Advertising & Sales Promotion.

Specialization: Marketing.


Advertising: Introduction.
• Product or a service once produced needs mass contact with “Target Market”. • One of the best ways to reach target market is through “Advertising”. • Advertising is a forceful communication.

Advertising: Introduction.
• Advertising promotes the sale of a product, services, ideas etc. • But advertising by itself cannot sell a product. • A dying product cannot be rejuvenated by an advertising program.

Advertising: Introduction.
• Advertising is a public announcement of product, service or an idea to which public has an access. • Advertisement is usually onesided, in one direction. • It is from an advertiser to the public.

Advertising: Introduction. goods. and services by an identified sponsor” 5 . • The American Marketing Association defines advertising as “any paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas.

illustration. sign. 6 . symbol. • Any form: Advertising can be in any form.Advertising: Introduction. • Non-personal: There is no personal selling involved in advertising. • Analysis of the definition is as follows. billboard etc. mail. pamphlet.

7 . 1. largest FMCG company. ABC. 1st multinational agency in India was J. Lintas. 3. It gives credibility to claims newspapers & magazines circulation. (Lever International Advertising Services) ad company formed by Hindustan Unilever. Walter Thompson. Audit Bureau of Circulation was founded in 1948.History of Advertising. 2.

5) Indian Broadcasting Co. of India. the Directorate of Advertising & Visual Publicity ( DAVP) was started by the Govt. formed in 1927 became All India Radio in 1936. 4) In 1955. to act as an advertising agency for the govt. 8 .History of Advertising.

History of Advertising. 6) Commercial advertising started on Vividh Bharati in Oct 1957. 9) Color tv came to India. 10) Multi-channels started in 1990. 8) Doordarshan was started in 1976. in 1984. and in Mumbai in 1993. 11) Now ads are on the internet. 7) FM broadcast was started in Chennai in 1977. 9 .

Apart from this agencies also render services in film production. a distributor or also a PSU. The Advertising Agency: These agencies accept brief from their client and design an ad campaign. The Advertiser: Advertiser could be a manufacturer. a retailer. branding etc.Participants in Advertising. product launches. 10 . 2. 1.

Participants in Advertising.
• 3) Media Owners: These are publishing houses who bring out newspapers, magazines etc. Broadcast media includes radio, tv, films etc. • 4) PR Consultants: They are found in PR dept of an agency. • 5) Ancillary Services: Services like studios, gift articles, photography, printing fall under this category. • 6) Freelancers: These are copywriters, jingle singers, announcers, artists, visualizers, technical writers etc.

Importance & Objectives of Advertising.
1. Effective communication between a manufacturer and its customers. 2. To create product/service awareness. 3. To generate customer enquiries for a product. 4. Support a salesperson/personal selling. 5. To announce sales promotion scheme. 6. To inform customers.

Top Global Categories (Ad Spends)
1) Automobiles. 2) Beer, wine ,liquor. 3) Cell phones. 4) Cigarettes. 5) Computer, software, peripherals. 6) Drugs and medicines. 7) Electronics.

Top Global categories (Ad Spends)
8) Entertainment. 9) Fast-food. 10) Food. 11) Personal care. 12) Retail. 13) Soft drinks 14) Toys.

Top Advertising Agencies In India. 6. • 1. 5. Ogilvy JWT Lowe Mudra McCann Erikson Rediffusion Leo Burnett 15 . As per the survey undertaken by The Economic Times. 2. 4. 7. 3.

Top Advertising Agencies In India. 16 . 9) RK Swamy. 12)Bates 141 13)Saatchi 14) Percept. 10) Draftcbulka 11)Grey world wide. 8) Contract.

23) Orchard. 18) Everest. 15) Ambience Publicis. 19) Law & Kenneth. 21) Interface 22) Publicis India. 24) Triton 17 .Top Advertising Agencies In India. 16) Euro rscg 17) M & C Satchi. 20)TBWA India.

• Client Servicing: This is the most crucial department.Advertising Agency. Account Supervisor. 18 . Set-Up. • Various departments in an Ad agency. People working in this department are Account Manager. Account Executive. Sr. Account Executive and Trainee Account Executive.

Set-Up.Advertising Agency. 19 . • The Account Executive is most important link between the agency and the client. • They must posses knowledge of all other departments as they have to understand client’s needs. problems.

Set-Up. Head of the copy department is “Copy Director”. 2) Copy Department: The main job of copy department is to prepare copy for the advertisement. Copy department works in close association art/creative department.Advertising Agency. 20 .

21 . Set-Up. Main function of this department is to create visuals and make final artworks for the advertisement on the basis of copy written by the copy department.Advertising Agency. 3) Art Department: Head of this department is “Art Director”.

rates. 4) Media Department: This departments consists of the Media Director. circulation. Set-Up. viewership etc. This department has all the information regarding various media vehicles. Media Chief. 22 . Media Assistants etc. readership.Advertising Agency.

