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Tips and Tricks for

Computer Aided Structural Analysis

Saikat Basak

M.Eng (Structural), BCE, CIC, AIE (Ind.), A.ASCE Structural Engineer

PUBLISHED BY ENSEL SOFTWARE

© Saikat Basak The author and publisher of this book have used their best efforts in preparing this book. These efforts include the development, research and testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness. The author and publisher shall not be liable in any event for the incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing, performance, or use of these programs. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without the permission in writing from the author. 1st Edition 2001 Published on the web

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... 19...................................... SHEAR FORCE AND REACTION IN BUILDING FRAME: SUBSTITUTE (EQUIVALENT) FRAME ................... 54 PRE-STRESSED CABLE PROFILE .......................... 57 -4- .......................................................................................... 13 VIBRATION ANALYSIS (MODAL ANALYSIS) ....................................................................................................................... SUPPORT SETTLEMENT ................. 40 2D VERSUS 3D............................................... 15 THERMAL ANALYSIS ............................................................................. 33 DEFLECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBER....................................................... 24 SPECIFYING LOADS........ 8...................................... 17......................................................................... 5......................................................................... 31 PORTAL AND CANTILEVER METHOD ...................................................................................................................................... 7 WHAT IS COMPUTER AIDED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS? .......................................... 12 TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS....................................... 10............................... 38 14.............................................. 51 CABLES ......................................................................... INTRODUCTION (BEFORE YOU BEGIN…)............................................................................................................................ 16 BOUNDARY ELEMENT ........... 7............................................................................................................... 14 BUCKLING ANALYSIS................................................................... SIGN CONVENTION (MIND YOUR SIGNS)........... 6 1................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 41 CURVED MEMBER................................ 3...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20...... 44 NODES CONNECTED BY A SPRING........................................................................................................................................................................... 6... MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT........................................................................... 18............................................ 46 STAIRCASE ANALYSIS ................................................................................................. 9..........................................Computer Aided Structural Analysis CONTENTS ABBREVIATION ...................... 34 SHEAR DEFORMATION............................................................................................................... 19 NUMBERING OF JOINTS AND MEMBERS ................................... 23 SPECIFYING MOMENT OF INERTIA .......... 17 4..................................................... 36 INCLINED SUPPORT........... 27 COLUMN BUCKLING TEST . 37 13..................... 13 TRANSIENT VIBRATION ANALYSIS .......................................................................................................................... 10 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS .............................................................................. 11............................................................................. 15.... 12 RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS................................................................................................................................................... 9 ANALYSIS TYPES ................................................................................................... 12............................ 2......................... 22...... 45 SUB-STRUCTURING TECHNIQUE AND SYMMETRY (BREAK THEM INTO PIECES…) ........................... 10 LINEAR STATIC STRESS ANALYSIS ........................................................................... 43 TAPERED SECTION .............................. 16................................................... 21............................................................. 11 RANDOM VIBRATION..............................................................................................

......... 40........................................ 142 FILE NAME EXTENSION GUIDE (FOR SOME CAD/CAE PROGRAMS) ..................................................................................................................................................... 92 FOLDED PLATE ............................... 30............................... 27................. 43............................. 123 LINEAR PROGRAMMING IN SPREADSHEET ........................................ 32............... 115 GEOMETRIC NON-LINEARITY .................................... 139 HOW TO CHECK THE RESULT FOR ACCURACY? ...................... 69 PLATES BY FEM ............................................................. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (FEA) METHOD IS APPROACHING… .........Computer Aided Structural Analysis 23.......................................................................................... 134 SOME CAD PROGRAMS… .......................... 143 COMMON ERROR MESSAGES AND SOLUTIONS .... 76 INTERPRETING FEA RESULT...................... 60 A TYPICAL WORKED OUT PROBLEM OF FEA................................ 38............................................ 25........................................................................................................ 131 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMS ...................................................... MECHANICAL EVENT SIMULATION ................ 45............................................................................................................................................. 108 WHAT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS YOU SHOULD PERFORM? ............................ 44................ 124 REINFORCEMENT DETAILING IN CONTINUOUS BEAMS ...................... A GUIDE TO SOME STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING & FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS PROGRAMS.. 102 A FIRST STEP IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS ............................................................................................................................ 39................................................................................................................................................................. 89 29...................................... 79 TIPS FOR CREATING BETTER MESH...................................................................................... 145 46... 148 -5- ............................ 31. 112 NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS (NLA) – AN INTRODUCTION FOR BEGINNERS ..... 119 IMPORTING MODEL FROM CAD PROGRAMS ................................ 26........................................................................................................................................ 128 41.................................................................................................................. 35............. 83 28........................... COMMON FINITE ELEMENTS LIBRARY FOR LINEAR STATIC AND DYNAMIC STRESS ANALYSIS ............................................ 144 ANALYSIS PROGRAM RELATED ............................................. REFERENCES .......... 115 MATERIAL NON-LINEARITY .. 34.......................................................... 137 42........................ 130 CIVIL ENGINEERING PROGRAMS ............................................................................................................................................................ 37................................. 144 OPERATING SYSTEM RELATED ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 105 AN EXAMPLE OF A SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM PROBLEM............................ 116 36............................................. 121 VIRTUAL REALITY IN ENGINEERING (VRML)................................................................................................................................................. HOW TO SELECT THE MOST APPROPRIATE PROGRAM FOR YOUR NEED? ................. 94 SHELLS.................................................................................................................................................... 33........ SHEAR WALL .................. 24..........

but here is a list of them at a glance. They have been defined in respective sections.damping CAD – computer aided design/drawing CAE – computer aided engineering CAM – computer aided manufacturing E – modulus of elasticity FE – finite element FEA – finite element analysis FEM – finite element method fy – yield strength of steel G – shear modulus I – 2nd moment of inertia IS – Indian Standard code LRFD – load and resistance factor design LSSA – linear static stress analysis M.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Abbreviation Several abbreviations have been used throughout this book. ν – Poisson’s ratio σ – Normal stress τ – Shear stress ωn – natural frequency of the structure ξ – Damping ratio -6- . [k] – Stiffness BM – bending moment C . m – mass MDF – multi degree freedom MES – mechanical event simulation NLA – non-linear analysis RSA – response spectra analysis SDF – single degree freedom SF – shear force T – time period of vibration THA – time history analysis UDL – uniformly distributed load VRML – virtual reality markup language x – displacement x’ – velocity x” – acceleration ε – Strain µ.

I presented the whole thing in an informative yet informal manner. which may at first appear to be unsolvable by that program. Therefore it is essential that you use your present analysis program to its full extent. the techniques of analysis discussed here are applicable to most standard analysis packages. No special knowledge is required to get the most out of this book. Also. But even sometimes analysis using computer can be very tricky. Only Bachelor Degree knowledge in Civil/Mechanical Engineering is assumed. Most structural engineering books are written to tell you how you will perform the calculation by hand. However. However some parts of the book do discuss some topics which are normally covered in Master’s degree level in detail. Introduction (before you begin…) In this book I shall tell you some practical tips for structural analysis using computer. I confined the boring theory and calculation to minimum level. I expect that you are familiar with at least one standard structural analysis package otherwise you may find the contents of this book quite terse! This book does not contain listing of any computer program. You may need to manipulate computer input to solve a problem. Also. Even for a large corporate companies it is seldom possible to maintain more than two standard analysis packages. which you were previously thought too difficult to deal with your existing analysis program. I make no attempt to teach you theory of structural analysis to score good marks in the exam! But it can help you to earn more money by enabling you to analyze some structures more easily and accurately.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 1. Finite element programs and structural analysis programs tend to be very expensive. Most small-scale engineering firms keep only one analysis program. because I know that most readers will not bother to type them or to even read them. But remember the most important advice: A structure will not behave as the computer program tells it should regardless of how accurate the program seems or how expensive it is! Thus goes the famous proverb “With good engineering judgement you can produce on the back of an envelop that which -7- . This is not a textbook. I am not going to teach you any particular structural analysis computer program.

It can even happen that the program you are using has better option to handle a particular problem compared to what I discussed in this book. Now sit back. (I did it!) Before you accuse me by complaining that my tips do not work with your program. I like to mention following important points. There are also some exercises. numerical examples have been presented. Those specific criteria you have to solve yourself.enselsoftware. • Some features I discussed here may not be available in your program. client’s requirement etc. The program manuals are the best source of help always. • I am only providing you some “clues” for more effective use of structural analysis programs. The paragraphs are small and to the point. You can reach me at www. cost. • I did not work with all the structural analysis programs available in the market. relax and enjoy the book. Wherever necessary. • Documentation of the program you are using is very important. com in World Wide Web. Please try to solve them with your structural/FE analysis programs. I shall be more than happy to answer your queries. every analysis problem is unique depending on type of project. The sections of this book are arranged in somewhat haphazard manner deliberately so that you don’t feel bored. You should paste this in front of your computer so that you see it everyday. However. I like to see your comments and suggestions. Have a nice reading! -8- . We have often returned to same topics in several sections from different viewpoints.Computer Aided Structural Analysis otherwise cannot be produced with a ton of computer output”.

For the first time users. you had to supply the programs the nodal co-ordinates. accurately and proper interpretation of data in easiest way. What is most important is that you must interpret the output result accurately. it seems rather like a magic! The availability of these programs has completely changed the way we analyze structures compared to we did the same just a decade ago! Now it is a child’s play to analyze structures having more than 10. As the name suggests. You also had to supply how the structure was supported. All programs can’t be applied for analyzing all types of structures. You will also learn to analyze many new kinds of structures without learning theoretical calculations! Sounds interesting? At the end of this book.e. You must clearly understand its limitation and assumptions. nodal reactions and joint displacements and presented in a tabular format. analyzing structures using computers has created many other new problems. you will also learn about some very recent concepts of structural analysis. apply loads and boundary conditions graphically and visualize the shear force. you can actually ‘draw’ your model on screen (as if you’re drawing in a paper with a pencil!) with the mouse and keyboard! Everything is graphical. You draw models graphically. The program then calculated the member forces. hinged or roller. sectional properties of the all members and the loads (nodal force/moment/distributed member loads etc. though solution algorithm may differ from one program to another. However. you must be very familiarize with the programs you are using. This type of structural analysis programs is still used in junior years in the university as a first learning tool. between what nodal points a particular member is connected). fixed. First. In earlier generation analysis programs. material properties. Computer Aided Structural Analysis is the method of solving your structural analysis problem with the help of computer software.000 degrees of freedom! However. This book will show you how to perform quickly. What is Computer Aided Structural Analysis? This section is a head start for those who are using structural analysis programs for the first time. bending moment and even deflected shape diagram graphically. the commercial structural analysis programs of modern days are far more powerful and easy to use. member incidence (i.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 2. Most programs solve the structures by stiffness method. Here.). Bon Voyage! -9- .

The induced displacements are small enough to ignore the change is stiffness caused by loading. and some are new to you.10 - . (References 8 and 15 were considered for this section. If the above assumptions are not valid. available during meshing. strains.) Linear Static Stress Analysis This is the most common type of analysis. Loads must be constant in magnitude. and stresses under the effect of external loads. You are already familiar with most of the types of analyses. They are discussed below. . 1. You can make linearity assumption if a.e. for example. Boundary conditions do not vary during the application of loads. b. then we shall have to treat the problem as non-linear analysis. 2. I shall devote a few sections on non-linear analysis later. Time-variant loads that induce considerable inertial and/or damping forces may warrant dynamic analysis. based on some assumptions. Analysis types In this section. Linearity assumption: The relationship between loads and resulting responses is linear. load will remain constant (i. strains and stresses) will also double. If you double the magnitude of loads. To absorb the effect of loads. the response of the model (displacements.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 3. Dynamic loads change with time and in many cases induces considerable inertial and damping forces that cannot be neglected. With this option. load will not vary against time). This assumption lets us disregard insignificant inertial and damping forces due to negligibly small accelerations and velocities. They should not change while the model is deforming. Some FEA programs offer contact/gap elements. contacting mating faces may separate during loading and hence the load distribution in the model will change based on the gap forces generated. When loads are applied to a body. All loads are applied slowly and gradually until they reach their full magnitudes. the body generates internal forces and reactions at the supports to balance the applied external loads. Linear Static analysis refers to the calculation of displacements. After reaching their full magnitudes. All materials in the model comply with Hooke’s Law that is stress is directly proportional to strain. you will learn various analysis options those are offered by FEA programs. direction and distribution. c. the body deforms and the effects of the loads are transmitted throughout the body.

like a structure’s . its material properties. The first few modes of a model (those with the lowest natural frequencies). you may ask for element stresses or nodal stresses. After a successful run. For example. In calculating nodal stresses at a node.11 - . When building the geometry of a model. as well as its support conditions and static loads. there can be three slightly different values for every stress component at that node. the program averages the corresponding nodal stresses for each element. called mode shape that the model tends to assume when vibrating at that frequency. located inside each element. the structure undergoes large displacements. we have to perform dynamic analysis on a structure when the load applied to it varies with time. The most common case of dynamic analysis is the evaluation of responses of a building due to earthquake acceleration at its base. The program then calculates stresses at the nodes of each element by extrapolating the results available at the ‘Gaussian’ points. Every structure has a tendency to vibrate at certain frequencies. a continuous model has an infinite number of natural frequencies. In calculating element stresses. called natural frequencies. are normally important. However. Some loading. a finite element model has a finite number of natural frequencies that is equal to the number of degrees of freedom considered in the model. Sounds crazy? Calculation of stresses Stress results are first calculated at special points. Damping prevents the response of the structures to resonant loads. (See you FEA textbook for details) These points are selected to give optimal results. multiple results are available at nodes common to two or more elements. When a structure is excited by a dynamic load that coincides with one of its natural frequencies. you usually create it based on the original (undeformed) shape of the model.Computer Aided Structural Analysis This functionality offers a linearized solution to a nonlinear problem. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes depend on the geometry of the structure. The computation of natural frequencies and mode shapes is known as modal analysis. In reality. Each natural frequency is associated with a certain shape. Dynamic analysis In general. known ‘Gaussian’ or ‘Quadrature’ points. These results will not be identical because the finite element method is an approximate method. During result visualization. This phenomenon is known as ‘resonance’. if a node is common to three elements. the program averages the corresponding results from all elements contributing to the stresses at that node.

The vibration generated in vehicles from the motors. During an earthquake. significant impact on the structure’s modal properties. Time History analysis. This is just a prelude to dynamic analysis. You will find several topics on dynamic analysis later in this book. may need Random Vibration Analysis. etc. which are normally fixed. such as on-board electronics or cargo of any kind. rocket (when the motor is on). dam or nuclear reactor when an earthquake strikes. which is a representation of the vibration frequencies and energy in a statistical form. road conditions. The following few topics – Random Vibration. Transient vibration analysis and Vibration modal analysis are extensions of dynamic analysis. since I shall not discuss theory of structural dynamics here. These geometric changes may have. However. in some cases. In many cases. Also. things that are riding in the vehicle.12 - . is a combination of a great many frequencies from a variety of sources and has a certain "random" nature. and so on. Response Spectrum analysis. Random Vibration Analysis is used by mechanical engineers who design various kinds of transportation equipment. is always present and can cause considerable changes in the structure’s original geometry. rail car. violent shaking occurs. Response Spectrum Analysis Engineers use this type of analysis to find out how a device or structure responds to sudden forces or shocks. this effect can be ignored because the induced deflections are small.Computer Aided Structural Analysis self-weight. it would be important to know if things being transported in vehicles will survive until they reach the destination. Also. . When an engineer uses Random Vibration he is looking to determine the maximum stresses resulting from the vibration. An example would be a building. Random Vibration Engineers use this type of analysis to find out how a device or structure responds to steady shaking of the kind you would feel riding in a truck. It is assumed that these shocks or forces occur at boundary points. This shaking transmits into the structure or device at the points where they are attached to the ground (boundary points). I strongly recommend that you read a structural dynamic textbook if you haven’t done so already. These stresses are important in determining the lifetime of a structure of a transportation vehicle. Engineers provide input to the processor in the form of a ‘Power Spectral Density’ (PSD).

Imagine a torpedo striking the side of a ship and exploding. accelerations. Transient Vibration Analysis When you strike a guitar string or a tuning fork. But shocks occur anyhow. Every time you rev the motor in your car. internal stresses are created by the vibration. Mechanical engineers who design components for nuclear power plants must use response spectrum analysis as well. Conditions are changing from the first moment the note is struck. he is looking for the maximum stresses or acceleration. A bridge may vibrate in the wind or when cars and trucks go across it.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Response spectrum analysis is used extensively by Civil Engineers who must design structures in earthquake-prone areas of the world. You will find an example of response spectrum analysis later. then gradually dies out. you are creating transient vibration. When things vibrate. The quantities describing many of the great earthquakes of the recent past have been captured with instruments and can now be fed into a response spectrum program to determine how a structure would react to a past real-world earthquake. When an electric motor is started up. These stresses can be devastating if resonance occurs between a device producing vibration and a structure responding to. Such vibrations are called "shock. shock is rarely a good thing and almost always unplanned. it goes from a state of inactivity into a vibration to make a musical tone. When an engineer uses response spectrum analysis. Sometimes transient vibrations are extremely violent and short-lived. Because of vibration. " which is just what you would imagine. or a car slamming into a concrete abutment or dropping a coffeepot on a hard floor.) of the structure against time due to dynamic excitation applied on the structure. velocity and displacements that occur after the shock. internal forces etc. This tone seems loudest at first. valves. In real life. etc. it eventually reaches a steady state of operation. condensers. You will find more stuff on this particular type of analysis in later sections. Very complex vibration patters can occur. shock is always more devastating than if the same force were applied gradually. engineers must know what the frequencies and stresses are at all moments in time. But to get there. These in turn lead to maximum stresses. Such components might include nuclear reactor parts. pumps. velocities.13 - . . Because things are constantly changing. it starts from zero RPM and passes through an infinite number of speeds until it attains the operating speed. piping. Time History Analysis This analysis plots response (displacements.

Vibration is about frequencies. when a motor comes up to speed it produces a variety of frequencies. which is why you can produce specific musical tones. etc. Should the beat of the marching feet align with a natural frequency of the bridge. Usually. Response Spectrum. Other vibration processes such as Time History. By its very nature. Frequently. in the food and bulk materials industries. the first mode has a frequency higher than any potential driving frequency. Higher mode shapes have higher frequencies. think of the tires being out of balance. Each mode shape will have an associated frequency. This is a major purpose of Modal Analysis. vibration involves repetitive motion." were taken out of step when crossing bridges. it could fall down. a special shaking device is used in foundries to loosen a mold placed in sand. For example. are used in addition to . Our ears enable us to hear because they respond to the vibrations of sound waves." Frequency is defined as so many cycles in a given time period. think of the rattles in an airplane when they are revving up the engines. which normally marched "in step. For example. Random Vibration. flexible couplings help isolate vibrations produced by the engines. resonance cannot be avoided. Or. The base frequency is said to vibrate in the first mode. tyres and shock absorbers (dampers) help reduce vibration in automobiles. Similarly. So it may pass through a resonant frequency. Individual parts have what engineers call "natural" frequencies.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Vibration Analysis (Modal Analysis) All things vibrate. a violin string at a certain tension will vibrate only at a set number of frequencies. or the vibration under your feet when a train goes by. and so on up the ladder. vibration is bad and frequently unavoidable. The most disastrous kinds of consequences occur when a power-driven device such as a motor for example. Engineers have to design things to withstand vibration when it cannot be avoided.14 - . especially for short periods of time. This event is called "resonance. Many times things are made to vibrate for a purpose. There is a base frequency in which the entire string is going back and forth in a simple bow shape. Think of musical instruments. the attached structure will be destroyed. however. These various shapes are called "modes". Each occurrence of a complete motion sequence is called a "cycle." If sufficient power is applied. Harmonics and overtones occur because individual sections of the string can vibrate independently within the larger vibration. produces a frequency at which an attached structure naturally vibrates. Engineers must design so that resonance does not occur during regular operation of machines. For example. Note that ancient armies. "Cycles per seconds” or "Hertz”. It may cause gradual weakening of structures and the deterioration of metals (fatigue) in cars and airplanes. Sometimes vibration is good. Rotating machines from small electric motors to giant generators and turbines will self destruct if the parts are not well balanced. think of riding in a car. For example. conveyors frequently work by vibration. Ideally.

buckling can be catastrophic if it occurs. Even though stress can be very low. Buckling can be defined as the sudden deformation. when buckling occurs. In the normal use of most products. If you put the can on the floor and gradually increase the force by stepping down on it with your foot. the buckling load becomes a critical design factor. Slender structures and structures with slender parts loaded in the axial direction buckle under relatively small axial loads. therefore buckling analysis is usually not required. but fail disastrously if just one local spot of a flange should buckle! In mechanical engineering. not much will seem to happen. The worst part about buckling for engineers is that buckling usually occurs at relatively low stress values for what the material can withstand. load bearing walls and sections of bridges which may flex under load. which occurs when the stored membrane (axial) energy is converted into bending energy with no change in the externally applied loads. For such structures. Stocky structures. .Computer Aided Structural Analysis Modal Analysis to deal with this type of more complex situation.15 - . buckling is to be avoided when designing support columns. on the other hand. For example an I-beam may be perfectly "safe" when considering only the maximum stress. buckling of local areas can cause the whole structure to collapse by a rapid series of ‘propagating buckling’. designs involving thin parts in flexible structures like airplanes and automobiles are susceptible to buckling. Buckling analysis If you press down on an empty soft drink can with your hand. the total stiffness matrix becomes singular (see section 8). These are called Transient Natural Frequency Processors. Such structures may fail in buckling while their stresses are far below critical levels. require large loads to buckle. The failure is not one because of stress but geometric stability. Mathematically." Models with thin parts tend to buckle under axial loading. In civil engineering. Once the geometry of the part starts to deform. So they have to make a separate check to see if a product or part thereof is okay with respect to buckling. This sudden scrunching is known as "buckling. it can no longer support even a fraction of the force initially applied. at some point it will suddenly squash. Buckling almost always involves compression.

