Technical Information Handbook

Wire and Cable

Products. Technology. Services. Delivered Globally.

We are a leading global supplier of communications and security products, electrical and electronic wire and cable, fasteners, and other small components. We help our customers specify solutions and make informed purchasing decisions around technology, applications and relevant standards. Throughout the world, we provide innovative supply chain management solutions to reduce our customers’ total cost of production and implementation.

Copyright by Anixter. 2301 Patriot Blvd. Glenview, Illinois. 60026. No part of the publication may be reproduced without express permission of Anixter. Anixter Inc. does not manufacture the items described in this publication. All applicable warranties are provided by the manufacturers. Purchasers are requested to determine directly from the manufacturers the applicable product warranties and limitations. Data and suggestions made in the publication are not to be construed as recommendations or authorizations to use any products in violation of any government law or regulation relating to any material or its use. All due concern has been devoted to accuracy, but Anixter cannot be responsible for errors, omissions or obsolescence. All data herein are subject to change without notice. Fifth Edition Copyright © 2013 ISBN: 978-0-615-24926-1

Technical Information Handbook
Wire and Cable
Fifth Edition Copyright © 2013

Products. Technology. Services. Delivered Globally.

Trademarks and Reference Information

The following registered trademarks appear in this handbook:
Alumel® is a registered trademark of Concept Alloys, LLC Chromel® is a registered trademark of Concept Alloys, LLC Copperweld® is a registered trademark of Copperweld Steel Company CSA® is a registered trademark of the Canadian Standards Association CCW® is a registered trademark of General Cable Corporation DataTwist® is a registered trademark of Belden Duofoil® is a registered trademark of Belden Flamarrest® is a registered trademark of Belden Halar® is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis Hypalon® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Hypot® is a registered trademark of Associated Research, Inc. IBM® is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation Kapton® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Kevlar® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company K FIBER® is a registered trademark of General Cable Corporation Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema, Inc. Loc-Trac® is a registered trademark of Alpha Wire Megger® is a registered trademark of Megger Group Ltd. Mylar® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company NEC® is a registered trademark of the National Fire Protection Association Nicrosil® is a registered trademark of Harrison Alloys, Inc. Nisil® is a registered trademark of Harrison Alloys, Inc. Nomex® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Polywater® is a registered trademark of American Polywater Corporation Scotch® is a registered trademark of 3M Scotchlok® is a registered trademark of 3M Solef® is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis Teflon® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Tefzel® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Tyrin™ is a trademark of Dow Chemical Company UL® is a registered trademark of Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. UniBlend® is a registered trademark of General Cable Corporation UniShield® is a registered trademark of General Cable Corporation UniStrand® is a registered trademark of Belden Inc. Valox® is a registered trademark of General Electric Company Z-Fold® is a registered trademark of Belden Zytel® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company

Information in this handbook has been drawn from many publications of the leading wire and cable companies in the industry and authoritative sources in their latest available editions. Some of these include: • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) • Canadian Standards Association (CSA) • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) • Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA) • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) • Naval Ship Engineering Center (NAVSEC) • Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) • Underwriters Laboratories (UL). Note: National Electrical Code (NEC) is a registered trademark of the National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA. The term, National Electrical Code, as used herein, means the triennial publication constituting the National Electrical Code and is used with permission of the National Fire Protection Association.

II

Preface

The Anixter Wire and Cable Technical Handbook is an easily accessible collection of engineering and technical information about electrical and electronic cable and their related products. Primarily intended for individuals who design, specify or troubleshoot wire and cable systems, the Anixter Wire and Cable Technical Information Handbook contains information about topics such as: • Basic principles of electricity • Conductor, insulation and jacket materials along with their electrical and mechanical properties • Cable types, selection criteria and application guidelines for electrical and optical wire and cable • Installation and testing guidelines and recommendations • Application tips for cable accessories such as connectors, lugs and terminations • Packaging, handling and shipping guidelines • References to hundreds of key domestic and international wire and cable standards • Conversion tables (e.g., AWG to mm2) and basic engineering equations used in the industry The information contained in this handbook will assist engineers and individuals in designing and constructing safe, reliable, cost-effective and environmentally responsible electrical and communications networks. Anixter wishes to acknowledge the contributions of the many individuals who assisted in the preparation of this edition of the handbook. Anixter especially wants to recognize the efforts of Deborah Altman, Dana Anderson, Harmony Merwitz, Eric Bulington, Mark Fordham, Jeff Gronemeyer, Andy Jimenez, Jason Kreke, Jonathan Meyer, Nader Moubed, Ania Ross, Eric Wall and Bill Wilkens. Anixter hopes it has succeeded in making this handbook the best in the industry and welcomes your comments and suggestions for improvements in future editions. If you are interested in downloading the PDF version of this book, please visit anixter.com.

About Anixter
Anixter is a leading global supplier of communications and security products, electrical and electronic wire and cable, fasteners and other small components. We help our customers specify solutions and make informed purchasing decisions around technology, applications and relevant standards. Throughout the world, we provide innovative supply chain management solutions to reduce our customers’ total cost of production and implementation.

III

IV

1 Electricity 1.6 Ampacity 1.1 Strand Types 2.3 Color Coding 3.1 Purpose 3. Basic Principles of Electricity 1. Conductors 2.5 Aluminum Strand Properties 2.7 Electrical Systems 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2.4 Properties 33 34 34 38 47 V .6 Additional Conductor Properties 5 7 10 10 11 22 26 3. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.3 Tensile Strength of Copper Wire 2.2 Types and Applications 3.3 The Ampere 1.2 Coatings 2.4 Copper Strand Properties 2.5 Ohm’s Law 1.4 The Ohm 1.Contents Contents Trademarks and Reference Information II Preface III About Anixter III 1.2 The Volt 1.

Contents

4. Shields
4.1 Power Cable 4.2 Electronic Cable

55
56 58

5. Armor
5.1 Interlocked Armor 5.2 Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW) 5.3 Basket-Weave 5.4 Lead Sheath 5.5 Wire Serve

61
62 62 63 63 63

6.

Cable Types and Selection Criteria
6.1 Portable Power and Control 6.2 Construction and Building Wire 6.3 Control, Instrumentation and Thermocouple 6.4 High Temperature 6.5 Power 6.6 Armored Power and Control 6.7 Electronic Cable 6.8 Telephone 6.9 Military 6.10 Shipboard Cables (MIL-DTL-24643, MIL-DTL-24640 and MIL-DTL-915) 6.11 Optical Fiber Cables 6.12 Tray Cables

65
67 68 68 70 71 73 73 78 80 81 81 84

7. Electrical Characteristics
7.1 DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors 7.2 DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors 7.3 DC and AC Resistance of Aluminum Conductors 7.4 Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz 7.5 AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hz 7.6 Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance 7.7 Voltage Drop 7.8 Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current 7.9 Maximum Shield Short Circuit Current 7.10 Resistance and Ampacity at 400 and 800 Hz 7.11 Current Ratings for Electronic Cables 7.12 Ampacity of Power Cables 7.13 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings

85
86 89 91 92 93 94 95 96 99 100 101 102 102

VI

Contents

8. Installation and Testing
8.1 Receiving, Handling and Storage 8.2 Conduit Fill 8.3 Pulling 8.4 Installation Methods 8.5 Overhead Messengers 8.6 Vertical Suspension 8.7 Hipot Testing 8.8 Fault Locating 8.9 Megger Testing 8.10 Moisture Removal 8.11 Fiber Optic Testing 8.12 LAN Cable Testing

103
105 106 111 116 119 121 122 124 125 126 127 127

9.

Cable Accessories
9.1 Coaxial Connectors 9.2 Data Connectors 9.3 Power Connectors 9.4 Fiber Optic Connectors 9.5 Cable Tray Systems 9.6 NEMA Plug and Receptacle Configurations

129
131 133 134 137 143 145

10.

Packaging of Wire and Cable
10.1 Reel Size 10.2 Reel Handling

149
150 157

11. Industry Standards
11.1 Industry Standards List 11.2 Fire Safety Tests 11.3 Regulatory and Approval Agencies

159
161 176 182

VII

Contents

12.

Continental Europe
12.1 European Union (EU) Standards 12.2 Austrian Standards 12.3 Belgian Standards 12.4 Danish Standards 12.9 Dutch Standards 12.5 French Standards 12.6 German Standards 12.7 Irish Standards 12.8 Italian Standards 12.10 Norwegian Standards 12.11 Portuguese Standards 12.12 Spanish Standards 12.13 Swedish Standards 12.14 Swiss Standards

187
189 197 198 199 199 200 202 204 205 206 207 208 209 210

13. United Kingdom
13.1 Standards 13.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

213
214 219

14.

Latin and South America
14.1 Mexican Standards 14.2 Venezuelan Standards 14.3 Brazilian Standards 14.4 Colombian Standards 14.5 Argentine Standards

221
222 223 224 224 224

15. Canada
15.1 Standards 15.2 Cable Types 15.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 15.4 Fire Ratings 15.5 Single Conductor Teck 90 Terminations

225
226 228 231 232 233

VIII

Contents

16.

Asia Pacific
16.1 Australian Standards 16.2 Singapore Standards 16.3 Japanese Standards 16.4 Chinese Standards

235
236 238 239 240

17.

Conversion Tables
17.1 Metric to English Conductor Size 17.2 Circular Measurements – Diameter, Circumference and Area 17.3 Length, Weight, Area, Power and Energy 17.4 Temperature Conversion 17.5 kVA to Amperes 17.6 Horsepower to Amperes

241
242 244 246 248 249 250

18.

Formulas and Constants
18.1 Electrical Properties of Circuits 18.2 Resistance and Weight of Conductors 18.3 Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits 18.4 Series and Parallel Connections 18.5 Engineering Notation 18.6 Diameter of Multiconductor Cables 18.7 Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices 18.8 Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter 18.9 Coaxial Capacitance 18.10 Inductive Reactance

251
252 252 253 253 254 255 255 256 256 257

Glossary Index

259 293

IX

X

1. Basic Principles of Electricity

1. basic principles of electricity
1.1 Electricity 1.2 The Volt 1.3 The Ampere 1.4 The Ohm 1.5 Ohm’s Law 1.6 Ampacity 1.7 Electrical Systems 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

1

and resistance (R) in a conductor. Three things determine the amount of resistance in a conductor: its size. is the flow of electric current along a conductor.1 Electricity Electricity. the lower the conductor resistance becomes.1. and its temperature. a rise in temperature will generally increase resistance in a conductor. its material. it is defined as a current of one ampere.e. For instance. the better it conducts. Conversely. It is important to know that many external factors affect the ampacity of an electrical conductor and these factors should be taken into consideration before selecting the conductor size. The volt is the unit of pressure.4 The Ohm The ohm is the unit of resistance in a conductor. Basic Principles of Electricity 1. the ampere and the ohm. 1. The more conductive the materials used. 2 . A conductor’s resistance increases as its length increases or diameter decreases.6 Ampacity Ampacity is the amount of current a conductor can handle before its temperature exceeds accepted limits.g. Thus. copper or aluminum.2 The Volt The pressure that is put on free electrons that causes them to flow is known as electromotive force (EMF). These limits are given in the National Electrical Code (NEC). 1.5 Ohm’s Law Ohm’s Law defines the correlation between electric current (I). There are three primary electrical parameters: the volt. 1. the volt is the amount of electromotive force required to push a current of one ampere through a conductor with a resistance of one ohm. simply put. i. This electric current takes the form of free electrons that transfer from one atom to the next.3 The Ampere The ampere defines the flow rate of electric current. voltage (V). Ohm’s Law can be expressed as: V=I× ­ R Where:  V = volts I = amps R = ohms 1. 1.. the Canadian Electrical Code and in other engineering documents such as those published by the Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA). the more free electrons a material has. when one coulomb (or 6 x 1018 electrons) flows past a given point on a conductor in one second. e..

7 Electrical Systems 1.1 Medium Voltage The most widely used medium voltage (2.1 – Three phase wye (star).3 – Three phase star.2 – Three phase delta.3 – Three phase star. grounded neutral Figure 1. Basic Principles of Electricity 1.1 – Three phase wye Typical low voltage (0-2.000 V) are illustrated below: Typical low voltage systems (0-2.1. three wire Figure 1. (star).000 V) are illustrated below: Figure 1.systems three wire three wire 1.7. grounded neutral Figure 1.4 – Three phase wye (star). grounded neutral 3 . four wire. four wire. four wire. grounded neutral Figure 1.4 – Three phase wye (star).2 Low Voltage Typical low-voltage systems (0 to 2.5 – Three phase delta. grounded neutral Figure 1.000 V) are illustrated below: Figure 1. three wire. four wire. three wire. three wire Figure 1.7.4 to 35 kV) alternating current (AC) electrical distribution systems in North America are illustrated below: Figure 1.2 – Three phase delta.5 – Three phase delta. grounded neutral Figure 1.

4 .

Area and DC Resistance (32 through 4/0 AWG) 2.4. Conductors 2. C and D Copper Strand 2.5.1.2 Bunch Strand 2.4.5 Aluminum Strand Properties 2.1.1.1 Strand Classes 2. Diameter.6.3 Tensile Strength of Copper Wire 2.4 10 10 11 11 12 14 17 19 20 21 Copper Strand Properties 2.1.1. Diameter.5 Segmental Conductor 2.5 Class I Copper 2.1 Strand Types 2.2 Stranding.1.4.1 Stranding.2 Coatings 2.1 Concentric Strand 2.2 Class B Aluminum 2. DC Resistance and Weight (20 AWG through 2.4.5. Conductors 2.3 Class B.4 Sector Conductor 2.3 IEC Stranding 26 26 28 31 5 .4.7 Compact Strand 2.1.1.000 kcmil) 2. Area.1 Solid Aluminum 2.8 Compressed Strand 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 2.2.3 Rope Strand 2.5.4 Class H Copper 2.2 Solid Copper 2.7 Class M Copper 2.6 Additional Conductor Properties 2.6 Annular Conductor 2.6.3 ACSR 22 22 23 24 2.6 Class K Copper 2.4.6.4.

