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Abigail Rowe 106754686 Hi3114 Dr Jason Harris
. A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification. the tradition of penance and the selling of indulgences..Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 Why did the doctrine of ‘salvation by faith alone’ present such a challenge to the church? Martin Luther‟s doctrine of „salvation by faith alone‟ constituted a major shift of emphasis within Christian thought. Furthermore. It carried implications for the doctrine of purgatory. F. The Beginnings to the Reformation. and accordingly changed the role of the established church. Picked out as the single most pivotal of Luther‟s teachings. (trans. Imputed justification changed the very status of the believer before God. and understood the very real threat posed to both social and 1 McGrath. defined by both scripture and tradition. p. 186 2 Calvin. Jean. Whilst reform had been an integral part of church life for centuries. p. to a church predicated upon an earned salvation. (Cambridge. 2001). ranged from the bureaucratic to the fiscal to the theological. (Westminster John Knox Press. doctrinal orthodoxy.. Jean Calvin described it as „the main hinge upon which religion turns‟2. the implications of individual freedom needed to be assimilated into society and fears of immorality or chaos were vocalised. McNeill. 726 1 .L. the implied lack of requirement for caritas was seen as carrying the potential consequence of a decline in moral behaviour. Socially.must be regarded as a genuine theological novum‟1 The ramifications of this doctrine resonated throughout western Christendom. The church had seen these teachings in the Lollard movement and the Hussite rebellion. A. had been maintained. Battles. Its implications. John T. Battles. Previous reformers who had touched upon a sola scriptura doctrine had been deemed heretics and their teachings subdued.L. F. The effect of sola fide therefore had deep ramifications for the fiscal security of Rome. Iustitia De.as opposed to its mode . Alistair McGrath writes that „The Reformation understanding of the nature of justification . Charges for sacraments were challenged and land and property belonging to the regular orders was requisitioned as it rendered the regular orders ideologically obsolete and reinvented the role of secular clergy.) Institutes of the Christian Religion: Institutes of the Christian Religion. 1986).
To examine the question of why salvation by faith alone was such a challenge to the church this essay will therefore contextualise the position of the church leading up to this. The doctrine of faith alone was in opposition to orthodox faith. and the theology of salvation by faith alone provided the required rationale. examining both doctrine and the functional institution.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 ecclesiastical concord. for which good works were a co-requisite element of justification and salvation. especially France and Spain. pockets of insurgency sometimes arising from the latter. imputed and assured for every believer. The rise of humanism. „The Piper of Niklashausen‟ took it upon himself to preach against clerical benefices. The writings of these humanists alongside the public movements of discontent meant that the church was experiencing criticism from both the educated and the lower classes. 15th century Germany had experienced a strong wave of anti-clericalism and the Roman church was well aware of the problems which had arisen. Ecclesiastically. For example. meant that scholars were examining scripture without the filter of subsequent patristic and traditional writing. The growth of the secular powers in the form of the nation state. Salvation by faith alone made justification and salvation synonymous. returning ad fontes. Other reformers in the 15th Century promulgated varied teachings but. in keeping with the Roman church. The Catholic church fundamentally disagreed with this and believed that it had to counter it in order to safeguard the salvation of its people. the sola fide doctrine found a firm following and necessitated a concerted opposition. following this with the statement that „they shall be struck dead and in short it will come about that the priest might try to cover his tonsured head with his hand so that he will 2 . had already effectively eroded Roman hegemony. the implications were devastating to the tradition of unity in the catholic church. these were all based upon good works as prerequisite to salvation. The alliance of reformers with secular leaders strengthened the position of both. Within this context. and explore both the perceived threat and the actual impact on the church. define what was meant by „faith alone‟.