Heat transfer by conduction and convection requires the presence of an intervening medium while heat transfer by radiation does not. This may prevent the occurrence of lower buckling modes by simple modifications. Convection and Radiation. The rate of heat conduction through a plane layer of thickness X is proportional to the heat transfer area and the temperature gradient. liquids. Rate of Heat Conduction = (K) (Area) (Difference in Temperature / Thickness) Convection Convection is the heat transfer mode in which heat transfers between a solid face and an adjacent moving fluid (liquid or gas). In this book. Convection involves the combined effects of conduction and the moving fluid. Radiation .Computer Aided Structural Analysis Buckling analysis calculates the smallest (critical) loading required buckling a model. There is no bulk motion of matter when heat transfers by conduction. and gasses. Thermal analysis calculates the temperature distribution in a body due to some or all of these mechanisms. I shall not discuss anything more about thermal analysis. Conduction Thermal energy transfers from one point to another through the interaction between the atoms or molecules of the matter. and inversely proportional to the thickness of the layer. The fluid particles act as carriers of thermal energy. I include a brief discussion on thermal analysis here. a hot cup of coffee on your desk will eventually cool down to the room-temperature mainly by conduction from the coffee directly to the air and through the body of the cup. When buckling is the critical design factor.16 - . In all three mechanisms. You must have read all these in high school. Conduction occurs in solids. For example. Designers are usually interested in the lowest mode because it is associated with the lowest critical load. calculating multiple buckling modes helps in locating the weak areas of the model. These mechanisms are Conduction. Buckling loads are associated with buckling modes. Thermal analysis There are three mechanisms of heat transfer. heat flows from a higher-temperature medium to a lowertemperature one.

we also need to specify density. but we are not interested in the time it takes to reach this status. but he is interested in finding out the temperature of the fluid as a function of time. if a coffee cup is . on the other hand. Types of Heat Transfer Analysis There are two modes of heat transfer analysis based on whether or not we are interested in the time domain. Boundary elements and boundary points are normally used to simulate the constraints that actually occur when an object is used in the real world. The thermal energy of the sun reaches earth by radiation. radiation is the fastest heat transfer mechanism. Steady State Thermal Analysis In this type of analysis. knows that the temperature of the fluid inside will eventually be equal to the roomtemperature (steady state). the only material property that is needed for steady state analysis is the thermal conductivity. In addition to the thermal conductivity. for example. specific heat. no medium is necessary for radiation to take place. Generally. the thermal energy entering the system is equal to the thermal energy leaving it. All bodies with temperatures above the absolute zero emit thermal energy.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Thermal radiation is the thermal energy emitted by bodies in the form of electromagnetic waves because of their temperature. Boundary Element A type of finite element sometimes used to connect the finite element model to fixed points in space. A thermos designer. At equilibrium. Because electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light. Typically this fixity is set with global boundary conditions. and the period of time for which solutions are desired. Generally. in which the fixity is totally rigid. initial temperature profile. Because electromagnetic waves travel in vacuum. Transient Thermal Analysis In this type of analysis. The temperature of each point in the model will remain unchanged until a change occurs in the system.17 - . For example. we are only interested in the thermal conditions of the body when it reaches thermal equilibrium. we are interested in knowing the thermal status of the model at different instances of time. allows for a flexible connection to the fixed space. A boundary element. heat transfer by radiation becomes significant only at high temperatures.

18 - .Computer Aided Structural Analysis sitting on the table and a weight is placed on top of the coffee cup. known as Mechanical Event Simulation or Virtual Prototyping. . With many FEA software. then the table is the boundary. boundary elements have an additional capability of imposing and enforced displacement upon a model. There are another very powerful types of analysis offered by high-end FEA programs. You will find this in section 36. If the table has a spongy surface. Additionally. the forces generated at a boundary by forces on the model can be obtained as output using boundary elements. you might want to use boundary elements to account for the flexibility. Boundary points would be points on the plane of the table that are defined as being fixed in space and to which nodes of a finite element model of the coffee cup are attached. The force created by this imposed displacement would be calculated automatically.

Axial forces are normally considered positive for tensile forces and negative for compressive forces. Anti-clockwise moment is taken as positive. you often need to use “minus” sign to do so. sign convention is very important. they do not indicate whether the bending moment is sagging or hogging. Sign convention (mind your signs) In structural analysis.19 - . Also note that the “sign” of bending moment diagrams indicate the “direction” (as shown in figure 4-1 and 4-2). For 3D structures. because of taking y positive upwards. Please note that. You will always be fine with this convention. This is shown below. Y My Fy Fz Z Mz Figure 4-2 All positive Mx X Fx When you see bending moment diagrams. the sign convention will be of same type but somewhat complicate. remember that some programs draw them in tension side or some may do the opposite. but I strongly advise you against that. You must follow same sign convention throughout your life! Normally. when specifying gravity loads. Although you can use any convention of your own. Fy All positive Mz Fx Figure 4-1 Most standard analysis programs follow this sign convention. This has been shown in following figure for 2D plane.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 4. . the force towards right is taken as positive and force acting upwards is considered positive.

Different programs may follow slight different sign conventions. the following figures show how SAP90/2000 describes frame member internal forces. Of course you can direct every analysis program to consider z-axis (or even x-axis) as elevation. because when dealing with 2D structures. But you must follow same sign convention throughout. Solve some basic problems with them first and consult the user guide. Before using the program. by default use x-z plane for 2D analysis. you should be familiar with that program’s sign convention. This is as expected. the program will generally consider y-axis as elevation.20 - . But it has exceptions as well.Computer Aided Structural Analysis When dealing with 3D structures. Some programs. you will normally use x-y plane. AXIS 2 T P AXIS 1 T AXIS 3 P Positive Axial Force and Torque Figure 4-3 Compression face V2 Tension face M2 Compression face V3 Tension face M3 Positive Moment and Shear [1-2 plane] Positive Moment and Shear [1-3 plane] Figure 4-4 . My main point here to make you understand that co-ordinate system is very flexible. As an example.

Now check the result and the sign with your analysis program. -3 kN/m (case 2) 5 kN (case 1) Node 4 Node 3 5m 6m All members are of 250-mm side square Cross section made of concrete E=20GPa 6m Node 1 Node 2 fixed hinged Figure 4-5 Figure 4-6 The above figure shows the bending moment diagram and the free body diagram of each member. . Please note that your program may draw the bending moment diagram on opposite side compared to what shown here! Observe the sign convention.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Now please solve the following problems using your program and check the result with the answer given.21 - .

22 - . It is interesting to know that with some programs.833 4m The axial forces are shown as italics in the above figure. All members are made of 3 kN steel (E=200 GPa) with 100-mm side square section -3. Some programs. .208 2.) releases. which allow you to draw plate elements on screen. you should draw them in counter clockwise fashion. you may wonder why the program result shows bending moment diagram in truss! Different programs have different options for specifying moment (or axial force. torsion etc. Otherwise you may get awkward result.833 -2 kN 4m Figure 4-7 3m 0.642 2. you may need to “tell” the program that the structure is a ‘truss’ by specifying ‘moment releases’ in the truss members. Note that the left end is hinged and right end is roller. Otherwise.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Now solve the following truss.0 2.

the non-zero elements of global stiffness matrix are limited to a band adjacent to its diagonal. especially if you are analyzing a multi-story building. Improper node numbering may increase bandwidth of global stiffness matrix. This default scheme may not always be convenient for you. beams. Those programs. Generally. Fortunately. you can direct the program to use X-Z-Y re-labeling pattern (assuming Y-axis is the elevation).Computer Aided Structural Analysis 5. apply joint and member numbers automatically. Similar procedure may be adopted for numbering columns. next number indicates “floor” and the last number stands for serial number of beam on that floor. Wondering what is ‘bandwidth minimization’? It is a technique for assembling global stiffness matrix so that non-zero terms in the matrix tend to become ‘closer’ rather than getting ‘dispersed’. most programs offer re-labeling option and you can even use alphanumeric labels. which allow you to “draw” the model on screen. larger dimension) node numbering. slabs and other structural members. However. Since it is impractical to re-number hundreds of members manually. in a multistory frame (assuming the height is more than the length). if you number nodes row wise (horizontally or more precisely along smaller dimension). Generally. In that case.e. You can also create ‘group’ for same type of members whose design will be same such as all columns in a particular floor. you should do it automatically. Lower bandwidth means less time necessary for solving equations. Numbering of joints and members Proper node and joint numbering is very important for large models. You may number all beams in the B5-10 or B05010 fashion where “B” indicates beam. most programs automatically re-number nodes internally while solving and again display the result in user specified numbering.23 - . For example. columns and slabs are numbered on the story or floor level they reside. . bandwidth will be less compared to column wise (vertical i.

In most cases width = 200 and height (or depth) = 400 worked. the beams are of 200 x 300 mm and columns 200 x 400 mm oriented as shown in plan.e. the members should look like in the real structure in 3 dimension) option. particularly for 3D structures. Y X Plan of columns Figure 6-1 In the above figure. you’re out of luck! Many programs. have the option for specifying sectional dimension using ‘tx’ and ‘ty’ (or it might be ‘ty’ and ‘tz’ or ‘t2’ and ‘t3’) option. Beams can be specified as 200x300 mm without any problem. I have tried with various programs this sectional dimension input. the programs will ask you to specify ‘depth’ and ‘width’ of the member. If your program does not offer real time view (i. . Generally.24 - . If you specify the dimension in opposite manner. If you specify depth = 400 mm and width = 200 mm then you will get exact section as shown in figure 6-2. The above figure is taken from real time view of SAP2000. But for columns. Specifying moment of inertia New users of structural analysis programs often find it confusing to define section properties of the members. however. then you will get wrongly oriented section for the columns. you have to be careful. You may get help from the following examples.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 6.

Y Z Figure 6-3 Some programs can display ‘local axes’ for all members. Iz = 200x3003/12 and Iy = 300x2003/12. The most often used is the ‘Iz’. the ‘local axes’ settings are different from ‘global axes’. For the column.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Z Y X Figure 6-2 Sometimes you may need to specify inertia directly especially for irregular shaped sections. Normally the programs offer only ‘Iz’ and ‘Iy’ options. In most analysis programs. . the ‘local axes’ are defined as shown in figure 6-3. Iz = 200x4003/12 and Iy = 400x2003/12. Please explore your program’s resource files to see how it handles display of local member axes.25 - . One important thing you must understand is the concept of ‘member local axes’. For the beam discussed above. Normally.

.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Y Z X Y X Z Figure 6-4 The above figure shows orientation of local axes for the inclined member. the orientation for local axes may be slightly different. We shall come to local and global axes story again when we discuss interpretation of analysis output. when you are defining section properties in terms of local axes.26 - . The orientation of global axes is also shown in blue color. for example. Note that in your program. It is clear that. direction of Z axis may be in opposite direction. even an ‘inclined’ member is considered as ‘straight’.

we get 1 – 2α2 + α3 wL2 -------------. very few programs will calculate distributed loads form slabs automatically.WL = -----. trouble arises.1) So. you’ll have to specify the slab load yourself.or 12 x (1-α) 12 (1 – 2α2 + α3) x W w = ----------------------(1 – α) x L … (7. Some programs allow specifying trapezoidal loads on beam members.33α2) / (1 . The lengths of the beams are ‘L’. The most common example of varying load is on the beams coming from slabs as shown in figure 7-1. some allow only triangular load. you need to ‘split’ each beam into three segments (not necessarily equal) and apply triangular loads at end segments and UDL on mid segment. More often than not. then the load becomes varying. this is somewhat cumbersome if you have. If your concentrated load is inclined.27 - . you better resolve it into horizontal and vertical components yourself and then apply them.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 7. If we equate fixed end moments in two beams (of figure 71 and 7-2).1. Unfortunately. Some programs allow you to assign a point load on beam without creating a node at that point (the program itself creates a node there internally) where as most programs require that you can assign concentrated loads only at nodes. αL Total Load = W (N) UDL = w (N/m) Figure 7-1 Figure 7-2 Yes. However. r values as shown below . you may need to ‘split’ the member to create intermediate nodes. Specifying UDL is easy. say 200 beam members! But you can avoid trapezoidal loads all together with slight loss of accuracy as shown in figure 7-2. the ratio of mid span moment of trapezoidal/uniform r = [(3-4α2)WL/(24(1-α)] / [(1-2α2+α3)(W/L)(L2/8) / (1-α)] = (1 . Specifying Loads All programs have the option for specifying concentrated and uniformly distributed loads.2α2 + α3) If we tabulate α vs. In that case. So. however.

You may wonder whether you can model all the slabs in your building frame using plate elements instead of converting loads to beams as shown in figure 71. Not only this takes much more time to have your analysis done. Many frame analysis programs don’t have plate element! If you use ‘plates’.5 1. consider yourself really lucky! If you’re applying hydrostatic load on a plate element. Hydrostatic load normally takes the shape as of figure 7-4. you’re quite correct. you’ll have 11x11x100 = 12. parabolic) type of loads. you may have non-linearly varying (e.100 extra nodes compared to that you’ll have if you transfer the loads on beams. The only way out is. More number of divisions. apply load before meshing the plate. say 100 slabs (i.Computer Aided Structural Analysis α r 0 1 0. better the result is. But there are several disadvantages! First of all. If you have.1).28 - . . Figure 7-3 Another type of load. your analysis program must have ‘plate’ element to do this. If your analysis program has easy method to specify such type of loads.)! It has been proved that with the conventional slab load distribution as shown in figure 7-3. and specify concentrated loads varying through nodes (or UDL varying through segments).02 0. then you must ‘mesh’ it before running analysis.2 1.8%. which is quite small. So. Except in high-end FEA programs. Under some circumstances. you can’t input the load through equation. which often creates problem. we can safely replace trapezoidal load with UDL whose magnitude is given by w as shown in (7.05 0. split your member into several sections. is due to hydrostatic of earth pressure.e.g. Of course you could.375 1. but also it will swamp you with tons of output (just count the number of total plate elements – their stress values etc. plates) with 10x10 mesh.068 It is seen that maximum difference of mid span moment for figure 7-1 and 7-2 is 6. Sometimes the program allows you to specify separate load at four nodes of the plates (and intermediate values are interpolated) though this is not really necessary in day to day analysis.

then just place the fluid level at higher level. it may act in two different manners as shown in figures 7-7 and 7-8. Water level Figure 7-5 Figure 7-6 Figure 7-6 shows another trick where you need to superpose two types of loads to get the desired resultant load distribution. But what to do if we want make it act in opposite direction (i. in the above figure.29 - . changing the density into negative works! (Argh!) (I don’t know whether all programs behave in this way.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 7-4 To specify you generally supply fluid height. Uniform pressure on plates can easily be applied. If your load needs to be like figure 7-5. these tricks come handy. Now the density may be tricky. the load acts towards the plate. axis and density. While you analyze water tanks. but I found this trick works in Visual Analysis).e. For example. . Surcharge or earth pressure load can be specified in the same way as that of hydrostatic load. away from plate)? Surprisingly. When you’re applying distributed load on inclined member.

Most analysis programs can handle both types of loading conditions shown.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 7-7 Figure 7-8 In figure 7-8. In figure 7-7. . the load is acting perpendicular to the member.30 - . This is the common case. the load is projected on horizontal axis. But it’s your responsibility to apply correct method.

by default. By calculation. which had 10 bays in both x and y direction.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 8. With 233 MHz. it sets stiffness matrix. 16 MB RAM computer it took me 20 minutes to perform first order analysis. That is. Remember if you are using a very cheap program or some noncommercial program. which you know that is well below Pcr. A load is applied axially to the column. Find the buckling load. To get the correct result you must activate the “Frame instability” or “P∆” analysis option yourself to force the computer to make iterations! Now gradually increase the load and re-analyze. This is the minimum buckling load. why the computer itself does not choose P-∆ analysis always. solves it and then calculates axial forces from it. I once analyzed a 20 storied 3D frame in VA. the deflected shape of the column is drawn straight! You may ask why computer can’t account for buckling in normal analysis. it performs iteration to find out actual axial forces. But think of the time required for performing such analysis. When you instruct it to perform P-∆ analysis. it would have been nicer. Hmm. most analysis programs. which will say that the program has encountered a negative diagonal term in member stiffness matrix and analysis will terminate. You are likely to see that even when the column buckles. At one instant. Well. Column Buckling test Solve the following problem: A steel (E=200 GPa) column of 100x100 mm square cross section (I = 8. the computer will show you a message. Note this load. it may not have P-∆ analysis option! Be careful! You may wonder. Now see if the column buckles! No. buckling load is given by Pcr = π2EI/4L2 = 165 kN Figure 8-1 First draw the column.33E-6 m4) is 5 m long and fixed at bottom end. define the column properties and then apply any load. perform first order analysis.31 - . it won’t. If you want to perform P-∆ analysis for .

Computer Aided Structural Analysis

such structure using a standard PC and inexpensive program, chances are that your system will crash! Check it!

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Computer Aided Structural Analysis

9. Portal and Cantilever method You may have been taught to use portal and cantilever method for analysis of effect of lateral loads in frames. Both of these methods assume a point of contraflexure at mid point of beams and columns, which is often grossly inaccurate. Just analyze any frame subjected to lateral loading by these methods and then compare the results with exact analysis by computer. You will find as much as 50% to 60% difference of moments and shear forces. If computer is available, you must not use these methods. Even for preliminary analysis, when you do not know the size of the members in the structure, still these methods are not useful. You can do the same easily by using computer.

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Computer Aided Structural Analysis

10.

Deflection of Reinforced Concrete member

Consider a simply supported beam made of reinforced concrete. It is loaded by uniformly distributed load. How do you calculate its deflection at midpoint? You may, of course, use the familiar equation ∆ = 5wL4/384EI. But remember, here you must use effective moment of inertia of the section and not the gross moment of inertia of the section if applied moment (wL2/8 in this example) exceeds cracking moment capacity. Here w stands for dead + live load. Most computer programs do not take into account the reduced moment of inertia because of cracking. Since sometimes Ie comes equal to 50% of Ig, when you do not calculate Ie, you may just double the deflection as found from computer analysis which takes Ig. Please note that, for all members you may not need to use Ie because for all members calculated moments may not exceed cracking moments. Once you have got Ie, you can use the same analysis program to find out the deflection of desired members. But you must note following things. 1. To find out deflection at middle of a beam, you must have a node there. You can achieve this by splitting the beam into two members. Most analysis programs have the option of doing this. 2. Changing I values of some members does not alter moment and shear values which you have got previously using Ig. 3. Ie can be calculated only when you have designed the member i.e. you have specified number and diameter of reinforcement bars. 4. When you are specifying I value explicitly, ensure that you do not define beam width and depth or radius, otherwise you may get absurd results. The formulas for calculating cracked moment of inertia are given below (Ref. 1). For rectangular beam reinforced for tension only: Icr = b(kd)3/3 + nAs(d-kd)2 Where k = ((2ρn + (ρn)2)0.5 – ρn and ρ = As/bd For a beam with both tension and compression reinforcement: Icr = b(kd)3/3 + (2n-1)As’(kd-d’) + nAs(d-kd)2 Where k = ((2n(ρ+2 ρ’d’/d) + n2(ρ +2 ρ’)2)0.5 – n(ρ + 2 ρ’), ρ = As/bd and ρ’ = A’s/bd For a T-beam with k>hf Icr = bw(kd)3/3 + (b-bw)hf3/12 + (b-bw)hf(kd-hf/2)2 + nAs(d-kd)2 Where k = (ρ n + 0.5(hf/d)2)/( ρ n + hf/d) and ρ = As/bd

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things are not as easy. But these values are always overestimated and thus lead to uneconomical design for multistory buildings. slab.787(months) 0. This additional deflection can be obtained by multiplying the short-term deflection (discussed above) due to dead load (+ live load. Don’t be lazy. We shall discuss later how to find the deflection of 2-way slab by using finite element analysis. for beams. This simple trick works for 1 dimensional member only i.0 and ρ’ = area of compression steel/gross cross sectional area of the member. Modulus of elasticity of concrete is given by Ec = 5700√fck MPa if fck (MPa) is measured as cube compressive strength of concrete.g. Always calculate deflection. Most codes provide you minimum depth of members if you do not calculate deflection. if live load remains in place for extended periods of time) by creep factor ξ = ν/(1+50ρ’) Where ν = 0.Computer Aided Structural Analysis For a T-beam with k>hf – use same equation as that for a rectangular beam.e. and Ec = 4700√fck MPa if fck is cylinder compressive strength. For 2 way members e. In all cases n = Es/Ec.229 but not greater than 2. You must add long term deflection due to creep and shrinkage as well.35 - . you can save money! . What is said above stands for short-term (immediate) deflection.