√ Millimeters Square 2 Metric sizes are given in terms of square millimeters (mm ). The Birmingham Wire Gauge (BWG) is used for steel armor wire. That is.000 cmils (equal to 1. The diameters according to the AWG are defined as follows: The diameter of size 4/0 (sometimes written 0000) equals 0.122932 0. 6 .001 inch). the ratio of the diameter of one size to that of the next smaller size (larger gauge number) is: 39 0.000.0050 Circular Mil Sizes larger than 4/0 are specified in terms of the total area of a cross-section of the copper in circular mils (cmil).) is used almost exclusively in the USA for copper and aluminum wire. A circular mil is a unit of area 4 to the area of a circle one mil in diameter.273.1–Relative Electrical and Thermal Conductivities of Common Conductor Materials Metal Silver Copper (annealed) Copper (hard drawn) Gold Aluminum Magnesium Zinc Nickel Cadmium Cobalt Iron Platinum Tin Steel Lead Relative Electrical Conductivity at 20°C 106 100 97 72 62 39 29 25 23 18 17 16 15 12 8 Relative Thermal Conductivity at 20°C 108 100 – 76 56 41 29 15 24 17 17 18 17 13-17 9 Additional electrical properties can be found in Section 7 of this handbook. AWG The American Wire Gauge (sometimes called Brown and Sharpe or B. and S. circular mil area or in square millimeters. Conductors Conductors The conductor is the metallic component of cables through which electrical power or electrical signals are transmitted. It is p/4 (equal to 0. Conductor size is usually specified by American Wire Gauge (AWG).7854) of a square mil (one mil=0.000 cmils.4600 inch and that of size #36 equals 0.0050 inch.4600 _____ = 1. A solid wire one inch in diameter has an area of 1. whereas one square inch equals 4/p x 1.000.200 cmils).2. Conductor Characteristics Relative electrical and thermal conductivities of common metal conductors are as follows: Table 2. the intermediate sizes are found by geometric progression. The area of a circle in circular _ equal ␲ mils is therefore equal to the square of its diameter in mils.

2 Bunch Strand The term bunch stranding is applied to a collection of strands twisted together in the same direction without regard to the geometric arrangement.1 Strand Types 2.4 Sector Conductor A sector conductor is a stranded conductor whose cross-section is approximately the shape of a sector of a circle. A rope stranded conductor is described by giving the number of groups laid together to form the rope and the number of wires in each group.5 Segmental Conductor A segmental conductor is a round.1.4–Sector Conductor 2. If the core is a single wire and if it and all of the outer strands have the same diameter. Conductors 2. the second. Figure 2. stranded conductor composed of three or four sectors slightly insulated from one another. Except in compact stranding. A multiple conductor insulated cable with sector conductors has a smaller diameter than the corresponding cable with round conductors.2–Bunch Strand 2. the first layer will contain six wires. This construction has the advantage of lower AC resistance due to increased surface area and skin effect.3–Rope Strand 2.2. eighteen. each layer is usually applied in a direction opposite to that of the layer under it.1. Figure 2.1.3 Rope Strand A rope stranded conductor is a concentric stranded conductor each of whose component strands is itself stranded.1. etc. Figure 2. Figure 2.1 Concentric Strand A concentric stranded conductor consists of a central wire or core surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid wires.1–Concentric Strand 2. Figure 2.1. the third. Each layer after the first has six more wires than the preceding layer. twelve.5–Segmental Conductor 7 .

7–Compact Conductor 2. Diameters for common conductor sizes are given in Table 2.1.7 Compact Strand A compact stranded conductor is a round or sector conductor having all layers stranded in the same direction and rolled to a predetermined ideal shape. A compact conductor is.2.2. stranded conductor whose strands are laid around a suitable core. Conductors 2. In a compressed conductor. the conductor has been put through a die that “squeezes out” some of the space between wires. Figure 2.8–Comparative Sizes and Shapes of 1. Figure 2.6 Annular Conductor An annular conductor is a round.8 Compressed Strand Compressed conductors are intermediate in size between standard concentric conductors and compact conductors. The core is usually made wholly or mostly of nonconducting material. The finished conductor is smooth on the surface and contains practically no interstices or air spaces.1. each individual wire is round and considerable space exists between wires. of course).1. This results in a smaller diameter. the smallest in diameter (except for a solid conductor.000 kcmil Conductors In a concentric stranded conductor. This construction has the advantage of lower total AC resistance for a given cross-sectional area of conducting material due to the skin effect. 8 . A comparison is shown below: Solid Compact Compressed Concentric Figure 2.6–Annular Conductor 2. therefore. This results in even less space between wires. In a compact conductor each wire is preformed into a trapezoidal shape before the wires are stranded together into a finished conductor.

373 0.512 0.7416 0.361 0.24 41.336 0.520 0.1285 0.845 0.2893 0.5477 0.968 1.423 0.700 0.661 0.69 105.) Class B Compact 0.866 0.36 83.2294 0.789 0.292 0.470 0.7071 0.8 211.728 0.558 0.093 1.146 0.3249 0.0000 Nominal Diameters (in.7746 0.169 0.706 0.252 0.2576 0.2.8062 0.117 Class B Concentric 0.998 1.225 0.419 0.134 0.908 0.855 0.5916 0.8944 0.775 0.51 26.893 0.6 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1.938 0.232 0.213 0.8660 0.570 0.238 0.772 0.283 0.141 0.184 0.4096 0.2–Diameters for Copper and Aluminum Conductors Conductor Size (AWG) 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – (kcmil) 16.6 133.8367 0.268 0.611 0.322 0.999 1.74 52.000 Solid 0.406 0.299 0.4600 0.1620 0.376 0.659 0.616 0.060 Class B Compressed 0.178 0.813 0.630 0.6708 0.736 0.964 0.456 0. Conductors Table 2.749 0.332 0.061 1.000 1.877 0.62 66.829 0.901 0.031 1.152 Sources: A  STM B8 and B496 ICEA S-95-658 (NEMA WC-70) 9 .929 0.6325 0.935 0.3648 0.260 0.2043 0.813 0.528 0.681 0.575 0.5000 0.475 0.9487 1.1 167.

One drawback of nickel is its poor solderability and higher electrical resistance. Breaking Load (lb.580 1.020 2.5 11.2.2 34.930 1.215 765 480 315 200 125 78. Nickel coatings are used for conductors that operate between 200°C and 450°C. Tin is the most common and is used for improved corrosion resistance.140 6.40 10 .3 Tensile Strength of Copper Wire Table 2.530 4.720 5.) 8.970 1.1 21.010 2.7 13.3–Tensile Strength of Copper Wire Size (AWG) 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Soft or Annealed Max.0 19.47 3.435 1.01 1.2 27.440 1.690 3.750 3.16 Hard Drawn Min. It is also used for high-frequency applications where silver’s high conductivity (better than copper) and the “skin effect” work together to reduce attenuation at high frequencies.82 1.520 3.765 2.450 1.02 4.985 2.990 1.970 5.14 2. Breaking Load (lb. solderability and to reduce friction between strands in flexible cables. copper oxidizes rapidly if not nickel plated.64 5.48 2.600 3. At these high temperatures.99 3.5 54.94 4.2 Coatings There are three materials commonly used for coating a copper conductor: tin.79 Medium Hard Drawn Min.) 6.660 4.3 17.5 49.6 43. 2.5 31.4 12.280 825 530 335 215 135 85. Breaking Load (lb.000 4. Conductors 2.90 1. silver and nickel.010 645 410 262 167 106 67.730 3.7 8. Silver-plated conductors are used in high-temperature environments (150°C–200°C).) 6.7 7.535 1.53 2.1 7.20 1.25 0.

Conductors 2. Individual Wire Size Diameter (in. Application H ASTM Standard B172 Construction Class Conductor Size (kcmil/AWG) Rope lay with bunch stranded members I Up to 2. 20 14. Very good flexibility.0100 0.0063 0. 14 AWG containing seven stranded members stranded members of seven wires each. 20 10. 8. 10 10.0063 0. etc. F This is the most common class. 18. 20 10.0040 0. 9. 18.0201 (AWG) 24 Typical use is for special apparatus cable.0050 0. Heater cord with greater flexibility than Class M. Fixture wire and portable cord with greater flexibility than Class K. 12.000 7. 18. N/A Conductor constructions having a range of areas from 5. 20 16. over sheaves and apparatus conductors. 14.0201 0. 14.) 0. PVC. Typical use is for welding cable. Rubber-covered conductors. 18. 9 AWG containing 19 stranded members of seven wires each. Typical uses are for rubber-jacketed cords and conductors where flexibility is required. such as for use on take-up reels. 16. 20 18. 16. Heater cord and light portable cord. Oscillating fan cord. 18. Conductor constructions having a range of areas from 5. 20 16.4–Strand Classes ASTM Standard B8 Construction Concentric lay Class AA A B C D B173 Rope lay with concentric stranded members G Application For bare conductors – usually used in overhead lines. For bare conductors where greater flexibility than is afforded by Class AA is required. 16.000 K M B174 Bunch stranded I J K L M O P Q Up to 2.1 Strand Classes Table 2. 18. 20 0.0100 0. 12. 14. 16.4 Copper Strand Properties 2.000.0031 30 34 24 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Typical use is for portable cord.000 Up to 1. Fixture wire.0126 0.000 circular mils and employing 91 stranded members of 19 wires each down to No. 12. flexible cord and portable cord.000. More flexible conductors than provided in preceding classes.000 circular mils and employing 61 stranded members of 19 wires each down to No. Source: Compiled from ASTM standards listed 11 .4. Fixture wire. For conductors where greater flexibility is required than is provided by Class B. XLP.2. Typical uses are for portable (flexible) conductors and similar applications.0080 0.  or conductors insulated with various materials such as EP.

1 17.1 7.530 5.92 19.43 9.0 30.452 1.3 40.5 156.380 8.2 12.5–Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of Solid Copper Wire Size (AWG) 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Diameter (mils) 460.0 28.6 364.223 0.2 98.6 11.800 133.159 0.020 0.945 1.404 0.580 2.9 32.) – – – – – – – – – – – – – 31.9 49.1 50.9 289.620 1.0 249.9 90.6 20.110 3.4.9 14.090 10.77 15.9 24.0 197.180 4.4 204.600 167.1 57.484 0.86 7.230 6.5 25.8 324.610 0.6 142.3 35.02 3.9 162.740 33.7 80.820 16.253 0.202 0.2 39.3 22.0 144.92 3.82 6.3 257.3 128.640 0.7 10.100 105.290 1.510 13.4 15.8 45.260 2./1.000 ft.0 64.970 0.98 6. Conductors 2.9 15.050 1.812 0.620 41.98 Continued on next page>> 12 .09 2.5 114.770 0.542 1.2 Solid Copper Table 2.090 26.3 Cross-Sectional Area (kcmils) 211.5 78.690 66.68 12.511 0.33 5.6 229.240 20.384 Breaking Strength Soft or Annealed (lb.4 12.20 4.5 19.8 72.90 3.320 0.360 52.600 83.43 24.3 181.2.) – – – – – – – – – – – – – 314.1 61.4 101.128 Weight (lb.0 409.

25 0.00961 0.0122 0.0 8.76 1.) 0.048 – – – – – – – – Breaking Strength Soft or Annealed (lb.8 2.00784 0.000 ft.00484 0. Conductors Table 2.0250 0.076 0.0640 0.57 Cross-Sectional Area (kcmils) 0.100 0.5 3.3 5.060 0.303 0.494 – – – – – – – – Source: ASTM B258.58 1.990 0.2 2.1 2.50 1.152 0./1.2.623 0.) 3.00246 Weight (lb.0504 0.120 0.0 4.00400 0.0397 0.241 0.0160 0.0792 0.99 1.0314 0.095 0.5–Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of Solid Copper Wire (Continued) Size (AWG) 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Diameter (mils) 10.0 3.0202 0.00310 0.5 4.191 0.9 8.6 5.5 2.16 2.00625 0. Specification for Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wires Used as Electrical Conductors 13 .785 0.0 7.0 1.1 6.

9 107.859 3.000 ft.3 90.5 110.4.590 11.15 1.088 2.9 133.00 1.500 4.0 82.631 4.000 3.964 0.9 128.020 9.4 115.2 114.779 2.772 0.1 117.5 122.940 4.82 1.800 1./1.575 0.728 0.7 112.8 144 135.0 121.) 15.00 0.014 3.081 926.8 143.) 2.000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 217 217 217 169 169 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 91 91 91 91 91 91 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 37 37 37 37 37 37 19 Number of Wires Diameter of Each Strand (mils) 151.32 1.249 4.500 1.698 1.558 5.500 2.09 1.3 104.3 Class B.893 0.9 653. Conductors 2.853 1.300 12.235 1.5 Weight (lb.200 1.31 2.813 0.300 1.3 711.794 6.2 110.750 1.59 1. C and D Copper Strand Table 2.700 1.2 95.100 1.41 1.53 1.161 2.6–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmi) 5.2 105.5 117.250 1.63 1.2 99.316 2.929 0.000 4.855 0.544 1.55 1.175 5.2.353 7.58 2.36 1.3 Nominal Overall Diameter (in.4 124.30 1.45 2.3 119.402 5.5 114.500 3.2 140.1 103.681 0.000 2.600 1.0 119.400 1.21 1.396 3.03 1.50 1.2 128.16 2.630 0.528 Continued >> 14 .866 5.000 1.900 1.470 2.389 1.0 97.3 125.26 1.46 1.323 4.007 1.8 109.890 14.0 116.705 3.

000 ft.2.0363 Source: ASTM B8 Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors.0576 0.8 258.130 0.0456 0.5 30.9 325.116 0.8 61.7 74.9 102.0726 0.6 43.470 0.2 68.) 0.97 40.0 83.154 Nominal Overall Diameter (in.332 0.4 97.5 128.5 66.42 32.2 19. Hard.1 410.292 0./1.0915 0.06 20.206 0.2 81.6–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmi) 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 19 19 19 19 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Number of Wires Diameter of Each Strand (mils) 94.164 0.373 0.2 38.4 204. Medium-Hard.4 86.2 15.015 3.9 162.68 7.146 0.1 Weight (lb.05 64.) 518.16 12.184 0. Conductors Table 2.2 12.5 24.2 54.28 50.232 0.974 5.260 0.7 77.5 48.419 0. or Soft 15 .

