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Legis interpretation legis vim obtinet. Judicial construction and interpretation of a statute acquires the force of law. CHAPTER III – AIDS TO CONSTRUCTION C. CONTEMPORARY CONSTRUCTION 2. Contemporanea exposition est optima et fortissimo in lege. Contemporary construction is strongest in law. Optima est legum interpres consuetudo. Custom is the best interpreter of a statute. Regula pro lege, si deficit lex. In default of the law, the maxim rules. 3. Optimus interpres rerum usus. The best interpreter of the law is usage. Communis error facit jus. Common error sometimes passes as current law. Quod ab initio non valet in tractu temporis non convalescit. That which was originally void, does not by lapse of time become valid. 4. Ratihabitio mandato aequiparatur. Legislative ratification is equivalent to a mandate. 5. Stare decisis et non quieta movere. Follow past precedents and do not disturb what has been settled. Interest republicae ut sit finis litium. The interest of the state demands that there be an end to litigation. CHAPTER IV – ADHERENCE TO, OR DEPARTURE FROM, LANGUAGE OF STATUTE LITERAL INTERPRETATION 6. Index animi sermo est. Speech is the index of intention. Animus hominis est anima scripti. The intention of the party is the soul. Verba legis non est recedendum. From the words of the statute there should be no departure. Maledicta et exposition quae corrumpit textum. It is bad construction which corrupts the text. Littera scripta manet. The written word endures. Clausula rebus sic stantibus. Things thus standing. 7. Absoluta sentential expositore non indigent. When the language of the law is clear, no explanation is required.
Dura lex sed lex. The law may be harsh but it is the law. Hoc quidem perquam durum est, sed ita lex scripta est. It is exceedingly hard, but so the law is written. B. DEPARTURE FROM LITERAL INTERPRETATION 8. Aequitas nunquam contravenit legis. Equity never acts in contravention of the law. Aequum et bonum est lex legume. What is good and equal is the law of laws. Jus ars boni et aequi. Law is the art of equity. 9. Ratio legis est anima legis. The reason of the law is the soul of the law. Littera necat spiritus vivificate. The letter kills but the spirit gives life. Verba intentioni, non e contra, debent inservice. Words ought to be more subservient to the intent, and not the intent to the words. Benignus leges interpretandae sunt, quod voluntas eraum conservetur. Laws are to be construed liberally, so that their spirit and reason be preserved. Qui haret in littera haret in cortice. He who considers merely the letter of an instrument goes but skin deep into its meaning. Quando verba statute sunt speciali, ratio autem generalia, statum generaliter est intelligendum. When the words used in a statute are special, but the purpose of the law is general, it should be read as the general expression. 10. Cessante rationi legis, cessat et ipsa lex. When the reason of the law ceases, the law itself ceases. 11. Interpretatio talis in ambiguis simper fienda est ut evitetur inconveniens et absurdum. Where there is ambiguity, the interpretation of such that will avoid inconveniences and absurdity is to be adopted. Legis construction non facit injuriam. The construction of the law will not be such as to work injury or injustice. Argumentum ab inconvenient plurimum valet in lege. An argument drawn from inconvenience is forcible in law. Verba nihil operari melius est quam absurde. It is better that words should have no operation at all than that they should operate absurdly. Lex simper intendit quod convenit rationi. The law always intends that which is in accordance with reason. Ubi eadem ratio ibi idem jus. Like reason doth make like law. Argumentum a simili valet in lege. An argument drawn from a similar case, or analogy, prevails in law.
De similibus idem est judicium. Concerning similars, the judgment is the same. Ubi eadem est ratio, ibi est eadem legis disposition. Where there is the same reason, there is the same law 12. Ea est accipienda interpretation quae vitio caret. That interpretation is to be adopted which is free from evil or injustice. Lex injusta non est lex. An unjust law is not a law. 13. Fiat justitia, ruat coelum . Let right be done, though the heavens fall. Nemo est supra legis. Nobody is above the law. Nulla potential supra legis esse debet. No power must be above the law. 14. Jurae naturae aequum est neminem cum alterius detrimento et injuria fieri locupletiorem. It is certainly not agreeable to natural justice that a stranger should reap the pecuniary produce of another man’s work. 15. Surplusagium non nocet. Surplusage does not vitiate a statute. Utile per inutile non vitiatur. The useful is not vitiated by the non-useful. 16. Falsa demostratio non nocet, cum de corpore constat. False description does not preclude construction nor vitiate the meaning of the statute. Nil facit error nominis cum de corpora vel persona constat. Error in name does not make an instrument inoperative when the description is sufficiently clear. Certum est quod certum reddi potest. That is sufficiently certain which can be made certain. 17. Ibi quid generaliter conceditur, inest haec exception, si non aliquid sit contras jus basque. Where anything is granted generally, exemption from rigid application of law is implied; that nothing shall be contrary to law and right. 18. Summum jus, summa injuria. The rigor of the law would be the highest injustice. Jus summum saepe, summa est militia. Extreme law is often extreme wrong. 19. Nemo tenetur ad impossibilia. The law obliges no one to perform an impossibility. Impossibilum nulla obigatio est. There is no obligation to do an impossible thing. Lex non cogit ad impossibilia. The law does not require an impossibility. Lex non intendit aliquid impossible. The law does not intend the impossible. C. IMPLICATIONS 20. Ex necessitate legis. By the necessary implication of law.