M. to go there5. Humanist anticlericalism was also widely disseminated. Julius Excluded from Heaven. This carries the implication that justification does not guarantee salvation: it is rather a 3 The Piper of Niklashausen. and required not only an intellectual assent and adherence to the Word. Sourcebook. this document revealed the challenge that the church was facing. D. The European Reformations Sourcebook. in the prevalent Augustinian tradition. Doctrinally. „Julius Excluded from Heaven‟ (1514). In this context. It was within this context that Martin Luther published the doctrine of salvation by faith alone. p. 1990). humanist and theologian Jakob Wimpfeling wrote „The Grievances of the German Nation‟ which laid out the frustrations of the German people continually sending money to Rome or being called. largely stemming from the new doctrine. was a well known piece of satire. The Eramus Reader. stood for „Pestis Maxima’and calling the pope „a villainous huckster and imposter‟4. (Blackwell.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 not be recognized‟3. Carter (Ed). 2000) p. penance beyond the grave. 9 3 . and its reception and proliferation must therefore be interpreted in this light. the practice of indulgences and the nature of purgatory. for example. commenting on papal corruption with St Peter not recognising Pope Julius II on his arrival at the gates of heaven. p. The ramifications of such a fundamental doctrine were theologically far-reaching and. at expense and inconvenience. 9 4 Desiderus Erasmus (attr). 5:6). (Toronto. E. justification implies a change in man‟s nature rather than in his status before God. papal absolution. In itself.. attributed to Erasmus. A Report of His Preaching (1496) from Linberg. in late medieval orthodoxy. and Rummel. In 1515. leading from its development whilst teaching on Romans and Galatians. faith. Luther published the 95 theses which questioned sacramental penance. suggesting that the P. but an accompaniment of caritas. 217 5 Lindberg. a „faith that works through love‟ (Gal. was not seen as sufficient for justification. in Erasmus. Theologically speaking. the 15th century church was fundamentally based on salvation through grace attained both by caritas and the intermediaries of the clergy.
the church was designed both practically and liturgically around grace attained by caritas. but it is fair to cite even Via Moderna reformers as requiring good works. for example. McGrath notes that the church had not directly adjudicated on what man could do to gain salvation since the Second Council of Orange in 529 which states that „all baptized persons have the ability and responsibility. p. saying.html?mainframe=http://www. Salvation was deemed to be impossible without the clergy. for example. It is worth noting at this point that protestant reform ideas about justification differed amongst themselves and a homogenous presentation of forensic justification and sanctification is misrepresentative7. Canon 19. Institutionally. 1988). Reformation Though. Likewise. emphasised justification as totally a work of God and always initiated by God. 1998) .htm. Retrieved November 17. some form of effort on the behalf of the believer.org/documents/canons_of_or ange. Reformed. but requiring the working out of good in the journey towards salvation. Canons of the Council of Orange (529). which felt the need to reaffirm it in the wake of the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438). Iustitia Dei. 7 Alister McGrath. Modern Augustinians. a blanket portrayal of 15th century thought would be erroneous.org. 1988).69.org/documents/index. and was prominent at the time of the Fifth Lateran Council.reformed.. Reformation Thought: An Introduction. if they desire to labour faithfully.(Oxford. and specifically that of the Roman church (this was traditional and emphasised from Cyprian on.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 process. from http://www.58 4 . A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification. 207-25 8 McGrath. Gabriel Biel. one will not be denied grace8. The Reformation to the present day. 6 Alister McGrath. to perform with the aid and cooperation of Christ what is of essential importance in regard to the salvation of their soul‟6. as necessary to salvation. 2008. however. pp. (Cambridge.(Oxford.reformed. presented a semi-Pelagian depiction of salvation as available to all who attempt facere quod in se est: if one rejects evil and tries to be good. 1512-17. Both the Via Antiqua and the Via Moderna were therefore in accord in believing that faith was to be accompanied by good works. p.