In fact if (Length of beam/Depth of beam) < 2 then the beam is termed as deep beam. In that case. There. what do you learn? Now make the beam section 600x400 mm and you will find that the total deflection is very near to bending deflection. Consider the following problem. they can take into effect of shear deformation. Figure 11-1 . Some programs offer option for specifying shear area. See what deflection your program shows! Chances are that it will show only 0.36 - .000234 + 0. A point load of 1 MN is applied at the free end of 1-m long steel cantilever beam. For normal beams where depth of beams are much less than their lengths. Check whether your program has this option. neglecting shear deformation does not lead to erroneous result but where length of beam is very close to depth of beam it can lead to large error. The cross section of the beam is 400x600 mm.000234 m. The total deflection is ∆ = PL3/3EI + 6PL/5GA (the equation comes from strain energy theorem) = 0. shear deformation must be taken into account. Shear deformation Most programs do not take into account deformation due to shear force. So.0003029 m.00007143 = 0.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 11.

because this method is easy. Modern world’s most powerful analysis method – finite element method is also a stiffness method in essence. Well. We shall discuss substitute frame method later (see section 13) while considering maximum bending moment. The spring reaction is the resultant of X and Y components of reaction. Think what you have learnt… How many of following analysis methods you have learnt in the university? – Moment distribution. you need to try out something else. Now be honest. the moment distribution is most popular. But if your program does not have this feature.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 12. Portal. Method of joints & method of section for trusses. how many of the above methods you still use to solve structures after you have started using computer analysis programs? Probably none! Academic people will argue that all the said methods are to be mastered for a better understanding of structural response. only stiffness method is used in computer programs. in building frames. Although you have learnt flexibility and stiffness approach while studying computer method of analysis.37 - . Inclined support If your program supports specifying inclined local axes for a particular member. Conjugate beam. Three moments theorem. In case of roller support you will get the reaction automatically from spring reaction. You can achieve this by specifying a “spring” of infinite stiffness. Did you notice that all these methods are used for frame analysis only? You may like to know that 80% to 90% of all real world structures analyzed are frame structures. shear force etc. Slope deflection. you are lucky. among the methods listed above. . does not involve solution of simultaneous equations and converges rapidly. Cantilever. Probably you know all or most of the above classical methods of analysis. This is quite logical. Normally you can specify a spring at any angle. Kani’s rotation contribution. then you will specify the joint restraints in usual manner and it will be considered as an inclined support. Moment area. Graphical – Funicular polygon & Maxwell diagram – Williot-Mohr diagram. In this case you just need to mention in what angle you want to rotate the local axes of the selected member. Do you think so? I don’t. Column analogy. Substitute frame.

shear force and reaction when it is fully loaded.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 13. Here we shall combine classical approximate substitute frame with computer analysis. In classical substitute frame (see figure 13-1). yet you need not isolate one particular floor. result obtained from one floor will be same for other floors. dead load must always be applied over all spans. But if you have computer. it is always better to perform the actual combination to get maximum values of force and moment. in the (figure 13-2) shown. you should just apply the required span load combination in any floor. To get this Maximum positive bending moment at center of span Maximum positive bending moment at center of span Maximum negative bending moment at support Maximum column reaction Do this Load that span and then alternates spans Load adjacent spans and then alternate spans Load adjacent spans and then alternate spans Load adjacent spans and then alternate spans Maximum positive bending moment at Load all spans except adjacent spans support In all cases. Then we apply the combinations described above to get maximum member forces. shear force and reaction in building frame: Substitute (Equivalent) frame A frame member will not experience maximum bending moment.e. In case of regular shaped building elevation. For example. The value obtained for support moment under this condition will also be the maximum support moment for 1st. Rather. then you can load all spans together with dead and live load without any combination. ground floor is normally denoted by “0” in structural analysis convention). the load combination stands for maximum negative support moment in first interior column (actually both interior columns since this structure is symmetric) in 2nd floor (bottom most floor. Maximum bending moment. i. In case of computer analysis. though you still need to apply the live load in same combination as discussed above. But before that note the following live load distribution criteria.38 - . Some codes say that if live load intensity does not exceed 75% of dead load intensity. 3rd and 4th . we isolate one single floor with the assumption of columns at top and bottom floors are fixed.

Figure 13-1 4 3 2 1 Figure 13-2 . Similarly.Computer Aided Structural Analysis floor. other load combinations can be used in same manner.39 - . (Though it is customary to use reduced live load in roof level).

But since the members’ length change. the program calculates it as a very small (say 10-100) number. you have discovered a bug in the program! The reason of this awkward shape can be explained. The truss should be externally indeterminate. you will see zero force in all members after the analysis. Hooray. you need to modify the member stiffness matrix considering the displacement in perpendicular direction as well. Now take a statically indeterminate structure. now take a statically indeterminate truss. This is not correct! Figure 14-1 Most standard analysis package use truss stiffness matrix based on ignoring the support displacement perpendicular to member’s local axis. for example a simply supported beam or a simple truss. you can take a 2-support truss whose both supports are hinged (pinned) as shown in figure 141. there should not be any member force developed due to support settlement. still it will draw a bending moment or axial force diagram! In a statically determinate structure. You will see an interesting phenomenon. The graphic code picks up this small but finite number and draws the force diagram. Make one of its support settle to an amount and perform the analysis. If you want to know the actual member forces after such support settlement. Support settlement Take any statically determinate structure. For example. Although the member force is zero. Apply a settlement in one of its supports. Most likely. Well. Now apply a downward settlement in any one of its supports and analyze the structure. You should find some member forces in the beam. Say a continuous beam.40 - . which would create the axial forces. you can’t do it with most available programs. Unfortunately. Now analyze the structure. Though the program will correctly say zero member force. That’s why you get the wrong answer. there are strains.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 14. .

For example. try to convert 3D structures into 2D in this way. consider the following structure as shown in figure 15-1. 2D structures are not only easier to model. often it is possible to convert the 3D model to 2D for easier input and analysis. 15-2. . 2D versus 3D For symmetrical structures. Figure 15-1 You can easily analyze just one plane frame as shown in fig. but also they can be ‘handled’ and analyzed much more easily compared to 3D structures. Whenever possible.41 - .Computer Aided Structural Analysis 15.

you could adopt similar 2D frame (on YZ plane) as shown in fig. 15-1.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 15-2 Look. 15-2.42 - . If there were additional loads of same type towards Z direction. in fig. You can then superpose the result as long as it is a linear structure with material and member section properties are the same. . the loads are towards X direction. How about dynamic analysis of the frame shown? Is it possible to convert 3D into 2D? I shall discuss this when covering dynamic analysis in detail.

You may like to know that it is theoretically possible to create stiffness matrix of a curved member.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 16. By using spreadsheet’s built-in commands. Microsoft Excel or Lotus 123). . right vertical reaction 125 kN ↑. Some programs can “copy” and “paste” member and nodal information to and from spreadsheet file.5 kN inward at both ends. Obviously. Curved member Most frame analysis programs do not have curve element. you should get exact answer within 1% accuracy.g. While drawing straight members for curve elements. more the number of straight members used better the accuracy is.43 - . Note that the theoretical answer has been obtained by (H = ∫ My dx / ∫ y2 dx) formula. it is a good idea to change grid setting into “polar” form instead of normal rectangular setting. With 20 straight-line segments. you can easily find out y co-ordinates of the curve against each x co-ordinate. horizontal reactions are 312. parabolic arch. -50 kN/m (downward) Y 4m 20 m Figure 16-1 X The answer is: left vertical reaction 375 kN ↑. Now solve the following two hinged parabolic arch. Another way of doing this is to figuring the straight members’ nodal co-ordinates in spreadsheet (for example. This is useful when the equation of curve is known as y = f(x) e. You will need to replace the curved member by a number of straight members.

Please note that the beam has been ‘divided’ into 8 sections. Tapered section Many programs have the option of specifying tapered or variable cross sectional members. 3. A clockwise moment (hence minus sign) of 5000 has been applied at middle of the beam. you’re lucky. still you’re lucky as you are reading this book! To specify a tapered section by yourself.e. Width of the sections is same throughout. If so. better is the result).44 - . 2. If not.75.e. you still need to apply this trick for “non-linearly” (e. Note another interesting point that. 1.25. I didn’t specify any unit or E value of material! You should get same answer whatever unit you use. Although some programs do allow you to specify “linearly” tapered members. Then you should specify various A (areas) and I (inertia) for each segment. The calculated reaction at left end is – 163 (i. 3. But the depth is varied as (from left most section) 2. You will get more accurate answer if you divide the beam into more number of elements.5 4 15 Figure 17-1 15 The figure shows a tapered beam.5. The cross sections at both ends have been shown. 4. The bending moment at just left of mid-point of beam is – 2443 (theoretically –2549) and that of right is 2557 (theoretically 2451). in this problem.5.5 2 -5000 1. 2. .25. It is required to analyze the beam. This will become clear from the following problem.g. 3. Hinged at left end and fixed at right end. 3. you should ‘break’ the members into a number of parts (more the number. upward) compared to theoretical answer of 170. cubic or parabolic) tapered members. downward) and at right end is +163 (i.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 17.

This trick works! Figure 18-1 . This can be automatically checked if you activate P-∆ analysis (see section 8) option in your program. Nodes connected by a spring Many programs allow you to define a spring support. Choose A and L value properly. this spring replacement member should carry axial load only. the member will buckle easily.e. Also. do not forget to release moment on this member i.45 - . you must check whether axial load in spring replacement member is below its buckling load (π2EI/L2). but none will allow you to connect two nodes by a spring. But you can achieve this! Replace the spring by a member connected between those two nodes where the spring is required. After analysis.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 18. E should be same as that of material of the spring. keeping L small. because if you choose large L. Choose the properties of that member so that stiffness of spring equals AE/L of that connected member.

.28 kN Figure 19-2 With the result shown above.28 kN 11.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 19. As a first simple example. consider the following structure as shown in figure 19-1. of computing and of interpretation of the results. it is often possible to consider only a part of the structure rather than the whole.44 kNm 4. you will get the result as shown below. it is crucial that the boundary conditions ‘sub-structures’ accurately represent the conditions in the actual structure. When an isolated part of a structure is analyzed. Sub-structuring technique and symmetry (break them into pieces…) In the analysis of large structures. 10 kN 11.46 - . 10 kN 4m 20 kN 4m 4m 4m 4m A = 2002 mm² E = Steel -5 kN/m Figure 19-1 If you separate the upper floor and then analyze only that portion. You are required to analyze the structure. the applied loads on the bottom floor of the actual structure will be as shown below. This approach is useful to reduce the labor (cost and time) of preparing the data.44 kNm 5 kN 5 kN 4.

Computer Aided Structural Analysis

11.42 kNm 25 kN 4.28 kN

11.42 kNm 5 kN

-5 kN/m 4.28 kN

A

B

Figure 19-3

C

D

Observe that on leftmost node, 25 kN loads comes from 20 kN applied at that node and 5 kN reaction from upper floor. The reactions you will get in the lower floor should be same as that of obtained if you considered the whole structure as shown in figure 19-1. For your check, the ultimate results are as given below for problem figure 19-1. Node A B C D Fx kN -6.223 -5.99 -11.2 -6.583 Fy kN -14.85 30.54 20.64 3.675 Mz kNm 15.58 15.18 22.08 15.81

From the above example, it is clear that; you need to apply opposite of reactions as loads on lower floor frames. The procedure described here seems too meager for this particular structure, but this method is an absolute must for doing a fine meshed finite element analysis. It may happen that, if you run the whole structure once, it may exceed the program’s or your computer’s resource limit. That’s why it’s so important to ‘break them into pieces’. Whenever possible, try to design symmetrical structure as much as possible. They behave better than unsymmetrical ones. For symmetrical structures, this sub-structuring technique is a great time saver. When the structure has one or more planes of symmetry, it is possible to perform the analysis on one-half, onequarter or an even smaller part of the structure, provided that the appropriate boundary conditions are applied at the nodes of the plane(s) of symmetry. Followings are some examples of exploiting symmetry of structures.

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Computer Aided Structural Analysis

Continuous beams, with even number of spans. Actual beam

Figure 19-4

**Symmetry utilized beam Fixed
**

Figure 19-5

Continuous beams, with odd number of spans. Actual beam

Figure 19-6

**Symmetry utilized beam Z direction rotation fixed
**

Figure 19-7

The ‘key’ to utilizing symmetry, is applying proper boundary condition. Remember, in order to take advantage of symmetry, both the structure (geometry and material) and the applied load must be symmetric. Although, you can still take advantage of symmetry even if the loading is ‘anti-symmetric’ (i.e. one half of the loading is similar to other half in magnitude but opposite in direction), the procedure will be somewhat screwy. In all cases, our sign convention is same as described in section 4 earlier. Now consider plane frames with even number of bays as shown in fig. 19-8. This frame can be detached, after applying proper boundary condition, as shown in fig. 19-9. Plane frame with odd number of spans has been shown in figure 19-10. Here you will have to apply boundary condition of X translation and Z rotation prevented in mid points of the middle beams as shown in fig. 19-11. Symmetrical structures are not only easier to analyze but also perform better than unsymmetrical structures in real life!

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Computer Aided Structural Analysis

Figure 19-8

Fixed

Fixed

Fixed

Figure 19-9

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plate’s symmetry etc. things will not be crystal clear to you. in later sections. .Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 19-10 X translation & Z rotation fixed X translation & Z rotation fixed X translation & Z rotation fixed Figure 19-11 Exercise Solve some problems yourself on the basis of above example models.50 - . If you face any problem. Unless you analyze the models and visualize the results. don’t hesitate to send me an e-mail! You will find advanced info on 3D structures’ symmetry.

The section of concrete staircase may be taken as 1-m width x 150-mm depth. Theoretically. The length of simple beam equals 1. We shall venture on folded plate analysis in detail in some later section. In this case we have considered the staircase as simply supported. . it is assumed same load is acting through out the span for conservative result. we consider it as a straight beam. loading on landing should be less than that of inclined flight.25 + 2. it may be fixed-fixed or fixed-pinned as the case may be. The second figure is the approximation of the same staircase as simple beam. Staircase analysis A staircase is actually a folded plate structure. How far is this assumption justified? Consider the figure of the staircase shown below. From the analysis it is found that maximum mid span moment is almost same in both analyses. In approximate calculation. Depending on casting.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 20. Shear forces (reactions) are also more or less equal. This proves that approximate analysis of staircase is not really inaccurate! In hand calculation.75 + 1 = 5 m. The results of both analyses are shown in next figure. moment was computed using simple M = wL2/8 formula. Figure 20-1 The first figure shows exact shape of a flight of a staircase with loads (including self-weight). In fact staircases are more often analyzed as fixed-fixed support condition. But in our traditional simplified method of analysis.51 - .

Following three beams are all simply supported (left end pinned and right end roller). 10 m 10 m 10 m Figure 20-3 . They are all acted by same uniformly distributed load on ‘projected’ length (say 10 kN/m). Their projected length on plan is same in all cases (say 10 m). You may analyze as many as separate structures in a single file even they are not connected together. This is applicable to most analysis programs.5. both structures were analyzed as a single file.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 20-2 This analysis was done in Visual Analysis 3.52 - . Find out what will be the bending moment at mid spans. An interesting point is to note that. Now think about the following paradox.

Computer Aided Structural Analysis

What result do you see? The bending moment (and reactions as well) is same in all cases! If you took w = 10 kN/m and L = 10 m, then Mmax = wL2/8 = 10*102/8 = 125 kNm. It shows that, for the simple beam, bending moment is same irrespective of beam’s geometry. This happens because all three beams shown are statically determinate structures. Now make all the beams fixed at both ends. Now re-analyze them and you will see different bending moments for all cases. The example problem I presented in this section for staircase, was simply supported in both ends. That’s why you got same bending moment! Had they been fixed at ends, the results would not have matched. However, they still would not differ appreciably from traditional straight beam calculation. Still in doubt why you got same result for statically determinate beams? Well, the reason is simple. As the beams were simply supported, horizontal reactions at supports are zero (since we have only loading acting downward). So, moment due to ‘eccentricity’ of geometry is also equal to zero. This will be from following figure. Internal moment developed Horizontal reaction H x

Figure 20-4

ex = eccentricity

This internal moment (= Hex at any section of distance x from end) causes the bending moment to differ from the value as in case of straight beams (where ex = 0 at all sections). In case of statically indeterminate beams, both H and ex are non-zero. So, the internal forces differ depending on geometry of the beam. When you analyzed two hinged arches as a student you probably used the equation: Arch moment = Beam moment – He. Didn’t you?

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Computer Aided Structural Analysis

21.

Cables

It is possible to analyze cables with a mere frame analysis program. A cable carries ‘tension’ only. So, you should define a cable in the same way as truss member (which carries axial force only) but additionally you will have to specify that it can take tension only (no compression). Some analysis programs may not have the option of defining a tension only member! Once you have specified cables in this way, the analyses are pretty straightforward. While viewing the result, you should check whether cables’ axial force diagram shows tension only (generally positive number) and no bending moments. That’s all. An example of cable structure is shown in fig 21-1. After performing the analysis, check your answer with exact result as given.

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Computer Aided Structural Analysis

Figure 21-1

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. at B = 250 kN (up). MEC = -41. Then find out the tension in cables. This is given as an exercise to you! If the loads are all unequal. MBD = 41. MBA = 75. Use suitable values for span. sags and loads.56 - . Check if equation of static equilibrium is satisfied at each node. Mid span of EC = 84 kNm. Figure 21-2 It is also possible to analyze the cable shown in figure 21-2. MBE = -117. the tensions in the cables will be different. Moments: MAB = 0.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Vertical reaction at A = 104 kN (down). MEB = 41.

57 - . Note that the yA and yB indicate eccentricity of the cable at supports in upward direction from center of gravity of concrete (cgc) line. then good. . PyA yA θA c P Upward UDL c L/2 L/2 θA = (4c + yA – yB)/L θB = (4c – yA + yB)/L Equivalent load Figure 22-1 θB yB PθA PyB PθB P w = 8Pc/L² Actual pre-stressed cable PyA yA θA θB yB P Total length L Actual pre-stressed cable Figure 22-2 PθA P(θA + θB) PyB PθB P Equivalent load Observe the figures very carefully. Observe sign conventions carefully. Upward distance is positive at supports and downward distance is positive at mid spans for pre-stressed cable profile (majority of standard analysis programs follow this sign convention). Please note that the θ values are in radians. If the cable distances are of opposite sense compared to what shown in above figures. They are really confusing! Try to comprehend the following worked out problem. Pre-stressed cable profile Does your program offer specifying pre-stressed cable profile? If yes.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 22. If not then read the following tricks. then ‘arrows’ of moments will be reversed.

5 m.5 – 0.6 – 0. So.5 + 0.4 m. equivalent upward load w = 8 x 500 x 1.5)/5 = 0.1 + 0.4)/2 + 0. So. the equivalent forces on the beam will be of as shown in figure 22-4 (axial force P is not shown).5+0. yB = 0. support moment at left end of right span is 250 kNm and on right end is 500 x 0. moments are 500 x 0.4 = 200 kNm. For right span. the remaining forces that will act are .5 = 250 kNm on right end of left span.2) = 150 kN.6 + 0.5+0.58 - .1 rad And θB = (0. yA = 0. yA = 0.67 kN/m. L = 15 m.17 rad And θB = (4 x 0. θA = (4 x 0. L = 15 m. Concentrated force at 10 m from left span is 500 x (0.5 + 0.Computer Aided Structural Analysis With reference to the figure 22-3.2 rad So.15 rad And c = (0.4)/15 = 0.6 = 1. Also.4)/15 = 0.05 m So. yB = 0. Figure 22-3 250 kNm 250 kN 150 kN 250 kNm 250 kN Figure 22-4 200 kNm 18.5 m. So. For left span.5)/10 = 0. So.5 = 250 kNm on left end and 500 x 0. the calculation is shown below.67 kN/m 250 kN Now the forces shown in blue color will go to support directly. Moments shown in orange color will cancel each other.05/152 = 18.5 m. θA = (0.

Computer Aided Structural Analysis shown in green color. please see any standard textbook on prestressed concrete. the beam should be analyzed for the loading shown above. You can analyze effect of each cable separately and then superpose to get the net result. Also remember that. there are other types of profiles possible. I have shown here only linear and parabolic cable profile.59 - . Although parabolic profile is the most common. for pre-stressing force. dead load and live load. 250 kNm 150 kN Figure 22-5 200 kNm 18. the beam will also carry dead load and live load as well. In actual practice there are always more than one cables.67 kN/m So. . Naturally. The ultimate equivalent load will be that of as shown in figure 22-5. Analyze the beam for these loads as separate cases and then combine the results as desired. See your textbook for details. there is a uniform compressive stress ‘P/A’ in the concrete in addition to the bending stress due to pre-stress. For more information on this subject.