In eo quod plus sit, simper inest et minus. The greater includes the lesser. Cui jurisdiction data est, ea quoque concessa esse videntur sine quibus jurisdiction explicari non potuit. When jurisdiction is given, all powers and means essential to its exercise are also given. 21. Ubi jus, ibi remedium. Where there is a right, there is a remedy for violation thereof. Ubi jus incertum, ibi jus nullum. Where the law is uncertain, there is no right. 22. Ex dolo malo non oritur action. An action does not arise from fraud. Nullius commodum capere potest de injuria sua propria. No one may derive advantage from his own unlawful act. In pari delicto potior est condition defendentis. Where the parties are equally at fault, the position of the defending party is the better one. 23. Quando aliquid prohibetur ex directo, prohibetur et per obliquum. What cannot, by law, be done directly cannot be done indirectly. CHAPTER V – INTERPRETATION OF WORDS AND PHRASES A. IN GENERAL 24. Generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda. General words should be understood in their general sense. Generis dictum generaliter est interpretandum. A general statement is understood in its general sense. 25. Verba accipienda sunt secundum subjectam materiam. A word is to be understood in the context in which it is used. Verba mere aequivoca, si per communem usum loquendi in intellectu certo sumuntur, talis intellectus preferendus est. Equivocal words or those with double meaning are to be understood according to their common and ordinary sense. Verba artis ex arte. Words of art should be explained from their usage in the art to which they belong. Verba generalia restringuntur ad habilitatem rei vel personam. General words should be confined according to the subject-matter or persons to which they relate. 26. Ubi lex non distinguit necnon distinguere debemus. Where the law does not distinguish, the courts should not distinguish. 27. Dissimilum dissimilis est ratio. Of things dissimilar, the rule is dissimilar.
B. ASSOCIATED WORDS 28. Noscitur a sociis. A thing is known by its associates. 29. Ejesdem generis. Of the same kind or species. 30. Expressio unius est exclusion alterius. The express mention of one person, thing or consequence implies the exclusion of all others. Expressum facit cessare tacitum. What is expressed puts an end to that which is implied. 31. Argumentum a contrario. Negative-Opposite Doctrine: what is expressed puts an end to that which is implied. 32. Cassus omissus pro omisso habendus est. A person, object or thing omitted from an enumeration must be held to have been omitted intentionally. 33. Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio nisi impediatur sentential. A qualifying word or phrase should be understood as referring to the nearest antecedent. 34. Reddendo singular singulis. Referring each to each, or referring each phrase or expression to its appropriate object, or let each be put in its proper place. C. PROVISOS, EXCEPTIONS AND SAVING CLAUSES 35. Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus non exceptis. A thing not being expected must be regarded as coming within the purview of the general rule. CHAPTER VI – STATUTE CONSIDERED AS A WHOLE IN RELATION TO OTHER STATUTES A. STATUTE CONSTRUED AS A WHOLE 36. Optima statute interpretatrix est ipsum statutum. The best interpreter of the statute is the statute itself. Ex tota materia emergat resolution. The exposition of a statute should be made from all its parts put together. Injustum est, nisi tota lege inspecta, de una aliqua ejus particula proposita indicare vel respondere. It is unjust to decide or to respond as to any particular part of a law without examining the whole of the law. Nemo enim aliquam partem recte intelligere possit antequam totum interum atque interim perlegit. The sense and meaning of the law is collected by viewing all the parts together as one whole and not of one part only by itself. Ex antecendentibus et consequentibus fit optima interpretation. A passage will be best interpreted by reference to that which precedes and follows it. Verba posterima propter certitudinem addita ad priora quae certitudine indigent sunt referenda. Reference should be made to a subsequent section in order to explain a previous clause of which the meaning is doubtful. 37. Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat.
