 = (2x + 5y)6(2x) .7. Example 4.4yh^9x + 12xy + 16y h 2 2 109 .y3 .2xy + y2 + 3xy) = (x .y) 6(x . x3 .y) 3 . So.3 Factorization of x3 + y3 and x .64y = (3x) .xy + y2) We have x3 . So.y3 = (x .(2x) (5y) + (5y) @ = (2x + 5y)(4x .3xy (x + y) = (x + y) 6(x + y) 2 .3xy @ = (x + y) (x2 .y) 3 = (x .y) + 3xy @ 2 3 ( x3 .10xy + 25y ) (ii) 27x .y) = (x + y) (x2 + 2xy + y2 .Algebra 3 3 4.33 Factorize (i) 8x + 125y 3 3 (ii) 27x .y) + 3xy (x .4y)6(3x) + ^3xh^4yh + (4y) @ 2 2 = ^3x . x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y) = (x + y) 3 ( x3 + y3 = (x + y) 3 .

xz + ay .4 Factorization of the Quadratic Polynomials of the type ax2 + bx + c .6bc + 12ca (v) 25x + 4y + 9z .Chapter 4 Exercise 4.8y 3 3 3 (iii) a + 125 3 4.24xy + 16y (iv) 1 .4 2 2 (ii) 9x .12a (iii) 9x + y + 1 .Then we have x2 + bx + c = ^ x + ph^ x + qh = x^ x + ph + q^ x + ph = x2 + px + qx + pq = x2 + (p + q) x + pq to get x2 + bx + c = ^ x + ph^ x + qh This implies that the two numbers p and q are chosen in such way that c = pq and b = p + q.2y (iv) 4a + b + 9c .7. 4. a ! 0 So far we have used the identities to factorize certain types of polynomials. Factorize the following expressions: (i) 2a .30zx Factorize the following expressions: (i) 27x + 64y (iv) 8x .6 1.3a b + 2a c (iv) xy .4ab + 24b . suppose ^ x + ph and ^ x + qh are the two factors of x2 + bx + c .36x 2 2 2 Factorize the following expressions: (i) p + q + r + 2pq + 2qr + 2rp (ii) a + 4b + 36 .20xy + 12yz . 3.25x y 3 4 Factorize the following expressions: (i) x + 2x + 1 (iii) b .27y 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) m + 8 (v) x . 2.6xy + 6x . We use this basic idea to factorize the following problems 110 .4ab .az 3 2 2 (ii) 16x + 64x y (v) p + pq + pr + qr 2 2 (iii) 10x . In this section we will learn. without identities how to resolve quadratic polynomials into two linear polynomials when (i) a = 1 and (ii) a ! 1 (i) Factorizing the quadratic polynomials of the type x2 + bx + c .

9x + 14 Factors of 14 Sum of factors 1.3h here c = 6 = ^.12 = ^ x . –14 –15 –2. –7 = x^ x .7^ x .1h and ^+ 2h + ^.2h # ^.6h + ^+ 2h = .5 = b x2 + x .2h = ^ x .9x + 14 = ^ x .1h = 1 = b x2 .9x + 14 = x2 . x2 + 9x + 14 = x2 + 2x + 7x + 14 = x^ x + 2h + 7^ x + 2h = ^ x + 2h^ x + 7h ` x2 + 9x + 14 = ^ x + 7h^ x + 2h (ii) x2 . –7 –9 The required factors are –2. (1) x2 + 8x + 15 = ^ x + 3h^ x + 5h here c = 15 = 3 # 5 and 3 + 5 = 8 = b x2 .3h = .12 = ^.2h + ^. such that pq = 14 and p + q = 9.2x .15 (iv) x2 .2h^ x .1h here c = .2h^ x .4 = b (2) (3) (4) In the above examples the constant term is split into two factors such that their sum is equal to the coefficients of x . (ii) x2 .2 = ^+ 2h # ^.34 Factorize the following. 7 9 The required factors are 2.7x + 14 Factors of 14 Sum of factors –1. 14 15 2.9x + 14 (iii) x2 + 2x .7h 111 .7h ` x2 .4x .2h .9 x2 .2x . Example 4.2 = ^ x + 2h^ x .6h # ^+ 2h and ^.15 (i) x2 + 9x + 14 Solution (i) x2 + 9x + 14 To factorize we have to find p and q .2h^ x . 7 To factorize we have to find p and q such that pq = 14 and p + q = .3h and ^.Algebra For example.6h^ x + 2h here c = .5x + 6 = ^ x .

3h + 5^ x .2x .15 = x^ x .15 To factorize we have to find p and q .5h (ii) Factorizing the quadratic polynomials of the type ax2 + bx + c .15 Factors of –15 Sum of factors 1. we get c = pq . 5 2 The required factors are –3. such that pq = .5h ` x2 . whose product is ^ psh # ^qr h = ^ pr h # ^ sqh = ac Therefore. 112 .15 = x2 .15 and p + q = . to factorize ax2 + bx + c .15 = x2 + 3x .3x + 5x . Since a is different from 1. Step2 : Split this product into two factors such that their sum is equal to the coefficient of x . comparing the coefficients of x .3h^ x + 5h ` x2 + 2x . such that pq = .2x .15 = ^ x . 15 14 –3. –5 Factors of –15 Sum of factors –1.15 = ^ x + 3h^ x .3h^ x + 5h (iv) x2 . Then. Step3 : The terms are grouped into two pairs and factorize. the linear factors of ax2 + bx + c will be of the form ^rx + ph and ^ sx + qh .2 x2 . ax2 + bx + c = ^rx + ph ^ sx + qh = rsx2 + (ps + qr) x + pq Comparing the coefficients of x2 .5^ x + 3h = ^ x + 3h^ x .5x . Similarly. This shows us that b is the sum of two numbers ps and qr . we get a = rs .15 and p + q = 2 x2 + 2x . we have to write b as the sum of two numbers whose product is ac (= b) The following steps to be followed to factorize ax2 + bx + c Step1 : Multiply the coefficient of x2 and constant term ( = ac) . And. we get b = ps + qr . on comparing the constant terms. –5 –2 The required factors are 3.15 To factorize we have to find p and q .3h = ^ x .Chapter 4 (iii) x2 + 2x . 5 = x^ x + 3h .2x . –15 –14 3.