Set-Up. 23 .Advertising Agency. This department maintains contact with printers. and other suppliers. This helps in proper job execution. 5) Production Department: This department is headed by Production Manager. paper merchants.

revenues. This department keeps control on the expenses. makes bills and making payments to various suppliers.Advertising Agency. Set-Up 6) Accounts Department: Accounts manager is the head of this department. 24 .

based on the research feedback.Advertising Agency. This department helps in making presentations to their clients. Set-Up 7) Research Department: This department does research and fact finding. 25 . “Research Director” is the head of the department.

Money: How much can we spend? 3.Advertising Program. Measurement: How should we evaluate results? 26 . Mission: What are our advertising objectives? 2. • 5 M’s of advertising. For Mktg. Message: What message should we send? 4. Media: What media should we use? 5. Mgr. 1.

poor segmentation. markets. • Poor understanding of products. poor copy and poor appeals can result in advertising waste. 27 . • Advertising can be wasteful if it is not properly planned and executed.Advertising & Marketing Mix. poor positioning.

Advertising & Marketing Mix. • “Marketing mix is the set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market”. • As defined by Philip Kotler. 28 .

services. quality. features. packaging. 29 . design. brand name. • Price: It means list price. • Product: It means. sizes. product variety. warranties.Marketing Mix. returns. allowances. credit terms. discounts.

• Promotion: It means sales promotion. sales force. inventory and transportation. • Place: It means channels. coverage. assortments. 30 . public relations and direct marketing. locations.Marketing Mix. advertising.

• Physical Evidence. 31 .Marketing Mix for Service Products. • People. • Process.

Branding & Advertising. Yes that’s what the brand stands for”. one needs to “reaffirm” the brand’s core values. • Advertising is needed to defend a brand from competitive attacks. • To defend a brand. • Advertising program should be such that it “resonates” with consumers. • Consumers must admit. • A brand needs advertising to stay healthy. 32 .

• Advertising starts after a brand is left with no publicity potential. all brands will have to shift to heavy advertising to defend themselves. • As publicity dies out. 33 .Branding & Advertising. • All strong brands were born in publicity. • Advertising budget is like an insurance cover for the brand.

Skills to handle customers. 4. . Employees must have: Ability to understand customer needs.Marketing Mix: Services • • People: To deliver/offer satisfactory services employees have to play an important role. 3. Good communication skills. Product knowledge. 2. 34 • 1.

Ensure lower attrition. 2. 6.Marketing Mix: Services • • 1. 3. 5. 4. 35 . Define roles and responsibilities. Train them regularly. Employee satisfaction. People: Challenges for Employer: Recruit right kind of people. Ensure team work.

36 .Marketing Mix: Services • Physical Evidence: • Physical evidence of service is manifested through. Interiors and other tangibles. Exteriors.

37 . Layout. Frontage. Landscaping. Facilities. Logo units. Signages.Marketing Mix: Services • • • • • • • • • Physical Evidence: Exteriors: Design.

Air quality. Ambience. Lighting/Illumination. Cleanliness. Displays. 38 . Color combination.Marketing Mix: Services • • • • • • • • • Physical Evidence: Interiors: Furniture.

• Business cards. 39 .Marketing Mix: Services • Physical Evidence: • Other Tangibles: • Dress code. • Stationery. • Billing statements. • Product information.

• The process of dividing the market in sub-segments of similar customers is known as “Market Segmentation”. • Consumers vary in their choices and buying behavior. 40 . • Companies therefore cannot appeal the entire market with a single product.Market Segmentation.

Niches.Market Segmentation. and individuals. • A market segment consists of a group of customers who share similar set of needs and wants. Local areas. • Many companies are turning to “Micromarketing” at one of four levels: Segments. 41 .

Neem toothpastes are examples of niche products. • Niche Marketing: Niche is a more narrowly defined customer group seeking a distinctive mix of benefits. Crack ointment from Paras. from Godrej is a fabric washing product for woolen clothes. 42 . Meswak. • Some of the niche products are Ezee.Market Segmentation. • Babool toothpaste.

Market Segmentation. 43 . • Local Marketing: This is a strategy where marketing programs are designed to suit the needs and wants of local customers. • E. NRI branches of banks in states like Kerala. including Bhojpuri.g. Spiderman 3 (English movie) released in 5 different languages.

g. 44 . Ruff’n’Tuff ready to stitch jeans from Arvind Mills.Market Segmentation. services and messages on a one-to-one basis. • E. • Also referred as “Customerization” • A company is customerized when it is able to respond to individual customers by customizing products. • Individual Marketing: This is the ultimate level of segmentation.

45 . states. countries. cities etc. • Segmentation Bases: • Geographic Segmentation: In this approach market is divided into different geographical units such as. regions.Consumer Markets. • Markets are also segmented into rural and urban markets.

gender. family size. income.Consumer Markets. • Demographic Segmentation: In this type of approach market is divided on the basis of variables like age. religion. education. occupation. 46 . nationality etc.

Fast track. • Psychographic Segmentation: In this type of segmentation customers are divided on the basis of psychological/personality traits. Regalia. Nebula. values etc. lifestyle.Consumer Markets. • E. • Titan also has Raga. 47 . Mc Donald’s menu varies as per lifestyles and food habits. Edge for different lifestyles of customers.g.

• User status. Behavioral variables are. 48 . • Benefits. use to a product. • Occasions. attitude. • Behavioral Segmentation: Customers are divided on the basis of their knowledge.Consumer Markets. • User rate/consumption.