A law should be interpreted with a view of upholding rather than destroying it. B. STATUTE CONSTRUED IN RELATION TO CONSTITUTION AND OTHER STATUTES 38. Pari materia. Of the same matter. Interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi modus. Every statute myst be so construed and harmonized with other statutes as to form a uniform system of law. 39. Distingue tempora et concordabis jura. Distinguish times and you will harmonize law. - Tempora mutantur et leges mutantur in illis. - Times have changed and laws have changed with them. Mutatis mutandis. With the necessary changes. CHAPTER VII – STRICT OR LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION A. IN GENERAL 40. Salus populi est suprema lex. The voice of the people is the supreme law. Statuta pro publico commodo late interpretantur. Statutes enacted for the publc good are to be construed liberally. Privatum incommodum publico bono pensatur. The private interests of the individual must give way to the accommodation of the public. B. STATUTES STRICTLY CONSTRUED 41. Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea. The act does not make a person guilty unless the mind is also guilty. Actus me invito facturs non est meus actus. An act done by me against my will is not my act. 42. Privilegia recipiunt largam interpretationem voluntate consonem concedentis. Privileges are to be interpreted in accordance with the will of him who grants them. Renunciatio non praesumitur. Renunciation cannot be presumed. 43. Strictissimi juris. Follow the law strictly. 44. Nullum tempus occurit regi. There can be no legal right as against the authority that makes the law on which the right depends. CHAPTER VIII – MANDATORY AND DIRECTIONAL STATUTES A. MANDATORY STATUTES 45. Vigilantibus et non dormientibus jura subveniunt. The law aids the vigilant, not those who slumber on their rights. Potior est in tempore, potior est in jure. He who is first in time is preferred in right.
CHAPTER IX – PROSPECTIVE AND RETROACTIVE STATUTES A. IN GENERAL 46. Lex prospicit, non respicit. The law looks forward, not backward. Lex de futuro, judex de praeterito. The law provides for the future, the judge for the past. - Nova constitutio futuris formam imponere debet non praeteritis. - A new statute should affect the future, not the past. Leges quae retrospciunt, et magna cum cautione sunt adhibendae neque enim janus locatur in legibus. Laws which are retrospective are rarely and cautiously received, for Janus has really no place in the laws. Leges et constitutiones futuris certum est dare formam negotiis, non ad facta praeterita revocari, nisi nominatim et de praeterito tempore et adhuc pendentibus negotiis cautum sit. Laws should be construed as prospective, not retrospective, unless they are expressly made applicable to past transactions and to such as are still pending. B. STATUTES GIVEN PROSPECTIVE EFFECT 47. Nullum crimen sine poena, nulla poena sine lege. There is no crime without a penalty, there is no penalty without a law. 48. Favorabilia sunt amplianda, odiosa restringenda. Penal laws which are favorable to the accused are given retroactive effect. CHAPTER X – AMENDMENT, REVISION, CODIFICATION AND REPEAL A. REPEAL 49. Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant. Later statutes repeal prior ones which are repugnant thereto. 50. Generalia specialibus non derogant. A general law does not nullify a specific or special law. BINDING FORCE OF RULES OF INTERPRETATION AND CONSTRUCTION A. Ignorantia legis neminem excusat. Ignorance of the law excuses no one. LANGUAGE OF STATUTE WHEN AMBIGUOUS B. In obscuris inspici solere quod versimilius est, aut quod plerumque fieri solet. When matters are obscure, it is customary to take what appears to be more likely or what usually often happens. Ambiguitas verborum patens nulla verificatione excluditur. A patent ambiguity cannot be cleared up by extrinsic evidence. PRESUMPTION AGAINST INJUSTICE AND HARDSHIP C. Ad ea quae frequentibus accidunt jura adaptatur. Laws are understood to be adapted to those cases which most frequently occur.
Jus constitui oportet in his quae ut plurimum accidunt non quae ex inordinato. Laws ought to be made with a view to those cases which happen most frequently, and not to those which are of rare or accidental occurrence. Quod semel aut bis existit praetereunt legislatores. Legislators pass over what happens only once or twice. De minimis non curat lex. The law does not concern itself with trifling matters. TITLE OF THE ACT (INTRINSIC AID) D. Nigrum Nunquam Excedere Debet Rubrum. The black (body of the act printed in black) should never go beyond the red (title or rubric of the statute printed in red) DOWNLOAD THE FULL TEXT FROM THE ATTACHMENTS AREA BELOW.
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