Algebra

Example 4.35 Factorize the following (i) 2x2 + 15x + 27 (iii) 2x2 + 15x - 27 Solution (i) 2x2 + 15x + 27 2 Coefficient of x = 2 ; constant term = 27 Their product = 2 # 27 = 54 Factors of 54 Sum of factors Coefficient of x = 15 1, 54 55 ` product = 54; sum = 15 2, 27 29 3, 18 21 2 2 6, 9 15 2x + 15x + 27 = 2x + 6x + 9x + 27 The required factors are 6, 9 = 2x ^ x + 3 h + 9 ^ x + 3 h

2

(ii) 2x2 - 15x + 27 (iv) 2x2 - 15x - 27

= ^ x + 3h^2x + 9h

= ^ x + 3h^2x + 9h ` 2x + 15x + 27

(ii) 2x2 - 15x + 27 Coefficient of x2 = 2 ; constant term = 27 Factors of 54 Sum of factors Their product = 2 # 27 = 54 –1, –54 –55 Coefficient of x = - 15 –2, –27 –29 = 54 ; sum = - 15 ` product –3, –18 –21 –6, –9 –15 2 2 The required factors are –6, –9 2x - 15x + 27 = 2x - 6x - 9x + 27

2

= 2x^ x - 3h - 9^ x - 3h = ^ x - 3h^2x - 9h

` 2x - 15x + 27 = ^ x - 3h^2x - 9h 2x2 + 15x - 27 2 Coefficient of x = 2 ; constant term = - 27 Their product = 2 # - 27 = - 54 Coefficient of x = 15 ` product = –54; sum = 15

(iii)

Factors of –54 Sum of factors –1, 54 53 –2, 27 25 –3, 18 15 The required factors are –3, 18

113

Chapter 4

2x + 15x - 27 = 2x - 3x + 18x - 27 = x^2x - 3h + 9^2x - 3h = ^2x - 3h^ x + 9h

2

2

2

` 2x + 15x - 27 = ^2x - 3h^ x + 9h (iv) 2x2 - 15x - 27 Coefficient of x = 2 ; constant term = - 27 Their product = 2 # - 27 = - 54 Coefficient of x = –15 ` product = –54; sum = –15 2x - 15x - 27 = 2x + 3x - 18x - 27 = x^2x + 3h - 9^2x + 3h = ^2x + 3h^ x - 9h

2 2 2

Factors of –54 Sum of factors 1, –54 –53 2, –27 –25 3, –18 –15 The required factors are 3, –18

` 2x - 15x - 27 = ^2x + 3h^ x - 9h

2

Example 4.36 Factorize ^ x + yh2 + 9^ x + yh + 8

Solution Let x + y = p Then the equation is p + 9p + 8 Coefficient of p = 1 ; constant term = 8 Their product =1#8 = 8 Coefficient of p =9 ` product = 8; sum = 9 p + 9p + 8 = p + p + 8p + 8

2 2 2 2

Factors of 8 1, 8

Sum of factors 9

The required factors are 1, 8

= p^ p + 1h + 8^ p + 1h = ^ p + 1h^ p + 8h substituting, p = x + y ` ^ x + yh2 + 9^ x + yh + 8 = ^ x + y + 1h^ x + y + 8h

114

Algebra

**Example 4.37 3 2 Factorize : (i) x - 2x - x + 2 Solution (i) Let p (x) = x - 2x - x + 2
**

3 2

(ii) x + 3x - x - 3

3

2

p (x) is a cubic polynomial, so it may have three linear factors. The constant term is 2. The factors of 2 are –1, 1, –2 and 2. p (- 1) = (- 1) - 2 (- 1) - (- 1) + 2 =- 1 - 2 + 1 + 2 = 0 ` (x + 1) is a factor of p (x) . p^1 h = (1) - 2 (1) - 1 + 2 = 1 - 2 - 1 + 2 = 0 ` (x - 1) is a factor of p (x) . p^- 2h = (- 2) - 2 (- 2) - (- 2) + 2 =- 8 - 8 + 2 + 2 =- 12 ! 0 ` (x + 2) is not a factor of p (x) . p (2) = (2) - 2 (2) - 2 + 2 = 8 - 8 - 2 + 2 = 0 ` (x - 2) is a factor of p (x) . ` x - 2x - x + 2 = (x + 1) (x - 1) (x - 2) .

3 2 2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

**The three factors of p (x) are (x + 1), (x - 1) and (x - 2)
**

3 2

Another method x - 2x - x + 2 = x (x - 2) - 1 (x - 2) = (x - 2)(x - 1) = (x - 2)(x + 1)(x - 1)

3 2 2

[( a a - b = (a + b) (a - b) ]

2

2

(ii) Let p (x) = x + 3x - x - 3 p (x) is a cubic polynomial, so it may have three linear factors. The constant term is –3. The factors of –3 are –1, 1,–3 and 3. p (- 1) = (- 1) + 3 (- 1) - (- 1) - 3 =- 1 + 3 + 1 - 3 = 0 ` (x + 1) is a factor of p (x) . p (1) = (1) + 3 (1) - 1 - 3 = 1 + 3 - 1 - 3 = 0 ` (x - 1) is a factor of p (x) . p (- 3) = (- 3) + 3 (- 3) - (- 3) - 3 =- 27 + 27 + 3 - 3 = 0 ` (x + 3) is a factor of p (x) .

3 2 3 2 3 2

**The three factors of p (x) are (x + 1), (x - 1) and (x + 3) 3 2 ` x + 3x - x - 3 = (x + 1) (x - 1) (x + 3) .
**

115

4 2 2 2 2 2 (iii) 2x + 9x + 10 (vi) 9y . 4. b1 ! 0 .22 (xi) m .14x + 24 (vii) x + 14x .3x .29y + 20 (viii) 3x .y .Chapter 4 Exercise 4.3x 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) ^ p . Let us consider a pair of linear equations in two variables x and y .x . a2.3x .30 (xiii) 2x . b2. 2.5 3 2 3 2 4.qh2 . solving 3x + 2 = 8 ( 3x = 8 .4 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) 5x + 22x + 8 (v) 5y .x . b and c are constants and a ! 0 . 116 . (i) 3x + 19x + 6 (iv) 14x + 31x + 6 (vii) 6x .144 2 2 2 2 (iii) y + 7y + 12 (vi) t .17t + 72 (ix) y + 5y .16y + 60 (viii) x + 9x .15 (x) x . b ! 0 . Factorize each of the following.8 Linear Equations Recall the linear equations in one variable is of the form ax + b = 0 .2 (xii) 8x + 29x .36 (xii) y .2 (iii) x + x .99 2 2 2 2 (ii) x + 13x + 30 (v) y . a1 x + b1 y a2 x + b2 y = = c1 c2 (1) (2) Where a1.7^ p . c1 and c2 are constants and a1 ! 0 .18 (ii) x .7 1. For example.1 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables In general linear equation in two variables x and y is of the form ax + by = c where a. 3. where a.14 Factorize the following (i) ^a + bh2 + 9^a + bh + 14 Factorize the following (i) x + 2x .10m .20 2 2 2 2 Factorize each of the following.5x + 1 (x) 2a + 17a .7x .8.qh .x + 3 (iv) x + 5x .6x (xiv) 18x .16y + 7 (ix) 3x + 5x . a2 ! 0 and b2 ! 0 .2x . 4.12 (xv) 10 .10x + 8 (xi) 11 + 5x . (i) x + 15x + 14 (iv) x .2 ( 3x = 6 ( x = 6 ( x = 2 3 In fact a linear equation in one variable has a unique solution. b are constants and a ! 0 .x . b1.4x .