Marketing Communications. • Done right. • Marketing Communications are the means by which firms attempt to inform. persuade and remind consumers –directly or indirectlyabout the products and brands they sell. 49 . marketing communications can have a huge payoff.

feelings and things. events. why where and when a product is used. experiences. 50 . • Marketing communications also help consumers by telling them how.Marketing Communications. brands. places. • Marketing communications allow companies to link their brands to other people.

Marketing Communication Mix: Advertising.Marketing Communications Mix. • 1. Publicity & Public relations. Interactive Marketing. 5. Direct Marketing. Sales Promotion. 2. 3. 6. 4. Events & Experiences. 7. 51 . Personal Selling.

Marketing Communications Mix. goods. or services by an identified sponsor. • Advertising: It is any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas. • Sales Promotion: It is a basket of short-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase of a product or service. 52 .

Marketing Communications Mix. • Events & Experiences: These are company sponsored activities and programs designed to create daily or special brand-related interactions. • Public relations and publicity: It’s a third party voice or programs designed to promote or defend a company’s image or products. 53 .

• Interactive marketing: These are on line activities and programs designed to engage customers or prospects and directly or indirectly raise awareness. • Direct Marketing: In this effort mail. fax. improve image. 54 .Marketing Communications Mix. or licit sales of products and services. e-mail. internet is used to communicate directly with or solicit response or dialogue from specific customers and prospects.

• Personal Selling: It is one-toone selling or interaction with prospects for the purpose of making presentations. answering questions and procuring orders.Marketing Communications Mix. 55 .

The Advertising Process. • Channel. • Receiver. • Message. • Destination. • Source. 56 .

• Source is generally is marketing manager of an organization. • Source: The source of a message in the process is the point of which the message originates.The Advertising Process. 57 .

E. fear etc. sales promotional displays or sales presentation. by use of humor. • Message: It is advertising copy.. • Message can be executed in a great variety of ways. 58 .The Advertising Process. publicity material.g.

POP displays. television. • Channel: The message is transmitted through some “channel” from the “source” or advertiser to the receiver. magazines. 59 .The Advertising Process. billboards. newspapers. • Channel consists of one or more kinds of media such as radio.

• Receiver can be described in terms of audience segmentation variables. demographics.The Advertising Process. lifestyles. • Receiver: Receiver in an advertising process is “Target audience”. 60 . benefits sought etc.

61 .The Advertising Process. • Destination: The process does not stop at the receiver but allows for the possibility that the initial receiver might engage in word-of-mouth communication to the ultimate destination of message.

graphic images. It combines sound. • Important Features of Internet Advertising: 1. videos and hypertext on a single page.Internet Advertising. 62 . World Wide Web: (WWW) It is a system to retrieve documents and search for information.

catalogues. journals etc. • Telenet: These are online databases. This is very similar to online banking. newsgroup and electronic bulletin boards.Internet Advertising. shopping etc. 63 . libraries. • E-Mail: Users can send e-mail anywhere in the world to other internet users. • Usenet: These are discussion groups.

• Important Features of Internet Advertising: 1.Internet Advertising. This is very cost effective and delivery is precise. 64 . Internet ads are interactive. Customers know more about the product and can make online purchases. Reaching the Target Audience: Advertiser can target individuals with considerable precision.

Internet Advertising. • Advertisers can learn which ads can be more successful and generate response. To develop effective ad banners on the net is challenging for professionals too. 65 . • 2) Advertising Evaluation: This is a very complex game.

• If not done it will result in wastage of money. • 3) Frequency and Banner burnout: It is observed that after the 4th impression the ad banners have little impact and the response rate goes down. 66 .Internet Advertising. • The advertiser should control and rotate ad banners in a series.

Internet Advertising. • 4) Right Place: Media planners have the advantage of scanning numerous web pages carefully before planning the ad banner. • Reduced internet rates is also a contributory factor encouraging internet usage in middle class families. 67 .

• E. netscape.Commonly Used Internet Terminology. • Surfing: This refers to roaming and searching for information www. 68 . • Browser: This refers to a graphic interface that provides simple access to documents on the world wide web.g. internet explorer. neoplant etc.

• Websites: The entire set of pages that constitutes the information compiled by a certain company or an individual on the web. 69 .Commonly Used Internet Terminology. • Homepage: This is the very first page of a website that opens when one connects to www.

When one selects a link the browser clears the window and retrieves the “link document”. 70 .Commonly Used Internet Terminology. • Link: On the websites links are shown in different colors or shades from the text. • Uniform Resource Locator: It is the address that a surfer types in the address bar of the browser to specify the site one wants to visit.

71 . It is used to create websites with graphics.Commonly Used Internet Terminology. • HTML: Hypertext Markup Language. texts and links.

The size of the banner is about four & half inch by one and half inch. 1. Ad Banner: It is the most basic type of advertising on the net. 72 . It appears across the top or bottom of the web page.Types of Internet Advertising. It is like a billboard on the net.

It is used to promote company’s products or services. Website: It is a location on the net rather than an advertisement. 2. Many companies use Web as an online catalog store.Types of Internet Advertising. conducting business on the internet. 73 .