935 0.855 0.362 0.893 0.297 0.148 0.0792 0.234 0.576 0.211 Continued >> 16 .061 1.178 0.238 0.030 1.) 0.166 0.0925 0.570 0.093 1.) 0.225 0.09 41.7–Copper Strand Diameters Conductor Size (AWG) 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – (kcmil) 4.682 0.209 Class C Concentric (in.456 0.09 16.0735 0.169 – 0.965 0.630 0.529 0.166 0.999 1.184 0.0727 0.773 0.74 52.0826 0.999 1.296 0.117 0.659 0.252 0.209 0.152 1.206 0.260 0.53 8.322 0.528 0.094 1.232 0.0915 0.153 1.616 0.186 0.789 0.62 66.6 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1.372 0.772 0.814 0.299 0.) 0.908 0.929 0.158 0.930 0.773 0.558 0.18 6.032 1.866 0. Conductors Table 2.36 83.475 0.117 1.208 0.0825 0.813 0.420 0.11 5.728 0.661 0.729 0.153 1.116 0.681 0.132 0.901 0.575 0.376 0.292 0.855 0.263 0.611 0.631 0.186 0.173 Stranding Class B Concentric (in.420 0.855 0.126 0.) 0.333 0.965 0.964 0.8 211.706 0.845 0.283 0.032 1.0704 0.130 0.406 0.264 0.23 10.200 0.472 0.095 1.336 0.51 20.999 1.418 0.471 0.631 0.24 33.512 0.39 13.681 0.82 26.333 0.998 1.930 0.69 105.815 0.164 0.0888 0.213 0.103 0.0998 0.374 0.470 0.0735 0.520 0.2.423 0.104 0.893 0.148 0.576 0.0931 0.268 0.113 0.700 0.210 Class D Concentric (in.117 0.131 0.938 0.104 0.813 0.374 0.775 0.134 – 0.968 1.100 Class B Compact (in.877 0.146 0.000 1.1 167.000 1.060 – Class B Compressed (in.729 0.749 0.829 0.0816 0.736 0.6 133.141 0.332 0.893 0.235 0.530 0.) – – – – – – 0.

) 1.0227 0.536 0.) 1.000 2.) 1.632 1.998 Class C Concentric (in. (in.0158 0.188 0.0223 Nominal O.335 0.549 1.0202 0.8–Class H Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 Number of Strands 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 259 259 259 259 259 427 259 427 Construction 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 37x7 37x7 37x7 37x7 37x7 61x7 37x7 61x7 Nominal Diameter of Each Strand (in.632 1.266 0.) 1.477 0.824 1.0255 0.504 1.526 1.0160 0.365 1.0111 0.378 0.527 1.0198 0.600 1.316 1.527 1.800 1.290 1.300 1.459 1.000 Class B Compact (in.0199 0.412 1.000 ft.998 2.583 1.459 1.938 Stranding Class B Concentric (in.998 Class D Concentric (in.) 0.769 1.824 1.413 1.250 1.336 0.2.591 1.504 1.237 0.) 52 65 82 105 132 167 208 210 266 334 422 533 532 670 675 Continued >> 17 .365 1./1.7–Copper Strand Diameters (Continued) Conductor Size (AWG) – – – – – – – – – – – – – (kcmil) 1.316 1.0180 0.602 Nominal Weight (lb.) 0. Conductors Table 2.200 1.542 1.750 1.900 2.535 0.424 0.4.264 1.480 1.548 1.413 1.460 1.824 1.323 1.275 1.299 0.251 1.289 1.700 1.264 1.167 0.502 1.601 0.0223 0.504 1.225 1.460 1.500 3.0140 0.548 1.590 1.365 1.632 1.D.0286 0.) – – – – – – – – – – – – – Class B Compressed (in.4 Class H Copper Table 2.0177 0.0125 0.263 1.370 1.500 1.210 0.400 1.415 1.314 1.590 1.290 1.

823 1. Conductors Table 2.0304 0.400 1.435 1.0413 0.) 795 953 1.724 1.770 1.505 1.0242 0.0405 0.826 0.600 1.022 1.159 1.716 0.110 1.446 1.0446 0.000 1.0316 0.0306 0.772 0.100 1.750 1.535 3.590 1.000 Number of Strands 427 427 427 427 427 427 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 1.920 2.2.0389 0.800 1.180 1.625 5.900 2.0342 0.0372 0.8–Class H Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmil) 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1.770 6.170 4.0286 0.0462 0.560 2.0337 0.0394 0.400 Source: ICEA S-95-658 (NEMA 70) Appendix K 18 .868 Nominal Weight (lb.253 1.617 1.653 0.064 1.250 1.085 2.0415 Nominal O.386 1.145 1.0396 0.159 1.878 0.751 1.455 5.0280 0.320 1.0377 0.895 3.D.255 2.106 1./1.923 0.477 1.0325 0.015 4.0358 0.0265 0.700 1.980 1.0327 0.773 1.000 ft.500 1.200 1.0383 0.485 4.159 1.159 1. (in.270 1.) 0.815 5.) 0.205 3.0430 0.300 1.159 Construction 61x7 61x7 61x7 61x7 61x7 61x7 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 Nominal Diameter of Each Strand (in.561 1.674 1.0422 0.0292 0.410 2.100 6.845 4.159 1.145 5.

400 1.427 1.596 1.372 1.715 1.270 1.225 1.729 1.745 5.305 3.780 1.610 2.920 6.674 1.995 2.800 0.852 1.5 41 51 65 80 105 134 169 205 267 342 439 537 683 825 955 1.900 2.894 0.000 Construction 1x26 1x33 1x41 1x52 7x9 7x12 7x15 7x19 7x23 7x30 19x14 19x18 19x22 19x28 7x7x13 7x7x15 7x7x18 7x7x20 7x7x23 7x7x25 7x7x28 7x7x30 19x7x12 19x7x13 19x7x14 19x7x15 19x7x17 19x7x19 19x7x21 19x7x22 19x7x23 19x7x24 19x7x26 19x7x28 19x7x30 19x7x32 19x7x33 19x7x34 19x7x36 19x7x37 Nominal Number of Strands 26 33 41 52 63 84 105 133 161 210 266 342 418 532 637 735 882 980 1.737 0.5 Class I Copper Table 2.152 1.265 6.235 1.560 4.500 0.750 1.965 3.793 2.185 0.655 3.027 1.000 ft.207 0.435 2.980 1.235 0.800 1.458 3.059 3.926 3.905 2.921 Nominal 0.700 1.2.300 1.941 0.319 0.290 1.156 0.788 4.261 2.090 2.600 1.537 1./1.000 1.976 2.4.D.125 0.590 1.470 1.682 0.830 4.003 Nominal Weight (lb.549 0.9–Class I (24 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1.127 1.797 1.831 0.921 1.500 1.194 1.880 1.440 Source: ICEA S-75-381 (NEMA WC 58) Appendix K 19 .495 1.) 32. Conductors 2.192 3.441 0.564 1.100 1.724 3.175 4.260 2.389 4.605 1.570 5.527 2.291 0.990 4.256 4.000 4.862 1. (in.522 4.220 5.263 0.200 1.613 0.) 0.138 0.367 0.875 5.145 1.460 1.372 1.250 1.

935 2.809 0.3 12.120 960 802 676 535 425 338 266 211 169 132 106 84 66 53 42 32.453 5.048 0.666 1.146 0.666 1.453 5.235 0.125 1.985 5.323 1.054 4.305 1.0 5.110 1.6 Class K Copper Table 2.078 0.000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 Rope-Lay with Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands 10.990 3.323 1.290 1.064 836 665 532 420 336 266 210 168 133 104 65 41 26 16 10 Approx.157 0.038 Weight (lb.499 2.323 1.517 5.635 1.D.989 2. Conductors 2.065 7.202 0.276 1.107 1.064 836 665 532 420 336 266 210 168 133 – – – – – – Strand Construction 37x7x39 37x7x35 19x7x60 19x7x57 19x7x52 19x7x49 19x7x45 19x7x41 19x7x38 19x7x34 1x7x30 19x7x26 7x7x61 7x7x51 7x7x43 7x7x34 7x7x27 19x56 19x44 19x35 19x28 7x60 7x48 7x38 7x30 7x24 7x19 – – – – – – Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands 10.768 0.916 6.522 3.765 1.272 0.458 2.107 1.10–Class K (30 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) 1.878 0.056 0.166 1.397 0.) 1.627 0.5 20.522 3.465 1.8 8.585 2.455 2.2 Sources: A  STM B172 Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch-Stranded Members and ICEA S-75-381 (NEMA WC58) Appendix K 20 ./1.517 5.990 3.940 1.581 6. O.054 4.065 7.) 3.933 0.985 5.533 0.101 9.916 6.988 0.179 0.101 9.304 0.581 6.419 1.4.989 2.240 2.451 0.980 7.126 0.101 0.270 2. (in.2.499 2.458 2.980 7.207 1.338 0.470 0.682 0.060 0.0 3.000 ft.

215 0.4.193 22.300 1.415 2.376 0.207 1.384 5.664 12.269 0.196 0.038 Weight (lb.768 0. (in.D.256 3.645 0.323 1.901 0.226 14.2 Sources: A  STM B172 Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch-Stranded Members and ICEA S-75-381 (NEMA WC58) 21 .107 1.250 2.5 21.078 0.691 11.631 20.910 2.) 1.240 2.240 0.8 8.666 1.7 Class M Copper Table 2.11–Class M (34 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) 1.130 975 821 684 547 427 337 268 212 169 134 105 84 67 53 42 32.508 0.806 7.691 11.107 1.664 12.945 13.064 836 665 532 420 336 259 168 – – – – Strand Construction 61x7x59 61x7x53 61x7x47 61x7x44 61x7x41 61x7x38 61x7x35 61x7x32 37x7x49 37x7x44 37x7x39 37x7x34 19x7x57 19x7x48 19x7x40 19x7x32 19x7x25 7x7x54 7x7x43 7x7x34 7x7x27 19x56 19x44 19x35 19x28 7x60 7x48 7x37 7x24 – – – – Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands 25.0 5.069 18.256 1.193 22.788 17.507 16.384 5.325 2.646 2.064 836 665 532 420 336 259 168 104 65 41 26 Approx.085 1.048 0.825 0.331 1.945 13.183 1.101 0.997 0.666 1.337 0.507 16.226 14.576 0.305 0.323 1.000 ft.788 17.940 0.162 0.126 0.320 4.396 10.2.133 1./1. Conductors 2.) 3.060 0.465 1.713 0.101 8.630 1.256 3.0 12.396 10.325 2.581 6.806 7.423 0.069 18.646 2.146 0.581 6.755 1.000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 Rope-Lay with Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands 25.101 8.920 1.320 4.0 3.404 1.580 2.631 20.084 1. O.035 0.

996 2.3 10.090 10.6 20.1459 0.128 0.9 15.9 90.9 289.511 0.20 122.0 144.0 Cross-Sectional Area (kcmils) 211.100 105.8 45.6 364.886 1.0 64.764 3.020 0.3 35.559 5.1853 0.1 57.00 76.6 229.320 0.3 128.380 8.5 114./1.30 97.2 12.8 72.820 16.0 409.91 60.580 2.000 ft.5.530 5.776 2.40 154.13 15.40 24.3 257.090 26.110 3.3 181.35 30.620 1.7 80.253 0.1 17.290 1.3713 0.800 133.7464 0. Annealed and Intermediate Tempers 22 .371 1.740 33.202 0.17 12.3 22.0 28.09189 Source: ASTM B609 Specification for Aluminum 1350 Round Wire.812 0.640 0.100 Weight (lb.180 4.12–Aluminum 1350 Solid Round Wire Size (AWG or kcmil) 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Diameter (mils) 460.1 Solid Aluminum Table 2.9410 0.159 0.) 194.050 1.5882 0.2.36 38.8 324.03 9.9 32.12 19.542 7. Conductors 2.5 25.1173 0.4693 0.510 13.2323 0.9 14.492 1.3 40.600 83.184 0.9 162.1 50.240 20.360 52.620 41.230 6.98 48.2944 0.999 4.404 0.4 101.4 204.600 167.6 11.690 66.260 2.5 Aluminum Strand Properties 2.

789 0.866 0.9 107.5 122.0 83.8 109.250 1.0 97.3 90.415 1.2 105.000 1.2 140.5 94.0 116.3 104.300 1.968 0.5 110.117 1.000 0.0 121.7 112.480 1.) – – – – 1.2 99.5 117.600 1.459 1.323 1.7 Nominal Overall Diameter (in.558 0.225 1.0 119.542 1.405 Continued >> 23 .3 119.1 103.370 1.2 95.2 110.275 1.173 1.400 1.706 0.000 3.700 1.13–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Compressed.456 0. Reverse-Lay Aluminum 1350 Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) 4.1 117. Conductors 2.4 124.5 114.2 114.2 Class B Aluminum Table 2.2.500 1.250 1.4 115.0 82.500 3.8 143.2 128.5.901 0.9 128.749 0.661 0.935 0.502 1.512 0.100 1.750 1.3 125.829 0.900 1.800 1.060 1.9 133.000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 Number of Wires 217 169 169 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 91 91 91 91 91 91 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 37 37 37 37 37 37 19 19 19 Diameter of Each Wire (mils) 135.000 2.583 1.611 0.200 1.500 2.

1030 7/0.511 2.0 954.2 38.1880 54/0.252 0.1329 45/0.0977 7/0.1456 54/0.272 1.7 77.1716 45/0.1783 54/0.1253 19/0.0961 19/0.2 68.322 0.590 1.780 1.613 1.1456 Stranding Aluminum Number/Diameter (in.3 ACSR Table 2.362 0.840 1.1329 7/0.283 0.1628 45/0.272 1. Reverse-Lay Aluminum 1350 Conductors (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmil) 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 Number of Wires 19 19 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Diameter of Each Wire (mils) 74.074 2.8 61.159 0.5 48.178 0.2.635 1.071 – – – Source: ASTM B231 Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors 2.431 1.4 86.0862 7/0.126 0.431 1.0 84/0.6 43.225 0.) Steel Number/Diameter (in.044 1.1681 54/0.5 30.0971 Weight (lb.142 0.000 ft.113 954.792 1.2 12.1049 7/0.590 1.1436 45/0. Conductors Table 2.1602 84/0.4 97. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Size (AWG or kcmil) 2.1 Nominal Overall Diameter (in.5 24.) 0.075 Continued >> 24 .1573 54/0.089 0.0921 7/0./1.2 19.1189 19/0.14–Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.0874 19/0.1121 19/0.255 1.113 0.5.156 1.113 1.229 1.200 0.2 54.434 1.) 19/0.2 15.) 2.13–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Compressed.431 1.5 66.1535 45/0.