Hence.y = 4 ( 32 .7y = . 2x .6 ` y = -4 ( 6 .y = 4 (1) (2) Example 4.2^.4y + 5y = 2 .6y . x = 3 . In this chapter we consider only the substitution method to solve the linear equations in two variables.y = 4 by using substitution method.32 .4 in (3).4h = 3 + 8 = 11 ` The solution is x = 11 and y =. x = 3 . Substitution method In this method. then (x0. the elimination method and the cross-multiplication method are some of the methods commonly used to solve the system of equations.3y (3) Substituting x in (2) we get.4y + 5y = 2 Substituting y =. Example 4.3yh . y0h that satisfies both the equations. y0h satisfies both the equations. one of the two variables is expressed interms of the other.2y (3) Substituting x in (1) we get. y0) is called a solution of these equations. solving these equations involves the method of finding the ordered pair ^ x0.39 Solution Equation (1) becomes.2yh + 5y = 2 . we get. 2^3 . x = 16 . It is then substituted in the other equation and solved.28 = 4 -7 117 . using either of the equations.4 Solve x + 3y = 16. 2^16 .6y . We have x + 3y = 16 2x .y = 4 .y = 4 .38 Solve the following pair of equations by substitution method. The substitution method.Algebra If an ordered pair ^ x0.28 y = . 2x + 5y = 2 and x + 2y = 3 2x + 5y = 2 x + 2y = 3 (1) (2) Solution We have Equation (2) becomes.

x ! 0. y =.1 But 1 = a & x = 1 = 1 x a 5 1 1 1 = b & y = = =.40 Solve by substitution method 1 + 1 = 4 and 2 + 3 = 7.12 = 4 ` The solution is x = 4 and y = 4 .a Substituting b in (2) we get. Example 4. Solution Let the cost of a pen = ` x Let the cost of a note book = ` y From given data we have x + y = 60 x = y .3a = 7 2a .10 (1) (2) 118 .5 = .1 5 Example 4.12 -a = -5 ( a = 5 Substituting a = 5 in (3) we get.3a = 7 . y ! 0 x y x y Solution Let 1 = a and 1 = b x y The given equations become a + b = 4 (1) (2) (3) 2a + 3b = 7 Equation (1) becomes b = 4 .41 The cost of a pen and a note book is ` 60. Find the cost of each. b = 4 .ah = 7 ( 2a + 12 . x = 16 .Chapter 4 Substituting y = 4 in (3) we get. 2a + 3^4 .3^4h = 16 . The cost of a pen is ` 10 less than that of a notebook.1 y b -1 ` The solution is x = 1 .

The cost of three mathematics books is the same as that of four science books. x = 35 . 4^27h = 36 3 ` The cost of one mathematics book = ` 36. By given data. Solution Let the cost of a mathematics book be ` x and cost of a science book be ` y . The cost of a note book is ` 35. but if we buy 3 tickets to Palacode and one ticket to Karimangalam the total cost is Rs 27.10 = 25 ` The cost of a pen is ` 25. Example 4. x = The cost of one science book = ` 27. Find the cost of each book. y . 3x + 4y = 216 3x = 4y (1) (2) 4y (3) 3 4y m + 4y 3 = 216 = 216 The equation (2) becomes. 3 c ( 4y + 4y = 216 ( 8y ` y = 216 = 27 8 substituting y =27 in (3) we get.Algebra Substituting x in (1) we get. x = Substituting x in (1) we get. Solution Let the fare from Dharmapuri to Palacode be ` x and to Karimangalam be ` y .43 From Dharmapuri bus stand if we buy 2 tickets to Palacode and 3 tickets to Karimangalam the total cost is Rs 32. Find the fares from Dharmapuri to Palacode and to Karimangalam. 119 .42 The cost of three mathematics books and four science books is ` 216. Example 4.10 + y = 60 = 60 + 10 ( 2y = 70 ( y + y = 70 = 35 ` y 2 Substituting y = 35 in (2) we get.

9x = 32 . x + y = 55 x .7x = . Find the number. The number formed by reversing the digits is 9 less than the original number.9x = 32 2x . Find the numbers .49 = 7 -7 Substituting x = 7 in (3) we get.49 ` x = . 7 + y + y = 55 Substituting y = 24 in (3) we get. Example 4. where x > y By the given data.7 = 48 ` y = 48 = 24 2 (1) (2) (3) Solution Substituting x in (1) we get.44 The sum of two numbers is 55 and their difference is 7.Chapter 4 From the given data. y = 27 .3x (3) Substituting y in (1) we get.81 . ` The required two numbers are 31 and 24. Equation (2) becomes.3xh = 32 ( 2x + 81 . 2x + 3^27 . x = 7 + 24 = 31 . Let the two numbers be x and y. y = 27 . Sum of the digits is x + y = 11 120 (1) The number formed by reversing the digits is 10y + x .21 = 6 ` The fare from Dharmapuri to Palacode is ` 7 and to Karimangalam is ` 6.45 A number consist of two digits whose sum is 11. we have 2x + 3y = 32 3x + y = 27 (1) (2) Equation (2) becomes.y = 7 x = 7 + y ( 2y = 55 . Example 4. Solution Let the tens digit be x and the units digit be y. .3^7h = 27 . Then the number is 10x + y .

Algebra Given data. x .x = 9 9x .1 #2 ( x # 2+1 ( x # 3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 The real numbers less than or equal to 3 are solutions of given inequation. We represent those real numbers in the number line. 121 . (10x + y) . x = 1 + 5 = 6 ` The number is 10x + y = 10 (6) + 5 = 65 4.1h # 8 Dividing by 4 on both sides.9y = 9 (2) (3) Dividing by 9 on both sides. Example 4.1 = 10 Substituting x in (1) we get. x+4 > 6 ie x > 6 .y = 1 Equation (2) becomes x = 1 + y ( 2y + 1 = 11 2y = 11 .10y . There is only one such value for x in a linear equation in one variable. Unshaded circle indicates that point is not included in the solution set. Solving we get x = 2 .9 = 10y + x ( 10x + y . Let us consider. x .1h # 8 Solution 4 ^ x . 1 + y + y = 11 ` y = 10 = 5 2 Substituting y = 5 in (3) we get.46 Solve 4^ x . Shaded circle indicates that point is included in the solution set.4 x >2 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 So any real number greater than 2 will satisfy this inequation.9 Linear Inequations in One Variable We know that x + 4 = 6 is a linear equation in one variable.