Software technologies like java. enliven and shockwave have greatly increased the effectiveness of banners and ad buttons with full motion and animation. 3. It usually serves to provide link to advertiser’s home page.Types of Internet Advertising. Ad Button: It is a smaller version of a banner that looks like an icon. 74 .

Types of Internet Advertising.
4. Sponsorship: Since internet is becoming fast popular, companies sponsor total sections of publishers web page for a contracted period of time. Companies get considerable recognition on the web page.


Types of Internet Advertising.
5. Interstitial: It is also referred as “ Intermercial”. This is an animated ad that pops up on the screen while downloading. This type of ad is twice as effective as ad banners at generating higher levels of brand awareness.


Types of Internet Advertising.
6. Classified Advertisement: This type of an advertising on the net offers an excellent opportunity for local advertisers. It is fast becoming popular. This advertisement is quite similar to ones that are seen in the newspaper.


Limitations of Internet Advertising.
1. Judging the effectiveness is difficult. There are no standard methods of both ad exposure measurement. 2. Due to precise customer targeting cost/price may be higher. 3. Slowness and connectivity discourages users. Unless infrastructure improves the costs would remain on the higher side.

4. The cost’s of PC’s are still on the higher side in India. 79 .Limitations of Internet Advertising. Internet is still not fully safe for financial transactions. 5. This discourages large number of people to buy pc’s. Security and privacy concerns are major for online purchasers.

6. Infrastructure also is inadequate.Limitations of Internet Advertising. 80 . Many countries have outdated telephone lines and high costs of local telephone services.

• For planning advertising programs. where are they bought. 81 . • Market. • Consumers needs and wants. researchers provide the following data. • Competitors.Advertising Effectiveness. • Product qualities.

• It is a common belief that advertising effectiveness cannot be measured. • Other view is that advertising is only a part of marketing mix. as advertising is an “art”. • It cannot sell the product alone.Advertising Effectiveness. 82 .

83 .Advertising Research. • It has to be broken down in 3 parts. • What to test? • Which variable is to be counted or tested for effectiveness? • Advertisement as a whole cannot be tested. • Media. • Message. • Scheduling.

• Other factors which can be tested are.Advertising Research. • Illustration. 84 . • Layout. • Headline. • Media alternatives. • Typography. • Body copy/text.

85 . • Broad classes of media. • Advertising budget. size of space. their subclasses. • Advertising timing.Advertising Research. and time. (full page. half page). specific media.

• Testing after the advertising has run is called as “Post-testing”. • When to test? • Advertising testing before it is run may provide indications of what will happen during and after its running.Advertising Research. • This is called as “Pre-testing”. 86 .

• It consists of several measures to ensure performance of advertisement. • Advertising Evaluation: • It is related to advertising objectives.Advertising Research. • It is based on human responses. 87 .

• According to this model.DAGMAR Approach. and measuring the results of an advertising campaign. communication effects are logical basis for setting ad objectives and goals against which results should be measured. • Russell H Colley developed a model for setting advertising objectives. 88 .

DAGMAR Approach. Advertising. • Brand identity establishment. • Some of the advertising goals are. • To provide information about the product. Goals. • To announce sales promotion scheme. • To persuade prospect to visit the shop. Results. Advertising. • Defining. for Measured. 89 .

• Colley proposed that communications objectives be based on a hierarchical model with 4 stages. • Comprehension: Its purpose is to develop an understanding among audience of what the product is and what it would do for them. 90 .DAGMAR Approach. • Awareness: This involves making target audience aware of the existence of brand or company.

• Conviction: The objective is to create a mental disposition among target audience members to buy the product.DAGMAR Approach. 91 . • Action: To motivate target audience to purchase the product or service.

• A person who writes a “copy” is a “copywriter”. 92 . • A copywriter converts selling points/features in customer benefits. • He has to write to achieve client’s objectives and not his own objectives. • It is a very critical activity for advertising success.Copywriting.

captions.Copywriting. 93 . • Print media ads. pictures. • What is a “Copy”? • Copy includes all elements of an advertising message. sub-heads. Include heading. slogans and body copy.

94 .Copywriting. company logo. visual symbols etc. • Copy also includes trade marks. • In radio commercials it includes sound effects and music in addition to words spoken in ad messages.

• Good ad will mention “brand name” and key consumer benefits.Copywriting. 95 . instead of generalities. copy is usually more effective if it is simple. • Good ads are specific and use facts and figures. • While there are no rules for what makes a good copy.

uncluttered. • Copy should never make “tall claims”. • The message should be always true to the product.Copywriting. and straightforward. 96 . • Copy should be simple.

statements from celebrities.Copywriting. warnings. • It has to be perfectly worded and should create excitement. questions. Its job is to attract the prospect. 97 . news flashes. • Elements of Copy: • Headline Idea: It is the most crucial copy element. appeals.. • Headline can be in many forms.

• Sub-Heads: It should further carry the idea of theme and should help readers to have more knowledge of products and services. • It systematically develops the benefits and promise offered by the product. • Body-Copy: It stimulates liking and preference for a product.Copywriting. 98 .

