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Shifts

# Shifts

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Graph Shifting Transformations
Graph Shifting Transformations

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09/12/2013

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# Graph Transformations

This is a list of the standard shifting and stretching operations. The point is to allow us to understand a variety of functions and their graphs in terms of a small number of standard ones. Throughout the list, we will assume c is a positive real number and d > 1. If we know the graph of f (x), we would like to know how to change it to get the graph of other functions closely related to f (x). If you ever forget which operation to perform, try to use x-intercepts or y intercepts to ﬁgure out how the graph is transformed. In practice, this means setting some portion of the new formula equal to zero. Vertical Shifts The graph of f (x) + c is simply the graph of f (x) shifted up by c, while the graph of f (x) − c is simply the graph of f (x) shifted down by c. Horizontal Shifts The graph of f (x − c) is simply the graph of f (x) shifted to the right by c, while the graph of f (x + c) is simply the graph of f (x) shifted to the left by c. Be careful that the horizontal operations feel “backwards” to most people. Vertical Stretches The graph of df (x) is simply the graph of f (x) stretched 1 f (x) is simply the graph of verically by a factor of d, while the graph of d f (x) compressed vertically by a factor of d. Horizontal Stretches The graph of f ( x d ) is simply the graph of f (x) stretched horizontally by a factor of d, while the graph of f (dx) is simply the graph of f (x) compressed horizontally by a factor of d. As with shifts, the horizontal operations feel “backwards” to most people, so be careful which way you shift. Reﬂections The graph of −f (x) is simply the graph of f (x) ﬂipped vertically (upside-down), while the graph of f (−x) is simply the graph of f (x) ﬂipped horizontally (right swaps with left). Composing Transformations Be careful to keep track of the order of operations when you have more than one transformation involved in a single problem. The main idea is to factor the expression being entered into f before trying to perform the horizontal transformations and to multiply through anything outside f before performing the vertical transformations. Then stretches and compressions (as well as inversions) should be preformed before shifts. See pages 39 and 40 of your textbook for some sketches. Examples: 1. We know f (2x − 6) = f (2(x − 3)) so its graph is the graph of f (x) compressed horizontally by a factor of 2 and then shifted to the right by 3. 1

2. shift the result down by 8 units. compress the last graph vertically by a factor of 7 and ﬂip it upside-down. 1 x+3 5. Next. If that made sense. The graph of 2f (x) − 4 is the graph of f (x) stretched vertically by a factor of 2 ﬁrst and then shifted down by 4. The graph of − 7 f ( −2 ) − 8 is a bit more complicated. shift the result 3 to the left. 4. ﬂip the graph of f (x) left to right and stretch it horizontally by a factor of 2. 2 . Now. Finally. The graph of 3(2 + f (x)) = 6 + 3f (x) so its graph is the graph of f (x) stretched vertically by a factor of 3 and then shifted up by 6. First. 3. then you should be able to handle any combination of these transformations. The graph of f (5 − x) = f (−(x − 5)) is the graph of f (x) ﬂipped left to right ﬁrst and then shifted 5 to the right.

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