There exist more than 1001 books in this subject.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 23. it would have been termed as 3D solid. Those who did not. That’s why it is 2D. so far what we have discussed in preceding sections. A number of mechano elements were needed to build your model car or house. By 2D or 3D frame we actually mean “Plane” and “Space” frame. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Method is approaching… We now come to the most outstanding and most versatile method of structural analysis: the Finite Element Method. That is. the theory of finite element analysis is very complex! What is meant by finite element? The answer is any element. there is a “cut” in the beam. Y X Figure 23-1 This is the longitudinal section of a beam shown. The beam is simply supported.60 - . Did you play with mechano when you were a child? Just think how you built a model car or house by “Lego” parts? Now consider each part of mechano as “finite element”. Pretty confusing! Look. I present a very very brief introduction of the subject. Here the “bars” are “finite elements” of the “frame”. Now consider a frame. It is made of a number of beam/column members or “bars”. which is not infinite. It is . right end roller. you may skip this section. left end pinned. It has made possible to analyze virtually all kinds of structures that human brain ever can imagine! If you have studied finite element before. is actually finite element analysis in essence where each finite element is a “bar”. Observe that here we consider the beam as 2dimensional “Plane stress” structure. In all previous cases. you are viewing a beam from its length side. Don’t be exasperated. we treat all beams as “bars” like a “stick”. Don’t confuse this with 2D or 3D frame. I hope you have probably realized now that the frame analysis. But I warn you. this is the real definition of finite element. Had we considered the width of beam in the analysis. But in the above figure we are treating the beam taking into effect of its length as well as depth.

Then we shall have to apply the boundary condition on [K] matrix.Computer Aided Structural Analysis loaded by a uniformly distributed load. plane strain etc. From this equation we can solve for [D] and then we can find out nodal stresses form equation [σ] = [C][ε] where [C] matrix differs in various cases like plane stress. So. our problem can be represented by familiar equation [P] = [K][D]. Then we shall determine the member stiffness matrix [k] of each individual triangular element and ultimately we shall have to combine the member stiffness matrices into “global stiffness matrix” [K]. distributed load must be converted to appropriate nodal loads by applicable equations. but we could have also considered it is made of “rectangular” finite elements as shown in figure 23-3. Figure 23-2 After that we need to construct force matrix [P]. In this problem we considered the beam is made of “triangular” finite elements. It proves one very fundamental concept of finite element analysis: You must choose proper element for particular problem. you will see that you get accurate answer when you use rectangular elements. We like to find out the stresses at various points of the beam.61 - . For this. triangular element is not a good choice. If you are interested to know why triangular element behaves in such way. pretty much the way we did in case of frame analysis. first we divide the beam into a number of “triangular finite elements”. That means we have taken care of only σx. . We are describing this problem as plane stress because we considered only 2 dimensions (X and Y) and stress variation along width (Z direction) has not been taken into account. You do get correct result with triangular finite element but you must use very fine mesh compared to rectangular element. Y X Figure 23-3 If you analyze the beam with both triangular and rectangular elements as shown above. In general. you should consult any standard finite element analysis textbook. Please note that analysis of this problem by classical method is close to impossible. σy and τxy. So.

But higher noded elements are difficult to calculate even with a computer since total number of nodes increases the size of global stiffness matrix. There are a lot more other finite elements in addition to basic triangular and rectangular elements discussed above. . when you use triangular you will normally need much finer “mesh” than rectangular elements. then it would have been 20 noded finite element. Whatever element you use. The assembly of elements in finite element analysis is called “mesh”. If its each vertex has one additional point in the middle. it must be compatible.62 - .Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 23-4 As a crude rule. If you want to analyze the same beam in 3D then your model will look like as shown in figure 23-5. Higher is the number of nodal points in an element better is the accuracy of the solution. Compatibility means there must not be any discontinuity or overlapping among the elements when the analysis model deforms under applied load. Figure 23-5 In this case finite element will be 3D solid element like shown in figure 23-6. You should use more number of elements where you anticipate stress variation is more irregular. Figure 23-6 This is an 8 noded finite element because it has 8 nodal points. You can combine more than one kind of element in single structure. Most powerful finite element programs can generate mesh automatically if you specify the boundary surfaces of the models.

Moreover. Finite element method is nowadays widely used in all branches of aerospace engineering. You may be wondering that if finite element method can solve any structure. Just think of solving a simple beam in finite element method (this is presented just after this section). . This probably needs little more explanation. Aha! A real question indeed! You can realize it yourself. bio-medical engineering. I used the word “almost” because finite element analysis does produce exact result only when the finite element is “bar” that is in “frame structures”. Researchers are still developing new finite elements. But this method has drawbacks! Your program cannot analyze the structure if your number of mesh nodal points exceed the program’s capacity. Of course you can change E or w values or boundary condition without remodeling the whole structure. How do you check the correctness of these analyses? Therefore you must accept the finite element analysis result as exact result! That’s why it is so important that finite element analysis models must be created to simulate the actual structure as much as possible. mechanical engineering and structural engineering etc. Every problem in finite element analysis is unique. This is especially a demanding task for very complex structures. sufficiently accurate mesh. I and w as input and computes deflection at any point by solving the equation of elastic line. But you must realize that it is not so easy as it seems. which takes L. if you change the length of the beam. which can be easily formulated.63 - . But now imagine the analysis of the fuselage of an airplane or the propeller of a ship. In classical method of analysis. Think of a simple beam. It is often a common practice to analyzing the structure first with a particular mesh and then repeating the whole analysis after doubling the mesh to see whether the result converges. But in case of finite element analysis. you can make a program. You must use proper combination of finite elements. it is very difficult to predict beforehand what particular “finite element” will best simulate the structure. you can easily check whether the result is correct or not by comparing the answer obtained by classical method. it becomes another new problem because the geometry of the model changes. proper load and applicable boundary conditions. Some manufacturing companies spend millions of dollars every year in finite element analysis! I am concluding finite element introduction here.Computer Aided Structural Analysis One distinguishing feature of finite element method is that it does not provide “closed form” solution. Another aspect of Finite element analysis is that it almost always produces an approximate result. After you solve this beam by finite element method. E. then what is the justification of studying classical methods of analysis.

Remember this! . 5.64 - . Defining the boundary conditions. Defining the loads. 1. 2. Performing analysis (may take hours for complicated models!) 6. My main aim is to make you realize that finite element analysis is required only when it is absolutely necessary. Typically.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Sometimes even the most expensive finite element analysis programs produce wrong answer to complex problems. many engineers tempt to use finite element analysis everywhere even when it is possible to analyze the particular structure using classical method of analysis. Remember that finite element analysis programs are very expensive and they also demand great part of contribution from you for preparing input and interpreting output. I strongly recommend that you to go through some standard finite element method textbooks. drawing it either in the finite element program’s graphical interface or importing it from a CAD program). a finite element analysis consists of following steps. This example is for your understanding of the basic concept of FEA only. Creating the mesh (most programs can automatically generate mesh for best result). 4.e. The steps are pretty straightforward. Interpreting the result (very important). If you feel inclined to know more about this wonderful (?) tool of analysis. In practice. this problem should be solved by simple flexure formula of σ = My/I. But there are many glitches! In next page you will find an exercise of simply supported beam with uniformly distribute load analyzed by FEA method. Defining the model (i. One word of advice. 3.

you should use plate finite element whose thickness will be equal to the depth in Z direction. Your program may display slight different result due to numerical round off in calculation. You can convert the uniform load into nodal loads by applying 0. you should get the answer: mid point deflection 1.25 m size.65 - . Plane stress analysis with 20 rectangular elements. The deflected shape should resemble the following figure. Original shape is shown by dotted line. Its left end is hinged and right end is roller.5 kN at intermediate nodes. each 0.95x10-4 m maximum stress 3. . For 2D analysis. After performing the finite element analysis. Find deflection at mid point and maximum bending stress in the beam by finite element analysis. It is loaded by 10-kN/m uniformly distributed load. ν = 0.5x0.75 MPa. Most finite element analysis programs offer these elements. this is equal to width of the beam. Use standard solid brick or tetrahedral element. after modeling your structure should look similar to this figure. 2.3. In this problem.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Exercise A 5-m steel (E=200GPa) beam has width 200 mm and depth 500 mm. That means there are 10 elements in X direction and 2 elements in Y direction. Solid model analysis. This 2D-beam analysis was performed in Visual Analysis.25 kN at extreme nodes and 0. Try following modeling: 1. Figure 23-7 In case of plane stress model formulation.

Interpreting the finite element analysis result is very important. local σx distribution.66 - . Later we shall see how finite element analysis can produce incompatible result. σy . Figure 23-9 .g. Your program should have the option to display other stresses e.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 23-8 The figure 23-9 shows one of mid plane stresses. τxy etc. There you will realize why it is essential to learn some theory behind the finite element analysis. It is expected that you spend equal or more time in interpreting analysis result compared to the time previously spent in preparation of the model.

comes the main hurdle. what will be the load? Look. If you are using a high-end FEA program. Figure 23-10 The next figure shows stress (σx) diagram on displaced shape. similar to shown in fig. Now. Z translation fixed along bottom edge and Z translation fixed along bottom edge on right end. 23-7) 8-noded solid elements. So. the program will mesh it by using brick elements or tetrahedral elements.2 m = 1 m. you should take into account many other things when you analyze the same beam as 3D solid. it will mesh the model itself. Left end boundary condition is X. such high density meshing is not really required for this very problem. By default.67 - . (as in SAP2000) you will get exact result for this problem. .Computer Aided Structural Analysis To analyze the beam as 2D. The next figure shows the beam with automatically generated tetrahedral mesh. the meshing. You may note that. here we’ve applied a total load of 10 kN/m x 5 m = 50 kN acting on the upper face area of 5 m x 0. Y. However. Firstly. you should not face any difficulty. Be careful about the load’s direction. Figure 23-11 This 3D analysis was performed in Cosmos/Design Star. the applied load we have to specify as 50 kN/m² pressure normal to the upper surface. If you manually mesh with 20 numbers (2 elements along depth and 10 elements along length.

why do you need bending moment and shear force values? To calculate stresses later.68 - . Why? Well. It does not show you bending moment or shear force diagram.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Did you see that finite element analysis programs normally give you output in the form of nodal displacements and stresses. isn’t it? Finite element analysis programs directly give you the stress values! .

So. This is the function.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 24. the plate should be divided into a larger number of elements (triangular or rectangular etc. the values taken in this problem are not realistic.). Please note that the value of modulus of elasticity E is taken as 200x106 N/m².69 - . Shape function matrix is normally denoted by [N]. which describes displacement of any point within an element as a function of nodal displacements of the element. I am here to rescue you. The figure also shows the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system. I hope you’ve already familiar with ‘shape function’. let’s start… Figure 24-1 Figure 24-1 shows a plate divided into two triangular shaped finite elements. . In fact. Well. The definition will be clear as we solve the problem. The division of the plate into a mere two elements is done just for illustration purpose only. you might find it easier to comprehend now. In actual practice. we now begin solving the problem. A typical worked out problem of FEA I think by this time you have at least tried to open first few pages of a FEA textbook and probably bogged down by heavy theory. My main aim is to present various steps of FEA computation through a simple numerical problem. most FEA textbooks do not contain sufficient numerical examples to make the whole thing transparent to the readers. This is a plane stress problem. If you study the following numerical example along with your FEA textbook. Unfortunately. Anyway.

We consider element 1 at first..25 0 Now we set the ‘Constitutive matrix’ [C] as (for plane stress only) ...25 .0) and (4.25 0 0 0 = 0 0 0 − 0.. Its nodal points are 1. (4.4) respectively. y3) are the co-ordinates of node 1. If the area of the triangle is A. y 2) + x( y 2 − y3) + y ( x3 − x 2) = 1 − 0. y3) + x( y3 − y1) + y ( x1 − x3) N2 = = 0.25 y 2A ( x1. y2) and (x3. we shall assume that we already know the shape function for the triangular element.Computer Aided Structural Analysis All FEA textbooks describe how to derive shape functions for various elements. So. (x1.. y1). (x2. y3 − x3. The shape functions for triangular element 1 are ( x 2.. The co-ordinates are (0.25 x 2A ( x3.2 and 3.25 0 0.25 0. the ‘strain displacement’ matrix is ∂N 1 ∂x [ B] = ∂[ N ] = 0 ∂N 1 ∂y 0 ∂N 1 ∂y ∂N 1 ∂x ∂N 2 ∂x 0 ∂N 2 ∂y 0 ∂N 2 ∂y ∂N 2 ∂x ∂N 3 ∂x 0 ∂N 3 ∂y 0 ∂N 3 ∂y ∂N 3 ∂x − 0.25 x − 0.. y1 − x1.25 y 2A N1 = Now.70 - .m −1 0 − 0.25 − 0.25 0 0.m 2 2 y3 1 4 4 Where. y1) + x( y1 − y 2) + y ( x 2 − x1) N3 = = 0.0). y 2 − x 2.25 0. 2 and 3 respectively. then we know 1 x1 1 A = 1 x2 2 1 x3 y1 1 0 0 1 y 2 = 1 4 0 = 8.

6.5 0 0 0 .Computer Aided Structural Analysis 1 ν 0 200 0 0 E [C ] = 0 = 0 200 0 . So.5 0 .5 0 . 3. we shall get stiffness matrix for element 1 as: 1 0 [k ]1 = −1 0 0 0 0 0 .5 0 [k ] 2 = 0 − .5 −1 0 − 0 . 5 and 6.5 1 .5 1 . y3 = 4 (point 4).. x2 = 4. y1 = 0 (point 1).5 0 1 0 0 0 −1 0 0 1 0 −1 0 − 0 .5 0 0 Note that.5 − 0 .5 −1 0 ..5 0 ...5 − 0 ..N / m 2 ν 1 2 1 −ν 1 −ν 0 0 100 0 0 ν We have considered E = 200x106 N/m² and Poisson’s ratio as 0. 5.5 0 .5 1 . This is given as an exercise for you.5 0 .N / m − 0 .10 6.. Calculation is same.5 . The stiffness matrix of triangular element is given by [k ] = ∫ [ B]T [C ][ B]dV = [ B]T [C ][ B] At.. 4. . 2. y2 = 4 (point 3)...5 1 .01 m.5 − 0 .( for.. [K] = [k]1 + [k]2..0 ..5 − 0 . DOF are 1. we can easily find stiffness matrix for element 2. Following exactly same steps.5 − 0 .5 − 0 ..5 0 −1 0 .N / m − 0 ...5 − 0 .10 6..5 0 − 0 .stress ) V If we perform the calculation. Only you have to use x1 = 0.10 6. 0 . 7 and 8.5 0 . 2.5 −1 0 .. In matrix format.5 0 0 0 0 0 −1 0 1 .71 - .. plane..5 − 0 . it is a 6x6 matrix. x3 = 0.5 − 0 ... Its DOF are 1. the global stiffness matrix [K] becomes. Thickness t = 0.5 − 0 .5 For element 2.

nodes 1 and 4 are pinned. In the problem.5 0 −1 [K ] = 0 0 − 0 .72 - .5 − 0 ... 8 will be fixed..5 − 0 .5 1 . force matrix becomes an 8x1 matrix.dx For more explanation on this topic.5 1 . Our next step is to calculate applied nodal forces.5 0 . 6 only. 4.. In FEA.5 0 .5 0 0 −1 0 0 0 − 0 . The formula for converting distributed loads into nodal loads is: {re } = ∫ [ N ]T q.5 −1 0 0 0 − 0 . Since.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 1 . So.5 0 .5 1 .5 1 . However..5 0 −1 0 − 0 . still we did not specify the boundary condition.5 −1 0 .5 − 0 . The force matrix is .5 Observe that it is an 8x8 matrix since we have 8 DOF in the problem. we have a varying distributed force.5 0 0 −1 0 1 .5 0 0 − 0 .5 0 1 .5 − 0 . q1 q2 L Actual distributed load Figure 20-2 L(2q1+q2)/6 L(q1+2q2)/6 L Equivalent nodal load Note that the applied load is in DOF 3 and 5 direction. Therefore.10 6.5 − 0 .. 2 and 7. DOF 1.5 0 .5 − 0 .5 − 0 . we have to adjust both global stiffness and force matrix with DOF 3.5 −1 0 0 0 .5 − 0 .5 1 ..5 .5 − 0 . see your favorite (or not so favorite) FEA textbook.5 0 0 0 −1 0 ..5 0 . 5. we must transfer distributed loads into equivalent nodal loads.N / m − 0 .5 − 0 .

4..10 −3..5 1 .5 [K ]B = − 0 .10 6.73 - ..........N Recall very well known stiffness method formula [F] = [K][d] Calculated displacement for DOF 3.5 − 0 .5 0 . 6 DOF only) 8000 [F ]D = 0 4000 0 .5 − 0 .5 −1 0 .[F]D or 7..43 [d ]c = 1...... .5 0 − 0 .14 . 4.5 0 0 −1 0 1 ..Computer Aided Structural Analysis 0 0 8000 [F ] = 0 4000 0 0 0 .5 . 5.5 1 .71 4.. 5.m Global displacement matrix [d] becomes 8x1 matrix as shown next... global [K] takes the form 1 ... 6 is [d]c = [K]B-1.N After applying boundary condition.....N / m Force matrix is (for 3...57 1..

25 . we like to know the strains and stresses at all three nodes of element 1. σx 371450 [σ ] = σ y = − 28550 .25 − 0. 0 εx − 0.25 0....43 [d ] = 1.10 = − 143 10 − 6 1..10 −3..71 4.25 0 0.74 - .N / m 2 τ xy − 28600 What if we want to find out the displacement at point x = 3 and y = 2? Displacement at any point within the element [u] = [N][d] d1 d2 ux uy = N1 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 .25 − 286 0 0 4..25 0.14 0 The stress is defined by [σ] = [C][ε].. d3 d4 d5 d6 = .57 1.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 0 0 7..m Our main analysis is complete.. . Suppose. Now we shall ‘post process’ our result...25 [ε ] = ε y = 0 0 0 0 0.57 1..43 −3 − 0.. . The strain matrix is defined by [ε] = [B][d].71 γ xy − 0.14 0 0 .25 0 0 0 1875 7.

Now imagine what will happen with 100.71 4.25 0. Did you realize the labor involved in solving with just 2 elements and 8 DOF. 6.dxdy Here you have to integrate ‘numerically’.000 nodes. For rectangular and other elements. The answer we have got here is not correct. [B] = constant i. They calculate stress/strain at all points inside the elements and plots as colorful contour diagram as output. Use your analysis program to generate a mesh and see what will be the exact answer. this is the case only for triangular element.14 1 .0 10 −3...e. Next try the problem with four rectangular elements.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 0 0 0. 3. Distributed load should be converted to equivalent nodal loads.. That’s why it’s called Constant Strain Triangle.5 7. stresses at any point within element are also constant. It vindicates absolute necessity of computers in FEA. 5. In this problem.5 0 0 0 . See your FEA textbook to find out [N] matrix for rectangular elements. Let’s have a snack break! .57 1.m Where.. it does not involve any terms containing x or y.t.25 0 0 0.43 1. dn indicates nodal displacement of the element..25 0 . 4.75 - .14 10 −3 = 4. Since strain is constant.. However.. [B] is a function of x and y (and z for 3D cases).. You should appreciate following interesting points: 1. This is as expected because we have considered only two elements. 2. The commercial FEA programs basically performs the same operation as described above.25 0 0 0. (Oops!) I think you are already feeling bore.. The stiffness matrix for rectangular elements is given by b a T [k ] = ∫ ∫ [ B] −b − a [C ][ B].

The theoretical answer is 0. you should get the answer. It is simply supported. Consider sign convention as described in section 4. Now comes the boundary condition. Our model is 3-m x 2-m size and 10 mm thick. S11. do it. Make a ‘cut’ anywhere in the plate and see what happens. Specify two adjacent edges as pinned and the other two adjacent edges as rollers. It will make the plate simply supported.0007 m deflection using your program.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 25. 0. Why it is necessary to ‘mesh’ plates? . Principal etc.00065 m. Also make sure the load acts ‘downward’. it should be enough for this problem.65-mm i. it may be considered sufficiently accurate. So. The plate is made of steel (E = 200 GPa). Ignore self-weight of the plate. If everything goes ok.e.76 - . Now solve the same problem with some different boundary conditions like all edges fixed and heavier loads etc. If you get 0. The programs typically show many other stress-components like Von Mises. Different programs have different options for specifying surface loads. Roller Pinned Pinned Figure 25-1 Roller When applying surface load. Find the deflection at mid point of the plate. Check your answers with theoretical solutions. Plates by FEM Let’s solve a simple plate by finite element analysis.0005 or 0. Expensive programs can create the optimum mesh for you! If you mesh the plate 15x10 elements. Most programs will allow you to divide the plate into number of smaller plates within it. Max. First hurdle is how you should ‘mesh’ the plate. The deflected shape should resemble a saucer. It is acted by 100-kPa uniformly distributed load over its surface. I shall discuss about them later. be careful.

you have to decrease your mesh size.91x10-4 m. You may wonder that we don’t split frame (beam/truss) members. Although. in actual problem you won’t know the answer beforehand! So. however. In the real world structures. So. analyze the plate with only 6x4 mesh. I shall discuss more about it later. this mesh is sufficient. 252). 6). Now your result is correct. we just increased mesh density and see whether our result converges and we stopped when done. Another concern involves load path continuity. instead of 4-noded plate element we can use 8-noded plate element. you analyze the plate again but with 30x20 mesh. you still get same result. To fix these problems the single plate will have to be split into smaller pieces. should you rely upon convergence of displacement or of stress? . The supporting beams would receive no load. you will get different (usually more accurate) result if you split frame members. this is particularly important with large models. For example. For linear structures.e. Another point. Well. So. Finally. we can form the exact stiffness matrix. More on non-linear structures in some later sections. so that more nodes are provided to allow the real world connection to be more accurately modeled. The walls may also be too stiff when modeled as a single element. However. the plates are in continuous contact with the supporting members. This trick normally works in most of the FEA problems. Let’s apply 15x10 mesh (see fig. So. you need to increase your mesh density i. it is not clear into how many elements you should split the plates (Ref. occasionally you may need to split frame members too for applying nodal point loads. Modeling the structure in this way can cause larger deflections in some members than if they were modeled with intermediate connections. As I already mentioned you earlier. Interpreting the result also becomes complicated. more elements require more time to analyze. there may be situations where increasing mesh density only may not produce good result! We may need to use more complex elements. this is not equal to theoretical 6. Your mid point deflection should come 5. how do you know that you get exact answer with 15x10 mesh? What you have to do is that.5x10-4 m.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Suppose you have made a model of moment frame with masonry walls and concrete floor slabs as ‘plates’. even if you split frame members. keep going on! How do I know whether my meshing is accurate enough? Why not start with this very plate problem? First. You will observe that you get same displacement as in case of 15x10 mesh. Clearly. But hey. So. in this case you should get exact mid point deflection. But for non-linear structures. Now why you need to ‘mesh’ the plates? The problem with this is that the plate elements are only connected to the supporting members at the nodes. the load would be transferred to the corners of the plate and directly down to the columns. If a distributed surface load were applied to the floor plates. as I already stated that for ‘bar’ finite elements. So we don’t need to split them.77 - . The more each plate is split the more accurate the model becomes.