• Body-Copy: It logically and rationally explains products attributes, features and values etc. • Both emotional and rational reasons are put forward to persuade consumers. • Closing Idea: It is like closing the sale in personal selling.

• Visualization & Layout: • It is concerned with creation of an idea which will appeal to consumers or target audience. • Layout deals with the arrangement of various elements in advertising such as headlines, illustrations, company’s name, trademark etc.

Print Copy Principles.
• Headlines should appeal the readers self interest. • Headline and visual should compliment each other so well and “tell the story” so easily that a reader should get the message even he skips the body copy.


Print Copy Principles.
• Essentials of a Good Headline: • Should be original. • Should be concise. • Should be crisp. • Should be provocative. • Should make the prospect read the further advertisement.

Descriptive copy. • • • • • • • • • Different types of “Copy”: Scientific copy. Endorsement copy. Humorous copy. Colloquial copy. 103 .Print Copy Principles. Topical copy. Narrative copy. Prestige copy.

• Slogans: “Slogan” is a catchy sentence or phrase which is/should be easy to remember. summarized headlines. • It gives an identity to the product or a company.Print Copy Principles. • Slogans are short. 104 .

• Features of a Good Slogan: • It should be simple and straight forward. • Should carry a good sales idea.Print Copy Principles. 105 . • Should be pleasant. • Good slogans should enter consumers mind.

• It should support the headline. • Body copy should be detailed and specific. • Body can be made readable by using sub-heads and captions. 106 .Print Copy Principles. • It should be readable. • It should be interesting.

Print Copy Principles.
• Attribute information is recalled better when it is presented both as a picture and in words. • E.g. a teddy bear can be used to depict fabric softener in an advt. • Ice can shown in the advt of prickly heat powder.


Television Copy Principles.
• T.V. scripts should be written to take advantage of the visual nature of the medium. • T.V. ads get higher recall scores if they contain more frequent visual representations of the brand name, package and the key products attributes.

Television Copy Principles.
• If the shots in the ad are more “connected” and “better-linked” with each other the T.V. ad is then more effective. • It has been found that if the camera angle is such that the product or person appears bigger, stronger or bolder the ad is evaluated more favorably.

Radio Copy Principles.
• For radio ads, key principle is to write copy that “creates a picture in the mind’s eye”. • It should effectively use the effect of human voice, sound effects, humor and music.


• In radio too. it is crucial to mention brand name and key selling benefits early and often. 111 .Radio Copy Principles. • Short words and short sentences are usually easier to understand on the radio.

• Copy and visual must be extremely short.Outdoor Copy Principles. • In outdoor ads. message must be communicated in few seconds. strong and obvious. • It should be on right hand side of the highways. 112 . • Outdoor ads can be recalled more if words are fewer and more about the product. simple.

• B2B ads are informative and specific. or profit improving information. • They offer case histories of advertised brands and their success. the target audience is seeking for solutions.B2B Advertisements. 113 . • In this ads.

• Copy points are less. • Artwork is more important than copy writing. 114 . is crucial for many consumer non-durable products. • The activity of “illustrating”. • It uses pictures or photographs to convey the central idea.Illustrating.

• In some cases the company will not be even mentioned. • These are company or trade name. brand name and trademarks. • Illustrating also involves decisions regarding the identification marks to be used.Illustrating. 115 .

116 . copy. and identification marks are to be arranged and positioned on the page. • Layout activity involves bringing all the pieces together before the ad is sent out for production. illustration.Layout. • Layout involves decisions as to how the various components of headline.

117 .Layout. • Contrast: Using different sizes. shapes. and colors to enhance attention value and readability. • Considerations for Print Layout: • Balance: The arrangement of elements to achieve a pleasing distribution or visual impact. densities.

and identification marks in that order will usually provide the most logical sequence for gaze motion. • Gaze-motion: The headline. illustration. • Proportions: The relation of objects to the background in which they appear and to each other.Layout. 118 . copy.

119 . appearance and design in the layout.Layout. proportion and gaze motion should be combined to develop unity of thought. • Unity: The qualities of balance. contrast.

Media & Media Planning. magazines. • In advertising terms. newspapers. • A medium is a vehicle for carying the sales message of an advertiser to the prospects. 120 . radio. TV etc. such as. medium is a channel of communication.

• Below the Line Media: In this the ad agencies do not get commission from media. outdoor. posters.g. TV. cinema. • Above the Line Media: Press. 121 . E.Media & Media Planning. radio. direct mail. Agencies get commission from these media.

• Direct Advertisement: Direct mailers. • Various categories of Media: • 1)Print Media: • Newspapers: Daily.Media & Media Planning. Sunday. business publications. Weekly. 122 . • Magazines: Consumer interests. weekend supplements.

• Direct Mktg. ad films.Media & Media Planning. Cinema. • Outdoor media. stickers etc. • Narrow Cast Media: Video and cable TV. • Radio: Vividha Bharati. • 2) Broadcast Media: Options available are as follows. • Other Media: Specialty media like T shirts. Satellite channels. • TV: DD. • Internet. caps. 123 . FM channels.

124 .Media Selection. • Media Selection: Effective advertising is all about informing the public about the right product at the right time through the right medium. • If this is not achieved it simply results into waste of money and resources.