: Sheed & Ward / Georgetown University Press. had enshrined a conciliar superiority to the pope and dealt a financial blow in the form of denying Rome the annates of new benefices10. and submission to the pope alongside good works was not counted as a certainty. Tanner. Luther‟s works taught these doctrines alongside. and whilst neither Hus nor his precursor Wyclif taught a sola fide doctrine.384 5 . Nicaea 1 to Lateran V. (London / Washington. Its teaching was an antecedent to that of Luther.HTM 10 Nicholas. before Luther. . 1990). Spain and France had by no means attempted to break away from the Catholic Church. however. their teachings of scripture being all sufficient.com/faith/ECUM18. (Arnold. from Norman P. retrieved 17 th November 2008 from http://www. however.C. London. the church had a carte blanche which transcended nation state and rulers is erroneous. As stated above. In contrast. This meant that they were not under secular jurisprudence regarding taxes and property ownership. D. Papal control over Spain had also been diminished by the secular control of the Spanish Inquisition (since 1478). as ecclesiastical control had already been eroded. and arising out of.legionofmarytidewater. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. and the clergy. as a separate estate. there was no clear teaching on exactly how one was to gain salvation. The Concordat of Bologna (1516) quashed the conciliar elements of the Sanction but conceded even more control to the king in the form of his control over the chief personnel of the church. Whilst these examples had diminished Rome‟s monopoly. sola fide and Roman reaction naturally took into account the historical warning that Bohemia had 9 Fifth Lateran Council. France had proved particularly difficult in this respect. the Hussite rebellion had supplied the church with an alarming precedent of reform turning into a schism from Rome. a situation with clearly worked in their favour. The Transformation of Europe 1300-1600. Vol. p . prepared the ground for Luther. This lack of assurance created a lay dependency which maintained the church‟s ability to detach itself. 1. 1999).Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 „subjection to the Roman pontiff is necessary for salvation for all Christ's faithful‟9). The Pragmatic Sanction. The idea that. mentioned above. David. secular powers having the duty to regulate the institutional church and the church being composed of believers rather than the institution.
and this emphasis and placing of the doctrine as the lynchpin. Its dissemination. Roland. 1. especially those spread by John Wyclif in Britain and by John Hus and Jerome of Prague in Bohemia‟11. as it had so recently experienced ecclesiastical and secular rebellion from an ideologically similar source. made it untenable for the church. Sola fide was. It also rendered the monastic way of life ideologically obsolete vis-à-vis the life of the laity. 1990).A Life of Martin Luther. (Bainton Press. without the express authority of scripture‟ and article 18 states that „Whoever enters the priesthood receives a binding duty to preach. however. article 15 says „Ecclesiastical obedience was invented by the church's priests. 2007) p. (London / Washington. Here I Stand . In the 1521 publication De Votis Monasticis. Sola fide did not only threaten the church by disempowering papal authority. The Council of Constance had expressed as one of its aims the eradication of „heresies. from Norman P. unless God has predestined him to salvation‟. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. Session 15.com/faith/ECUM16. Luther stated that monastic vows „militate against the 11 Introduction to The Council of Constance. from Tanner. 13 Bainton. Many of the 260 articles against Wyclif from session 15 could have been used verbatim against Luther. hand in hand with criticisms of indulgences and papal authority.: Sheed & Ward / Georgetown University Press. For example. and this mandate ought to be carried out‟12. Tanner.legionofmarytidewater.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 provided. retrieved 24th November 2008 from http://www.C. At the Leipzig Disputation (1519) Johann Eck elicited a pro-Hus response from Luther. Vol. D. It can therefore be seen that the Roman church would have been alerted to the danger of Luther‟s teachings regardless of the sola fide doctrine. was the articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae. . Luther quoted article 41 of the 45 articles of session 8 of the Council of Constance agreeing with it: „It is not necessary for salvation to believe that the Roman church is supreme among the other churches‟13. Nicaea 1 to Lateran V. pivotal and for Luther. article 11 reads „It is not necessary to believe that any particular Roman pontiff is the head of any particular holy church.116 6 . Decrees.HTM 12 Council of Constance.