Figure 25-2 . Take stress diagrams of the point when displacements converge (in 30x20 case for this problem). you should aim at displacement convergence. stresses in FEA are ‘less’ accurate than displacements (since stresses are calculated from displacements.Computer Aided Structural Analysis In general.78 - . So. see the worked out problem of previous section).

the forces we generally do consider are – bending moment and shear force. Try to avoid compression member as far as possible. Things will get really messy if unsymmetrical bending is considered. The next figure shows positive direction of the bending moments and shear forces acting on a beam. buckling may occur. Figure 26-2 Here the stress is also Force/Area but in this case. . The reactions cause shear stress (= VQ/Ib). the member will not fail. This is discussed later. torsion also comes (see figure 26-4). First consider a simple truss member. This is current trend in design. although sometimes effect of axial forces may be quite as much. This is one of the most important tasks. When it’s in tension.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 26. in addition to these forces. I shall start with very basic beam and truss and then gradually move to complex stress components. are very efficient and cost effective. All tension member structures like tents etc. consider a member under compressive force. Until the stress exceeds the value of yield stress of the material of the member.79 - . The maximum stress that the member can withstand depends on the material and the ‘slenderness ratio’ (= length/side dimension) of the member. In case of straight beam. Interpreting FEA result In this section you will learn how to interpret FEA result. On the other hand. Figure 26-1 The tensile stress developed in the member is simply equal to Force/Area. Figure 26-3 The bending moment causes bending stress (= My/I) on the beam. the force acts on it as shown below. For beams curved in plan.

we have only σx. please let me introduce Principal .80 - . Please see figure 26-1 and you will appreciate the stress component diagram shown there. Typically. predicts that yielding in ductile material occurs when distortion energy per unit volume of the material equals or exceeds the distortion energy per unit volume of the same material when it is subjected to yielding in a tensile test. Note that in that beam. I’m sure you’ve seen this figure several times since your first year of university. σy τyx τxy τyz σx Y X Z σz Figure 26-5 τzy τzx τxz All stress components are shown in figure 26-5. The theory takes into account the energy associated with changes in the shape of the material. all FEA programs will show you Von Mises stress by default after analysis is finished. to start yielding and become plastic. Before showing you mathematical concept of Von Mises stress. This is based on Von Mises – Hencky theory which. didn’t you? In straight beam. This criterion is used to analyze materials that would fail in a ductile manner. In a nutshell.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 26-4 Now consider a most general case of the stresses acting on a solid element. The Von Mises stress is a measure of stress intensity required for a material (generally a metallic material). you will get values for only σx stress components. Now what does this mean anyway? Von Mises stress is a measurement of ‘distortion’ of the element. which is obvious.

The directions associated with principal stresses are called the principal directions. shear stresses vanish. Von Mises stress has no implication in brittle materials like concrete and soil. the Factor of Safety = σ limit / σ Von Mises Then comes Maximum Shear Stress criterion. Mohr Coulomb theory is also known as Internal Friction theory.Computer Aided Structural Analysis stresses. which is also known as Tresca yield criterion. This criterion is mostly used to analyze materials that would fail in a ductile manner. According to theory. the Factor of Safety = 1/(σ1/σ Tensile Limit – σ3/σ Compressive Limit) . τ max ƒ (σ limit / 2) where τ max is the maximum of τ 1/2. the Factor of Safety = σ limit / 2τ max There are two other failure criteria mainly for brittle materials – Mohr Coulomb Stress and Maximum Normal Stress. σ2 and σ3. τ 2/3 or τ 3/1. According to this theory yielding of material begins when the absolute maximum shear stress reaches the shear stress that causes the same material to yield in a tensile test. τ 3/1 = (σ3 – σ1)/2. τ 1/2 = (σ1 – σ2)/2. At a point. I apologize for the following boring equations! The Von Mises stress is computed from the six stress components as follows: σ VM 1 2 2 2 = [ ((σ x − σ y ) 2 + (σ y − σ z ) 2 + (σ z − σ x ) 2 ) + 3. τ 2/3 = (σ2 – σ3)/2. the remaining three normal stress components are called principal stresses. failure occurs when: σ1 >= σ Tensile Limit if σ1 > 0 and σ3 > 0 σ3 >= -σ Compressive Limit if σ1 < 0 and σ3 <0 (σ1/σ Tensile Limit – σ3/σ Compressive Limit) < 1 if σ1 >= 0 and σ3 <= 0 Hence. Stress components depend on the directions in which they are calculated.(τ xy + τ yz + τ zx )] 2 2 (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 2 1 σ VM = Hence.81 - . The three principal stresses are denoted by σ1. for certain co-ordinate axis rotations. Hence.

(Ref. . In machine design.82 - .Computer Aided Structural Analysis This criterion is used for brittle materials whose tensile and compressive strength properties are different. That means. Most frame analysis and design programs show the ratio of (applied stress/ allowable stress) for every member after performing design as per code specification. Please see Section the section on Folded Plate for more information on interpreting FEA result. the Factor of Safety = σ limit/ σ1 This criterion is used for brittle materials whose ultimate strength is same for both tension and compression. Ratio more than 1 indicates re-design is necessary. If the ratio is less than 1. then design is same. it is not uncommon to use a factor of safety value in the range of 10 to 20. Please remember that brittle materials do not have specific yield points. Hence. failure is predicted to occur when σ1 >= σ limit where σ1 is the maximum principal stress. failure of the material occurs when maximum principal stress reaches the ultimate strength of the material when subjected to simple tension. According to Maximum Normal Stress criterion. 15) What factor of safety you use is entirely your responsibility.

If the actual result through the elements is not linear but parabolic. the program may occasionally churn out elements with aspect ratio as high as 1:1.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 27. If this is not possible. However. due to geometry of the model. For example.83 - . Elements with a base/height ratio up to 1:2 give good results. use two triangular elements in place of each quadrilateral. However. Element shape – quadrilateral elements – the greatest accuracy is achieved with a square – 1:1 element. Remember that. But the things are really messy! When your model is quite simple. around supports (where bending moments increase sharply).000 program! Try to use rectangular (rather than quadrilateral) shaped elements whenever possible. Use quadrilateral elements – in general. but elements with a ratio of 1:5 will be unreliable. more often than not you will have to use quadrilateral elements. If not. many FEA programs have the options.000 even if you are using a $20. which allow you to specify maximum aspect ratio. it is obvious that there will be a decrease in the accuracy. Increase the number of elements where there is a greater rate of change in the internal forces. To decrease the number of elements – use a rough mesh in areas where relatively low results are expected. Triangular elements – equilateral triangles will produce the most accurate results. try to use quadrilateral elements instead of triangular elements as they give more accurate results. the result diagram through any one element will always be approximately linear. The program assumes a linear result distribution through the element. openings and large concentrated loads. Tips for creating better mesh In this section you will learn some tips for creating a better FE mesh. Angles of 30° or 150° will greatly reduce accuracy. However. But be careful. Remember that the connection to adjacent . the four corners of a quadrilateral element should all lie on the same plane. Elements with convex angles should never be used. Mesh density – the mesh density need not be constant throughout the model. if you specify too low aspect ratio. the program may not be able to generate the mesh successfully at all! Many a times you will be forced to use 1:50 as lowest acceptable aspect ratio value. the internal angles should not vary greatly from 90°. In a fine mesh. for example. remember the following advises. it is always better to avoid triangular elements. Yikes! If you do not specify such upper limit for aspect ratio.

but no 5-node pyramid elements. All 8-Node Bricks – this option should be used only for processors that accept only 8-node bricks. generate ‘tetrahedral’ mesh for solids. Tetrahedral – the all-tetrahedral option is for generating a nearly equilateral tetrahedral solid mesh from an equilateral triangular surface mesh. No Pyramids – the "No Pyramids" option builds brick meshes with 8. Use triangular or trapezoidal shaped elements to step between rough and fine quadrilateral meshes. Here you need to consider many other parameters.Computer Aided Structural Analysis elements is through the element end nodes only and so nodes located along an edge of an element between end nodes are ineffective. Algor) offer following types of mesh generations. It gives you the highest quality mesh and the lowest number of elements. Some programs. 6 and 4node elements. Most FEA programs. 5 or 4-node transition elements in the center of the model as needed. Some programs (e. .84 - . tetrahedral.g. as the mesh becomes more refined. allow you to specify how you want the mesh to be generated. Figure 27-1 shows how your model looks with a tetrahedral mesh. these are fluid flow processors (for analysis of pipe network. If you have doubts as to the accuracy of the results in a particular area of the model. rerun the problem with a finer mesh in that area and compare results. this topic is not discussed in this book). This option can make 4 to 5 times the number of elements as the "Standard" option. however. Enhanced No Pyramids – this option makes brick meshes with predominantly 8node elements plus 6-node and 4-node elements. Standard solid meshing works from the surface inward. Standard – used for most meshes by default. Tetrahedral from Quads – the "Tetrahedral from Quads" option is for generating a tetrahedral solid mesh from a quadrilateral surface mesh. by default. but no 5-node pyramid elements. The results converge to the exact solution. This is the most common type of mesh for a large number of FEA programs. Life will be much troublesome if you need to analyze complex solid models. 5 or 6-noded transition elements. Figure 27-2 shows same model with combination of 8-noded brick. It will make 8-node brick elements on and near the surface of the model while making 6. In many cases.

85 - . We shall come to the same ‘yoke’ model later on. when we discuss how to interpret FEA results.) If you’re wondering how brick or tetrahedral elements look like.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 27-2 shows boundary condition (fixed) and pressure load of 1000 lbf/sq. this is described in just next section.inch (I had to use FPS unit because the YOKE model file was in ‘inch’ unit. .

If can control the mesh size/density using a slider in the program. Well. The boundary condition and pressure load for this particular analysis has been shown in next figure. the programs create the mesh using a default mesh density. . However. Normally. where you should use particular type of mesh for best result. You may wonder whether the result will change depending on what kind of mesh you are using.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 27-1 In the above figure only the mesh has been shown. there are special cases. not really in general. See the chart in next section.86 - . You may use ‘coarser’ or ‘finer’ mesh in your program.

The same model with mesh as of figure 27-2. .Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 27-2 I apologize if the stuffs seem too boring! Figure 27-3 shows Von-mises stress (described later) diagram of figure 27-1 after analyzing the model in COSMOS/Design Star.87 - . is analyzed using Algor and shown in figure 27-4.

inch) unit.88 - .Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 27-3 Figure 27-4 The stress is shown in ‘psi’ (pound/sq. .

3nodes 3-D Membrane Plane Stress. 4-nodes . etc. flanges. 3-D Beam. etc. 4nodes 3-D Brick. domed stadiums. Incompatible modes are available. Beam elements are used to provide elongational. These elements transmit compressive and tensile loads along their axis. 4nodes 2-D Elasticity. Elasticity elements are used for plane strain. Applications include solid objects. Brick elements are used to simulate the behavior of solids. 3nodes 2-D Elasticity. They do not carry any bending load. These elements can possess a wide variety of cross-sectional geometries including many standard types Membrane plane stress elements are used to model "fabric-like" structures. such as wheels. Common Finite Elements library for Linear Static and Dynamic Stress Analysis Element type 3-D Truss.89 - . Incompatible modes are available. cots. They support three translational degrees of freedom and in-plane (membrane) loading. Orthotropic material properties may be temperature dependent. Orthotropic material properties may be temperature dependent. 2-nodes Illustration Description Truss elements are used to provide stiffness between two nodes. 2-nodes 3-D Membrane Plane Stress. They support two translational degrees of freedom. flexural and rotational stiffness between two nodes. such as tents. They support three translational degrees of freedom as well as incompatible displacement modes. plane stress and axisymmetric formulations. turbine blades.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 28.

Both thin and thick composite plate elements have no limitations regarding orientation or stacking sequence and support the Tsai-Wu. etc. They support three translational and two rotational degrees of freedom as well as orthotropic material properties. automobile body parts. 8-nodes Same as above 3-D Plate. Tetrahedral elements are used to model solid objects.90 - . A thick composite plate element is also available and can be used in models such as honeycomb sandwich structures. 5-nodes Same as above 3-D Brick. They are also available in higher order formulations (mid-side nodes). 3-nodes 3-D Plate. engine blocks and other unusually shaped objects. 6-nodes Same as above 3-D Brick.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 3-D Brick. They support three translational degrees of freedom. 4-nodes Tetrahedral. A thin composite plate element is available for use in models such as mechanical equipment. . 4nodes Plate elements are used in the design of pressure vessels. etc. bicycle frames. An optional rotational stiffness around the perpendicular axis is automatically added to the node of each element. aerospace products. maximum stress and maximum strain failure criteria. etc. such as gears.

where deflection makes two nodes touch and transmit force. It is still a small-deflection. The gap element simulates compression. Boundary elements are also used to impose a specified rotation or translation. Using gap elements.91 - . 2-nodes Boundary elements are used in conjunction with other elements. A cable element simulates tension. . but with deflection-sensitive connectivity. 2-nodes Gap/Cable. Courtesy: Algor Inc. where two nodes moving away from each other a specified distance cause the element to become active. A boundary element rigidly or elastically supports a model and enables the extraction of support reactions. bending moments and axial forces where the bearing and joint meet can be determined. such as when a ball bearing moves in a joint. stresses.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Boundary. small-strain analysis.

in high rise buildings. shear forces. it is important to ensure adequate ‘lateral stiffness’ to resist horizontal forces induced by wind or earthquake. which have high ‘in-plane’ stiffness. Shear Wall In normal reinforced concrete framed buildings. The area and arrangements of steel bars are calculated in usual manner. In early days. shear walls are generally provided in tall buildings. plates). One common classical method was that of MacLeod. and you will instantly get displacements. Figure 29-1 shows a typical arrangement of shear walls in a building frame. the frame-shear wall interaction was a very complicated task.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 29. columns and slabs carry all loads. Shear walls are often provided surrounding elevator or staircase. Isn’t that easy? . However. Then ‘mesh’ the plates (see Section 25 for how to mesh plates). Specify thickness and material properties of the walls (i. It involved lots of assumptions and mind-boggling calculations. The exterior shear walls are shown red and the interior shear walls surrounding central columns are shown yellow for easy visualization. And your model is ready for cooking (I mean analyzing)! Run your favorite FEA analyzer. If you want to torment yourself. In practice. we know walls are not designed to carry any load. go and get an Advanced Structural Analysis textbook and try to solve a shear wall problem using classical methods. bending moments. Just model the building first. Beams. However. analysis of shear wall and frame must be done properly. You can do it easily using your analysis program’s graphics editor (or you can import it from CAD program) and then add ‘plates’ in the place of shear walls. reinforcement must be provided inside them.92 - . vibration can easily be felt by the occupants and structural members may develop high stresses in them. In the figure only a 5-storied building has been shown. then the sway movement will be quite disturbing. Concrete walls. columns and walls. For such buildings. stresses in the beams. Shear walls resist bending. are placed at convenient locations in the building to provide necessary resistance to horizontal forces are known as shear walls.e. The advent of FEA has made life much easier for us. if we solely depend on beams and columns for providing lateral stiffness. This is one of the most common arrangements for shear walls. So. when computer was not available.

Openings reduce the stiffness of the shear wall. So.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 29-1 However. Sometimes. the forces in the beams and columns would have been much higher compared to those of with shear walls present. for architectural reasons. So. Exercise Assume suitable dimensions for the building frame shown in figure 29-1. it may be necessary to provide shear walls with openings for windows. Use a different arrangement for shear walls and analyze again. lesser values of forces mean smaller dimension of members and less amount of reinforcement. Apply some realistic horizontal forces at floor levels and analyze the structure with and without shear walls. Look. there must a trade off at some point. Which arrangement comes out to be the best? . I told you already that if there were no shear walls. See how the result changes with shear walls. You must analyze several model structures with various shear wall arrangements to get the most economical yet practical structure.93 - . But inclusion of shear walls will raise the expense again. doors etc. actual difficult part comes after the analysis.

94 - . the load direction may appear awkward as shown in figure 30-4. delete the frame members since they were drawn here only to ease the model (5) now mesh the plates (6) apply boundary condition. it is a good practice to mesh the plates. CD and DE. For this reason. you may be . The folded plate is made of concrete.5 m Figure 30-1 Thickness 150 mm B A Thickness 300 mm 1. However.5 m 3m The frame is loaded with 1.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 30. to make your figure change from 30-4 to 30-3. (8) apply surface loads on plates BC. If it happens. After you apply the loads. Your analysis programs must have ‘plate’ elements to successfully analyze folded plates. the quickest way to create the model is: (1) draw the model first using frame element so that the shape like as of figure 35-1 (2) then copy the frames over 12 m distance (3) now draw the plates (4) after the plates are drawn. in this problem. Moreover. The front view is shown in the figure and the length of the structures is 12 m as shown in figure 30-2 with mesh for sufficiently accurate result. Iterative. Although. if you use FEA. We shall discuss various aspects of folded plate analysis with the following example as shown in figure 30-1. They depend on the shape of folded plates. visualization should look like as that of figure 30-3. material properties etc. the sides of the plates are fixed (7) apply plate thickness. Whiteney’s. If you draw the plates in wrong orientation. C G D 3m E F 3m 4. Classical methods of analyzing folded plates involve laborious calculations. there is no single classical method available for general analysis of folded plates. delete the particular plate and redraw again in the opposite direction compared to previous case. If you use your analysis program’s graphics editor for input. then the analysis itself is quite simple and the labor involves only preparing the model correctly and interpreting the result properly. Three-shear equations etc. after you have applied the loads properly. Modeling the folded plates sometimes can be really tricky. Some common methods are – Simpson’s.5 kPa uniformly distributed load in addition to the self-weight. Folded Plate The folded plate is a very complex structure.

it may create problem while interpreting the output.Computer Aided Structural Analysis tempted to change the load into –1.5 kPa for plate DE. however. Fixed on side Fixed on side 12 m Figure 30-2 Figure 30-3 Figure 30-4 .95 - .

We have already discussed local axes concept. . τxy in local axes direction along with maximum principal normal stress σ. minimum principal normal stress σ and maximum principal shear stress τ.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Are you wondering whether we can take advantage of the symmetry? Of course we do. you may bypass this mental exercise by analyzing the whole structure rather than taking advantages of the symmetry. σz. τzx in global axes direction and σx. you will get following stress components – σx. every ‘plate’ element of the above folded plate may be considered ‘lying’ in a ‘2D plane’ even if it is actually ‘inclined’ in the real structure. which may not completely valid many cases (See Section 3. still you should start relying on your FEA output to gain confidence! After performing the analysis. Of course. The concept needs clarification.96 - . I admit that you need some benchmark problems to compare your analysis output. Now. Well. you must visualize the deflected shape of the structure yourself in your mind before performing the actual analysis. In fact. This figure is a specific case of figure 30-5 where stress variation along Z-axis is negligible. for example). σy. theoretical calculations are also based on certain simplified assumptions. For example. a ‘plate element’ of BC may be visualized as shown in figure 30-6. only 1/4th of the structure needs to be analyzed. The appropriate boundary conditions are shown in figure 30-5 with respect to the global axes shown in the same figure. τyz. τxy. You may wonder why I did not give you theoretical result the above folded plate analysis. σy. all free Z rotation fixed Y Z X all fixed Figure 30-5 To assign proper boundary conditions accurately.

inclined and horizontal plate elements’ are shown. . most programs give output with respect to local axes. Question: Shall I provide the reinforcement on the basis of forces on global axes or local axes? Answer: Local axes forces. However. which show the result with respect to local axes for some type of ‘elements’ and with respect to global axes for some other type of ‘elements’! Really confusing! See your programs’ manuals for details. Question: My analysis program doesn’t explicitly show global and local axes stress components. But there are some programs. How do I know which convention it is following? Answer: Difficult to say.97 - . Generally. you better solve some benchmark problems (with known answer) to check.τxy τxy σx Figure 30-6 The visualization will be more apparent from the figure 30-7. Y X Y X Z Figure 30-7 Global A different situation comes when we speak stress components in terms of global axes. Here you’ll find all 6-stress components since we now speak in 3D space.Computer Aided Structural Analysis σy y x τyx = . where local axes for the vertical.