5x # 9 . .3 ` x<3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 (See remark given below) The real numbers less than 3 are solutions of given inequation.xh > 6 Solution We have. Solve the following inequations.2 5 The real numbers greater than or equal to . 5 . 3x .6 ( x $ . 2x + y = 5 (iii) 5x + 3y = 21 .4y = 18 (iv) 1 + 2 = 9 . 2x . 4 Solve the following equations by substitution method. Kavi said to Kural “If you give me 4 of your apples.2h 1 3 (iii) 2^ x + 7h # 9 122 5. Remark (i) . 2.x > 2 Example 4. y ! 0) x y x y 5 4 3 1 (v) + = 7 .2 are solutions of given inequation.b ( a < b (ii) a < b ( 1 > 1 where a ! 0 .3 ( .y = 4 (ii) 2x + y = 1 .xh > 6 Dividing by 3 on both sides. 3 . Kural replied “If you give me 26. How many did each have with them?.= 6 (x ! 0. 3^5 . 2 + 1 = 12 (x ! 0.47 Solve 3^5 .a > . my number will be twice yours”.Chapter 4 Example 4. 3. (i) 2x + 7 > 15 (ii) 2^ x .1.1.6 ( x $ . b ! 0 a b (iii) a < b ( ka < kb for k > 0 (iv) a < b ( ka > kb for k < 0 -2 -1. (-x > 2 . my number will be thrice yours”. Kavi and Kural each had a number of apples . Find the original number.5 (-x > .5x # 9 ( . The number formed by reversing the digits exceeds twice the original number by 18.5x # 6 ( 5x $ .8 1. A number consists of two digits whose sum is 9. (iv) 3x + 14 $ 8 .5x # 9 Solution We have. y ! 0) x y x y Find two numbers whose sum is 24 and difference is 8.48 Solve 3 .2 -1 0 1 2 Exercise 4. (i) x + 3y = 10 .

y) x3 + y3 / (x + y) (x2 .y) (x2 + xy + y2) 2 2 2 2 x3 + y3 + z3 . then ( x–a) is a factor of p^ xh .y3 / (x .1 x . a2.zx) t ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch / x3 + ^a + b + ch x2 + ^ab + bc + cah x + abc 123 .3xyz / (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 . If p (a) = 0. n n 1 2 where Let p^ xh be a polynomial. (x + y + z) / x + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx (x + y) 3 / x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y) (x . a1.3xy (x .Algebra Points to Remember A polynomial in one variable x is an algebraic expression of the form p( x ) = an x + an . an . Factor Theorem : Let p^ xh be a polynomial and a be any real number.+ g + a2 x + a1 x + a0 .y) 3 / x3 . g. If p^ xh is divided by the linear polynomial x . If p^ah = 0 then we say that a is a zero of the polynomial p^ x h If x = a satisfies the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0 then x = a is called a root of the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0 .a . an ! 0 a0.xy .y3 . then the remainder is p^ah .1.yz .xy + y2) x3 . Remainder Theorem : Let p^ xh be any polynomial and a be any real number. an are constants and n is a non negative integer .

In this chapter we learn how to represent points using cartesian coordinate system and derive formula to find distance between two points in terms of their coordinates. emphasized the use of logic and scientific method. and was “profoundly affected in his outlook by the new physics and astronomy. the coordinates of a point are often referred to as its Cartesian coordinates. thus being the first to link algebra and geometry. in extending it to equations of higher degree. and the coordinate plane as the Cartesian Coordinate Plane. This method of describing the location of points was introduced by the French mathematician René Descartes (Pronounced “day CART”). perhaps because he attempted to build a new system of thought from the ground up. in ‘Arithmetizing’ analytic geometry. 5. The invention of analytical geometry was the beginning of modern mathematics.” Descartes went far past Fermat in the use of symbols. He proposed further that curves and lines could be described by equations using this technique. The fixing of a point position in the plane by assigning two numbers . was entirely Descartes’ invention. but also as to those which I have intentionally omitted so as to leave to others the pleasure of discovery .coordinates giving its distance from two lines perpendicular to each other. not only as to the things which I have explained.1 Introduction Coordinate Geometry or Analytical Geometry is a system of geometry where the position of points on the plane is described using an ordered pair of numbers called coordinates.Chapter 5 COORDINATE GEOMETRY I hope that posterity will judge me kindly.Rene Descartes Main Targets ● ● ● ● To understand Cartesian coordinate system To identify abscissa. ordinate and coordinates of a point To plot the points on the plane To find the distance between two points Descartes (1596-1650) D e s c a r t e s (1596-1650) has been called the father of modern philosophy. In honour of his work. 124 .

5. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 y (x. 5. These two numbers associated with the point P are called coordinates of P. To obtain these number.1 the vertical number line is called the y-axis. has a unique location on the number line. we draw two lines through the point P parallel (and hence perpendicular) to the axes.2. the ordinate second. Similarly. y) 5. a point P on a number line can be specified by a real number x called its coordinate.1 and -7 this point is called origin ‘O’. whether rational. by using a Cartesian coordinate system we can specify a point P in the plane with two real numbers.2 abscissa coming first. 125 .1 Coordinates of a Point In Cartesian system. or irrational. We use the same scale (that is. They are usually written as (x. The x-coordinate is called the abscissa and the y-coordinate is called the ordinate of the point at hand. We are interested in the coordinates of the X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 x 5 6X points of intersection of the two lines with the axes. called its coordinates. the Y Fig. Conversely. called coordinate -5 axes.2 Cartesian Coordinate System In the chapter on Real Number System. There are two coordinates: x-coordinate on the x-axis and y-coordinate on the y-axis. the same unit Y 8 distance) on both the axes. 5.Coordinate Geometry 5. The x coordinate of a point to the right of the y-axis is positive and to the left of y-axis is negative. the y coordinate of a point above the x-axis is positive and below the x-axis is negative. Generally the Y horizontal number line is called the x-axis and Fig. you have learnt` how to represent real numbers on the number line. The two number lines intersect at the -6 zero point of each as shown in the Fig. y). Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X -2 A Cartesian coordinate system or -3 rectangle coordinate system consists of two -4 perpendicular number lines. Every real number. any point P in the plane is associated with an ordered pair of real numbers. Similarly.