What could be the best combination of media mix for our total advertising? 125 . What are the available media which will serve our advertising needs the best? 2. 1.Media Decisions. • Decisions concerned are as follows.

126 . 3) What could be the best specific schedule for the release of our ads in each of these media? • For the right media planning and selection. the advertiser must know the consumer profile accurately. • He should know the target market too.Media Decisions.

• This job becomes tough in present competitive scenario.Media Decisions. there is an effective message which should reach effectively. as the choice is in abundance. • Only then the advertising program of a company will be successful. • For each target. 127 .

• Media planning has become tactical. consumer and brand strategy led and accurate. 128 . • Today client wants to know whether his/her target audience has actually seen the campaign.Media Planning.

• He wants to know whether the client was at home when the commercial was aired/released. 129 .Media Planning.

e. sex. Collection of useful information about people. income. interests etc.g. information on geography. 130 . age group.Media Planning. • Steps in Media Planning: 1. market etc.. attitudes.

• That medium has to be selected which is most suited to the target market at a given budget cost.Media Planning. What can you afford? • This is irrespective of the company size. 131 . • Question to be asked is.

Media Planning. Understanding customer profile is also very important. 132 . 2) To decide upon the nature of the message to be conveyed to the target market. 3) Search for an ideal match of the media and target market profile.

4) “Reach” is expressed in terms of number of households or individuals reached by given medium over a period of time. 133 . This is expressed in terms of per cent of total households or individuals in a target market.Media Planning.

• Sometimes the target audience may be reached by two media. • “Frequency” refers to the average number of times different households or individuals are reached by a medium in a given period of time.Media Planning. 134 .

Media Planning. Ads inserted at time frequency round the year is “ Continuity”. • The greater the frequency. • “Continuity” refers to message deliveries over a period of time or a season. 135 . the greater the probability of the advertisement message making a deep and lasting impact.

2. Which: Media selection. 3. 1. How much: Budget. How: Co-ordination in media planning. 136 . 4. money allocation.Media Planning Process. When: Timing of release.

for every rupee spend? • Media Ability: It covers qualitative values such as audience characteristics. • What and how much of an audience wiil the company get. and contribution to advertising effectiveness. 137 .Media Cost.

138 .Media Cost. • Audience Measurement: It is expressed in terms of audience size. • Media Ability: • Distribution measurement: It is expressed in the number of copies circulated. audience composition and amount of audience exposure.

139 . • Exposure measurement: Once media creates desired exposure. quality of message will determine the subsequent impact in terms of perception. communication and behavioral response.Media Cost.

• Media mix. • Usage of media. • Media Strategy: • It defines and provides rationale for the recommended media. • Geographic allocation. • The 4 elements of media strategy are.Media Cost. 140 . • Scheduling strategy.

fashion etc. women’s. Frontline etc. Outlook. • Media Selection: What type of media should be used? • Magazines. radio. newspapers. business. TV. outdoor? • If magazines. • If general. 141 . what types? • General.Media Mix. which specific? • India Today.

Media Mix. • Geographic Allocation: • National Plan. 142 . • Local Plan. • Zonal Plan. • Area Plan. • Regional Plan.

• Steady Pulse: One ad per week.Media Scheduling. • Some of the options are as follows. Talcs etc follow this approach. 143 . cold creams. for 52 weeks or one ad per month for 12 months. • Seasonal Pulse: Products like Vicks.

• Promotional Pulse: This is used for sales/product promotion. ads are placed/spaced erratically. 144 . • Periodic Pulse: Scheduling has a regular pattern. • Start up Pulse: This is adopted for new product launch. It is a concentrated scheduling. • Erratic Pulse: In this.Media Scheduling.

• TRP’s (TV rating points) • Viewership. • Following points are crucial for planning. • Media cost. • Telecast Time. 145 .TV Media Planning.

• Panel consists of members. • Data is collected on a weekly basis. • The data is then analysed. • TRP: This is conducted in major cities of India.TV Media Planning. 146 . Each panel member records viewership of different programs.

who watch tv once a week. • Panel has 2 groups. 147 . • Primary audience of adults from TV owning households and secondary audience of adults from non tv owning households.TV Media Planning. • One TRP is 1% of TV audience.

TV Media Planning. in India more than 200 channels are available. 148 . • Satellite Transmission Scene: In the US. depending on the film.000 for 10 secs. 500 channels are available.000 – Rs 250. • Media Costing: • Cost of sponsoring a Hindi feature film on a Sat is now Rs 160.

3. 4. • Hindustan Times is no. followed by The Hindu. • Times of India.5% of rural readers go through English newspapers. • 24% of students read TOI. 149 .Newspapers. Indian Express is no. while Hindu is rural based. • Only 8. 23% of students read Hindu. is the leader. • Times of India is urban based.

• Dainik Bhaskar.Newspapers. 150 . • Hindi Newspapers: • Dainik Jagaran. • Punjab Kesari.

2.Magazines. 151 . • The Week is no.3. • Choice available in magazines is. • General Magazines: • India Today is no. • Frontline is no. 4.1. • Outlook is no.

2 spot. • Business Magazines: • Business India is the leader.Magazines. • Intelligent Investor has highest readership among officers and executives. 152 . • Business Today is at no.