98 - .Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 30-8 .

.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 30-9 These analysis outputs are from Visual Analysis.99 - .

Figure 30-10 The span of plate (along X axis) is 10 m and thickness of all four plates is 100 mm.e.100 - . consider another type of folded plate as shown in figure 30-10.Computer Aided Structural Analysis As a second example. . The global X stress (σx in N/m2) after analysis (in Algor) is shown in figure 30-11. The plates are made of concrete and are acted by 3-kPa downward (i. along –Z direction) load perpendicular to the surface of the plates. Sides (leftmost and rightmost edges but not middle edge) of the plates are fixed.

101 - . .Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 30-11 Exercise Model and analyze the plate yourself and check if you’ve got the same result.

Here I shall discuss only what you should know for shell analysis using FEA.e.102 - . towards center of the shell. If you break the arc into lines before. Then copy the ‘lines’ through out the length of the shell (20 m in this example). A 20x80 mesh is sufficient for this shell. copying into suitable interval creates the mesh automatically.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 31. Thin shell theory is also known as ‘membrane’ theory. Your first task is to model the shell. Classical theories of shells often vary with different geometric shapes. conical. you need to start from scratch. Then you are lucky. Some programs can generate this kind of shell through a model wizard. Shells Analysis of shells involves solving fourth order differential equations. thickness of the shell is much less compared to width or length. you should consult a textbook on shell theory. your shell will be ‘thin’ i. The concept may appear garbled if you just are reading. If your program does not have this option. A uniformly distributed load of 3 kPa inward (i. remember to ‘break’ it into a combination of ‘lines’. Rest assured. hyperbolic etc. If you draw the arc. In most practical cases. It is made of 75-mm thick concrete. 20 m 5m Figure 31-1 As a first example consider the translational shell shown above. σy and τxy and other three stress components will be zero. Theoretical background on shell is extensive and if you are interested. either you can draw the arc exactly (if your programs graphic editor permits) or you need to follow the procedure as outlined in Section 5. There are various types of shells – hemispherical. perpendicular to the surface of the plate at every point.e. You are to analyze the shell. but will be clear if you try to draw the shell model yourself. First create the arc. Note that. you need not add self-weight load). not horizontally projected) is acting over it (including self-weight i. although FEA treatment of . On the other hand. cycloid. I’m not going to swamp you with differential equations. So. ‘thick’ shells are analyzed using ‘bending’ theory.e. The sides of the shell are pinned. there will be only three stress components σx.

all FEA programs display output in colorful stress contour range. You should note some important points.Computer Aided Structural Analysis shells is same for all shell types. the maximum and minimum stresses are respectively 5 kPa and –20 kPa. So. Yes. you can ‘adjust’ the range yourself. First of all. The shell theory is extremely complicated and if you lean too much in that subject you may find a place in lunatic asylum too soon! One advantage of shell is that. The analysis was done in Algor. Normally. However. less material is required compared to beam or slab to carry same load. I prefer to keep the origin at the center of the shell. you can always take advantage of symmetry. X rotation fixed boundary condition Y Z pinned free Figure 31-2 X For other types of shells. because of constructional difficulties. the ratio of load carried/ amount of material used is higher for shells. . because of its curve shape. Although you have the right to place the origin at anywhere. if the loading and geometry are symmetrical. This is because.103 - . you can again take advantage of symmetry as shown in figure 31-2. It is always advisable to specify a range of your own. shells are still of limited use. Check what answer you get in your program. In fact. The analysis output for σ in local X-axis is shown in figure 31-3. keep on adjusting stress range until you are convinced that your model shows optimum design stress range. the highest (and lowest) range generally covers only one or two elements in extreme ends of the model due to some numerical round of. In other words. like the folded plate discussed in previous section. 99% of all elements’ stresses fall within the 80% region of stress range shown in the display by default. In figure 31-3. It has some ‘psychological’ advantages.

Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 31-3 .104 - .

though distributed though out its length. the applied force is constant but in dynamic analysis. It can move in only the direction shown by the arrow. this model has one degree of freedom. Degrees of Freedom – consider the typical spring mass damper system as shown below.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 32. I am just describing some very basic concepts of structural dynamic useful for practicing engineers. At the beginning. it may be due to shaking of ground due to earthquake. If you’ve already studied the theory of structural dynamic then it’s great.e. It will make you understand the applications of dynamics discussed in this book in an easily understandable manner. To understand dynamic analysis properly. the mass of the stick. So. I advise that you start reading a textbook of structural dynamic besides this book. In civil engineering applications. This model may reflect idealization of a single story building. the applied force varies with time. In static analysis. If not. let me explain the difference between static and dynamic analysis. We also assume that the mass 'm' is 'lumped' at the top of model as shown by the filled circle. Even a decent introduction of this subject would require at least 100 pages. where the roof mass is concentrated as shown in the figure. It is not necessary that dynamic analysis always involves application force only. dynamic analysis mostly involves determination of maximum response (i. A first step in Structural Dynamics So far our study was confined within static analysis. We call this single degree of freedom (SDF) system. we need understand the concepts of some common terms. then floor mass of each story may be considered as . This means. Mass m Stiffness k Displacement x(t) Figure 32-1 It has mass 'm' and stiffness 'k'.105 - . If there is more than one story.) of the structure due to some applied ground acceleration. The theory and field of structural dynamics are very large. displacement etc. we assume as if it is concentrated at one place as shown by the circle. In this section we shall learn some aspects of dynamic analysis.

This process by which free vibration diminishes is known as ‘damping’.2.5. . the resulting displacement might be much more than that obtained by simple static analysis. Why bother studying dynamic analysis? If a dynamic excitation (force or ground acceleration) is applied to a structure. if I apply calculated values of the force at particular instant of time and then perform static analysis with that force. It is often expressed in %. It is related to natural time period Tn = 2π/ωn. damped natural frequency ωd = ωn(1. Natural frequency (ωn) – it is the number of cycles per second a structure vibrates. It has values in the range of 0 to 1. the ‘amplitude’ of vibration will gradually diminish and after some time.5.ξ ²)0. I assure you! In practice most structures are of MDF type. For example 100% damping means the structure will not vibrate at all. this value lies in the range of 5% to 20% i.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 'lumped' at the respective floor levels. ξ = 0. but gradually everything will seem comprehensive. But in actual practice.) and subsequently higher values of stresses in the members. it will go on vibrating forever. Unless there is ‘something’ to prevent vibration. Damping ratio (ξ) – it is a measurement of how much damping is there.05 to 0. It’s measured in radian per second.e.106 - . shear force etc. However. because many MDF structures can be 'broken' into separate SDF structures and can be easily analyzed rather than analyzing the whole structures! Damping – if a structure is displaced from its equilibrium position by a small amount of force. it will vibrate (move from this direction to that direction). Things may appear little bit terse at the beginning. that does not imply that we need not study theory of SDF structures.? No. You must perform exact dynamic analysis. If the stress reaches the yield strength of the material the structure will collapse! For a time varying applied force. shall I get correct displacement etc. Natural frequency is computed using ωn = (stiffness/mass)0. for most practical structures. you won’t (even for a linear structure)! The concept of structural dynamics is different from static analysis theory. In that we shall have multi-degree-offreedom (MDF) structures. However. the model will come to rest. For damped structures. More displacement means higher values of internal forces (bending moment.

Computer Aided Structural Analysis Is it mandatory to perform dynamic analysis for all structures? It depends. For highly important structures like bridges. The F(t) in above equation will be replaced by –[M]{u(t)”g} if there is ground acceleration instead of nodal forces. [C] is never equal to zero. However. [K] = stiffness matrix (N/m). Here. modal and response spectrum analyses. dynamic analysis does not produce much different result compared to static analysis. we shall explore various examples of structural dynamic analyses – simple to complex! By this time I expect that you will also study a few pages of dynamics textbook. direct solution of differential equation of motion. However. X” = acceleration (m/s²) and F(t) = Force (N). Theory of structural dynamics is applicable equally to buildings as well as automobiles! How the programs calculate dynamic response? Nearly all analysis programs calculate dynamic response by numerical methods. If F(t) = 0. Designing of machine foundations always requires dynamic analysis. Suggested chapters for reading in your textbook are – introduction and simple formulation for SDF systems. Normally. X’ = velocity (m/s). u(t)”g denotes ground acceleration (m/s²). then the situation is known as free vibration. damped and undamped motion. in low height buildings. but above topics are enough for understanding the calculations presented in this book. If you are interested. You may read Ref. for all structures. nuclear reactors etc. X = displacement (m). then we call undamped motion. in real life. 16. 5. If [C] = 0. In the subsequent sections. where vibration is a major factor in design. equation of motion for MDF systems.107 - . numerical evaluation of dynamic response. Dynamic analysis is especially required for multi-story buildings for earthquake analysis. . 17 to start with in dynamics. dynamic analysis must be performed. [C] = damping matrix (Ns/m). dams. response to harmonic and periodic excitation. dynamic analyses are very important. you may read all the chapters of the book. [M] = mass matrix (kg or Ns²/m). The main governing equation for dynamic analyses is conventionally written as & & & [ M ]{ X } + [C ]{ X } + [ K ]{ X } = F (t ) Where.

5 s. The base of the tower is given an acceleration of 1-s duration as shown in the figure. However.108 - . we need to know the stiffness of the whole structure. your model should look like figure 33-2. Apply a lumped mass of (1000/10)/2 = 50 kNs2/m on the two uppermost nodes as shown (we divide the weight 1000 kN by g = 10 m/s² to get the mass). You may generate the data using spreadsheet and refer the text file in your analysis program. Consider the following structure. Yes? Great. Then apply base acceleration input and find out the displacement response curve for entire duration. Next apply the base acceleration data as shown in the figure 33-1.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 33. It is desired to calculate the displacement of the structure at t = 0. I shall show you how to perform accurate dynamic analysis without any computer program! 1000 kN acceleration m/s2 t2 3m 0 time (s) 1m Figure 33-1 1 All the members of the tower shown are made of steel with 200x200 mm square sides. It resembles a water tank over a tower. you can model the entire structure using your analysis program. you need to model the structure first! After all. When you are doing exact time history dynamic analysis. Of course. For linear dynamic . they you can appreciate following calculation. Note the direction of applied lumped masses because we are interested in calculating the displacement in this direction. you will soon discover that you can solve it much quickly using simple hand calculation and just static analysis program! Anyway. An example of a Single Degree of Freedom problem I hope that by this time you’ve read a few pages of structural dynamics textbook.

Displacement ∆ 1 kN Figure 33-3 The stiffness of the entire structure is k = F/∆ = 1 kN/3.211E-5 m = 31143 kN/m. Since we are considering the structure as SDF. 50 kNs²/m 50 kNs²/m Y X Figure 33-2 Now we are going to see what we get if we perform the analysis using Duhamel Integral.109 - . here we use 0. Then run a static analysis and note the displacement of any of the uppermost nodes. For this we need to apply a force (say 1 kN) in the upper left nodal point.Computer Aided Structural Analysis analysis time interval of one tenth of duration of applied force is sufficient. So. After performing the dynamic analysis we get from the time vs. our first step is to calculate its stiffness. after modeling the structure. We treat the whole structure as a SDF with a lumped mass of 100 kNs²/m and stiffness k. In this case. Let’s determine the natural frequency of the structure as ωn = .64E-4 m.5 s is – 7. only 1 mode is used in the analysis. displacement curve that the displacement at t = 0.1 s interval.

we get the same answer as that of in exact dynamic analysis program! However. the ultimate equation takes the form as shown below.6(0. In actual practice. the input excitation is defined by simple algebraic function.a(τ).05)(17. 3. Now probably you have a comprehensive idea of what dynamic analysis involves.5) = − 100 τ 2 e ( −0.5 − τ )dτ = −7. our p(τ) will equal -100τ2 because in this problem. In this particular problem. .5 After performing the numerical integration. In Duhamel integral we need to use the term p(τ) for the applied force. the input excitation is often defined as a set of data at some specified interval (normally at 0. the acceleration is defined as t² and mass m = 100 kNs²/m.64 rad/s. The basic steps of dynamic analyses are: 1. wherefrom you can get the maximum displacement at once.110 - . Define the ‘lumped masses’ (normally your duty.. So. Model the structure as usual (you’ll have to do it yourself). Apply an input excitation (time varying ground acceleration or time varying force).e. displacement plot over the entire duration.5 = 17.36 s. in dynamic analysis using the program.. So.m 100 x17.ζ2)0.5 = 17.e. 2.6 rad/s. So. which makes use of Duhamel’s integral feasible. But in case of analysis using Duhamel’s integral. you will get the time vs. however some smart programs can calculate lumped masses themselves from structure’s dimension and sectional properties). You also need to specify a suitable value of damping ratio.5 = (31143/100)0.64 E − 4.64 )( 0. The favorite Duhamel’s integral has the well-known form: u (t ) = 1 mϖ d t ∫ p(τ )e 0 −ςω n ( t −τ ) sin ω d (t − τ )dτ ωd = ωn (1. Consider 5% of damping i. there you must use numerical methods like what your analysis programs do.05.5−τ ) sin 17.Computer Aided Structural Analysis (k/m)0. But here we have ‘ground acceleration’ as input and not the ‘force’. Time period Tn = 2p/ωn = 0. ζ = 0.mass x acceleration’ i. you need to perform the calculation at several points to get the maximum response.6 ∫ 0 0. The relationship between the ‘force’ and ‘acceleration’ can be related by ‘Force = .02 s interval for earthquake ground acceleration data).m. p(τ) = . u (0.

Generally it’s your task to find out the stresses developed in the members due to dynamic analysis. Aha! . 7.. Specify how many mode shapes you do want (generally you need same number of mode shapes equal to the number of stories in structure. Now it’s time to interpret the result. After finishing it displays the natural time periods (hence frequency therefrom) of the structure for each modes. Dynamic analysis invariably takes more time than static analysis because it performs iteration to find out mode shapes. Some programs may ask you what algorithm you want to follow – eigenvector or ritz-vector (more about this later). Some programs can also display other parameters such as base shear etc. Normally (but not always) first three mode shapes are sufficient for subsequent calculations. I hear and I forget. I see and I remember… I do and I understand. contribution of higher modes is quite significant. acceleration etc.111 - . displacement (and velocity. Now it’s time to analyze the structure. You can do it by noting maximum displacement and then calculating the bending moment developed there from.). mode shapes and time vs. However. 6. One word of caution.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 4. 5.. for multi-story buildings. however sometimes you may need to venture more or less number of mode shapes depending on problem type). the mode shapes are ‘relative’ displacements and not the actual displacements.

acceleration or any other quantity of interest) to a specified load function for all possible single degree of freedom systems. Then we’ll have to check the damping ratio of the structure. The procedure of developing response spectra is discussed in any standard structural dynamics textbook and not discussed here. Moreover. for structures. we can directly read the maximum displacement of the structure from the figure as shown.112 - . someone must have prepared the response spectra chart before you use it in your analysis. which is more versatile and accurate. A typical response spectra for 1940 El Centro earthquake has been shown in figure 34-1. First we need to determine natural period Tn (or frequency f = 1/Tn in cycles per second) of the structure. you may note that considerable computational effort is required to generate such charts. you need to use response spectra for that earthquake.g. . It means that. If you need to analyze a structure for another earthquake. Using this. there is no point of going for response spectra method. the modern trend is to perform full time history analysis. One thing to note is that. Knowing maximum lateral displacement of the structure would be useful in providing enough separation between adjacent buildings to prevent their pounding against each other during an earthquake. What dynamic analysis you should perform? In this section. Of greatest interest in dynamic analysis is the deformation of the system. we shall discuss the ‘Response Spectra’ and ‘Time History’ dynamic analyses in detail. Once the deformation response history has been evaluated by dynamic analysis. velocity. to which the internal forces are linearly related. Response spectra may be defined as – a plot of the maximum response (displacement. However. total acceleration of the structure would be needed if the structure is supporting sensitive equipment and the motion imparted to the equipment is to be determined. or displacement of the mass relative to moving ground. the internal forces can be determined by static analysis of the structure at each time instant (discussed later). you must have response spectra chart for the particular excitation (e.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 34. If your analysis program offers time history analysis option (unfortunately majority of analysis programs do not). El Centro earthquake in this case). So.

Since earthquake can’t be predicted. 5. 10.5 inch/s. which represents a kind of average response spectrum for design. So.Computer Aided Structural Analysis By now you must have realized that the response spectra analysis is a ‘short cut’ to find out maximum response directly from the chart without performing time history analysis. assume our structure has natural frequency of 1 Hz. Also seen that horizontal arrow (shown blue) extends to the pseudo velocity axis at 18. you may like to analyze your structure for several past earthquake effects. Also assume 10% of critical damping. From the figure 34-1.3 inches if it is excited by the 1940 El Centro earthquake ground acceleration. intersects the displacement line for 10% damping at 3. The non-linear response spectrum is slightly different (not discussed here). 2. the maximum relative displacement response of our structure is 3. we see that the vertical arrow (shown blue) drawn from Tn = 1 s. Instead of using response spectra for each earthquake. 20% Figure 34-1 For example.113 - . Please note that the axes are in logarithmic scale. you can use ‘design response spectrum’. .3 inches displacement (shown green). Response spectra for elastic system for the 1940 El Centro earthquake ξ =0.

In fact.Computer Aided Structural Analysis During dynamic analysis.5). you need to supply modal damping ratio yourself. damping properties of the materials are still not well established. which has recently attracted attention of the engineers. Determining exact stiffness and damping of the structure is known as ‘system identification’. stiffness of the structure also varies with time (Yikes!) due to deterioration of the structure. well reinforced concrete 2-3 (only slight cracking) Reinforced concrete with considerable cracking 3-5 Bolted and/or riveted steel. pre-stressed concrete (without complete loss in 5-7 pre-stress) Pre-stress concrete with no pre-stress left 7-10 Reinforced concrete 7-10 Bolted and/or riveted steel. pre-stressed concrete. especially in non-linear range. the program will calculate the stiffness of the structure internally. it is quite a challenging task to determine exact damping of the structures.114 - . There are several techniques for this purpose. no more than about ½ yield point At or just below yield point Type and condition of the structure Damping ratio % Welded steel. Stress level Working stress. The change in stiffness is often used for ‘retrofitting’ the structure. wood structures with nailed or 10-15 bolted joints Wood structures with nailed joints 15-20 Figure 34-2 Since. Figure 34-2 recommends damping values (Ref. . However. wood structures with nailed or 5-7 bolted joints Welded steel. but the most popular is ‘wavelet’ analysis. This method is sufficiently accurate for linear structures with classical damping.

The first is ‘Material Non-linearity’ and the second is ‘Geometric Non-linearity’. Availability of powerful computers and software. This material behavior is known as material non-linearity. 1. The curve is linear (slope E) up to yield point. Non-linear analysis (NLA) – an introduction for beginners Ultimately we come to hottest topic of structural analysis. is that the stressstrain curve is linear and deformation is small. where from it changes its slope to Et though remain linear again. Material Non-linearity Consider the following three stress-strain curves of any material. This is also a typical example of material non-linearity. There are mainly two types of non-linearity. but in the range of ‘Et’ it becomes ‘plastic’. F = Σ(∆Fi) . E value changes at every point of the curve. E is our familiar modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus. Divide the total load incrementally i.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 35. σ σ Et Ei Yield point σ E ε (a) E ε (b) Figure 35-1 ε (c) The figure (a) shows stress-strain curve for perfectly linear material.115 - . Right? But we have to consider NLA if any or both of the above assumptions are violated. But what is NLA all about? Why there is so much hype about it? Let’s the adventure starts! Recall that the main assumption in linear analysis (LSSA). Here the curve is entirely non-linear. Et is known as ‘strain hardening modulus’. We shall study them in detail. Now consider figure (c). In the range of ‘E’ the material remains elastic. Figure (b) shows stress-strain curve for ‘bi-linear’ material (typical for carbon steel).e. the non-linear analysis. Now how do we incorporate material non-linearity in analysis program? The steps are given below. more and more nonlinear analyses are being done than ever before.

In that case. 6. 3. Find deflection ∆Di+1 = ∆Fi+1/[K]i+1 as in step 3 and repeat through step 6. Find deflection at that instant of time as ∆Di = ∆Fi/[K]i. . where [K]i is global stiffness matrix of the structure at that instant of time. You will have to find ε and corresponding Ei for every member of the structure using above equation. find Ei as shown in figure 35-1 (c). If the deformation of the structure is small. Figure 35-2 Its deflected shape will look like as shown in next figure. This stiffness matrix is formed on the basis of co-ordinates of the nodes of the structure. stiffness matrix formed on the basis of original nodal co-ordinates and deflected nodal co-ordinates will be almost same. 8. Total deflection D = Σ(∆Di). Let’s consider the truss shown in figure 35-2. 7.116 - . 5. Apply load ∆Fi at each time instant. There from. Go to step 2 and apply load ∆Fi+1. then co-ordinates of the deflected nodes of the structures will not move too much from its original configuration. Find strain ε = ∆L/L. Did you realize the labor involved in the calculation for a large structure? Geometric Non-linearity In conventional linear analysis. Update global [K]i as [K]i+1. Update each element stiffness matrix [k] using this new value of Ei. 4.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 2. the stiffness matrix for each element (and thus global stiffness matrix) remains constant throughout analysis. 9.