In Fig. The number where the line meets the x-axis is the value of the x-coordinate. In an ordered pair (a.e. a) are not equal. Y 8 7 6 5 4 5. of a point is the value which indicates the distance and direction of the point above or below the x-axis.3 5..3. b2) is equivalent to a1 = a2 and b1 = b2 3. 5. Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -6 -7 Y P Fig. So the ordered pairs (a. the y-coordinate of P is 6 and the y-coordinate of Q is 2. the two elements a and b are listed in a specific order. y-axis is the value of the y-coordinate.2. a) .4 ..Chapter 5 Remarks 1. 5. the x-coordinate of P is 1 and the x-coordinate of Q is 5. of a point is the value which indicates the distance and direction of the point to the right or left of the y-axis.2. To find the x-coordinate of a point P: (i) (ii) Drop a perpendicular from the point P to the x-axis. 126 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X (ii) The number where the line meets the Y Fig. or ordinate. The terms point and coordinates of a point are used interchangeably.3 Identifying the y-coordinate Q The y-coordinate. (a. To find the y-coordinate of a point P: (i) Drop a perpendicular from the point P to the y-axis. 5. X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 P Q 3 2 1 O 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 2 3 4 5 6X In Fig. i.4 . b) ! (b.2 Identifying the x-coordinate The x-coordinate or abscissa. 2. b1) = (a2. b) and (b. 5.. b). Also (a1.

5. the value of x-coordinate (abscissa) is zero. +) Xl III Quadrant (−. y < 0 x > 0. 5. The x coordinate is positive in the I and IV quadrants and negative in II and III quadrants. + -.4 Quadrants A plane with the rectangular coordinate system is called the cartesian plane. −) X Nature of x. This point is at a distance of 5 units from the y-axis and 6 units from the x-axis.2. (ii) For any point on the y-axis. The coordinate axes divide the plane into four parts called quadrants. 5. Thus the position of (5. - Yl Fig. Region XOY Xl OY Xl OYl XOYl Quadrant I II III IV Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Y II Quadrant (−. the value of y-coordinate (ordinate) is zero.5. To plot the point (5. +. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (5. That is we count from the origin 5 units along the positive direction of x-axis and move along the positive direction of y-axis through 6 units and mark the corresponding point.5. 6) X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X Let us now illustrate through an example how to plot a point in Cartesian coordinate system.2. we follow the y-axis until we reach 6 and draw a horizontal line at y =6.Coordinate Geometry Note (i) For any point on the x-axis. y < 0 Signs of the coordinates +.5 Plotting Points in Cartesian Coordinate System P(5. Similarly. 6) is located in the cartesian plane. y > 0 x < 0. The y coordinate is positive in I and II quadrants and negative in III and IV quadrants. 127 Y Fig. 6) in the cartesian plane. y x > 0. 5. + -. The signs of the coordinates are shown in parentheses in Fig. −) O IV Quadrant (+. +) I Quadrant (+.5 5. y > 0 x < 0. numbered counter-clockwise for reference as shown in Fig. 6) in cartesian coordinate system we follow the x-axis until we reach 5 and draw a vertical line at x = 5.6 . 5.

.4 and draw a horizontal line at y = 3. draw a vertical line at x = 3 and draw a horizontal line at y = . 3) (iii) C (.Chapter 5 Example 5.4. (i) A (5. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (5.2.2 and draw a horizontal line at y = . .2). Thus. the point A (5. -2) C(-2.3 ) in the Cartesian plane. the point C(. 5. draw a vertical line at x = .2) is located in the Cartesian plane. 4) 4 B(-4. 4) is located in the Cartesian plane.4).4.2. 4) (ii) B (. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (.2. Thus. 3 ) in the Cartesian plane. . the point B(. -3) -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 Y (ii) To plot (. 3 ). .3 ).3 ) is located in the Cartesian plane. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (3. . (iii) To plot (.3) (iv) D (3.2. . draw a vertical line at x = 5 and draw a horizontal line at y = 4. 128 Fig. (iv) To plot (3.2) in the Cartesian plane Thus. the point D (3.1 Plot the following points in the rectangular coordinate system. 3 ) is located in the Cartesian plane.4. Y 8 7 6 5 A(5. .7 . Thus.3. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (. draw a vertical line at x = . 3) 3 2 1 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X D(3.2. 4) in the Cartesian plane.4. .2) Solution (i) To plot (5.

(.Coordinate Geometry Example 5. 3) X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X C(–5.5) and (. 3) (ii) (. 0) and (4. 5. . . 5) and (5.3 Plot the points (. Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 (–5. 0) 1 O 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 2 3 (4. 5) 5 4 3 2 1 A(5. 0) (–1.–2) -3 -4 -5 D(–2. (2.2) in the rectangular coordinate system. 0) (2. 0).1. 5.2. Y 8 7 6 B(3.2 Locate the points (i) (3.5.8 Remark Observe that if we interchange the abscissa and ordinate of a point. Example 5.–5) -6 -7 Y Fig. then it may represent a different point in the Cartesian plane. 0).9 129 . 0) in the cartesian plane. 0) 4 5 6X Y Fig.5.

130 . 5. 2) (4. (0.. 2). –4) -4 -5 -6 -7 Y Example 5.10 Plot the points (i) (.11 When you join these points. 4). 5. you see that they lie on a line which is parallel to x-axis.4. –2) -2 -3 (0. 2).4) in the cartesian plane. 4) 4 3 2 1 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X (0. (iii) (4. 2) (–1.5 Fig.. 2).4 Plot the points (0.Chapter 5 Example 5. 5) 5 (0. 2) X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X Y Fig.1. (0. What can you say about the position of these points? Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 (–4. 2) 2 1 (0. 2) and (iv) (0. 5) and (0.2). (ii) (. Y 8 7 6 (0.

5. 5.2).2. Solution Point Quadrant A I B II C III D IV (–2. C is (. 4) and G is (..12 Example 5. D is (2. B is (. Identify the quadrants of the points A (2. 2). B (. the y coordinates are equal. 3).2. .1). 3).13. E is (5. –3). 3) 3 2 1 ABCD is a rectangle X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O 1 -1 -2 -3 2 3 4 5 6X Can you find the length. Solution Consider the point A.Coordinate Geometry Remark Example 5. A is at a G X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 O 1 -1 2 3 4 5 6X distance of 3 units from the origin along the positive direction of x-axis and 2 units distance from the origin along the positive direction of y-axis.3. Similarly.13 . .2. . –3) -4 -5 -6 -7 Y 8 7 6 5 Y Fig.3). –3) (2. where each square is a unit A B 2 square. . Y 8 7 6 Discuss the type of the diagram by joining all the points.3. 2).3) and D (2. 5. C (. F is (3. Hence the coordinates of A are (3.6 For points on a line parallel to x-axis.7 F Find the coordinates of the points shown 4 3 in the Fig. breath and area of the rectangle? (–2. 3) 5 4 (2. 1) 131 D C -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 E Y Fig.