Glamour Magazines: Debonair. Filmfare. Gentleman.Magazines. Cine Blitz. Fantasy. 153 . Star & Style. • • • • • • • • • Film Magazines: Stardust.

• Competition Success. • Savvy. 154 . • General Knowledge Today.Magazines. • Women’s Era. • Women’s Magazines: • Femina. • General Interest Magazines: • Reader’s Digest.

Sales Promotion. An Important Strategic Tool. 155 .

Sales Promotion. mostly short term. designed to stimulate quicker and/or greater purchase of particular products/services by consumers or the trade…. 156 . • Definition: Sale promotions are shortterm incentives to encourage purchase or sale of a product or a service…. • Sales promotions consists of diverse collection of incentive tools.Roger A Strang. Philip Kotler.

157 . shows. • “In a specific sense. demonstrations. sales promotion includes those activities that supplement both personal selling and advertising and coordinate them and help to make them effective such as displays.Sales Promotion. and other non-recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine”…American Marketing Association.

• Sales promotion is a direct and open inducement to consumers to immediately buy the product. 158 .Sales Promotion & Advertising. • Advertising is mostly an indirect approach of convincing customers to try or buy a product. • Advertising objectives are long term. Sales promotion objectives are current or immediate.

Sales Promotion. To support advertising efforts. To supplement personal selling. To move excessive inventory. To get back lost buyers. 159 . To attract new buyers. To overcome seasonal slumps. To create space for new products. • • • • • • • • • Why? To overcome competitive situation.

• Standardization of Products. • Emphasis is on sales volumes and market share. • Why? • Customers have become more price sensitive.Sales Promotion. 160 . • Advertising has become more expensive.

• Sales promotions directed at the end-user whether by the manufacturer or by the retailer are called “Consumer sales promotions” • Consumer promotions can be for non-durable or durable products as well as services.Consumer Sales Promotion. 161 .

162 .Consumer Sales Promotion. • Consumer sales promotion can be effective if they are smartly combined with advertising and pointof-purchase displays. • Consumer sales promotions are generally “ Pull promotions”.

• Demonstrations. • Contests. 163 .Consumer Sales Promotion. • Commonly used Tools and techniques: • Free samples. • Coupons. • Price-offs/discounts.

Consumer Sales Promotion. • Free trials/test rides. • Refunds. • Exchange offers. • Trade Fairs and Exhibitions. 164 . • Sweepstakes. • Low interest financing. • Free service/check up camps.

• Trade sales promotions are directed at “Resellers”. wholesalers. retailers.Trade Sales Promotion. distributors. • Trade sales promotion are a part of “ Push strategy”. • Resellers includes dealers. 165 .

Trade Sales Promotion. • Display. • Commonly used tools and techniques: • Factory Direct Incentive. POP allowances and contests. • Sharing in manpower costs. • Sharing/Bearing of rent. (Slab-wise) • Sharing in advertising expenditure. 166 .

• Sales promotion activities directed at Sales team is also an important activity.Sales Force Sales Promotion. 167 . • The aim is to motivate sales team sales team for better sales performance and build their morale and confidence.

Gifts. Special training programs. • • • • • • • • Commonly used Tools and techniques: Sales contests.Sales Force Sales Promotion. 168 . Promotions. Awards and prizes. Recognition by the MD/CEO/CMO. Incentive schemes.

• If objectives which are not related to sales.Sales Promotion Evaluation. measurement of effectiveness is more difficult. 169 . • It is quite easy to measure “before” and “after” results of sales promotion program.

Is customer willing to buy an unknown shoe at 45% discount? • Is this offer worth the risk of buying an unfamiliar brand? 170 . • A pre-test can find out what is the perceived value likely to be and risk factor. • Pre-Testing: How and what is to be communicated can be pre tested.g.Sales Promotion Evaluation. • For e.

• Response of resellers is also of great importance. 171 . • Wholesalers. distributors and retailers can be visited to discuss the program and seek their opinion and suggestions.Sales Promotion Evaluation. before implementing the program.

• In this testing sales data can be obtained or monitored on a daily or a weekly basis. response can be judged on the basis of number of entries. • Concurrent Testing: This testing is done when the sales promotion is in progress. 172 .Sales Promotion Evaluation. • If it is only a consumer contest.

173 . • If the sales exceed the sales promotion. targets and objectives of the program is achieved. • Post-Testing: This is done after the promotion gets over. • To measure the sales effect. sales figures before and after the promotion can be compared.Sales Promotion Evaluation.

Publicity or Public Relations. Sustainable Tool. Powerful. 174 .

• A movement it aims at changing a negative environment. • Publicity is a “management function that helps achieve organizational objectives and facilitate the change in the organization” • Publicity aims at starting a “ pointof-view”.Publicity or Public Relations. 175 .

product.Publicity or Public Relations. • Practical public relations is a professional attempt to achieve good public relations and opinion to promote company. 176 . brand or company’s success.

• Lack of communication results into.Publicity or Public Relations. 177 . misunderstanding. • Objective of any PR program is to improve existing channels of communication. therefore.

• To safeguard reputation. 178 .Aims & Objectives of PR. • To achieve goodwill and public interest. • To improve relationships.