1015 1/0.1 149.1052 1/0.0772 6/0.1489 7/0.7 91.1059 1/0.8 4/0 211.1261 7/0.0661 Stranding Aluminum Number/Diameter (in.8 176.1059 26/0.1758 7/0.1628 26/0.0961 7/0.1758 30/0.4 336.000 ft.1000 7/0.14–Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.0661 Weight (lb.1327 16/0.5 556.1213 7/0.1216 7/0.3 441.1354 24/0.1628 18/0.1261 12/0.1878 7/0.1299 1/0.1880 26/0.1214 6/0.0834 6/0.1287 18/0.1137 18/0.1820 26/0.0 134.1261 7/0.5 556.1486 7/0.0 636.) Steel Number/Diameter (in. Conductors Table 2.1029 1/0.1672 7/0.023 875 819 690 766 717 604 747 657 615 518 547 512 432 527 463 365 367 290 291.1 527. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR) (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmil) 795.0921 1/0.1564 24/0.) 896 1.1 276.0961 6/0.0884 1/0.8 336.1327 12/0.1523 18/0.0977 7/0.1672 12/0.1463 24/0.1749 24/0.0 106.1327 7/0.1327 19/0.0921 8/0.1053 7/0.1261 26/0.0 795.1236 24/0./1.1367 26/0.) 7/0.8 476.1367 7/0.1052 7/0.6 145.1628 7/0.0 636.1 Source: ASTM B232 Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.5 397.6 2/0 110.4 230.8 266.0 397.1878 12/0. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR) 25 .4 266.0 2 2 4 4 6 45/0.1217 1/0.0886 7/0.5 397.0 795.0 477.0 57.1670 1/0.0 183.8 80.3 67.1059 7/0.1217 6/0.4 336.1486 30/0.1085 1/0.0788 1/0.8 1/0 101.1214 1/0.1059 6/0.1151 7/0.2 254.094 1.0 636.0 556.1360 7/0.9 3/0 159.1489 12/0.0 477.2.1127 12/0.8 396.1138 7/0.1410 18/0.4 36.1329 26/0.1151 12/0.1880 7/0.0834 1/0.0 477.3 203.0940 1/0.2 190.0961 1/0.5 477.5 336.5 676.1013 18/0.0974 6/0.0858 1/0.

6 18. Diameter.205 0.) 0.9 44.032 0.787 0.051 0.3 11.17 1. Area and DC Resistance Size (AWG) 30 28 Stranding (No.406 0.381 0.627 2.040 0.2 14.046 0.2 70.1 50.10 7.4 14. Area and DC Resistance (32 Through 4/0 AWG) Table 2.015 0.523 0.7 54.600 1.3 146.2 25.3 94.0 139.8 54.050 0.5 10.27 1.52 1.0 475.0 754.5 81.635 0.580 (mm2) 0.0 475.15 6.050 0.0 304.021 0.058 0.020 1.197 1.031 0.0 404.6 232.305 0.607 0.47 4.1 22.483 0.057 0.5 58.32 1.5 33.762 0. Diameter.060 (mm) 0.016 0.47 1.7 Continued >> 26 .15–Stranding.5 10.22 1.29 1.8 24.0 397.0 112.5 42.48 11.) 106.013 0.6 89.089 0.5 59.0 175.000 1.517 0.320 0.828 2.040 0.965 0.030 0.047 0.128 0.7 28.2.038 0.2 21.31 1.355 0.0 700.8 14.564 0.02 0.610 0.0 159.45 1.824 1.322 0.635 0.507 0.048 0.2 23.093 0.900 1.241 0.811 0.940 1.813 0.7 16.9 27.0 182.813 0.580 2.9 16.533 0.8 315.771 1.8 67.9 34.025 0.326 0.0 15.037 0.4 31.5 20.024 0.0 23.77 6.426 2.6.02 1.141 0.584 0.620 1.3 221.2 84.3 6.081 0.201 0.4 9.963 0.0 1.52 Conductor Area (cmils) 100.6 96.032 1.914 1.057 0.511 0.012 0.406 0.5 38.32 Copper DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/1.45 6.010 0.4 127.254 0.821 0.1 37.036 0.032 0.6 253.23 1.025 0.020 0.023 0.0 278.897 0.5 193.3 15.019 0.000 ft.04 4.39 4.016 0.227 0.08 4./AWG) Solid 7/38 Solid 7/36 19/40 26 Solid 7/34 19/38 24 Solid 7/32 10/34 19/36 22 Solid 7/30 16/34 19/34 20 Solid 7/28 10/30 19/32 26/34 18 Solid 7/26 16/30 19/30 41/34 16 Solid 7/24 19/29 26/30 65/34 Conductor Diameter (in.0 448.43 1.8 37.1 Stranding.113 1.600 2.051 0. Conductors 2.47 (ohms/km) 349.0 635.382 0.6 Additional Conductor Properties 2.154 0.82 4.19 1.7 13.

102 0.500 83.63 1.290 0.280 0.328 0.51 13.0 9.204 0.866 26.600 210.240 26.18 5.94 2.81 1.000 66.31 2.33 5.26 4.740 42.091 0.130 0.65 1.100 6.258 0.41 1.500 16.59 2.64 4.4 Conductor Area (cmils) 4.100 133.2.28 4.919 0. Conductors Table 2.204 0.33 8.6 33.15–Stranding.338 0.400 (mm2) 2./AWG) Solid 19/27 41/30 12 Solid 19/25 65/30 10 Solid 37/36 105/30 8 Solid 133/29 168/30 6 Solid 133/27 266/30 4 Solid 133/25 420/30 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 Solid 665/30 Solid 817/30 Solid 1.068 0.055 0.099 0.071 0.30 1.064 0.3 33.18 6.84 3.74 5.394 0.22 4.410 0.230 0.070 0.44 1.36 8.82 1.4 85.440 0.174 0.380 9.180 0.36 2.33 2.257 0.32 8.6 13.718 0.54 8.459 0.29 2.360 66.97 3.) 0.700 105.275 0.14 5.440 0.08 3.38 1.42 4.564 0.000 167.4 41.289 0.530 6.68 3.7 42.27 12.166 0.6 21.10 0.53 6.0 84.496 0.41 6.364 0.140 0.077 0.325 0.330/30 Solid 1.466 0.4 67.61 2.53 6.08 3.2 107 107 Copper DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/1.4 9.090 0.4 11.257 0.081 0.11 1.120 0.223 0.210 0.000 ft.8 11.088 0.951 0.1 21.34 8. Area and DC Resistance (Continued) Size (AWG) 14 Stranding (No.142 0.600 104.289 0.902 0.464 0.591 0. Diameter.44 0.060 (ohms/km) 8.22 5.100 211.5 21.3 13.63 8.661/30 Solid 2.365 0.410 0.26 10.838 4.59 7.104/30 Conductor Diameter (in.80 1.800 166.325 0.560 42.080 6.162 0.500 133.608 (mm) 1.29 5.6 10.79 10.12 5.112 0.111 0.05 2.31 3.4 53.710 0.7 15.5 53.690 81.500 10.180 0.500 17.197 27 .045/30 Solid 1.05 2.024 16.129 0.110 3.361 10.08 1.460 0.87 1.430 0.96 2.700 0.800 26.30 3.600 41.) 2.0 67.172 0.53 3.

95 21.800 11.110 4.26 3.126 0.102 0.91 3.040 0.442 6.071 7/0.098 6.26 15.98 24.7923 0.06 2.0121 1/0.089 0.000 ft. Area.36 75.17 50.29 1.0242 1/0.51 93.403 7/0.75 89.29 7/0.980 6.46 1.02 1.37 1/3.141 0.615 1/1.020 4.144 0.0385 1/0.020 1.23 1/3.21 8.128 0.38 Overall Diameter (in.045 7/0.109 0.293 7.051 0. Diameter. DC Resistance and Weight (20 AWG Through 2.77 22.23 50.277 3.141 7/0.91 0.00 39.864 1/2.820 6.00 (kg/km) 4.027 1/0.533 1/1.83 63.0486 1/0.0 1.15 Nominal Weight (lb.30 1.061 2.000 ft.034 1/0.16–Copper Conductor Stranding.620 1.21 2.110 4. Weight and DC Resistance Nominal Area (mm2) 0.750 6.71 23.26 7/1.0808 7/0.40 7/0.84 35.30 3.6147 0.78 22./ 1.17 62.86 74.14 1.000 kcmil) Table 2.820 Size (AWG) – 20 – 18 18 – – 16 16 – – 14 14 – – 12 12 – – 10 10 – – 9 9 8 8 – – 7 7 Number/Diameter of Individual Wires (in.580 2.44 12.064 0.5073 (ohms/km) 32.0545 (mm) 1/0.036 0.32 2.1019 7/0.63 1.649 2.530 6.917 4.0 – – 1.107 7/2.641 7/0.039 0.6380 0.8073 0.05 23.05 2.100 3.589 1.1144 7/0.24 DC Resistance at 20°C (68°F) (ohms/ 1.380 11.510 16.157 8.97 38.620 1.488 1/1.055 0.1144 0.90 60.803 2.851 7.573 2.307 1/0.613 4.810 7.43 31.94 35.71 19.0508 7/0.60 1.1285 7/0.76 20.212 5.38 29.5 2.073 0.) 10.02 7/0.2 Stranding.55 58.14 7/0. Diameter.042 1/0.620 1.130 0.146 0.510 19.) 1/0.162 0.711 1.213 4.52 56.26 2.5 – – 4 4 – – 6 6 – – – – 10 10 – – (cmils) 987 1.19 13.960 4.41 11.837 12.68 37.80 17.960 2.613 7/0.127 5.063 0.380 10.603 4.54 93.81 0.0432 1/0.930 4.686 1/2.58 7/1.877 9.081 0.70 3.116 0.304 0.63 7/0.695 1.5217 0.700 20.093 1.157 4.14 18.580 2.10 1/3.523 5.25 11.387 6.62 15.4980 0. Conductors 2.430 3.309 1.0152 1/0.970 1.281 8.820 20.266 11.335 2.524 2. Area.13 10.055 7/0.40 16.930 6.77 3.2.1443 7/0.59 2.092 0.089 7/0.40 1.316 7.60 40.77 47.036 1/0.67 4.80 2.5167 0.8730 0.63 14.54 53.164 (mm) 0.090 13.03 64.37 20.109 7/0.33 33.032 0.978 1/2.11 13.05 7/0.634 1.59 7/0.50 – 0.5 – – 2.58 4.046 0.071 0.864 2.032 7/0.82 13.122 9.26 7/0.80 95.081 0.5 1.087 3.800 13.054 1/0.63 11.999 1.058 0.410 9.045 0.) 3.99 1.) 0.84 1.067 1.67 7/1.315 4.0305 1/0.08 46.480 1.890 7.296 4.017 1/0.102 0.090 16.12 3.16 1.51 18.017 0.890 10.22 6.75 – – 1.77 7/0.782 5.970 2.91 7/1.80 7/0.021 1/0.061 0.277 3.41 29.664 Continued >> 28 .6.700 19.0192 1/0.8543 0.991 1/1.130 6.432 1/1.417 2.91 31.93 59.93 2.386 1/1.755 1/2.600 2.59 2.057 2.530 7.

068 7/0.1 148.000 474.73 7/1.04997 0.206 2.853 2.1 611.0905 61/0.842 1.373 0.100 37/0. Weight and DC Resistance (Continued) Nominal Area (mm2) – – 16 – – 25 – 35 35 – 50 – – 70 – – 95 – 120 – 150 – 185 – 240 240 – – 300 – – – (cmils) 26.081 1.8295 0.5 25.148 1./ 1.0 17.3 20.528 0.1055 37/0.484 1.6577 0.000 ft.000 300.06944 0.5 218.0 128.) 1/0.1044 0.240 31.114 61/0.295 2.142 1.7 20.4 970.000 500. Diameter.300 0.089 37/0.3424 0.000 Size (AWG) 6 6 – 6 4 – 3 – – 1 – 1/0 2/0 – 3/0 3/0 – 4/0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Number/Diameter of Individual Wires (in.1 231.5 20.255 0.01410 (ohms/km) 1.02189 0.4 Nominal Weight (lb.115 1.620 69.06668 0.700 105.160 2.6 10.3950 0.600 33.1157 0.0612 7/0.294 2.964 0. Conductors Table 2.75 7/1.04357 0.51 61/2.1388 0.567 0.06943 0.204 0.89 19/2.8 1.700 0.43 80.62 7.04230 0.09 37/2.02102 0.000 500.7 162.061 19/0.4 155.3259 0.96 7/2.0 771.8 13.232 0.608 1.100 83.0992 61/0.3 17.43 9.332 0.101 19/0.0822 37/0.998 (mm) 4.64 37/2.8 484.3 749.000 350.1162 61/0.090 41.0837 19/0.7 324.2467 0.07214 0.000 365.0673 19/0.3 410.75 8.0 770.48 6.) 0.000 ft.27 9.5 464.630 0.470 0.893 0.04959 0.0664 19/0.090 37/0.320 1.100 138.54 19/1.7 22.8 191. Area.728 0.03018 0.065 7/0.3183 0.549 1.0 597.02642 0.90 61/2.4139 0.7 24.300 52.) 79.06310 0.1639 0.05803 0.838 2.06 37/2.09375 0.575 0.000 592.7 1.0 215.46 10.4944 0.82 Overall Diameter (in.446 DC Resistance at 20°C (68°F) (ohms/ 1.305 0.16–Copper Conductor Stranding.73 99.7 241.0811 37/0.094 37/0.219 2.2005 0.18 5.1789 0.073 19/0.8 18.430 0.813 0.04625 Continued >> 29 .72 61/2.6 22.162 7/0.000 400.52 61/2.55 19/1.2528 0.1507 0.4023 0.88 6.0973 37/0.2.03527 0.086 19/0.296 1.699 1.4 312.3288 0.2605 0.06293 0.000 750.690 98.18 19/2.02117 0.505 0.07940 0.757 3.798 0.4909 0.11 4.57 19/2.814 0.0745 19/0.7 433.2176 0.55 7/1.260 0.2065 0.000 167.681 0.39 37/1.68 37/2.1 258.09903 0.24 5.184 0.1429 0.85 19/1.47 37/2.4 14.000 700.419 0.54 37/2.044 0.316 (kg/km) 118.3 325.6 16.746 2.4 14.7 517.0867 7/0.000 474.) 0.01511 0.069 1.609 1.9 12.1071 61/0.400 133.100 19/0.491 1.3 151.000 600.0772 7/0.2 120.13 19/2.104 37/0.5 384.30 61/2.099 61/0.29 37/2.2070 0.7 652.214 3.1261 0.71 19/2.471 0.07181 0.800 187.6843 0.07520 0.162 0.20 7/2.1 645.61 7.1 320.05453 0.02857 0.02116 0.800 167.9 11.63 19/1.0 12.235 1.000 250.66 5.891 0.10020 0.1109 (mm) 1/4.3 517.206 0.100 69.02199 0.4 769.01762 0.26 37/2.000 211.376 1.11 7/1.600 237.0688 7/0.801 0.16 7/2.740 49.1495 0.240 26.3 924.67 102.4 889.05780 0.3 20.95 61/2.365 0.