and the vacated buildings were requisitioned for the reformed Great Chapter17.lutherdansk.51 15 Ibid. was a lucrative 14 Heiko Oberman. p. for the sole difference .. p. from ed. 44 18 Luther. The land and property owned by the orders was also questioned. various houses of orders. which were doctrinally questioned in the same document. On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church . The Journey From the Last Days to the New World. 1954) p. Dominicans and Cistercians in the canton were forced to form one community. later saying that contrary to justification by faith. 2003)..htm 7 . monks „rely more on the quality of their life than on Christ‟15.87 17 McNeill. is his ministry‟18.dk/Web-Babylonian%20Captivitate/Martin%20Luther. with provision for their food. 53 16 Elton. With the direct contract of salvation between any man and God. The consequences of this were momentous as this questioned the ongoing role of a large segment of society. they may not necessarily even be saved. American Edition 55 vols (Philadelphia: 1955-86) retrieved 28th November 2008 from http://www. The regular orders were seen by the late medieval laity as a necessity for the storing up of grace required for lay justification.. John Thomas. including the nuns of Frauminster. with significant fiscal consequences for the church: in 1527 the Swedish Diet of Västerås saw King Gustavus appropriating all church property which he designated superfluous16.. The inference is that since monks rely on works. the role of the priest as intermediary was obsolete. Secular clerics were also impacted. Frederick I of Denmark similarly dissolved monasteries and claimed land.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 word of God‟14. Luther described priests as no different to laity except that they fulfil the role of ministry: „I cannot understand at all why one who has once been a priest cannot again become a layman. (Yale. The practice of charging for sacraments. foresaw their dissolution and made agreements for their subsequent maintenance. Luther’s Works. p. Reformation Europe. (Blackwell. 1517-1559: 1517-1559. 1999). „On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church‟ (1520). Martin. in December 1524. The Two Reformations. The income generated from monastic dissolution was enormous and the loss to the church was tangible. The History and Character of Calvinism.( Oxford. Jaroslav Pelikan and Helmut T. Geoffrey Rudolph. The Augustinians. an individual assurance of imputed justification renders this entirely nugatory. In Zurich in 1523.
org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/gal/web/gal3-01. Throughout Romans and Galatians Luther understood references to the written and spoken word as aligned with salvation. The sola fide doctrine therefore placed a significant onus of duty on the preacher. The imperative which arose out of the sola fide doctrine was that without hearing the message.. Luther understood how unwelcome his teaching would be: „I know how it will displease those who believe that the number and use of the sacraments are to be learned not from the sacred Scriptures. the message had to be taught in order to see souls won for the Gospel. one of the challenges to the church can therefore be seen on a purely pragmatic level. but from the Roman See‟19. but by hearing. Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians (1535). of course a multi-layered word itself. „In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God. Luther. salvation was impossible. Public understanding of it meant that non-reformed churches. on Galatians 3:2 Luther writes „A person becomes a Christian not by working. 1949). the church was also threatened with losing its separated status in society. focusing on the sacrifice of Mass. Martin. In line with Luther‟s teachings on the book of Romans. With the clerical estate thus ideologically reintegrated with the rest of society. trans. With income from both regular and secular clergy diminished. Theodore Graebner (Zondervan. this sloganised soundbite of his teaching. the „pure Word of God‟. right through to mass 19 20 Ibid. The „word‟ was. The first step to being a Christian is to hear the Gospel‟20. sometimes suffered disruption from militant reformers. the dissemination of the faith alone doctrine was self-fulfilling as it relied on the preaching of the „pure Word of God‟ as „faith comes by hearing and hearing by the word of God’ (Rom 10:17). For example.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 source of income for the priesthood. Schribner describes this adding that „personal abuse of clergy. being both Christ himself (e.g.’ John1:1) and the verbalised gospel. As with much of Luther‟s work.html 8 . became appropriated and acted upon by zealous reformers.iclnet. retrieved 26th November 2008 from http://www.. and attacks on their persons and property.
2nd Edition. 1. Luther. Tanner. p. R. On the Freedom of the Christian Man.W.: Sheed & Ward / Georgetown University Press.d. Vol. 2003). Another challenge perceived by the church was regarding the potential impact on morals and behaviour if the emphasis on caritas was removed. if he has no need of the law. nor makes him a living 21 22 Scribner. On his return from the Wartburg he preached „sermons which were studiously moderate but firm expressions of the need for restraint and order‟22. retrieved 28/11/08 from http://www. (Palgrave MacMillan.).html 9 . London.24 MacCulloch. These expressions of challenge outran Luther‟s theology and became less about a biblical reading of salvation and more a manifestation of public disquiet regarding the church. which had been a significant point of reform decreed in the Fourth Lateran Council.com/faith/ECUM12. 142 23 Fourth Lateran Council. D.legionofmarytidewater. 2008. spoke out against militant action and pled the case for gradual and sustainable changes. Thus even the mandate for preaching from scripture. Reformation.fordham. . Luther‟s „On the Freedom of the Christian Man‟ (1520) had sections which were open to opportune misappropriation in this vein: „to a Christian man his faith suffices for everything. unless hope and charity be added thereto. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. priests and nuns‟ took place21. it was feared that it would lead to those saved by faith feeling that they do not have to strive to do good. C. a cautious man.HTM. 2003) p.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 expulsions of monks.I:9)‟24. changed its emphasis within the framework of a sola fide doctrine and challenged the authority and the running of the church23. Retrieved December 16th. neither unites man perfectly with Christ. constitution 10. This was the definitive opposite of orthodox teaching: „For faith. 1990 ).. Nicaea 1 to Lateran V. from Norman P. he is certainly free from the law. and that he has no need of works for justification. from http://www. 24 Martin Luther. and the saying is true: "The law is not made for a righteous man. and Scott Dixon.C. Diarmuid. neither has he need of the law. (London / Washington. (n. The German Reformation.edu/halsall/mod/luther-freedomchristian. But if he has no need of works." (1 Tim. (Penguin. and. Works would benefit neither the saved nor the damned and facere se in quod est was irrelevant in the attaining of that salvation.