• Reasons for the current position. • A public relation plan should address the following questions. • Our image in the mind’s of the target audience. • Where do we go from here? 179 .Before PR Approach. • Our position in the current corporate/marketing environment.

Strategy To Achieve PR Goals. • Media Strategy: • Which media is more suitable at low cost? • Which media is credible? • Which medium/media would prove impactful? 180 .

• Creative Strategy: • What is the problem? • What would be the role of PR in solving the problem? • Whom are we talking to? • What response are we looking at? 181 .Strategy To Achieve PR Goals.

• Through field reports. • Through focus groups.PR Campaign Route. 1)To Define Problem. 182 . • Through mail analysis. 2) Research Techniques: • Through personal contact. • Through formal research.

183 . • Medium. • Audience. • Message.Elements Of PR.

• Message: • Who needs to be changed? ( category of audience) • What specific themes to be adopted to reach the target audience? • Where to say what? 184 .Elements Of PR.

• • • • • • • • • Print: Circulars. Brochures. 185 . Press kits.Message Package Options. Newsletter Photographs. Annual reports. Handbills. Information kits.

• Multimedia display. 186 .Message Package Options. • Audio Visuals: • Slide sound presentations. • Filmstrips. • Static display.

• Radio: • News releases. • Jingles/songs. • News tapes. 187 .Message Package Options. • “Promo” announcements. • Theme music. • Special broadcasts. • Radioplays.

• Talk shows. • News releases. 188 .Message Package Options. • Television: • New films. • Guest appearances. • Special broadcasts. • Current affair interviews. • Teleconferences.

• Corporate news shows. • Corporate briefings • Training Presentations. • Video: • Presentations.Message Package Options. 189 .

• Media: (Press/Print.Strengths & Weaknesses. 190 . • Re-reading possible.) • Strengths: • Mass reach. • Wide choice. • Readership not seasonal. • Convenient.

• High clutter. 191 .Strengths & Weaknesses. • Lack of intimacy. • Credibility issues. • Message life short. • Weaknesses/Limitations: • Importance of message is decided by newspapers.

Strengths & Weaknesses. 192 . • Appealing. Visuals. • Cluttering relatively less. Films. TV) • Impactful. • Strengths: (Audio.

• Noise disturbances. • Weaknesses/Limitations: • Message life short. • Transmission disturbance. 193 . • High pitch may hider understanding.Strengths & Weaknesses.

Mass audience. High penetration and coverage. Cost effective. • • • • • • • • • Outdoor Media: Strengths: 24 hours exposure. 194 . Larger than life feeling.Strengths & Weaknesses. Excellent reminder medium. High visibility.

• Fragile. • Visibility may be lost or may be poor in the night. • Vulnerable to thefts and damage. • Weakness/Limitations: • Only limited messages allowed. 195 .Strengths & Weaknesses. if it is not illuminated.

• Large exposure. • Best attention. • Reality in presentation. • Crowd puller. 196 . • Exhibitions/Trade Fairs: • Strengths: • Strong visual impact.Strengths & Weaknesses.

197 . • Weaknesses/Limitations: • Limited period exposure. • Expensive. • Impact gauging is difficult.Strengths & Weaknesses.

• Enough time to read. • Attributes can be explained. • High credibility.Strengths & Weaknesses. • Literature: • Strengths: • High selectivity. • Creative use of colors and graphics. 198 .

• Weaknesses/Limitations: • Costly medium. • Limited reach.Strengths & Weaknesses. 199 . • Difficult to select target audience.

• Where are they located. 3) Audience: • Target audience is also referred as “Public” in PR parlance. • Checklist that helps in building an accurate picture of target audience: • Size of the target public.Elements Of PR. 200 .

Elements of PR. • Opinion leaders. • Education levels. • 3) Audience: • Language usage. • Economic conditions. 201 . • Mass media they prefer. • Cultural characteristics.

• Radio.PR Tools. • External Media: • Press. • Television. 202 . • Outdoor. • Films/Video.

203 .PR Tools. • Information kiosks. • House journals. • Bulletin boards. • Selective Media: • Web sites.

• Brochures. • Printed literature.PR Tools. • Direct mails. 204 . • Media for External Communication: • Annual reports.

• Media Relations: • Press conferences.PR Tools. • Special events. • Exhibitions. 205 . • Press tours.

Press Conference. • An organization invites a cross section of journalists to be face-to face with company’s spokesperson. GM. or a Director etc. who could be a CEO.VP. 206 .

Decide the spokesperson. Decide the occasion. Consider presenting a Memento. Decide the ideal time. 6. 2. Decide the venue. • Steps for successful press conference: 1.Press Conference. 3. 5. 207 . Make press kits. 4.

9. • Steps for successful press conference: 7.. Arrange tea/snacks etc. Be available for clarification.Press Conference. 208 . Review the coverage next day. 8.

is credible. is credible.Public Relations. favors new brands. ideas. • PR • PR • PR • PR • PR • PR • PR is inexpensive. is creative. is brand building. is serious. 209 .

Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man.. Swami Vivekanada… 210 .

. 211 . GOD BLESS YOU.Thank You All..

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