147 127/0.000 1.04625 0.01735 Based on British (BSA).52 91/3.1284 127/0.2.412 1./ 1.2 29.892 6.7 32.452 1.447 2.580.032 1.1 26.25 91/2.000.66 91/2.000 800.) 0.447 3.287 1.9 36. Diameter.3 32.000 2.16–Copper Conductor Stranding.9 41.4 26.) 91/0.008460 0.617 1.006670 0.04334 0.673 3.1 41.000 1.) 2.153 1.90 61/2. Canadian (CSA).000 1. Weight and DC Resistance (Continued) Nominal Area (mm2) – 400 – – 500 – 625 – – – – 800 1.000 Size (AWG) – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Number/Diameter of Individual Wires (in.722 5.) 0.01058 0.191 DC Resistance at 20°C (68°F) (ohms/ 1.5 41.250.02777 0.284 9.114 61/0. Area.97 91/2.175 6.632 (mm) 25.070 6.500.894 7.005287 0.000 2.1048 91/0. Conductors Table 2.026 1.033 9.005380 0.1087 91/0.76 91/3.132 91/0.1172 127/0.0908 61/0.38 61/3.894 6.741 6.007183 0.9 35.01058 0.632 4.02786 0.085 3.845 3.5 Nominal Weight (lb.007050 0.26 127/2.1255 169/0.591 5.0992 91/0.000 1.01322 0.1145 91/0.2 26.98 127/2.1088 (mm) 91/2.76 Overall Diameter (in.7 32.631 4.000 1.970.04338 0.000.8 35.000 – – (cmils) 750.005287 (ohms/km) 0.01321 0. American (ASTM and ICEA) and German (VDE) Standards 30 .000 789.031 1.01765 0.02312 0.01735 0.1280 91/0.117 91/0.500.000 1.678 4.250.3 29.01410 0.02313 0.858 4.000 1.000 1.189 9.0938 61/0.590 4.085 3.00849 0.000.35 91/3.000 1.03472 0.01334 0.413 1.471 3.000.000 ft.73 127/3.176 (kg/km) 3.290 1.91 91/2.316 2.19 169/2.234.02188 0.642 3.632 1.289 1.000 ft.742 6.03472 0.02776 0.04377 0.000 800.152 1.858 3.008463 0.468 2.31 61/2.999 1.

21 24/0.05 0.70 7/2.200/0.1 48/0.1 3.85 7/1.21 16/0.16 192/0.26 56/0.280/0.25 7/0.31 2.51 1.21 32/0.05 1.38 0./Dia.37 7/0.05 41/0.2.07 2.43 7/0.52 7/0.69 336/0.1 2.65 84/0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 Ordinary Stranding (Class 2) No.51 765/0.69 189/0./Dia.17–Typical IEC Stranding Cross Section (mm2) 0.07 1.16 84/0.21 320/0.67 392/0.75 1.41 200/0.07 392/0.51 944/0.89 61/3.05 384/0.05 256/0.07 195/0.120/0.1 512/0.61 – – 18/0.123/0.05 7/1.16 140/0.07 65/0.07 1.05 194/0.530x0./Dia.52 19/0.25 0.1 64/0.07 131/0.3 IEC Stranding Table 2.51 1.21 30/0. Conductors 2.41 128/0.41 400/0.1 768/0.1 128/0.64 49/0.07 260/0.07 651/0.600/0.21 800/0.560/0.17 19/2.16 56/0.07 – ­ – – – – – – – – – – – 25/0.31 990/0.470/0.07 88/0.70 – – Fine Wire Stranding (Class 5) No.31 80/0.05 512/0.41 280/0.340/0. 31 .1 – – – – – – – – – – – Extra-Fine Wire Stranding (Class 6) No.62 133/0.05 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Note: Additional information is available in IEC 60228.52 37/2.280/0.16 28/0.67 7/0.6.21 705/0.1 320/0.41 2. (mm) – – 36/0.70 790/0.5 2.58 133/0.69 627/0.31 1.07 100/0.31 84/0.768x0. (mm) – – – – 7/0.10 42/0.16 42/0.048/0.41 19/0.43 7/0.16 224/0.41 – – – – 18/0.5 0.27 7/0. (mm) – – – – – – 7/0.225/0.1 1.05 72/0.83 19/2.21 1.23 Multi-Wire Stranding No.905/0.41 1.10 32/0.52 19/1.31 1.1 32/0.50 61/2.05 174/0.41 356/0.69 494/0.27 37/2.040/0.08 0.30 7/0.24 61/2.1 42/0.52 61/2.0 1.03 37/2.10 21/0.385x0.1 192/0./Dia.31 1.52 19/0. (mm) – – – 14/0.16 12/0.1 69/0.69 259/0.51 2.34 0.35 7/1.51 485/0.51 1.51 614/0.51 49/0.37 7/0.13 7/2.16 19/0.035x0.30 7/0.26 50/0.690/0.05 768/0.21 512/0.05 128/0.14 0.

32 .

2 Belden Electronic Color Code 3.2.3 Telecommunication Color Codes 38 38 43 46 3.4 Additional Information 3. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.4.3.3.6 Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) 3.4. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.3 EPR Versus XLPE 3.4 Properties 3.4 Thermal Characteristics 3.4.2 Thermosets 3.4.3 Fibrous Coverings 3.1 Purpose 34 34 34 36 37 37 3.1 Thermoplastic 3.2. Control.4.4.4.3.3.2.1 Power.2.5 Halogen Content 3.1 Thermoplastics 3.3 Color Coding 3.2 Types and Applications 3.2 Thermoset 3. Instrumentation and Thermocouple 3.7 Dielectric Constant 47 47 50 51 51 52 52 53 33 .

The most commonly used fluoropolymers are Teflon (PTFE. are extrudable thermoplastics used in a variety of low-voltage insulating situations.4. Thermoplastic CPE is more common than thermoset CPE. It is not suitable where subjected to nuclear radiation and does not have good high-voltage characteristics. the thickness of the insulation and the preform size. Most wire and cable insulations consist of polymers (plastics). PVC is frequently used as an impervious jacket over and/or under metal armor where the installation requires PVC’s protective characteristics. 3. Lengths are limited due to the amount of material in the ram. It is an opaque. although some forms are translucent in thin sections. Fluoropolymers Fluoropolymers. white material. sunlight. acids. Certain formulations may have a –55°C to 105°C rating. which have a high resistance to the flow of electric current. The price range can vary accordingly. then sintered. alkalis.5. Teflon PTFE is extruded around the conductor as a paste. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Sometimes referred to simply as “vinyl.” PVC does not usually exhibit extremely high. respectively. The cost of Teflon is approximately 8 to 10 times more per pound than PVC compounds.2. PTFE Teflon is only extrudable in a hydraulic ram type process.1 Purpose Conductors need to be electrically isolated from other conductors and from the environment to prevent short circuits and for safety. with the exception of PTFE Teflon. Flamarrest is a plenum-grade.5 to 6. Typical dielectric constant values range from 3. Fluoropolymers contain fluorine in their molecular composition. street lighting and cables for direct burial. weathering and abrasion. This range of properties makes PVC a suitable outer covering for such cable types as underground feeders (Type UF). FEP and PFA). thermoset formulations have better high-temperature properties than thermoplastics but are also higher in cost.2 Types and Applications 3. thermoplastic jackets of PVC provide cables with the ability to resist oils. Maximum continuous service temperature of Teflon PTFE is 260°C (500°F). Specific advantages of wire insulated with Teflon PTFE include: • Nonflammability • Extremely high insulation resistance • Very low dielectric constant • Small size compared to elastomer insulated wires • Excellent lubricity for easier installation • Chemical inertness. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. Conductors can also be wrapped with tape of Teflon PTFE. which contributes to their excellent thermal. while other common vinyls may have a –20°C to 60°C rating. temperature range and chemical resistance. When properly formulated. This means that long wire and cable lengths are available. To coat wire for insulating purposes. PTFE must be extruded over a silver. Properties of both thermoplastic and thermoset CPE are given in Section 3. Teflon PTFE is the original Teflon resin invented by DuPont in 1938. FEP Teflon is extrudable in a manner similar to PVC and polyethylene. control. Halar (ECTFE) and Kynar or Solef (PVDF).3. PVC-based jacketing material with low smoke and low flame spread properties.and silver-coated designs are rated 260°C and 200°C maximum. Insulation is applied around a conductor to provide this isolation. The many varieties of PVC also differ in pliability and electrical properties. aerial. chemical. Tefzel (ETFE). As a rule. A jacket is the outermost layer of a cable whose primary function is to protect the insulation and conductor core from external physical forces and chemical deterioration. heat. mechanical and electrical characteristics.or nickel-coated wire. Teflon has excellent electrical properties.and low-temperature properties in one formulation.1 Thermoplastics Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) CPE is one of the few polymers available in both thermoplastic and thermoset (cross-linked) versions. 34 . It does not melt in the usual sense. The nickel.

Specific advantages of wire insulated with Teflon FEP include: • High current carrying ability (ampacity) • Easy color coding • Smallest diameter of any high-temperature wire • Nonflammability • Very low moisture absorption. but most UL styles call for 60°C maximum. Because of its high dielectric constant. Wire insulated with PFA is rated up to 250°C (482°F) and has excellent high-temperature creep resistance. These properties make TPE jackets an excellent choice for use in control cables that are dragged around or frequently moved. It has excellent oxidation. it tends to be a poor insulator. Polyolefins (PO) Polyolefin is the name given to a family of polymers. Tefzel’s temperature rating is –65°C to 150°C. It has a low dielectric constant. polyethylene is stiff and very hard. thermal characteristics and impact resistance. TPE compounds are used as insulating materials up to a 600-volt rating. but they tend to have poorer electrical properties.3 for solid and 1. has excellent cold-temperature characteristics. toughness. but because it is less expensive than Tefzel. this material is primarily used as an insulation material. TPE has good chemical resistance to all substances except hydrocarbons. chemical resistance. a stable dielectric constant over a wide frequency range. Teflon PFA is a perfluoroalkoxy copolymer resin supplied by DuPont. heat resistance. The UL maximum temperature rating may be 60°C or 80°C. This makes it suitable for thin wall insulations. high-molecular weight formulations being least flexible. causing the material to degrade. The dielectric constant is typically 2. 35 . oxidation and atmospheric ozone. electrical properties. Maximum continuous service temperature is 400°F (205°C). and very high insulation resistance.6 for cellular (foamed) insulation. The dielectric constant is 2. Typically. depending on molecular weight and density. making it an ideal jacket material for retractile cords. It has outstanding “memory” properties. radiation resistance and flame resistance. The most common polyolefins used in wire and cable include polyethylene (PE). low-temperature toughness and flame resistance. It has a maximum operating temperature of 125°C (UL). TPE compounds can be rated as high as 125°C (257°F). Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) TPE. Polypropylene (PP) Similar in electrical properties to polyethylene. Teflon FEP is an excellent nonflammable jacketing material for multiconductor cables. The most common cables using TPE insulation are portable control cables such as SEO and SJEO. sometimes called TPR (thermoplastic rubber). Polyethylene (PE) Polyethylene has excellent electrical properties. Teflon FEP is a true thermoplastic. however. Wire insulated with Teflon FEP can be melt extruded by conventional methods. It has good abrasion resistance. oil and ozone resistance. Flame retardant formulations are available. Halar has excellent chemical resistance. Low density PE (LDPE) is the most flexible. making it an excellent insulating and jacketing compound in cold climates. Tefzel (ETFE) is commonly used in computer backplane wiring and has the highest abrasion and cut-through resistance of any fluoropolymer.55 for cellular designs. Some formulations also have good flame resistance. It has a glossy surface and is transparent in thin sections. Tefzel is a thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties. It has a tendency to swell in a hydrocarbon environment.3. It will resist wear. It is resistant to aging from sunlight. with high-density. Polyurethane (PUR) Polyurethane is used primarily as a cable jacket material. It has excellent abrasion resistance. However. Kynar (PVDF) is one of the least expensive fluoropolymers and is frequently used as a jacketing material on plenum cables.25 for solid and 1. PVDF has a temperature maximum of 135°C (UL). It retains most of its physical and electrical properties in the face of many severe environmental conditions such as a salt water environment. polypropylene (PP) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). Insulation and Jacket Materials Teflon FEP was also invented by DuPont and became commercially available in 1960. it is harder than polyethylene. Halar’s temperature rating is –70°C to 150°C. Moisture resistance is excellent. Properly formulated PE has excellent weather resistance. cutting and impact. it is often used as insulation on multipair plenum telephone cables. Halar (ECTFE) is similar to Tefzel and is also used in wirewrap applications.