1) (ix) (1. .2. 2. 0) (iv) (. . B and D are (0. (i) (5. (viii) (.1) (vii) (4. (iii) (8. (vii) (. (v) (. 5) (ii) (2. State whether the following statements are true / false . . (iv) (5. C (. B (5. 3) (i) (. . In a rectangle ABCD.7) lies below the x-axis. (vi) (0. (iii) (8. How is the line joining them related with reference to x-axis? The abscissa of two points is 0.3.6 .5) (x) (. 10. (ii) (.and D and A.7. State the figure obtained by joining A and B.7. Plot the following points in the coordinate system and specify their quadrant. .3. 4.1) and D (2. . Plot the following points in the coordinate plane. 3). .5) (ii) (3. What are the coordinates of C? 132 . the coordinates of A. 8) (iii) (4.2.5. 3. 8. 4). 3) lies in the II quadrant.4) (iv) (4. 2) (i) (7. A (5.5. . 9) (ii) (4. 4).Chapter 5 Exercise 5. 4). 0) is a point on x-axis. 0) (4. 5. With rectangular axes plot the points O (0.5.5. 2) (vi) (0. . 7) Write down the abscissa for the following points.1) in the cartesian plane. 2) are points on the line parallel to y-axis. 5) (i) (4. How is the line joining situated? Mark the points A (. 6.4) lies above x-axis. . C and D . (i) (5. . B (2. 2) and (. (x) For any point on the x-axis its y coordinate is zero. B and C. Find the coordinate of point C such that OABC forms a rectangle.8. . 2) lies to the left of y-axis. (ix) (. 7) is a point in the IV quadrant. How is the line joining them situated? The ordinates of two points are each .5) (iii) (7.7) (iii) (. 9. 4) (iv) (.2.1. .1 1.10. 3) is a point on x-axis.7) is a point in the III quadrant. 0). 7. 0) Write down the ordinate of the following points. 2) (ii) (. 0) (viii) (0. 0) (0.3) (iv) (7.2) (v) (0. . 0).

0) and B (x2.15 y A(x1. Draw AP and BQ perpendicular to x-axis.2 Distance between two points on a line parallel to coordinate axes Consider the points A (x1. Consider two points A (0.3 Distance between any Two Points One of the simplest things that can be done with analytical geometry is to calculate the distance between two points. 0) on the x-axis.3.14 xl O A x1 x2 − x1 B x2 x { = x2 . 5. Distance xl Q between A and B is equal to distance between P and Q.1 Distance between two points on coordinate axes If two points lie on the x-axis. the two points lie on a line parallel to B(x2. y1) . Consider the two points A (x1. 5.OA if y2 2 y1 if y1 2 y2 xl y B y2 y1 O A { y2−y1 x = y2 . The distance of B from A = AB = OB . if two points lie on y axis. y1) and B (x2.y1 = y1 . y1) x 5. 5.y1 yl Fig.OA if x2 2 x1 yl Fig. y1) x-axis. then the distance between them is equal to the difference between the y coordinates. y2) . y1) and B (0.x1 Similarly. The distance of B from A = AB = OB . Hence Distance AB = Distance PQ = x1 . then it is easy to y find the distance between them because the distance is equal to the difference between x coordinates.x2 133 O P yl Fig.y2 ` AB = y2 .Coordinate Geometry 5. Since the y ordinates are equal. These two points lie on the y axis.16 .x2 if x1 2 x2 ` AB = x2 . The distance between two points A and B is usually denoted by AB. 5.3.x1 = x1 .

AR = PQ = OQ .y1) 2 2 AB = Key Concept Distance Between Two Points Given the two points (x1.3 Distance between two points: Let A^ x1.y1) yl Fig.y1 xl 2 From right triangle ARB AB 2 O P x2 − x1 Q x { = AR + RB AB = 2 = (x2 . the distance between these points is given by the formula: d= (x2 . e. We shall now find the distance between these two points. y Let P and Q be the foot of the perpendiculars B(x2. (x2 . y1h and B^ x2 y2h be any two points in the plane.x1) + (y2 . y2) y P A(x1..x1) + (y2 .y1) 134 2 2 . 5. y2) .x1 and BR = BQ . 5.y1) 2 2 2 2 (By Pythagoras theorem) i. y1) and B (x1.x1) + (y2 . y2) y2−y1 A(x1. y1) R from A and B to the x-axis respectively.x1) + (y2 . y2) Q yl Fig. Draw AP and BQ perpendicular to y-axis.OP = x2 .Chapter 5 Now consider the points A (x1.y2 xl O x B(x1. AR is drawn perpendicular to BQ.3. y1) that lie on a line parallel to y-axis. 5.18 Hence the distance between the points A and B is (x2 . Hence Distance AB = Distance PQ = y1 . The distance between A and B is equal to the distance between P and Q.17 Remark The distance between two points on a line parallel to the coordinate axes is the absolute value of the difference between respective coordinates.RQ = y2 . From the diagram. y1) and (x2.

0) is d= = (x2 . 0) and (3.y1) 2 2 Solution The points (. The point (6.4. we find 2 2 2 1 + 8 = 1 + 64 = 65 Example 5.4.x1) + (y2 .2) = 122 = 144 = 12 2 2 Example 5. 0) xl O 6 units x yl Fig.y1) = 2 2 Solution The line joining (5. . 2) d = x1 . Now OA = 6 and OB = 8.Coordinate Geometry Remark Example 5.5.4.8 (i) This formula holds good for all the above cases. 5. 0) and (0. ` AB = 100 = 10 135 2 2 2 A(6.x1) + (y2 . 8) and (6. 0) d = x1 . Hence Aliter : = (3 + 4) + 0 = 2 2 49 = 7 Example 5. 0) Solution The distance between the points (0.x1) + (y2 .x1) + (y2 . 8) 8 units Aliter : Let A and B denote the points (6.4 + 5) + (2 + 6) = 2 2 2 (x2 . 2) and (5. 8) lies on the y-axis.19 . the points A. Hence. 0) lie on the x-axis. y1) from the origin O is OP = x1 + y1 2 2 Find the distance between the points (. 2) Solution Using the distance formula d = d= (.11 Find the distance between the points (0. O and B form a right triangle. the distance Aliter : (5 + 7) + (2 .x2 = .y1) 2 2 2 2 (6 .4) = 3 + 4 = 7 d= (x2 . 2) is parallel to x axis.9 Find the distance between the points (.(. 8) and let O be the origin.7.y1) .7. Hence.x2 = 3 .7 . using Pythagorean Theorem AB = OA + OB = 36 + 64 = 100. 0) and (3.6) and (. Since the angle between coordinate axes is right angle. 2) and (. 0) lies on the x-axis and the point (0.8) = 36 + 64 = 100 = 10 y B(0.12 = 12 d= (x2 .0) + (0 .10 Find the distance between the points (. (ii) The distance of the point P (x1.5 = . 8) and (6.