and whatever belongs to a fleshly life. 1985). the Catholic church simply did not believe that only faith was necessary for salvation. for example.html 26 Bossy. Charity was a fundamental element in the salvation of an individual. came up with the above statement. Bernard. and by no means least. The fruit of the true Gospel cannot be found among them. ministering to the poor and the provision of education. Ed. enacting that which had been laid down during the Council of Trent. so Luther‟s message was seen to threaten the very salvation of the people. 57-75 27 Rothman. The radical reformers also recognised this. J. 136 10 . (London: Dolman. Waterworth.hanover. from The canons and decrees of the sacred and oecumenical Council of Trent . 2000) p. with its consistory providing ecclesiastical discipline and guidance. that Luther himself always promoted caritas. John. attempted to monitor and encourage moral public behaviour.. (Blackwell. for example. Counter-reform movements reflect the prioritisation laid on this..‟27 It must be said. but in the context that it could never be sufficient to justify a man before God. 1848) retrieved 15/12/08 from http://history. Lastly. The late-medieval church emphasised it to such a degree that the laity instituted bodies. to which caritas was intrinsic26. Calvin‟s Geneva. sexual laxity drunkenness and gluttony. pp. Carter. Session 6. Erasmus was „much urged by traditionalist churchmen‟ to counter Luther but 25 Council of Trent. in Linberg. emphasised preaching. The Jesuit order.edu/texts/trent/trentall. A Confession of Faith and Life in the Church of Christ of Münster (1534). Christianity in the West 1400-1700 (Oxford. the Münster radical Bernard Rothman was vocal in accusing Lutherans of abusing this morality loophole saying „the Lutherans emphasize faith too much and think little about good works. The European Reformations Sourcebook.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 member of His body‟25. however. whilst devoting nearly the whole of the 6th session to the refutation of sola fide. but rather the opposite. The Council of Trent. fraternities and gilds. The moral repercussions of salvation by faith alone were also recognised by the reformed church and a significant prominence was laid on the teaching of moral behaviour. namely. The idea of caring for one another was thus fundamental and the teaching of an absolute assurance of salvation was seen to negate the need to do this. and trans.
A History of Christian Theology. It was appropriated by zealous reformers and a discontented populace. alongside the misappropriation or lack of caution showed by reformers. rather than by sola fide. the church sent in senior men to contradict them. 202 31 MacCaffrey. Paul III convened a group of theologians to contend with this including Gasparo Contarini who said that „we must strive for justification with “such little love as we are capable of”‟29. p.151 William Carl Placher. Contarini was even able to reach a compromise with Melanchthon at Regensburg (1541) by agreeing that good works do not gain justification but. James. leading to social 28 29 MacCulloch. (Westminster 1983). From the Leipzig disputation to the Council of Trent the Roman church continued to theologically fight what was seen as such a dangerous heresy. p. Reformation. when the theological and the pragmatic ramifications are explored.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 his positive anthropology found no common ground with Luther and the discourse further polarised the debate28. Luther‟s initial teachings on the subject were not intended to fracture the church but the reaction from Rome. The church. and subsequently the gradual enacting of the decrees of the Council of Trent attempted just that. its very discussion and exploration shows a willingness on behalf of the church to genuinely engage with the theological dimension of the problem. (Ayer. by „faith rendering itself efficacious in love‟30. The doctrine of salvation by faith alone was therefore an enormous challenge to the church. was thus duty bound to counter it.An Introduction.201 30 Ibid. MacCaffrey writes that „the importance of the subject both in itself and in the circumstances of the time cannot be exaggerated‟31.. this seems to be true. disagreeing with the reformed church on such an essential element of doctrine. p. and indeed. meant that the religious map of Europe by 1600 showed a remarkable change. From the time that Luther‟s teachings were first published. 1970) p. Whilst this accord collapsed on consideration of the Eucharist. 186 11 . History of the Catholic Church from the Renaissance to the French Revolution. with reformed areas covering nearly half of it.