UL. CPE jackets are suited to 105°C (221°F) and intermittently to higher temperatures. mildew or fungus. Satisfactory performance at even higher temperatures is possible if the exposures are brief or intermittent. as the insulation in 5 to 69 kV and higher rated power cables and as the insulation in many control cables. resilient and have excellent resistance to abrasive wear. 36 . CPE’s resistance to oils and fuels is good. crushing and chipping. Mildew. They are known for abrasion resistance and long life in mining cable applications. It also is a very tough material at temperatures below 100°C. Its low temperature impact resistance is excellent. oxygen supply and flame source. XLP’s fire resistance. but is self-extinguishing as soon as the flame is removed. Neoprene jackets resist degradation for prolonged periods at temperatures up to 121°C (250°F). XLP is lower in cost than EPR. It is resistant to ozone and ultraviolet (sunlight) degradation. CSA and ICEA flame tests. impact and other mechanical forces. Properly compounded. and is virtually immune to atmospheric ozone. CPE compares favorably with most other synthetic elastomers currently used for cable jacketing. CPE can be conveniently colored over a wide range and will maintain color upon aging. have remained tough. it will burn slowly. resilient. XLP has very high insulation resistance (IR).. is poor unless flame retardants are added. Neoprene jackets have excellent resistance to soil acids and alkalis..3. It is most often used as the insulation of 600 volt building wire (e. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. Because of these properties. CPE is also often supplied in a thermoplastic (non-cross-linked) version.” i. light and chemical attack. Type XHHW). It is highly resistant to aging from sunlight and oxidation. fungus and other biological agents do not deteriorate properly compounded neoprene. but under the right conditions of excessive heat. Neoprene will burn slowly as long as an outside source of flame is applied.3). CPE will withstand prolonged immersion in water.2. CPE is resistant to most strong acids and bases and many solvents except for chlorinated organics. They are tough. Neoprene (CP) Neoprene is a vulcanized synthetic rubber also referred to as chloroprene. Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLP or XLPE) Cross-linked polyethylene is a frequently used polymer in wire and cable. neoprene is the jacketing material frequently used for mine trailing cables and dredge cables.e. however. and does not embrittle at low temperatures. It provides a resilient jacket that resists permanent deformation under heat and load. Neoprene-jacketed power cable can be flexed without damage to the jacket at –40°C (–40°F) and will pass a mandrel wrap test down to about –45°C (–49°F). It will not support combustion.g. It is particularly well-suited to chemical plant use where both above ground (ultraviolet and flame retardancy) and below ground (water and chemical resistance) properties are desired. so it is resistant to cutting. Samples of neoprene-jacketed cable. uncracked and completely serviceable. Its low-temperature performance is also very good: down to –40°C and below. high dielectric strength and low dielectric constant (2. CPE maintains its flexibility at –18°C (0°F) and does not become brittle unless temperatures are below –40°C (–40°F). tested outdoors under constant exposure for 40 years. Neoprene jackets are “flame resistant. CPE jacketed cables pass the IEEE 1202. Removal of the ignition source will extinguish the flame. CPE does not support the growth of mold. They will maintain adequate flexibility after repeated aging at elevated temperatures. These jackets perform well in many chemical plants. It is highly resistant to cold flow (compression set) and other forms of external loading as well as heat. strong.2 Thermosets Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) Cross-linked chlorinated polyethylene is a material with outstanding physical and electrical properties for many cable jacket applications. impact. not combustible without directly applied heat and flame.

Its dielectric strength is good but not as high as that of PE or XLP. and it is highly resistant to aging from sunlight and oxidation. It is fairly flame retardant and can be made even more flame retardant by careful formulation.” EPR’s high-temperature characteristics are very good. 3.3 Fibrous Coverings Fibrous coverings are commonly used on high-temperature cables due to their excellent heat resistance. Insulation and Jacket Materials Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EP. They provide a non-asbestos. It is highly resistant to attack by hydrocarbon oils and fuels. Some formulations can withstand continuous temperatures as high as 150°C. It typically has low mechanical strength and poor scuff resistance. Instrumentation and Control Cables.4 Additional Information Additional information on the selection of cable jackets is available in IEEE 532 “Guide for Selecting and Testing Jackets for Power. CSPE’s electrical properties make it appropriate as insulation for low-voltage applications (up to 600 volts) and as jacketing for any type of wire and cable.and temperature-resistant. phenolic-based and fiberglass fibers. K-fiber insulating materials are a blend of polyaramid. It remains flexible at –18°C (0°F) and will not become brittle at –40°C (–40°F). It is particularly useful as a cable sheathing in plant processing areas. Dielectric constant ranges from 2. flame.2. cross-linked material with many excellent physical and electrical properties. DuPont has since discontinued Hypalon manufacturing. At high temperatures. Bureau of Mines’ flame test for mining cable. EPR is used as the insulation in 600 volt through 69 kV power cables. They are normally constructed of a textile braid (e. Flame retardant versions are often referred to as “FREP” or “flame retardant EP. EPR is abrasion resistant and is suitable for use at temperatures down to –60°C. CSPE Chlorosulfonated polyethylene is a thermosetting. crushing and chipping. greases and fuels. CSPE sheathing will not support combustion. It has excellent electrical properties plus ozone resistance.S. It is especially useful in contact with oils at elevated temperatures. moisture-. and radiation resistance. portable mining cables and control/instrumentation cables. as an integral insulation/jacket on welding cables and as an insulation in many cords.” 37 .3. It is inherently resistant to cold flow (compression set) resulting from clamping pressures and other forms of external loading. EPR. it is immune to attack by ozone. rubbery insulation that has a temperature range from –80°C to 200°C.. which would have previously utilized asbestos. low moisture absorption. non-melting insulating material for all applications requiring a 250°C (482°F) temperature rating. CSPE will perform satisfactorily after short-term exposure at up to 148°C (300°F) – even higher if compounded for maximum heat resistance. abrasion-.g. oils. EPR is used in many highly flexible cables.2. It is well-known for its resistance to chemicals. polyamid. It will burn slowly as long as an outside source of flame is applied but is self-extinguishing as soon as the flame is removed. cable manufacturers are either changing jackets to a “performance-based” equivalent thermoset material like thermoset chlorinated polyethylene (TS-CPE) or searching for other global sources for CSPE resin.2 depending on the specific EPR formulation. or EPDM) Ethylene propylene rubber is a common synthetic rubber polymer used as an insulation in electrical wire and cable. CSPE was formerly sold by DuPont under the trade name “Hypalon”. Because of its rubber-like characteristics. fiberglass or K-fiber) impregnated with a flame and heat-resistant finish. Sheathing of CSPE provides high resistance to impact. where airborne chemicals attack ordinary jacketing materials and metal conduit. To replace Hypalon after all existing supply is exhausted. weather resistance. Water absorption of properly compounded CSPE cable sheathing is extremely low. They are available as roving and yarn for insulating applications and as rope for use as fillers. Silicone Silicone is a soft. CSPE jacketed constructions pass both the Underwriters Laboratories’ vertical flame test and the U.8 to 3. 3. CSPE surpasses most elastomers in resistance to abrasion.

For applications where the NEC is applicable. 11A. a different color coding sequence was developed by ICEA for cables that are used in accordance with the NEC. and Instrumentation Wires.1 through 3. Table 1) since they are not located within appendices in S-58-679 like in S-73-532. are energized. #14 (green/white). Table E-2 color coding. This sequence of colors is referred to as K-1 color coding because it was formerly found in Table K-1 of many ICEA standards. then a repeat of the colors with a colored band or tracer. this confusion no longer exists since the standards have been combined.) The National Electrical Code (NEC) specifies that a conductor colored white can only be used as a grounded (neutral) conductor and that a conductor colored green can only be used as an equipment grounding conductor. this color may be introduced into Table E-2 as the second conductor in the sequence. ICEA has established the sequence of colors used for Method 1 color coding.8. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. Methods 1. 11D – Thermocouple extension cables – color coding with braids Historically. The use of Table E-1 (formerly K-1) color coding would therefore be in violation of the Code in a cable having more than six conductors if conductors #7 (white/black). 3 and 4 are the most widely used. (See Tables 3. The old standard contained tables titled E-1 through E-4 as well. Thermocouple Extension. The ICEA standard provides further guidance stating that if a white conductor is required. Method 1 – Colored compounds with tracers Method 2 – Neutral colored compounds with tracers Method 3 –  Neutral or single-color compounds with surface printing of numbers and color designations Method 4 –  Neutral or single-color compounds with surface printing of numbers Method 5 – Individual color coding with braids Method 6 – Layer identification Method 7 – Silicone rubber insulated cables Methods 8.1 Power. ICEA S-82-552 (NEMA WC55) Instrumentation and Thermocouple Wire formerly contained methods and color sequence tables for instrumentation and thermocouple cables. 8A. To address this issue. This standard includes the same seven tables as WC57 but without using the E or K designation (e.3 Color Coding 3. 2 and 3. If a green insulated conductor is required. the E-2 color sequence is normally used. etc. In the latest ICEA standard the color sequences are located in Tables E-1 through E-8. This standard was withdrawn in 2002 and instrumentation and thermocouple wires were moved into ICEA S-73-532 (NEMA WC57) Standard for Control. the white and green colors may only appear once. Control. but in a different order so the tables did not match WC57. This is Method 4 color coding in the ICEA standards. The electric utility industry often specifies control cables with the E-1 color coding sequence. which consists of six basic colors. such as in industrial and commercial applications. Instrumentation and Thermocouple ICEA standard S-73-532 (NEMA WC57-2004) contains eleven methods for providing color coding in multiconductor cables.g. 38 . Table E-2 (formerly K-2) of the ICEA standard provides this color sequence. The corresponding tables can be found in this chart: S-82-552 (old) E-1 Color sequence without white and green (NEC Applications) E-2 Color sequence with white and green E-3 Shades of Color E-4 Thermocouple Extension Color S-73-532 (new) E-2 E-1 E-6 E-8 The ICEA has also published ICEA S-58-679 Control Cable Conductor Identification.3. 11B. #9 (green/black). The cables do not contain a white or green conductor. it likewise can be introduced into the table. The most popular control cables used in sizes 8 AWG and larger are three conductor cables having black insulation surface ink printed with the numbers 1.3. 11C. The most popular multiconductor control cables in sizes 14 AWG–10 AWG have Method 1. 10A and 11 – Thermocouple extension cables – color coding of braidless conductors Methods 11. However. 8B – Paired conductors Method 9 – Color compounds with numbers – paired conductors Methods 10.

including White and Green Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Background or Base Color Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red First Tracer Color – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green White Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Black Second Tracer Color – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Red Red White White White White Green Green Green Conductor Number 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Background or Base Color Green Orange Blue Black White Orange White Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange First Tracer Color Black Black White White Red White Red White Black White White Red Red White Black White Orange Red Red Orange Black Orange Red Black Black Orange Orange Orange Black Green Second Tracer Color Orange Green Orange Orange Orange Blue Blue Green Green Green Blue Green Green Blue Blue Blue Red Blue Orange Red Orange Black Blue Blue Orange Green Green Green Blue Blue Note: The former K-1 color sequence was the same as E-1 through conductor number 21. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3.1–E-1 Color Sequence. K-1 then repeated.3. 39 .

2–E-2 Color Sequence without White and Green Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Background or Base Color Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Orange Brown Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Tracer Color – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Red Red Red Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Table 3.3..g.g.3–E-3 Color Sequence Including White And Green Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 First Tracer Color (e. Narrow Tracer) – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green 40 . Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3. Wide Tracer) Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange Second Tracer Color (e..

g.4–E-4 Color Sequence Without White And Green Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 First Tracer Color (e. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3...3. Narrow Tracer) – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Red Red Red Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Table 3.5–E-5 Color Sequence For Braids. Wide Tracer) Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Orange Brown Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Second Tracer Color (e. Including White And Green Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Background or Base Color Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Orange White First Tracer Color – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green White Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Black Black Black White White Red White Red Second Tracer Color – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Red Red White White White White Green Green Green Orange Green Orange Orange Orange Blue Blue 41 .g.

Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3.5 G 2. 42 .6–Shades of Color Color Black White Red Blue Green Orange Yellow Brown Munsell N2 N9 2.8–Color Coding of Duplexed Insulated Thermocouple Extension Wire Extension Wire Type Type T J E K R or S B Positive TPX JPX EPX KPX SPX BPX Negative TNX JNX ENX KNX SNX BNX Overall Blue Black Purple Yellow Green Gray Color of Insulation Positive Blue White Purple Yellow Black Gray Negative* Red Red Red Red Red Red * A tracer having the color corresponding to the positive wire code color may be used on the negative wire color code.5/12 3.5 YR 5Y 2.5 R 2.5 PB 2.7–Color Sequence for Silicone Rubber Insulated Cables Conductor Number 1* 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Background or base color White White White White White White White White White White White White White White White White First Tracer Color Black Red Green Orange Blue Red Green Orange Blue Orange Blue Red Orange Orange Blue Second Tracer Color 4/12 4/10 5/12 6/14 8.5/6 Black Black Black Black Red Red Green Green Blue Green * This conductor is on the inside of the assembly Table 3.5 YR Munsell Table 3.3.

3. 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Color Combination White and Yellow White and Brown White and Orange Blue and Yellow Blue and Brown Blue and Orange Brown and Yellow Brown and Orange Orange and Yellow Purple and Orange Purple and Red Purple and White Purple and Dark Green Purple and Light Blue Purple and Yellow Purple and Brown Purple and Black Gray and White Table 3.11–Belden Color Code Charts Nos. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Color Black White Red Green Orange Blue White/Black Stripe Red/Black Stripe Green/Black Stripe Orange/Black Stripe Blue/Black Stripe Black/White Stripe Red/White Stripe Cond. No. 2 (Spiral Stripe) and 2R (Ring Band Striping)* Cond. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Color Green/White Stripe Blue/White Stripe Black/Red Stripe White/Red Stripe Orange/Red Stripe Blue/Red Stripe Red/Green Stripe Orange/Green Stripe Black/White/Red White/Black/Red Red/Black/White Green/Black/White Orange/Black/White Cond. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Color Combination Black and Red Black and White Black and Green Black and Blue Black and Yellow Black and Brown Black and Orange Red and White Red and Green Red and Blue Red and Yellow Red and Brown Red and Orange Green and White Green and Blue Green and Yellow Green and Brown Green and Orange White and Blue Pair No. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Color Blue/Black/White Black/Red/Green White/Red/Green Red/Black/Green Green/Black/Orange Orange/Black/Green Blue/White/Orange Black/White/Orange White/Red/Orange Orange/White/Blue White/Red/Blue Black/White/Green White/Black/Green Cond.9–Common Multiconductor Color Code (Belden Standard) Conductor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Color Black White Red Green Brown Blue Orange Yellow Purple Gray Pink Tan Table 3. No. 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Color Red/White/Green Green/White/Blue Orange/Red/Green Blue/Red/Green Black/White/Blue White/Black/Blue Red/White/Blue Green/Orange/Red Orange/Red/Blue Blue/Orange/Red Black/Orange/Red * Based on ICEA Standard S-73-532/NEMA WC57 43 .3. No.2 Belden Electronic Color Code Table 3. No.10–Common Multipair Color Code (Belden Standard) Pair No.