Go to step 1. If the deflection is ‘large’. may be in some later sections! But there remains one most important question – when you should consider a deformation large enough for geometric NLA? The answer is not . ND2. F = Σ(∆Fi) 2. May I add some dynamics as well? Hey buddy. since you will have to perform the whole calculation of setting up stiffness matrix at every step! Now imagine what will happen if you need to analyze a large complex structure with both types of non-linearity. N3 and N4 of the truss. If we increment the load at each time instant and update [K] according to ‘changing’ displaced position of the structure. So. then it will be a geometric non-linear analysis. This is the main theory behind geometric non-linearity. Apply load ∆Fi at each time instant. Original geometry is shown by dotted line. update load to ∆Fi+1 7.117 - .Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 35-3 Now. 3. Repeat above steps until ∆Dn = ∆Dn-1 9. Then total deflection D = Σ(∆Di). then we can construct another stiffness matrix [KD] from new co-ordinates of the nodes.e. Update [K] to [K]i+1 on the displaced nodes of the structure. 1. 4. Divide the total load incrementally i. Find deflection ∆Di = ∆Fi/[K]i 5. why people learn engineering? What are you looking for? A numerical example? Well. then [K] will not be equal to [KD]. solid line shows deflected shape. ND3 and ND4. N2. Find deflection ∆Di+1 = ∆Fi+1/[K]i+1 8. 6. the stiffness matrix [K] depends on nodal co-ordinates of nodes N1. This calculation is more demanding than material non-linearity case. Now if the co-ordinates of deflected truss be ND1. the main steps for geometric non-linear analysis are summarized below. Compute (element and then) global stiffness matrix [K]i depending on original configuration of the structure.

Some analysis programs have an in-built option to warn you if deflection comes out to be more than certain percentage (say 5%) of length of largest dimension of the structure. loading and material properties etc. In a very long or very tall structure. This depends on particular type of structure. the structure may behave entirely different manner than that of small-deformed state.Computer Aided Structural Analysis easy! Often in large deformed state. inter-story or inter-span deflections can easily be less than 5% of the overall dimension yet large enough to violate the small displacement assumptions.118 - . The ultimate decision is yours! . The % value is by no means to be taken as an absolute in determining whether or not displacements are large.

Mass m h dimension L x B x d Figure 36-1 The figure shows an experiment where a weight of ‘mg’ is dropped over a bar of known dimension form a specific height ‘h’.119 - . As the name suggests.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 36. But MES intrinsically calculates loads and stresses as motion takes place at each instant in time throughout the event. F F Figure 36-2 . facilitating a more efficient design/analysis process since the need to estimate and specify forces is eliminated. in linear static stress analysis. Traditional FEA programs calculate stresses usually at a single instant of time and requires assumption about forces. out model will be as shown in next figure. In conventional LSSA. That means. you must input the force quantity explicitly. Mechanical Event Simulation Mechanical Event Simulation (MES) is also known as ‘Virtual Prototyping’. We need to determine the stresses at the bars. this is a method by which you can perform a ‘virtual experiment’. The whole thing will become clear if you consider an example.

Algor. The things are really mindboggling. The very simple example described above took me 90 minutes to perform for just 1-second simulation in a 233 MHz PII computer. we solve familiar equation F = Kd. from Newtons 2nd law of motion. for example. you can visualize pattern of fluid flow over the surface of the airfoil in real time view. combined thermal and fluid flow. where F = force. there are a few disadvantages as well. But in case of MES. but imagine that this method can be successfully employed in crash test simulation of an automobile! However. Did you realize the advantage? You actually performed a virtual experiment of a mechanical event! The example given here may appear too simple. A detailed analysis of these topics is beyond the scope of this book. K = stiffness of the structure and d = displacement. MES is highly sophisticated analysis indeed.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Look. to use these kinds of calculations seriously. Ansys etc. If you are really inclined this kind of analyses. When we perform MES on the model. we can write ma = Kd and this is our governing equation for MES. electricity and electro-magnetism. we know. you will need a super computer rather than a PC! What is the theory behind MES? In classical LSSA. You can verify and see whether the flow at a particular point is laminar or turbulent. F = ma. you better try using the FEA programs. But. crash test simulation. (Sounds whacky?) With multi-physics analysis. fluid flow. So. which offer these features. Later we shall see how this equation is part of general structural dynamic equation ma + cv + kd = F(t). where m = mass and a = acceleration. position of the objects and the meshing the model (as shown in fig. v = velocity of body and F(t) = time varying force. it does a time varying analysis at each instant. You will see the steps like animation. Suppose you want to analyze fluid flow around an airfoil.120 - . height h and dimension and weight of the falling object. Let me explain in a lucid way. So. . when you make a simulation of real world problems say. here we need to specify the force ‘F’ explicitly. where c = damping. A similar method of MES is ‘Multi-physics analysis’ which involves simultaneous analyses of a model for more than one physical effect. all we need to do is specify the dimension of the bar. In fact. Some example of multi-physics analyses are – thermal stress. 36-1). it may take as much as 24 hours of computing! No joking! Anyway. Adams. The program will display stress and motion at each instant of time.

it is always better to check what AutoCAD entities your program can successfully import. But be careful! Not all analysis programs can import all CAD object types. You can also perform reverse process that is exporting your analysis model from your analysis program to AutoCAD DXF format. Importing model from CAD programs Most Windows based structural analysis programs do allow you to import geometry from CAD packages like AutoCAD. If you are importing DXF file with plate. particularly 3D frame or complex structures for finite element analysis. If you find your program can’t successfully import AutoCAD drawing (DWG/DXF). Since the CAD programs themselves are high-end drawing programs. In these programs. are an easy alternative. be sure to “Export” it into “DXF” format. If you find it difficult to draw the actual structure in the analysis program.121 - . it is better to use ‘parametrically defined’ drawing programs like Mechanical Desktop. when drawing solid models. An example is given below to explain parameter-defined geometry. . Solid Works etc. shell or wire frame elements. other AutoCAD entities are often treated differently by various programs. Remember to “Explode” rectangles. If your analysis program can’t read AutoCAD R2000 DXF then you should save the AutoCAD drawing file in R14 or R13 DXF format. creating the drawing in them is always easier. “Lines” in AutoCAD are converted to frame members upon importing. drawing them in AutoCAD/Mechanical Desktop/Solid Edge/Solid works etc. Therefore. then you should draw in the analysis program’s graphical environment. After drawing the structure in AutoCAD. you can modify the geometry by just changing the dimensions. you may find discrepancy in geometry upon importing. Analysis Program Frame Nodes Plate Shell AutoCAD Line Automatically created at intersections of elements 2D Solid / 3D Face 3D Solid Except for simple lines. Please note that DXF files are AutoCAD’s version specific. Note that your analysis programs may or may not keep track of AutoCAD’s ‘layers’ feature in imported drawing. However. Sometimes “Plates” (known as “2D Solid” in AutoCAD) can also be imported. poly-lines and polygons into “Lines”. Solid Edge. “Nodes” are automatically created at the intersections.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 37.

IGES or *. Programs write model information in the files. if you ‘tell’ the program. the drawing will be updated automatically as shown in fig. However.IGS extension. the drawing will look as that of fig. 37-3. in parameter defined CAD programs. the analysis programs read that information and re-generate the model. 37-2. . Some of the already named CAD programs have the capability of converting 2D drawings in to 3D solid models! Wow! A popular ‘neutral file’ format for solid models is IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification). that the lines will always be tangent to the circles.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Suppose you have drawn the following drawing in AutoCAD as shown in fig. If you change the radius of the right end circle.122 - . 37-1. Figure 37-1 Figure 37-2 Figure 37-3 Did you see the difference? This kind of relationship is very convenient for solid object modeling. This is actually a text file. When you import an IGES file. Many CAD programs can export solid models into this format. These files have *.

Computer Aided Structural Analysis 38. enlarge or even ‘walk through’ your model! You can even visualize different materials of the structure. when you will try to open the same file using your web browser. . You can view VRML files using any standard web browser like Internet Explorer. Moreover. This file has an extension of WRL. can result to very large VRML files. Virtual Reality in Engineering (VRML) Do you know what VRML stands for? Well. but looks more realistic. Fortunately. the computer may create staggeringly large (> 1 GB) virtual memory in your hard disk and it will take a few minutes to display the model on screen. But here’s a warning! Finite element solid models. You are probably aware of ‘rendering’ feature of CAD programs. It’s an excellent feature to impress your clients because you can show them what your structure will look like when it would be built in real life. However. which contain thousands of nodes. you must install first the VRML viewer support files (normally come with your operating system CD). a large number of structural analysis programs can export your model to VRML format. VRML files can show the models in a 3D view like in actual life! You can rotate. VRML is actually a text file. it’s Virtual Reality Mark-up Language. The browser reads the data in the file first and then develops the realistic model. It’s a new wonder of visual display.123 - . VRML is just like that.

The constraints are defined in cells B4 and B5. initially all cells in the range B1:B5 will show 0. A B 1 X 0 2 Y 0 3 Z =3*B1+4*B2 4 C1 =4*B1+2*B2 5 C2 =2*B1+5*B2 Figure 39-1 Note that in cell B3. Linear programming can be also be solved in programs like MATHCAD or MATLAB etc. Here cells B1 and B2 stands for variable x and y respectively. 2x + 5y <= 180 and x => 0. I assume that you are familiar with basic spreadsheet operations. Linear Programming in spreadsheet In this section. follow the steps illustrated. y => 0. Please make sure that you have installed Analysis ToolPak add-in in Excel. Do you know spreadsheet is the largest selling type of application in the world? The procedure presented here are for Microsoft Excel 97. since these mathematical applications are not very common in design offices. which resembles the cells of the spreadsheet. I’m going little bit off track.124 - . So.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 39. Consider the equation Z = 3x + 4y subjected to constraints 4x + 3y <= 80.. Step 2: Click on ‘Tools’ and then ‘Solver…’ from Excel’s menu bar. . The solver dialog box appears as shown in figure 39-2. Step 1: Define the problem as shown in the figure 39-1. The strings in column A is for understanding purpose only. the equation for Z has been input. I’m directly going to the problem. To solve it by Excel. These constraints will later be defined using B1 and B2 cells. you better bet on versatile spreadsheets. however. Our aim is find out the maximum value of ‘Z’ subjected to above constraints. You may like to note that there are two more constraints that both x and y has to be positive number. but if you any other spreadsheet like Lotus 123 or Borland Quattro Pro you will find similar functions in those programs as well. I’ll show you how to solve linear programming problems using your favorite spreadsheet! Linear programming is often required by engineers to solve certain design problem for example – in pre-stressed concrete section design and various other ‘optimization’ problems etc. After you do this.

Figure 39-3 Specify the Cell Reference and Constraint (for 4x + 3y <= 80) so that the figure look like as shown below. When done.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 39-2 Make the ‘Set Target Cell’ box to cell B3. Click OK when done. Figure 39-4 In the same way specify the other three constraints namely 2x + 5y <= 180. y => 0. because this cell contains the definition of our main function Z. You can either type the cell range yourself or you can select the range on the worksheet by clicking the red arrows as shown in the figure. you will see following dialog box. Also make sure that the ‘Equal To:’ selection is set to ‘Max’ for this problem. After that ‘Solver Parameters’ dialog box should look like figure 39-5. x => 0.125 - . Now set the ‘By Changing Cells:’ to $B$1:$B$2. When you do so. click on ‘Add’ button to specify constraints. .

Exercise . Figure 39-6 You will of course want to retain solver solution.5 and for x = 2. our problem is solved.5 4 C1 80 5 C2 180 Figure 39-7 Obviously the maximum value of Z comes out to be 147.126 - . Excel will solve it within seconds and dumps you another dialog box like figure 39-6. Now you get the solution as shown in figure 39-7. click the ‘Solve’ button.5 and y = 35.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Figure 39-5 Remember to use proper ‘<=’ or ‘=>’ sign while specifying constraints.5 2 Y 35 3 Z 147. So. And that’s all. A B 1 X 2. If everything seems ok.

12.127 - .6 and c = 0. Answer is Pmin = .6 for a = 6. Often you’ll find that spreadsheet is your best rescuer.4a + 3b + 8c <= 10.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Find the minimum value of P = a – 3b + 3c subjected to the constraints a.28. b. 2a + 4b >= . Remember spreadsheet is a very powerful as well as useful application. b = 11. .2. Try to exploit its full potential. . 3a – b + 2c <= 7. c >= 0.

128 - . Reinforcement detailing in continuous beams Figure 40-1 .Computer Aided Structural Analysis 40.

why not your drawings? . which is undesirable. The general trend in design offices is that the detailing is done by the draftsman rather than the engineer who performs the analysis. then all the result of a good analysis will go astray! Traditionally. It will make the whole thing much clearer to everybody. Many codes allow the engineers to use their ‘judgment’ in detailing. because of availability of low cost color printing. unlike analysis. you can model the beam as 2D FEM (as discussed in Section 23) to visualize what are the highest zones of stresses. which makes it difficult to follow. use colors in your drawings. he should prepare the accurate detailing as well let alone the drawing too if possible. A good designer must not finish his duty only after analysis. However. Note that only the bending reinforcement is shown. Reinforcement arrangement generally follows bending moment pattern in the beam. they normally have a hard time digesting it. the printing cost has been drastically reduced in recent times. In fact. This is mainly because. The world around us is colorful. This is because. detailing is often shown in single color. detailing is a subject itself. Figure 40-1 shows detailing arrangement for a continuous beam as per IS456-1978 and SP34. This often creates a ‘communication gap’. whenever possible. detailing in most analysis programs is often unreliable. If interested. if detailing is wrong. Building codes specify lots of guidelines in ‘terse’ languages! Unfortunately. design is subjective.129 - .Computer Aided Structural Analysis When students see the reinforcement bar arrangements in building codes. You must provide shear reinforcement with vertical stirrups as well. So. Remember. the detailing drawing is drawn in monochrome (single) color.

These programs’ features include static. it is possible to solve all types of civil engineering structural analysis problems using these programs. However. base plates etc. For other programs. So. I only described a brief description of the most used programs only. elements. judge them yourself before buying. You must differentiate between them first. This includes brick. mechanical programs offer versatile finite element library. The programs. It also often offers design features (concrete/steel/aluminum/wood) for slabs. there are drawbacks as well. plates etc. Although some developers offer product for both civil and mechanical engineering analysis. In fact. Actual prices may vary. according to various country codes. We shall divide the programs in two main groups – Civil Engineering and Mechanical Engineering analysis programs. which I have used. A typical civil/structural-engineering program offers beam and truss elements and sometimes plate/shell elements as well. for day to day building or industrial structure analysis. I presented the features available. columns. I again tell you that my personal views about the programs may differ a lot from your views. This is because not all developers offer demo/trial version of their programs. Mechanical engineering programs do not offer concrete design facility according to country codes. mechanical engineering programs use finite element analysis in true sense. So. I wrote the descriptions from product literature. . machine parts. multiphysics/mechanical event simulation/virtual prototyping etc. tetrahedral etc. A guide to some Structural Engineering & Finite Element Analysis Programs I have discussed my personal views about the programs. ease of use. Also. it also includes all the elements used in civil engineering analysis i. In addition.e. they generally contain separate modules for specific type of analyses.130 - . In contrasts. reliability etc. Note that I didn’t have the opportunity to use all the programs myself. Since. beams.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 41. it is much better to use civil engineering analysis programs. beams. before deciding which program will serve your purpose best. thermal. a typical mechanical engineering analysis program contains a large number of element types for solid modeling. They mainly concentrate on solid model analysis e. their output for frame structures is generally much less varied compared to pure civil engineering structures. Mechanical engineering analysis programs are normally far more expensive than pure civil engineering analysis programs. You should test them yourself. It may include both static and dynamic analysis. trusses. rather than pure frame structures.g. footings. dynamic.

nonlinear dynamic and concrete/steel design. Euro and US code.csiberkeley. asolid and non-linear link (as external Damping.com Description: Frame analysis only – beam. Supports Australian.com Description (for non-linear version): Static. AASTHO. P-delta analysis. shell.com Description: 3D frame and 2D plate. solid elements can’t be drawn graphically. However. Simple to use and very user-friendly. Student version has no node or member size limitation! Has excellent customer support. Price: USD 5.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Civil Engineering programs Program name: Visual Analysis. My comment: Good program for frame analysis.000 Demo: 30-node demo CD available My comment: Good overall general-purpose static/dynamic structural analysis program. Gap and Hook) elements. which makes geometry creation easier. Price: USD 700 – 1. However. Canadian. Data can be entered conveniently by on screen as well as using spreadsheet like format. Its predecessor SAP90 is still used for educational purposes. Bridge and Dynamic Nonlinear Time History Analysis with frame. Some dialog boxes offer too many options. Price: USD 1. truss. File size 6 MB. Also.. Concrete and steel design as per ACI.131 - . solid. concrete/steel/wood/aluminum design as per US codes. British.000 Demo: 30-day full version copy can be downloaded from net. Visual Tools etc. Base Isolators. However. . Website: www.iesweb. graphics should have been better. British and Euro codes. Program name: SAP2000 Standard/Plus/Non-linear Developer: Computer and Structures Inc. Visual Design.000 – 7. Developer: Integrated Engineering Software Website: www. grillage and cable etc.spacegass. non-linear analysis options are difficult to comprehend. It shows different sections in various colors. Dynamic Response Spectrum. there is no plate element and time history dynamic analysis is not available. response spectra dynamic analysis.500 (Student version USD 50 only!) Demo: 30-day trial full version CD available My comment: An excellent program for frame and plate analysis. Program name: Spacegass Developer: Integrated Technical Software Website: www. Time History. Easy to use.

as per US. retaining wall.132 - . Demo version is ridiculously limited to do anything good. Canadian. File size around 6 MB including tutorial. My comment: Overloaded with many features but I found quite difficult to use. Due to node size limitation. Japanese. Its model wizard can generate various types of structures easily. pre-stress concrete.000 (full capacity student version INR 25. Program’s help files are not very comprehensive. Separate bridge and foundation design modules are available.edu/gtstrudl Description: 3D frame.000 – 4. Program name: STRAP Developer: ATIR Website: www. Price: USD 4.000 Demo: 50-node 200-member Student version CD available My comment: Somewhat complicated to use.000 – 150. (recently re-named as Netguru Inc. Program name: GT-STRUDL Developer: Georgia Institute of Technology Website: www.000/ INR 75. Chinese. Program name: STAAD Pro/ Fabricad/ FEMkit etc. Price: USD 5. Design feature is quite good.gtstrudl. British and US code. I couldn’t test it extensively.000 – 12. Program name: SAFI 2D/3D/TOWER/BRIDGE etc. Indian. design of piles.com Description: 3D-frame and 2D-plate analysis program. codes.500/ INR 75. Indian. Price: Not known Demo: 150-node 150-member demo can be downloaded from net.000) Demo: 12-node demo CD available.atir.com Description: 3D-frame and plate/shell static/dynamic analysis program. My comment: Graphics should be better. Price: USD 2. plate.000 – 150.000 – 80. dynamic and non-linear analysis.gatech. .000 Demo: 6-member demo CD available. My comment: Interface is somewhat complex.com Description: Frame and finite element analysis.reiworld.risatech. European etc. Canadian. finite element analysis etc. bolt groups.500/ INR 60.) Website: www.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Program name: RISA Developer: Risa Technology Website: www. Concrete and steel design according to European. non-linear dynamic.000 – 6. Developer: Research Engineers Inc.

Price: Not known Demo: 50-node 50-member demo can be downloaded from web site. Supports Eurocode. truss. grillage non-linear static/dynamic analysis.autofea. Price: Not known Demo: 25-member demo CD available. plate/shell linear/non-linear static and dynamic analysis.000 Demo: 30-beam/truss. Similar to SAP2000 in features – static & dynamic analyses – automatic load distribution to members. concrete design and optimization. Program name: Diana . cable. and shell 3D structures. US and Euro codes.com Description: Performs static. Program name: Robot Developer: Integrated Structural Software Website: www. Price: USD 800 – 2.com/ Description: Frame.axisvm. 100-surface element version can be downloaded from the net.safi.com Description: Specific program for building frame analysis. plate. concrete/steel design. shell. Some common commands are difficult to find. membrane. plate. gap and spring elements for nonlinear support modeling. My comment: I didn’t use it.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Developer: SAFI Website: www. Unless your design job involves only multistory building frames. but has too many dialog boxes for model creation. My comment: Graphics is good.com Description: Frame.133 - . non-linear pushover analysis.csiberkeley. steel.com http://www. beam. Website: www. Program name: ETABS Developer: Computers and Structures Inc. My comment: I didn’t use it.robot-structures. which is more versatile. Price: Not known Demo: Not offered My comment: User friendliness is similar to that of SAP2000. File size around 5 MB. Program name: AxisVM Developer: Inter CAD Website: www. it is better to use SAP2000. vibration and buckling analysis on any combination of truss. rib.