5) and (9. AB = 18 = CA = 50 = 25 # 2 = 5 2 . 2).14 Determine whether the points are vertices of a right triangle A (.4).a) and (.a 3 .4). e.8) + 4 = 64 + 16 = 80 CA = (. (. we get 2 2 2 2 2 AB = (2 + 3) + (6 + 4) = 5 + 10 = 25 + 100 = 125 BC = (.a.5) = 2 + 2 = 4 + 4 = 8 CA = (9 .7) + (2 .2) + (10 . a). .7) + (7 .6. This gives AB + BC = 3 2 + 2 2 = 5 2 = AC. 7). a) .4) B (2. (7. By the distance formula AB = (4 .3. 5) and C (9. .12 Find the distance between the points (–3. BC = 8 = 4#2 = 2 2. 6) and C (.3) + (14) = 9 + 196 = 205 i.13 Show that the three points (4. 10) Solution Using the distance formula d = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 . Solution Let the points be represented by A (a. (5.4) + (7 . a 3 ) . Using the distance formula d = (x2 .3) + (.a) and C (. = (x2 .y1) .a 3 . 7) lie on a straight line.x1) + (y2 .6 + 3) + (10 + 4) = (.x1) + (y2 .7 + 4) = 2 8 + 3 = 64 + 9 = 2 2 73 Solution Let the points be A (4. B (7.y1) 2 2 2 (5 + 3) + (. Example 5.. AB + BC = 125 + 80 = 205 = CA 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Hence ABC is a right angled triangle since the square of one side is equal to sum of the squares of the other two sides.3) = 9 + 9 = 18 BC = (9 . Hence the points A. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 So. B. .x1) + (y2 .15 Show that the points (a. .y1) . 2).6) = (. B (.7) Solution The distance between the points (–3. . a 3 ) form an equilateral triangle.2) = 5 + 5 = 25 + 25 = 50 9#2 = 3 2. and C are collinear. Example 5. .7) is d = Example 5. we have 136 2 2 .a. (5.6 .Chapter 5 Example 5. .5) = (.

10).2a 2 2 2 2 BC = = ^.2) = 100 + 4 = 104 CD = (3 . . C and D represent the points (.3) + (2 + 2) = 4 = 16 BC = (3 + 1) + (2 . Using the distance formula d = 2 2 2 (x2 . Solution Let A.e.. (.Coordinate Geometry AB = = (a + a) + (a + a) (2a) + (2a) = 2 2 2 2 2 4a + 4a = 2 2 2 8a = 2 2 a 3a + a .13) = 144 + 169 = 313 DA = (3 + 7) + (.a 3 + ah + ^a 3 + ah = 3 + 3a + a + 2a 2 2 2 3 8a = 2 4 # 2a = 2 2 a 2 2 2 CA = = (a + a 3 ) + (a . . Hence ABCD is a parallelogram.2) = 100 + 4 = 104 313 and BC = DA = 104 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 So.7.1. (5. . 10). 2) and (. B (3.y1) . 2). .5 + 3) = 10 + (.5 .4) = 16 137 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 . . .1. 8) and (3.12) + (. C (.1.15) + (. Example 5.a 3 ) = 8a = 2 2 a 2 a + 2a 2 2 3 + 3a + a .17 Show that the following points (3.10) = 10 + (.5) respectively.2a 2 2 2 3 + 3a 2 ` AB = BC = CA = 2 2 a . . (15.5) taken in order are the corners of a parallelogram.2) taken in order are vertices of a square. Solution Let the vertices be taken as A (3.2) AB = (3 .3). B. (5. 8) and (3.1. we find 2 2 2 2 2 2 AB = (5 + 7) + (10 + 3) = 12 + 13 = 144 + 169 = 313 BC = (15 .1 . 2) and D (.7.2).x1) + (y2 .2) = 4 = 16 CD = (. The opposite sides are equal.2 + 2) = (. Example 5. (3. Since all the sides are equal the points form an equilateral triangle. (15.8) = (.5) + (8 . 2).2).1 + 1) + (2 + 2) = 4 =16 DA = (. –3). AB = CD = i.16 Prove that the points (.3) + (.

x1) + (y2 .4x + 4 + x . Find also its radius.1) + (3 + 1) = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 138 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 . find the coordinates of P.3) 2 2 2 2 = (x .10x = 61.18 Let P be a point on the perpendicular bisector of the segment joining (2. 4) Example 5. .10x + 13 = 2x . B. Example 5. Solution Let the point be P (x.2) + (x . 3). we get PA = PB . Let P.13 12x = 48 x = 48 = 4 12 Therefore. all the sides are equal.1) and (1. Since P is equidistant from A and B. 3) and (6. Solution Suppose C represents the point (4. Therefore.1 . 3).12x + 36 + x . the diagonals are equal. we get 2 2 PA = PB .) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Hence the points A. .4) = 16 + 16 = 32 BD = (3 + 1) + (2 + 2) = 4 + 4 = 16 + 16 = 32 AB = BC = CD = DA = 16 = 4. If the abscissa and the ordinate of P are equal. 5). .10x + 25 2x .) AC = BD = 32 = 4 2 .y1) . y) .1) respectively. Let A and B denote the points (2. (7.Chapter 5 AC = (3 + 1) + (. 3). C and D form a square.6) + (x .1) and (1. we have y = x . Squaring on both sides. Since the abscissa of P is equal to its ordinate. Q and R denote the points (9. 3) is the centre of the circle which passes through the points (9.5) 2 2 2 2 2 x .4) + (. Using the distance formula d = we get CP = (9 . 3) and (6. ..19 Show that (4. the coordinates of P are (x.3) = 3 + (.2) = 4 + (. .1).22x + 61 22x .3) = 5 = 25 CQ = (7 .e. (That is.4) + (3 .2 .4) = 9 + 16 = 25 CR = (4 . 5). x). i. the coordinates of P are (4. (7. 2 (x . (That is.6x + 9 = x .

it is the circum-centre of the triangle ABC.x1) + (y2 . . show that 5a . CP = CQ = CR = 25 or CP = CQ = CR = 5. .2. Example 5.3) (iii) (.5).8) and (. Using the distance formula d = (a .3) + (b + 4) 2 2 2 (x2 . Find the distance between the following pairs of points. 2) . we get 5a . Q.20 If the point (a. 4) (iv) (. 0) and (. 3) and its radius is 5 units.3) 2 = (1 .4) 2 + (.4) 2 + (. .3) 2 = 25 = 5 25 = 5 25 = 5 (7 . .3) 2 = ` SA = SB = SC .1) Solution SA = SB = SC = (9 .1 .b . b) is equidistant from (3.21 Show that S (4. Let A and B represent the points (3.16a + 64 + b2 + 10b + 25 .6a + 8b + 25 + 16a .2 1.64 = 0 Dividing throughout by 2.8) 2 + (b + 5) 2 a2 . Hence the points P.1 .6) (vi) (2.2. Since P is equidistant from A and B. Exercise 5.1) and C (1.4) and (8. .6a + 9 + b2 + 8b + 16 = a2 . we have PA = PB and hence PA = PB . 0) (v) (. . It is known that the circum-center is equidistant from all the vertices of a triangle.32 = 0 Example 5. Since S is equidistant from all the three vertices. 2) and (2. 2 2 2 Solution Let P deonte the point (a. 3) is the circum-centre of the triangle joining the points A (9.32 = 0 .y1) .3.4.5) respectively.2. 3).89 = 0 10a .b .Coordinate Geometry So. .3) and (3.4) 2 + (3 . 2) and (3. b) . . B (7. R are on the circle with centre at (4. .2b . 2) 139 (ii) (6. 8) and (. (i) (7.2. we have 2 2 2 = (a .10b . .4) and (8.