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Color White/Orange White/Yellow White/Green White/Blue White/Purple White/Gray White/Black/Brown White/Black/Red White/Black/Orange White/Black/Yellow White/Black/Green White/Black/Blue Table 3. 10: Fiber Optics* Cond No.12–Belden Color Code Chart No. 9: IBM RISC System/6000 Cond No. 5 Pair No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Color White over Blue White over Orange White over Green White over Brown White over Gray White over Red White over Yellow 3 White over Green & Green over White 2 Pair No. 4 Pair No. 6 7 8 9 10 Color Combination Red/Blue Stripe & Blue/Red Stripe Red/Orange Stripe & Orange/Red Stripe Red/Green Stripe & Green/Red Stripe Red/Brown Stripe & Brown/Red Stripe Red/Gray Stripe & Gray/Red Stripe Pair No. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3. 6 Position No.3. 1 2 3 4 5 Color Combination White & Blue White & Orange White & Green White & Brown White & Gray Pair No.13–Belden Color Code Chart No. 6 7 8 9 10 Color Combination Red & Blue Red & Orange Red & Green Red & Brown Red & Gray Pair No.15–Belden Color Code Chart No.16–Belden Color Code Chart No. 11 12 13 14 15 Color Combination Black/Blue Stripe & Blue/Black Stripe Black/Orange Stripe & Orange/Black Stripe Black/Green Stripe & Green/Black Stripe Black/Brown Stripe & Brown/Black Stripe Black/Gray Stripe & Gray/Black Stripe Pair No. 21 22 23 24 25 Color Combination Purple & Blue Purple & Orange Purple & Green Purple & Brown Purple & Gray Table 3. 11 12 13 14 15 Color Combination Black & Blue Black & Orange Black & Green Black & Brown Black & Gray Pair No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Color Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple Gray White White/Black White/Brown White/Red Position No. 21 22 23 24 25 Color Combination Purple/Blue Stripe & Blue/Purple Stripe Purple/Orange Stripe & Orange/Purple Stripe Purple/Green Stripe & Green/Purple Stripe Purple/Brown Stripe & Brown/Purple Stripe Purple/Gray Stripe & Gray/Purple Table 3.14–Belden Color Code Chart No. 1 2 3 4 5 Color Combination White/Blue Stripe & Blue/White Stripe White/Orange Stripe & Orange/White Stripe White/Green Stripe & Green/White Stripe White/Brown Stripe & Brown/White Stripe White/Gray Stripe & Gray/White Stripe Pair No. 16 17 18 19 20 Color Combination Yellow & Blue Yellow & Orange Yellow & Green Yellow & Brown Yellow & Gray Pair No. 16 17 18 19 20 Color Combination Yellow/Blue Stripe & Blue/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Orange Stripe & Orange/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Green Stripe & Green/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Brown Stripe & Brown/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Gray Stripe & Gray/Yellow Stripe Pair No. 1 Color White over Blue & Blue over White White over Orange & Orange over White Table 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 *Per ANSI/TIA 598-A Color Blue Orange Green Brown Gray White Red Black Yellow Purple Rose Aqua 44 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Color Combination Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple Gray White Black Tan Pink Gray/Brown Stripe Gray/Red Stripe Gray/Orange Stripe Pair No. 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Color Combination Lime/Black Stripe Lime/Tan Stripe Lime/Pink Stripe Aqua/Brown Stripe Aqua/Red Stripe Aqua/Orange Stripe Aqua/Yellow Stripe Aqua/Green Stripe Aqua/Blue Stripe Aqua/Purple Stripe Aqua/Gray Stripe Aqua/White Stripe Aqua/Black Stripe Aqua/Tan Stripe Aqua/Pink Stripe Table 3. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3. 1 2 3 4 5 Color Combination White/Blue Stripe & Blue White/Orange Stripe & Orange White/Green Stripe & Green White/Brown Stripe & Brown White/Gray Stripe & Gray/White Stripe Pair No. 7 for Snake Cables Pair No.18–Belden Color Code Chart No. 8 for DataTwist Cables Pair No. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Color Combination Blue/Purple Stripe Blue/Gray Stripe Blue/White Stripe Blue/Black Stripe Blue/Tan Stripe Blue/Pink Stripe Lime/Brown Stripe Lime/Red Stripe Lime/Orange Stripe Lime/Yellow Stripe Lime/Green Stripe Lime/Blue Stripe Lime/Purple Stripe Lime/Gray Stripe Lime/White Stripe Pair No. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Color Combination Gray/Yellow Stripe Gray/Green Stripe Gray/Blue Stripe Gray/Purple Stripe Gray/Gray Stripe Gray/White Stripe Gray/Black Stripe Gray/Tan Stripe Gray/Pink Stripe Blue/Brown Stripe Blue/Red Stripe Blue/Orange Stripe Blue/Yellow Stripe Blue/Green Stripe Blue/Blue Stripe Pair No.17–Belden Color Code Chart No. 11 12 13 14 15 Color Combination Black/Blue Stripe & Blue/Black Stripe Black/Orange Stripe & Orange/Black Stripe Black/Green Stripe & Green/Black Stripe Black/Brown Stripe & Brown/Black Stripe Black/Gray Stripe & Gray/Black Stripe Pair No. 6 7 8 9 10 Color Combination Red/Blue Stripe & Blue/Red Stripe Red/Orange Stripe & Orange/Red Stripe Red/Green Stripe & Green/Red Stripe Red/Brown Stripe & Brown/Red Stripe Red/Gray Stripe & Gray/Red Stripe Pair No.3. 21 22 23 24 25 Color Combination Purple/Blue Stripe & Blue/Purple Stripe Purple/Orange Stripe & Orange/Purple Stripe Purple/Green Stripe & Green/Purple Stripe Purple/Brown Stripe & Brown/Purple Stripe Purple/Gray Stripe & Gray/Purple 45 . 16 17 18 19 20 Color Combination Yellow/Blue Stripe & Blue/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Orange Stripe & Orange/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Green Stripe & Green/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Brown Stripe & Brown/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Gray Stripe & Gray/Yellow Stripe Pair No.

For example. each containing a maximum of 25 pairs and wrapped with distinctively colored binder threads to permit distinction between groups.3.17) or by applying a colored band of contrasting color to solid colored wires (Table 3. Large Pair Count Cables In cables having more than 25 pairs.18). Bandmarking is used on inside wiring cable. Telephone wires (e. the blue wire has a white band and the white wire a blue band. in a blue and white pair. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Tip White White White White White Red Red Red Red Red Black Black Black Black Black Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Violet Violet Violet Violet Violet Ring Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Pair No.3. All colors must be readily distinguishable and lie within the Munsell color standard.20–Telecommunication Cable Color Code (Band Marked) Pair No. plenum cable and switchboard cable. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.19–Telecommunication Cable Color Code (Solid Colors) Table 3. Table 3. inside-outside station wire and distribution frame and jumper wire) that do not have paired constructions have solid color wires.g. The color combinations are such that each wire is banded with the color of its mate..3 Telecommunication Color Codes Individual telecommunication cable conductors are color-coded with solid colors (Table 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Tip White-Blue White-Orange White-Green White-Brown White-Slate Red-Blue Red-Orange Red-Green Red-Brown Red-Slate Black-Blue Black-Orange Black-Green Black-Brown Black-Slate Yellow-Blue Yellow-Orange Yellow-Green Yellow-Brown Yellow-Slate Violet-Blue Violet-Orange Violet-Green Violet-Brown Violet-Slate Red-White Ring Blue-White Orange-White Green-White Brown-White Slate-White Blue-Red Orange-Red Green-Red Brown-Red Slate-Red Blue-Black Orange-Black Green-Black Brown-Black Slate-Black Blue-Yellow Orange-Yellow Green-Yellow Brown-Yellow Slate-Yellow Blue-Violet Orange-Violet Green-Violet Brown-Violet Slate-Violet White-Red 46 . the pairs are arranged in groups.

1 Thermoplastic Table 3. sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline. F = Fair. O = Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. etc. toluol. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol. G = Good. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. Source: Belden Continued >> 47 .3. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.21–Properties of Thermoplastic Insulation and Jacket Materials PVC Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather.4 Properties 3. kerosene. etc. E = Excellent.4. (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial E G-E F P-G G-E E F-G F-G E F F-G G-E G-E P Low-Density Polyethylene E G G-E E E E G E P G-E E G-E G-E G-E Cellular Polyethylene E G G E E E F E P G E G-E G-E G High-Density Polyethylene E E G-E E E E E E P G-E E E E G-E Polypropylene E E F P E E F-G E P F E E E P-F P-F P P P P-F P-F G G G P G-E P-G E G E F E E E E P = Poor.

3. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. O = Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. G = Good. F = Fair. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol. etc. toluol. etc. sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline. Source: Belden Continued >> 48 . E = Excellent. kerosene. (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial E E F P E E F-G E P F E E E P Polyurethane E G E G G E O P P F P-G F F P-G Nylon E E E G E E E P P G P-F P-E E G CPE E E E E E E E-O E E F-G O E E E Plenum PVC E G-E F P-G G E F-G G E O F G G P P P-G G G-E P-F P P-G G E P-F E F P-G G P P E E-O G P P = Poor. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3.21–Properties of Thermoplastic Insulation and Jacket Materials (Continued) Cellular Polypropylene Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather.

Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3. toluol. O = Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. etc. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol.21–Properties of Thermoplastic Insulation and Jacket Materials (Continued) FEP Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. etc. G = Good. F = Fair. kerosene. sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline.3. E = Excellent. Source: Belden 49 . (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial O O O O O E E E O P-G E E E E Tefzel (ETFE) E E O E E E E E G E E E E E PTFE (TFE) Teflon O O E O O O O E E P E E E E Solef/Kynar (PVDF)/PVF O O E-O O E-O E E G-E E E E G-E E E Halar (ECTFE) O O E O O E E E E-O E E E E E E E E G-E E E E E G E E E E E E E E E E E P = Poor.

Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. etc. E = Excellent. (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial G G G F-G G G G-E P G F-G E G G G XLPE E G G O G G F-G E P E G-E G-E G-E F CPE E E G-E F E G-E G-E F-G G G G-E E E F Silicone Rubber E O F-G O O O P G F-G E G-E F-G F-G P-F P-F F F F F P P P-F P F P P-G F G-E G E P E E E G-E E G G P = Poor. Source: Belden 50 . Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. O = Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline.2 Thermoset Table 3. etc. kerosene. toluol.3.4.22–Properties of Thermoset Insulation and Jacket Materials Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE) E E G F E E G G G E E E E F EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber) E E P G-E E E G E P G G-E G-E G-E P Neoprene Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol. G = Good. F = Fair.

4 Thermal Characteristics °C –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 °C -20°C PVC (Standard) 80°C -55°C PVC (Premium) 105°C -60°C Polyethylene 80°C -40°C Polypropylene 105°C -40°C Cross-linked Polyethylene 130°C -60°C Ethylene Propylene Rubber 150°C -40°C CSPE 105°C -40°C Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) 105°C -40°C CPE 105°C -65°C Silicon Braidless 150°C -65°C Silicone with braid 200°C -70°C Teflon 260°C °C –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 °C Figure 3.1–Nominal Temperature Range of Cable Polymers 51 . Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.3 EPR Versus XLPE Table 3.23–Properties of EPR Compared with Those of XLPE Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE) Less deformation below 100°C Lower in cost Lower dissipation factor Lower dielectric constant Higher dielectric strength Physically tougher More resistant to chemicals More oil resistant Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR) Less deformation above 100°C More heat resistance Less shrinkback Less thermal expansion More corona resistant More flexible More tree retardant More sunlight resistant 3.4.4.3.

9 percent. 3. The oxygen content of air is 20.02 <0.02 7–13 9–14 13–16 11–17 16–26 16–18 14–28 18–33 22–29 NOTE: Halogen content can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.02 <0.4. which finds the percentage of oxygen required to sustain combustion.02 <0.24–Halogen Content in Typical Insulation and Jacket Materials Material PE insulation or jacket XLP insulation 600 V (6 AWG and larger) XLP insulation 5-35 kV EPR insulation 5-35 kV Polyurethane jacket EVA jacket XLP insulation 600 V (14-8 AWG) FR-EPR insulation CSPE (insulation grade) FR-XLP insulation CSPE jacket (heavy duty) Neoprene jacket CPE jacket CSPE jacket (extra heavy duty) PVC jacket Typical Halogen Content Percent by weight <0.5 Halogen Content Table 3.02 <0.4. Typical values are shown below. The above values should be used for general comparisons only.25–LOI of Common Wire and Cable Materials Material Teflon PVDF (Kynar) Halar Plenum grade PVC FR-EP FR-XLP CPE Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) CSPE Percent Oxygen 93 43–85 55 38–42 30–40 30–40 28–36 32–35 34 Material Neoprene Tefzel PVC Kevlar NBR PVC XLP (Unfilled) PE (Unfilled) Percent Oxygen 32 30–32 28–32 29 28 20–23 20–23 52 .6 Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) LOI values are used to determine the relative flammability of polymers. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. Table 3.02 <0.3. Tests are usually conducted in accordance with ASTM D2863.

26–Dielectric Constant of Common Wire and Cable Materials Material Teflon (FEP.9 3.5 2.3 2.3–3.3 2.8 Material Polyester (Mylar) Silicone Nylon Mica PVC Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE) Neoprene (PC) Polychloroprene Kynar (PVDF) Dielectic Constant 3.3 2. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.1 2. PFA or TFE) Polypropylene Cross-linked Polyethylene Polyethylene TPE Halar (ECTFE) Tefzel (ETFE) EPR Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Dielectic Constant 2.6 2.5 3.3.2­–5 6.3–2.6 2.4.8–3.5–8 8–10 9–10 6–12 53 .8 3–4 3.7 Dielectric Constant Table 3.2–2.

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1 Conductor Shield (Strand Shield) 4.1.1.2.3 Spiral (Serve) Shield 58 58 59 59 55 .2 Electronic Cable 4.1 Foil Shield 4.2 Outer Shield (Insulation Shield) 56 56 56 4.1 Power Cable 4.2.4.2. Shields 4. Shields 4.2 Copper Braid Shield 4.