FEMAP is sometimes bundled with other finite element analysis programs.nl Description: finite element analysis – static/dynamic. Available on Unix as well.134 - . Price: USD 3. creates mesh and import/export models from/to 20 different finite element analysis programs’ formats.000 Demo: 300-node demo CD available (30-day trial full version available in North America only) with m-tab (www. My comment: I didn’t use it. Structural Dynamic Research Corporation Website: www.com Description: Linear and non-linear static and dynamic finite element stress analysis with motion for physics based mechanical event simulation/virtual . Price: Not known Demo: Not offered My comment: I didn’t use it. but not clear what file to download. Has many advanced options but difficult to use. dam. pre-stress.sai-mtab.femap. Various separate design/analysis modules are available. Program name: ALGOR Developer: Algor Inc.diana.com Description: Finite element pre and post processor only. mobile loads. solid modeling.500 – 5. soil/concrete. Sometimes cannot translate models successfully to some specific formats. Does not analyze anything by itself. modeling of embedded reinforcement in concrete.algor.com) stress for analysis.. Mechanical Engineering programs Program name: FEMAP Developer: Enterprise Software Products Inc. bridge. My comment: Draws models.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Developer: Diana Analysis bv Website: www.emrc.com Description: Finite element analysis Price: Not known Demo: Available from net. Program name: NISA Developer: Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation Website: www. offshore structure design. Website: www.

heat transfer. electricity. Easy to use. 2D. Can import model from varieties of CAD programs. Can’t create model by itself (GeoStar is required to create models. Nstar for non-linear analysis). buckling. heat. Price: USD 5. analysis.com Description: Analyzes solid by finite element method.cosmosm. dynamic analysis. Program name: Ansys Developer: Ansys Website: www. fluid flow and electro-magnetism.000 – 20. Separate modules are available for CAD integration.hks. Trial CD also available. Program name: Cosmos/Design Star/Geo Star/N Star etc.000 – 18. pipe stress etc. Help system is comprehensive. Price: Not known Demo: Not offered. CAD/CAE integration. optimization. Program name: ABAQUS Developer: HKS Website: www. but advanced options are difficult to use without training. However. Various other modules are available for wave propagation. My comment: Excellent FEA program.000 Demo: 30-day trial program can be downloaded from net. gap. fluid flow. tetrahedral etc. File size 55 MB. plate. offshore design. My comment: I didn’t use it.Computer Aided Structural Analysis prototyping. heat. Uses special Fast FE solver.com Description: Non-linear/dynamic finite element analysis for mechanical. My comment: Very powerful programs containing lots of features. membrane. laminar. can import model from a variety of CAD programs. civil. Price: USD 2. contact. Website: www. truss. sandwich. Good buy if you analyze complex finite element models often. elements. Separate modules are available for non-linear static/dynamic analysis.ansys. Incorporates beam. biomedical etc.135 - . which is many times faster than common FEA solver. but can import model from a variety of CAD programs. fatigue. composite. structural. To use this program to its full extent. Design Star analyzes 3D solid models only and does not have beam/truss elements. Developer: Structural Research & Analysis Corp. Graphics is also very good. you should have good knowledge of finite element theory.com . linear stress analysis. brick.000 Demo: 30-day trial full version CD available.

you can drive a car here and can refine analysis at every stage! Besides this. Website: www. electro-magnetism etc. Adams has all other features of a typical FEA program. To use this program to its full extent. can read/write to various other FEA programs’ formats. With Adams. Price: Not known Demo: Not offered. tyre. My comment: I didn’t use it. Program name: ADAMS Developer: Mechanical Dynamics Inc. Separate modules are available for linear.adams. mechanism etc. solid. thermal. car. Price: Not known Demo: Not offered. hydraulics. Price: USD 2. shell. acoustic. Various other separate analysis/design modules are available for structural. . Versatile program but complex.com/products/patran Description: Finite element analyses. you can create a whole model of virtually anything – a sports car to a railway locomotive with all engineering details and they you can analyze it! You can even simulate it! It’s a really wonderful program! Like a video game. rail. plate.com Description: Finite element analysis of frame. you should have good knowledge of mechanics and finite element theory. File size 12 MB. Program name: Patran Developer: Mechanical Solutions Website: www. My comment: I didn’t use it. fluid etc. multi-physics. various modules are available separately.750 Demo: Version 1. mechanical. My comment: I didn’t use it. My comment: Finite element application for mechanical engineering.136 - .nastran. These programs will drive you mad! Program name: Nastran Developer: Macro Industries/NASA Website: www. fluid flow. engine.0 is available for downloading.com Description: Analysis and virtual prototyping (mechanical event simulation) of mechanical systems. shear panel.mechsolutions. Price: Not known Demo: Not offered.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Description: Finite element analysis.

thermal. Some CAD programs… Some developers provide feature-limited demo.137 - .cadkey. electric.autodesk. Program name: JL Analyzer Developer: AutoFEA Inc. Mechanical event simulation – virtual prototyping etc. Program name: AutoCAD/ Mechanical Desktop Website: www. buckling.com http://www.autofea. Price: Not known Demo: Not offered My comment: I didn’t use it.000 (depending on node capacity) Demo: 300-node demo can be downloaded from net.com Description: Integrated CAD/CAM/CAE Finite element analysis. dynamic.com/ Description: Static.com Program name: Solid Works Website: www. Website: www. frequency. fluid flow etc.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Program name: Adina Developer: Adina R & D Inc. Program name: I-DEAS Developer: Structural Dynamics Research Corporation Website: www.autofea. See their web site for details.com Program name: Cadkey Website: www.adina.i-deas. My comment: Complicated to use. Website: www. Price: USD 285 – 5. spectrum.solidworks. seepage and nonlinear static FE analyses.com Description: Finite element analysis of solid.solid-edge.com . Price: Not known Demo: Not offered My comment: I didn’t use it.com Program name: Solid Edge Website: www.

com) or something else. Some developers do offer university license at very nominal cost. which can resume broken download from where it left.com Prices in INR are shown only for those companies. . but that version cannot be used commercially. it can be set to disconnect from Internet automatically after downloading is complete.turbocad.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Program name: Turbo CAD Website: www. which have dealer/ representative in India and you can buy the product in Indian currency. Some companies sell their full capacity student version at reduced cost. A useful point on downloading large files from the Internet.gozilla. Use a download utility program such as Go!Zilla (www. Also.138 - .

How easy is the program? How quickly you can create and analyze a model using the program after installing? Use the sample problems in this book and see how quickly you can analyze the structures with your programs. pressing F1 should bring context sensitive help and Ctrl+O should show Open File… dialog box. Only a frame analysis program will serve the purpose in most of the cases. In general. Does the program is ‘forgiving’? Can it check model for instability or buckling by itself? Does it allow ‘snapping’ members to intersection or end points? How good is the program’s post processing capability? Can it show force diagrams for any individual member? Can you clearly see the reaction forces in the result? Can it display bending moment or shear force values in the respective diagram? How about printing through the program? Will it allow you to change paper size. FEA is still mainly used in mechanical engineering. Try reading the programs’ manuals at first. most civil engineering design firms do not need high-performance FEA programs. There is no justification of buying a high-end ‘feature overloaded’ expensive finite element analysis program if your main purpose is building-frame analysis. to generate a 10x10 bays 20-story building. How to select the most appropriate program for your need? Here are some simple points to check before buying the program. How good is the visualization? Does the model look similar to actual structure? Does it offer dynamic viewing? Can it show the model in VRML format? Can it generate complex models automatically? For example. margin etc. How good is the interface? Does the program follow standard Windows conventions? For example. the program should draw the model by itself. Such programs are generally much less expensive. See if you can analyze models successfully by just reading the example problems rather than by getting help from the developers. before printing? .139 - .Computer Aided Structural Analysis 42. Can it create finite element mesh automatically? Can you control the size of mesh yourself? Before buying a program decide what features you do really need.

it is possible to ‘tailor made’ other codes according to your country codes. Some offer cross platform (i. 1500 nodes maximum for SAP2000 Standard version)! Many structural analysis programs nowadays come with hardware locks (hasp/dongle) as copy protection. Euro code and Indian code give almost identical values of steel area. However.Computer Aided Structural Analysis What about generating report of analysis? Does it have the option of displaying tailor made report specific to project requirement or it just dumps 100 pages of numbers without telling you what to do with them? Check if your program is compatible with other programs in the market. There will be many situations when you will require technical support to know what a particular command does or whether the program does a particular calculation automatically etc. try to select your program from those. It means that if you want to use the programs in more than one computer. you need to pay more! Although it may be against the law to copy the program into another computer. You may not realize certain pitfalls of the program unless you use full product for sometime. Some generous companies may offer 30-day full product trial.140 - . These limited demos may hide the programs actual performance from you. most companies offer limited capability (e.g. This may dictate you to choose an inferior program just for the sake of design calculation. design is not something impossible to do manually. You can use one code instead of other without much loss of accuracy. Others may insist on annual maintenance contact (and demands a hefty sum for it). But to use high-end FEA programs.e. Therefore. I don’t find it wrong to . the choice is yours. you really need developers support. Next comes the design part. Check if the program can import/export models from/to CAD or other analysis programs. Lastly. in reinforced concrete design. 100-node maximum) demos. Some programs do not offer design capability according to your country code. Ask the vendors whether they offer free demo. Sometimes. what is your budget? Can you afford buying the program what impresses you most? Some finite element analysis programs are very fascinating but their prices often make them affordable by large corporate firms only. Unlike analysis. For example.g. So. An important point – how good is the customer support? Some companies may offer free technical support by phone/e-mail. Sometimes even the low cost commercial versions of the programs do have node or member size limitation (e. Many programs allow copy-paste option with spreadsheet programs. which offer full-product tryouts. different operating system) compatibility.

you have keep in mind that you must use it continuously for a couple of years at least. They will swamp you with pictures of structures designed using their programs! Very few companies offer you a money back guarantee with first few weeks of purchase. So. My main aim is to make you realize that you must try the programs first before making a final decision on purchase. But copy protection will prevent you even doing that.141 - . when you will select programs. it is not an easy task to choose the most suitable product for your need. More so. Since these programs are quite expensive it does not make sense to change your analysis programs frequently. Every company will boast that their products are the best. new programs may not open or analyze your existing old projects. Ask the developers how they like to upgrade their products in the near future.Computer Aided Structural Analysis make another copy in your laptop computer. Therefore. Remember this while selecting your program. . But if you follow the above guidelines you may by a gainer.

First of all. investigate it carefully. When you obtain analysis results from analysis programs. . check carefully all input data. or fail or buckle the material? Again if they do. Are they correct? You might also use spreadsheet like input reports to make sure no information have missed. the basic assumption of small displacement is violated and results must be questioned. the structure may collapse due to instability. look at the magnitude of the largest displacement shown. look for static check. Take a look at the real time view (if this feature is available in your program) of the structure and visually observe member sizes and locations. Third. If you have poor geometry or very flexible members in critical areas. If your loads are correct. Verify that you have the correct support conditions. look at the deformed shapes that are presented to you. Do these stresses yield.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 43. look at the member internal forces and stress levels reported in the highest stressed members (beam/shell etc. Verify loads are in the directions you intended. Make sure co-ordinate directions as per you specified. If something seems wrong. Do they make sense based on the loading and structure? Secondly. Finally use your engineering judgment. Recall that “With good engineering judgment you can produce on the back of an envelop that which otherwise cannot be produced with a ton of computer output”. crack. the response is violating the basic assumption of linear-elastic material behavior. Is it large? (Generally. Convince yourself that the results are correct before continuing. the displaced shape is automatically scaled suitably so that you can see it!) If displacements are too large. As a fourth check. yet reactions do not balance. Check the member properties and end releases.142 - . you should perform some simple checks to verify that the results are valid. How to check the result for accuracy? Before performing an analysis. If you think you have found an error in the program. In that case you should perform geometrically non-linear analysis.) elements. contact the program developers immediately for clarification. check for nearly unstable structures.

143 - . and solids to an ACIS file in ASCII (SAT) format. are ignored. File name extension guide (for some CAD/CAE programs) Description Ansys input Mechanical Desktop/Solid Edge assembly Cadkey wire frame model Nastran input Solid Edge draft Cosmos Design Star Assembly Cosmos Design Star Part AutoCAD drawing /Mechanical Desktop model AutoCAD drawing interchange Algor input IGES solid model Abaquas input Femap input Nastran input Patran input NISA input Solid Edge part model Solid Works model AutoCAD objects representing trimmed NURB surfaces. .Computer Aided Structural Analysis 44. such as lines and arcs. If you delete those files. in which the solid data is transferred as a faceted mesh representation consisting of a set of triangles STEP model SDRC I-DEAS Visual Analysis project VRML file Parasolid Extension ANS ASM CDL DAT DFT DGXASM DGXPRT DWG DXF ESD IGS INP MOD NAS NEU NIS PAR PRT SAT SDB SG SLDPRT STD STL STP UNV VAP WRL X_T Note: during runtime. regions. SAP2000 input Spacegass input Solid Works STAAD input Stereolithograph Apparatus (SLA) format. programs create various files with different file name extensions. you may not view result without analyzing the model again. Other objects.

Continue? Some analysis programs are made in such cumbersome manner. The possibilities of this cause are endless. (This is more common in computer games rather than structural analysis programs. if not contact the program vendor. contact the program vendor. I myself faced this very situation while installing Algor for the first time. simply changing your color setting from 256 to 16/24-bit color works! 2. There may . I was finally to run the program. All other programs will shut down if you proceed. Common error messages and solutions Operating system related 1.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 45. If it's of no use. Rarely. then I am afraid that you may need to reformat your hard disk and load all from scratch. After erasing everything from my hard disk. Check the program in another computer with same amount of memory (preferably with same hardware configuration as well). try reinstalling the program in your computer. A program was running fine in last week. However. stuff some more RAM into your computer and see what happens. If the program runs successfully there. the program may demand better quality graphics card.. 4.. This program is set to run in DOS mode. I am not sure why this happen. It may be due to operating system problem rather than that of your analysis program. Did the problem start after installing any new application? Then uninstalling that application might help. but to my surprise.144 - . something is definitely wrong. If the problem persists. Try reinstalling the program. This program has preformed an illegal operation and will be shut down. If you're lucky everything will go ok. it refuses to run now. This is a common error message for all Windows programs. and then refilling all. May be misleading message sometimes. It can be rectified by just rebooting the machine in most cases. that they incorporate some Windows programs and some DOS programs. Contact the developers. Sometimes. 3. Not enough memory for calculation/initialization of graphics. though!) If all fails. if you continue to get the message every time.

Ultimately I discovered that an OCX file required by SAP2000 was overwritten by STRUDL with backdated version. “Common” means many analysis programs show this message/problem. 1. That means the global stiffness matrix must not be singular. But it shows all zero forces/stress in the result (common) The resulting forces/stress might be too small. some FEA programs can still continue solving the problem and ultimately you may get result with no force or stress at all. Analysis program related Analysis programs. are shown within bracket. Quite confusing! 3. Load case "X" has no load (common) Some programs will not accept any load case that has no loading specified. Zero stiffness found during assembly for DOF Ry of joint 5 (SAP) It means that the joint has no stiffness in that direction. Excessive loss of accuracy during the solution of equations – the structure is unstable of ill-conditioned (also Lost 6. 6. Also see (2).Computer Aided Structural Analysis be some jumbled DLL and OCX files. which display the specific error message. so that the structure does prevent rigid body motion. Your model may not be tied down (Algor) Same as above. However. both were happy again. 5.4 digits of accuracy) (SAP) . The structure is unstable (common) You must specify proper boundary conditions. After restoring that file. It should be connected to at least one member or support without releases. from kN-m to N-mm and see if you find any value now. My SAP2000 refused to show dynamic analysis result after I loaded GT-STRUDL.145 - . for example. 2. 4. Remove that load case or apply some load in that load case. I have analyzed the structure successfully. Try changing the units. Also see (8).

but I can’t see the loads (common) Look if there is any load ‘toggle’ menu. There is no boundary condition specified to prevent rigid body displacement (translational or rotational) to Z direction. So.e. A warning is issued when the loss is estimated to be above 6 digits and the degree of freedom is listed when this occurs. the tensor may not provide meaningful results. 10. 8. A smoothed stress tensor may not be meaningful for this model (Algor) Stress values like σx. 7. τxy etc. any load will make it fail (collapse). I have applied loads on the model. but rather that with some element types and element generation methods. Specify a suitable constraint in that direction. Users should check the displacements. σy. . The structure is internally unstable (common) A really annoying situation! Your structure has become a mechanism. See also (13). This allows for 15 significant digits to be carried in the calculation. You should check for global instability and local instability at or around the degree of freedom reported. Rigid body motion is not prevented in Z direction (common) Somewhat similar to (1) and (2). Add or remove some members until it becomes a stable structure. reactions and global equilibrium balances to assure that the digit loss has not unacceptably degraded the results. a random mesh on a composite element type. Some programs treat nodal load and surface/pressure loads differently. An internal check estimates the number of digits of accuracy lost during the reduction of each degree of freedom.146 - . You may need to specify surface/pressure loads by some separate command. i.Computer Aided Structural Analysis Equation solutions in most analysis programs are done in double precision arithmetic. Sometimes there may be a pressure load ‘multiplier’. is not meaningful for particular analysis result. This is where you need to use your engineering judgement. This problem mainly occurs in complex trusses. When the program detects over 11 digits accuracy loss it stops further processing as the results are suspect. You will have to perform some trial and error. 9. Make sure that it is not set to zero. It is not so much that a smoothed tensor may not be accurate for a model.

12.g. • Upon importing the model in desired program. boundary conditions. The structure is ill-conditioned (common) Ill-conditioning commonly occurs when frames contain members of widely varying stiffness. the flexible member is not completely represented and ill conditioning occurs. I can’t convert/export my model from one FEA format to another. • Suppose you are exporting the model from program ‘A’ to ‘B’s format and you will open it using another program ‘C’. Hence. I strongly discourage you to exporting whole FEA model data in this way. it often leads to loss of data and thus unsuccessful translation.) export does not work. check the model carefully. Except for very simple models. Algor). SAP2000). with mesh. check the following points: • Have you defined the mesh? Most programs can’t export to another FEA format unless you create the mesh. loads etc. . Then make sure ‘C’ can also ‘read’ that ‘version’ of ‘B’s data! 13.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 11. However. which can’t be used for shell analysis. the sum of the reactions equals the sum of the applied loads then it can be assumed that the frame is well conditioned.e. I see that my program does not have plate and shell elements separately (common) Some programs only have ‘shell’ element. only plate element is offered and shell is considered a type of ‘plate’ element (e. ‘plate’ is considered a special type of shell element (e. In that case. However. • If full model (i. When a very stiff member is connected to a very flexible member and their stiffness matrices are assembled into the structure stiffness matrix. Risa etc.g. In some other programs. Visual Analysis. • Be careful about the units used in both programs.147 - .g. Exporting or converting your model from one analysis program’s format to another’s is always bad.) which offer only ‘plate’ element. if you still want to do that. some of the stiffness terms of the flexible member can be completely lost due to their insignificance in comparison with the stiffness terms of the stiff member. there are many programs (e. then try exporting the model with mesh only. If after the analysis.

Prentice Hall 18. Basic Structural Analysis. E & FN Spons. Users’ Guide. CSI 8. There are many other better books available. Cosmos/Design Star. Strap 14.148 - . by Punmia. Finite Element Analysis: Theory and Programming. Prentice Hall 6. SAP2000. 17. Users’ Guide. Users’ Guide. Algor Inc. .amazon. Plesha. 3rd edition. Users’ Guide. Elements of Structural Dynamics. Tata McGraw Hill 3. by Glen Berg. 4. SRAC 16. by Krishnamoorthy. Algor R12 information brochures. Schaum outline series of Finite Element. Malkus. You can find online reviews of a good number of books at www. Laxmi Publication 10. Dynamics of Structures. by Buchanan.5. Users’ Guide. User’s Guide. McGraw Hill 2. by Reddy. Concept and Application of Finite Element Method. by Bairagi.com. 9. IES 7. Khanna Publisher 12. by Cook. Strudl 15. McGraw Hill 5. Spacegass The above list is not exhaustive. Everard. by Chopra. 2nd edition. Paz. Structural Dynamics. User’s Guide.Computer Aided Structural Analysis 46. References 1. by M. John Willey & Sons. Reinforced Concrete Design Vol 1 & 2. by Noel J. Femap 13. Visual Analysis 3. Shell Analysis. Tata McGraw Hill 11. Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Reinforced Concrete Design. tutorials and newsletters.

Researchers and Students! • Use your structural analysis program to its full extent! • Analyze those structures. which you previously thought impossible.FOR THE FIRST TIME • A PRACTICAL GUIDE • An absolute must for all practicing Mechanical/Civil/Structural Engineers. without going through heavy and boring theoretical calculation! • Discover hidden power inside your present programs! • Find out where you get FREE (not just the demo!) Structural Analysis programs on the Internet! • HAVE FUN WITH ANALYSIS! • ONLINE READER SUPPORT! .

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UsefulNot usefulZgodni trikovi za pravilno modeliranje konstrukcija u nekom programu za analizu konstrukcija zasnovanom na metodi tacnih elemenata.
Tricks for help in analysis of construction in software based ...

Zgodni trikovi za pravilno modeliranje konstrukcija u nekom programu za analizu konstrukcija zasnovanom na metodi tacnih elemenata.

Tricks for help in analysis of construction in software based on FEA method

Tricks for help in analysis of construction in software based on FEA method

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