12 . its position in relation to secular powers. Sola fide challenged the very institution of the church. a salvation based on faith and charity. was challenged.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 disorder. The very core of church doctrine. Secular leaders embraced the implications on Roman hegemony and dissolutions and appropriations of church property eroded this power. its finances and security. and the salvation of the people themselves.
Luther’s Works. 217 MacCaffrey.: Sheed & Ward / Georgetown University Press. from ed.d. Nicaea 1 to Lateran V. Theodore Graebner (Zondervan. 2000) Luther.reformed. On the Freedom of the Christian Man. (London / Washington. Linberg.). trans. Jean. .. D. 2007) Bossy. Fifth Lateran Council. D. American Edition 55 vols (Philadelphia: 1955-86) retrieved 28th November 2008 from http://www.edu/halsall/mod/luther-freedomchristian.lutherdansk. (London / Washington. from http://www. and Rummel.d. (London: Dolman. Nicaea 1 to Lateran V. History of the Catholic Church from the Renaissance to the French Revolution . (Westminster John Knox Press. A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification.) Institutes of the Christian Religion.. 1. 2008. Elton. (Bainton Press. 2001).reformed.L. John T.html?mainframe=http://www. 1. A. Retrieved November 17. 2003) McGrath. Canons of the Council of Orange (529). Geoffrey Rudolph. Waterworth. On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church.HTM.: Sheed & Ward / Georgetown University Press. (London / Washington. Christianity in the West 1400-1700 (Oxford.).. (Penguin. The Reformation to the present day.A Life of Martin Luther. Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians (1535). 2008. (trans. 1970) MacCulloch. Vol.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/gal/web/gal3-01.C.org/documents/index. (Blackwell. retrieved 28/11/08 from http://www. 1990). and trans.C.hanover. Tanner. James.fordham. 1848) retrieved 15/12/08 from http://history.C. 1998) 13 .legionofmarytidewater. The canons and decrees of the sacred and oecumenical Council of Trent . (n. F.html Secondary Bainton. Retrieved December 16th. in Calvin. Ed. Reformed.. Martin.htm Martin Luther. Jean. 1990). 1517-1559: 1517-1559. 1999). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. Tanner. Martin.legionofmarytidewater.Abigail Rowe Hi3114 106754686 Bibliography Primary Calvin. Institutes of the Christian Religion. The Eramus Reader. London.com/faith/ECUM12. McNeill. from Norman P.html Luther.org/documents/canons_of_or ange. (Ayer. 1949). .legionofmarytidewater.). from http://www. Carter (Ed. Here I Stand .HTM. from http://www. John. (Cambridge. retrieved 26th November 2008 from http://www.iclnet. Iustitia Dei. The Beginnings to the Reformation. 1990). Erasmus. Retrieved November 17. The European Reformations Sourcebook. J. Battles. Reformation. (n.html Council of Constance. Nicaea 1 to Lateran V. Iustitia Dei. 1.L. Reformation Europe. Roland.org. (Blackwell. .com/faith/ECUM16.com/faith/ECUM18. A. p.edu/texts/trent/trentall. E. A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification. 1985). 1986) McGrath. Diarmuid. from Norman P.html. retrieved 24 th November 2008 from http://www.dk/Web-Babylonian%20Captivitate/Martin%20Luther.. Jaroslav Pelikan and Helmut T. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. Vol.: Sheed & Ward / Georgetown University Press. D. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. F. (Toronto. 1990). Battles. D.HTM Fourth Lateran Council. (Cambridge. 2008. Vol..
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