(i) (.4. 4) (iii) (1. .5). (. . (. 8) and (. 10) and (15. (i) (3.6. (7. .7) (ii) (9.4) and (7.5. . (7. (8. .11.4).7). 3). 4) (iv) (6.8) 3.2). 4) Show that the following points form a right angled triangle. 1).3) and (. 9) Show that the following points taken in order form the vertices of a rhombus.Chapter 5 (vii) (.1). (0. (i) (0. (2.2. 0). 6.3) and (1. (.1. 5) and (5.3) (iii) (0. (. 5). –2) (iii) (0. (a. 4) (ii) (. (. 9). 7) and the origin. .2) and (. 7). 4. 0). (. 0). (.a. . 0) and (10. 5). . 0) (x) (5. 3) (iv) (10. 3). 6) and (3.3. (5.2. 3) (v) (3. a 3 ) (iv) ( 3 . (5.1) and (0. 2) and (3. (3. 4) (iv) (1. (7. (3.2.3). Show that the following points are collinear. 20).11. . . . 8) and (0. 1) and (.2). 0) and (0. .4. 1). (.2. . 7. .2. 0) and (0. b) (v) (5. (0. 1) and (1. (2. (5.1) (iii) (1. 0).1) and (4.5). 0) and (5.1.2 3 . .4) (iv) (2. (.1. . . (. (4. 4) Show that the following points taken in order form the vertices of a parallelogram. .2. . 0) and (. 2) (ix) (0.2) and (6. .5) and (. 15) (ii) (1.3. 0). 2) (iv) (. 9) (ii) (. .3).8. 2). 2) 140 . 3) (v) (15. (i) (.7) and (. 2). (6. 2).1) (viii) (7.6. 0). 17) and (0.3. (. 1) (v) (2. (. 12). Show that the following points form an equilateral triangle. 2 3 ) (v) (. 2. 0) and (1. 4). 10) (v) (4. 2). (5. 0). (6. . 0) (ii) (a. . (. 13).3).3 . 5) and (15. 7) and (1. 7) and (. 16) and (29. . .2) and (.8. (2. 3). (10. Show that the following points form an isosceles triangle. 0). 0).1.5. 5). 3).5) (ii) (3. 0) 5. . (2 3 .2. (10. 5 3 ) (iii) (2.2. (. 4). 3) (iii) (.2) and (2 3 .1) and (. (18. (i) (0. .3.6) and (7. (i) (2.3. 6) and (2. .7. 3). (5.2. (6.2. (.

10.3) and origin Find the point on the y-axis equidistant from (. . Examine whether the following points taken in order form a square. 0). 8) If the distance between two points (x. 5) (5.1). 3) and (. (i) (8. 14. . 0). If two points (2. 3) and (. In the Fig. 2). . 2). 6). 0). 12. (20. 9. (5. 4) 18. 3).1. (i) (0. (ii) (9. Find the radius of the circle whose centre is (3.2.3) lie on the circle centred at the origin y with radius 5.5.2) (Hint: A point on the y-axis will have its x coordinate as zero).14) and (. If origin is the centre of a circle with radius 17 units. Find the perimeter of the triangle with vertices (i) (0. (1.6. y) . 6) and (9.5) (4.13).Coordinate Geometry 8. 2) and (9. find the coordinates of any four points on the circle which are not on the axes. . 5. 3) and (6. . 11. 1) and (2.6).1). (0. 3). A(4. (1. 3) and (2. find y.2. . 7) and (1. 5. (5. 21.1) (v) (.3.3. 15. .3). 1) (iii) (3. . . 17. Show that (4. C (8. find x.3. PB is perpendicular segment from the point A (4.5) are equidistant from the point (x. y) is 4. Find the area of the rhombus ABCD with vertices A (2.20. 5). 4) Examine whether the following points taken in order form a rectangle. (0. (0.10. 5) [Hint: Area of the rhombus ABCD = 1 d1 d2 ] 2 Can you draw a triangle with vertices (1. . xl O P B x yl Fig. . . 1) is equidistant from the points (. If the length of the line segment with end points (2.2) (iv) (12. (1.2). (.2. 2) and (0.5. 2). 3) and (. 8) and (13. 3) (ii) (5. 6) and (1. (0. 9). show that x + y + 3 = 0. 0) and origin . 13. . . 1). 5).4. 15) is 10. (6. 7) (iii) (. 0). If PA = PB then find the coordinates of B.20 19. (. 1) (ii) (.5).1. 16. (2. 0) and D (5. 8). Prove that the points (0. (3. (. (3. . . 14)? Give reason. 2) and (1. 1). (1.6) and (2. 2) and passes through ( . (Use the Pythagorean triplets) 141 20. B (5.

Points to Remember � Two perpendicular lines are needed to locate the position of a point in a plane. If the points A(6. The radius of the circle with centre at the origin is 10 units. Write the coordinates of the point where the circle intersects the axes.1) and c . � If x1 and x2 are the x coordinates of two points on the x-axis.1 . � x coordinate of the points on the vertical lines are equal. 2) and (1. 4) and D(p. y1) and (x2. C(9. y2) is 142 . . 0) � The distance of a point from y-axis is x coordinate or abscissa and the distance of the point from x-axis is called y coordinate or ordinate. (2. then the distance between the point is y1 . 25.y2 � Distance between (x1. � These two horizontal and vertical lines are called the coordinate axes (x-axis and y-axis) � The point of intersection of x-axis and y-axis is called the origin with coordinates (0. Find the distance between any two of such points. Show that the origin is the circum-centre of the triangle formed by the vertices (1. (0. � y coordinate of the points on the horizontal lines are equal.x1) 2 + (y2 .y1) 2 � Distance between the two points (x1.x2 � If y1 and y2 are the y coordinates of two points on the y-axis. � x coordinate of the points on y-axis is zero. � y coordinate of the points on x-axis is zero. 3) taken in order are the vertices of a parallelogram. y1) and the origin is x12 + y12 (x2 . � In rectangular coordinate systems one of them is horizontal and the other is vertical. then the distance between them is x1 .Chapter 5 22. Show that (2. 2). 3 m 2 2 24. 1) is the circum-centre of the triangle formed by the vertices (3. 1). 1). 1) 23. 0). B(8. find the value of p using distance formula.

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