It too must remain in intimate contact with the insulation and be free of voids and defects. Electronic cable shields serve to both minimize the effect of external electromagnetic signals on the conductors in the cable and to reduce the radiated signal from the cable to an acceptable level.400 V or greater to be shielded. used in the electronics industry).. shields for electronic and power cables perform very different functions. break molecular bonds and degrade the insulation. 4.1 Conductor Shield (Strand Shield) The nonround geometry of stranded conductors permits air gaps between the outer surface of the conductor and the inner surface of the insulation.4. 4.2 Outer Shield (Insulation Shield) The insulation shield plays much the same role as the conductor shield in protecting the insulation from the damaging effects of corona. Shields A shield is a metallic covering enclosing an insulated conductor or group of conductors. The insulation shield also provides an important safety function at terminations and splices where the metallic part of the shield may not completely cover the cable insulation surface. There are two basic types of conductor shields – “conductive” and “emission” shields. The most popular type. Volume resistivity of the insulation shield is normally less than 500 ohm-meters. 56 . the primary purpose of the conductor shield is to provide a smooth. is the conductive shield. Such a material is commonly referred to as a “semiconductive” shield (not to be confused with semiconductors. The NEC requires most cable rated 2. It is a material (either an extruded carbon black loaded polymer or carbon black impregnated fabric tape) with electrical conductivity midway between that of a metallic conductor such as copper and that of an insulation such as XLP. however. transistors. continuous and void-free interface between the conductor and insulation. An emission shield uses a material with a high dielectric constant to do its job.1. which can harm the insulation. but at the outside of the cable’s insulation. high electric fields cause partial discharges within these gaps. The insulation shield material is either electrically conductive or made of a high dielectric constant material and provides a uniform electrical field within the insulation. 4. i.1. help protect the user from shock hazards and increase cable reliability by preventing partial discharges (corona) in cables. A uniform distribution of electrical stress extends the life of the cable by eliminating partial discharges.1 Power Cable The use of shields in power cables reduces electrical shock hazard to people and provides uniform distribution of electrical stresses throughout the insulation. AEIC document CS8 and ICEA publication T-25-425 contain detailed specifications on the electrical and physical performance of the conductor shield. Semiconductive shields must be as smooth. Thus.e. on the other hand. Power cable shields. Without a stress control layer. Energetic ions bombard the insulation. Though sometimes similar in appearance. The various components of a power cable shield are discussed below. Microscopic channels called “trees” may form and ultimately cause premature failure of the insulation. cylindrical and clean as possible to avoid electrical stress concentrations that can lead to insulation damage.

Jacket Copper tape Insulation shield Insulation Conductor shield Figure 4. UniShield cables have six corrugated copper wires longitudinally imbedded in a conducting CPE jacket. a copper tape shield increases insulation life by maintaining uniform electrical stress throughout the cable insulation and provides low end-to-end resistance of the shield system.1–Power Cable Shielding Advantages • When properly grounded. It is generally helically applied over a semiconducting polymer insulation shield. 57 . Shields Copper Tape Shields The copper tape used in power cable shields is usually 5 mils thick and 1 to 1 1/2 inches wide.1–Typical Copper Tape Shielded Power Cable Table 4. They are sometimes used in combination with copper tape to provide additional shield fault current capacity. provides protection from electrical shock • Increases life of the cable insulation • Reduces electromagnetic interference (EMI) Disadvantages • Must be terminated with a medium-voltage termination to control electrical stresses • Higher cost Wire Shields Metallic wire shields on power cables come in two basic types: helically applied copper wires and UniShield. Helically applied copper wire shields are sometimes used on 5 through 35 kV and higher rated power cables. The wires can be used as “ripcords” to reduce termination time during installation. In combination with the extruded insulation shield. Power cables rated 5 to 35 kV and up frequently utilize copper tape as the metallic component of the metal/polymer shielding system.4.

2–Foil Shield Figure Foil facing in 4. The “Z” fold (Fig. 4.2) with the foil facing in or the foil facing out. especially at high frequencies. Foil shields are most common in electronic and coaxial cables. This backing provides mechanical strength. Foil shields provide excellent protection from electromagnetic interference.3) construction provides the best electrical isolation between shields of adjacent pairs as well as 100 percent coverage. an interference current is induced in the shield. Shields 4.2. In addition to shielding effectiveness. mechanical.2–Foil Shielding Advantages • 100 percent coverage • Low cost • Ease of termination • Good flexibility • Excellent shielding at high frequencies • Poor mechanical strength • Short flex life • Less effective at low frequencies Disadvantages Foil facing out 58 . The shield can be overlapped (Fig. This overlap creates a slot where signal leakage through the shield can occur. As a result. a diversified line of shield designs has evolved in the wire and cable industry.1 Foil Shield Foil shields are usually constructed of aluminum foil with a 1/2-mil thick polyester backing. electronic cable shields must satisfy a long list of electrical.3–Z-Fold Foil Shield Table 4. A tinned copper drain wire is placed in contact with the foil side of the shield to provide easier grounding of the shield at the cable terminations. When a shielded cable is present in an ambient electromagnetic field. 4.2 Electronic CABLE Electronic cable shielding provides an efficient way to manage electromagnetic interference (EMI). 4. Figure 4. The smaller the interference voltage. The incident energy is partially reflected from the shield and partially absorbed by the shield and a small amount penetrates through the shield into the cable.4. The small amount of energy that makes it all the way through the shield generates an interference voltage in the signal carrying conductors of the cable. chemical and cost requirements. the better the shield.

Figure 4. are typically constructed with bare or tinned copper wires from 32 to 40 AWG in size that are helically applied in a flat or ribbon configuration (Fig.4.6). the higher the coverage the better the shield. as they are sometimes called.3 Spiral (Serve) Shield Spiral or serve shields.4–Spiral Shields Advantages • Excellent flexibility • Long flex life Disadvantages • Poor electrical performance at high frequencies 59 . microphone and retractile cord cables where extreme flexibility and a long flex life are required.2. Jacket Outer braid Inner braid Jacket Copper braid Insulation Figure 4.6–Spiral or Serve Shield Table 4. Spiral shields are used primarily in audio. Spiral shields range in coverage from 80 percent to about 97 percent. Braid shields are also commonly used on cables where increased flex life and mechanical strength are required.2 Copper Braid Shield A braid shield typically consists of copper wire ranging in size from 32 to 40 AWG braided into a mesh around the cable core. Braid shields are most effective at low frequencies. Generally. Spiral shields perform best when used at low (audio) frequencies. Shields 4.3–Copper braid shields Advantages • Best at low frequencies • Good mechanical strength • Increased flex life • Increased cost • More difficult to terminate Disadvantages 4.5–Copper Braid Construction on a Coaxial Cable Table 4.4–Dual Braid Shield Construction on a Multipair Cable Figure 4.2. The tightness of the braid determines the percent coverage. Braid shields are typically used on coaxial cables and on low-speed communication cables. Typical coverage ranges from 60 percent to 90 percent. 4.

60 .

Armor 5.3 Basket-Weave 5.5.5 Lead Sheath Wire Serve 61 .1 Interlocked Armor 5. Armor 5.4 5.2 Continuosly Corrugated and Welded (CCW) 62 62 63 63 63 5.

The armor may be applied directly over the insulation or over an inner jacket. However.1).500 1. These stresses could damage the insulated conductors or the optical fibers in the cable if they are not properly protected. safety and performance of the cable core. CSA and/or ICEA. 5. This smooth tube is then rolled or crimped to form ridges to prevent kinking while bending (Fig.) 0 to 1.2 Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW) Continuously corrugated and welded armor is made by forming an aluminum strip into a circle along its length and then welding it at the seam. while improving the reliability.501 and larger Nominal Thickness (mils) Steel or Bronze 20 25 Aluminum 25 30 5. Jacket Armor Figure 5. The interlocking construction protects the cable from damage during and after installation.1–ICEA Recommended Thickness of Interlocked Armor Diameter of Cable (in. Materials and construction generally comply with the requirements of UL. 5.1 Interlocked Armor Interlocked armor typically uses galvanized steel or aluminum.1–Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW) Armor 62 . Table 5. other metals are sometimes used for specialized applications.5. The following are some frequently used armor types. This type of sheath provides an impervious seal against moisture and other chemicals as well as physical protection. Armor Cables often need to be placed in areas where they are subjected to harsh mechanical stresses. The armor extends the life. Armor (usually a metal) is frequently applied over the cable core to provide this protection.

which conforms to the requirements of ASTM B29 and ICEA S-93-639 (NEMA WC74). aluminum or bronze. containing added tin or antimony. In locations where corrosive conditions may be encountered. 5. sharp rocks. Armor 5. 5. etc. Tar or asphalt (bitumen) is placed over and around the steel wires to reduce the effects of corrosion. 63 . Commercially pure lead is used on some lead-covered cables. Materials and construction generally comply with the requirements of IEEE Standard 1580 and various military specifications.5 Wire Serve Wire serve armor is most commonly found on submarine cable because it provides excellent physical protection from boat anchors.3 Basket-Weave Basket-weave armor is constructed of metal wires forming a braided outer covering. Lead alloy sheaths. The wires may be of galvanized steel. This armor is generally used on shipboard cables because it provides the mechanical protection of an armored cable. which are laid helically around the circumference of the cable.to 1/4-inch diameter solid steel wires. a jacket over the lead sheath is recommended. are used where a harder sheath is desired or where vibration may be encountered. ducts and raceways.5. This type of armor is referred to as GSWB (galvanized steel wire braid) in some international standards.4 Lead Sheath For underground installations in conduits. sharks. This type of armor normally consists of 1/8. This type of armor is referred to as SWA (steel wire armor) in some international standards. a lead sheath may be used to protect insulated cables from moisture. yet is much lighter in weight than other types of armored coverings.

64 .

3.6.5.1.1 Flexible Cords 6.5 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 Power 6.3 Short Circuit Current 6.1 Voltage Rating 6.1 Coaxial Cable 6.3 Thermocouple Wire 68 68 68 69 69 6.6 Armored Power and Control 73 73 73 75 76 78 6.3 100 ohm Twisted Pair Cable 6.7.1.3.4 High Temperature 6.4 IBM Cabling System 65 .7.5.2 Mining Cable 67 67 68 6.5.4 Voltage Drop Considerations 6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.7.5 Special Conditions 6.1 Portable Power and Control 6.3 Construction and Building Wire Control.2 6.7.7 Electronic Cable 6.3.2 Conductor Size 6.2 Twinaxial Cable (Twinax) 6.5.5.1 Control Cable 6. Instrumentation and Thermocouple 6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.2 Instrumentation Cable 6.

8.10 Shipboard Cables (MIL-DTL-24643.11. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.11.1 Outside Cables 6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.2 Indoor Cables 6.8 Telephone 6.11.11 Optical Fiber Cables 6.8.9 Military 6.3 Insulation and Jacket Materials 78 78 79 79 6.2 Fiber Selection 6.6.8.3 Optical Fiber Cable Selection 80 81 81 81 82 82 6. MIL-DTL-24640 and MIL-DTL-915) 6.1 Fiber Types 6.12 Tray Cables 84 66 .

Insulation SPT-3 Service Parallel Thermoplastic – 3/64 in. SJOW. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. Insulation SV Service Vacuum SVO Service Vacuum Oil-Resistant Jacket SVOO SVO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SVT Service Vacuum Thermoplastic SVTO SVT with Oil-Resistant Jacket SVTOO SVTO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SVE Service Vacuum Elastomer SVEO SVE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SVEOO SVEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SJ Service Junior SJO SJ with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJOO SJO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SJOOW Weather Resistant SJOO SJT Service Junior Thermoplastic SJTO SJT with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJTOO SJTO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SJTOOW Weather-Resistant SJTOO SJE Service Junior Elastomer SJEO SJE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJEOO SJEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SJEOOW Weather Resistant SJEOO S Service SO Service with Oil-Resistant Jacket SOO SO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SOOW Weather-Resistant SOO ST Service Thermoplastic STO ST with Oil-Resistant Jacket STOO STO with Oil-Resistant Insulation STOOW Weather-Resistant STOO SE Service Elastomer SEO SE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SEOO SEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SEOOW Weather-Resistant SEOO HPN Heater Parallel Neoprene HSJ Heater Service Junior HSJO HSJ with Oil-Resistant Jacket 67 .1. In portable cord terminology. W = weather resistant. For example: S = service. SOOW. and OO = oil-resistant insulation and jacket. SJ. T = thermoplastic. Insulation SPT-2 Service Parallel Thermoplastic – 2/64 in. each letter of the cable type indicates the construction of the cable. SJO.1 Portable Power and Control 6. Insulation SPE-3 Service Parallel Elastomer – 3/64 in. Thermoset portable cords have excellent cold bend characteristics and are extremely durable.1 Flexible Cords Flexible cords come in a number of UL and CSA types including SO. J = junior service (300 volts).6. The temperature rating of these cables can range from –50°C to 105°C for SOOW and –40°C to 90°C for other thermoset cords.1–Flexible Cord Type Designations TST Tinsel Service Thermoplastic SPT-1 Service Parallel Thermoplastic – 1/64 in. Thermoplastic cords typically have temperature ratings that range from –20°C to 60°C. SOW. Insulation SPE-1 Service Parallel Elastomer – 1/64 in. Table 6. Insulation SPE-2 Service Parallel Elastomer – 2/64 in. STO and SJTO. O = oil-resistant jacket.

Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. For example: THHN – Thermoplastic. For this reason an examination of these conditions is at least as important as electrical considerations. Like mine power cables. SE-U. THWN-2.1–A Typical 600 V Control Cable 68 . nylon jacket XHHW-2 – Cross-linked (X) insulation. 6. USE-2. which generally require little power. Among the most common are Type W and Type G. each letter of the wire type indicates something about the construction. RHW. are vital considerations. steel. SHD cables are generally available with or without a ground check conductor. High ambient temperature conditions (such as near boilers and steam lines). commercial and industrial facilities. Mine power feeder (MPF) cables typically have voltage ratings of 5. UL types with a “-2” suffix are rated 90°C in both dry and wet locations. current loading is rarely a deciding factor in the choice of control cable. bare copper PVC Nylon jacket PVC jacket PVC insulation Nylon jacket Tape binder (optional) Figure 6. The voltage level for control circuits may range anywhere from millivolts up to several hundred volts. Environmental Conditions Control cables are generally subject to rather severe environmental conditions. TFFN. Instrumentation and Thermocouple 6. RHH.3. along with possible exposure to oils. high heat resistant.6.1.2 Mining Cable Mine power cables are generally designed to be used as flexible feeder cables for circuits between the main power source and mine load centers or as equipment trailing cables. heat resistant. high heat resistant. MPF cables are flexible but are designed for only limited or occasional movement. high heat resistant. A ground check (GC) conductor is a separate insulated ground wire that is used to monitor the “health” of the normal ground wire. there are a number of portable cables used by the mining industry. Stranded. 8. USE. THWN. SER. THHN. pulp and paper and cement plants). THW-2.and 600-volt wire and cable including UL Types THW. In building wire terminology. wet and dry locations (-2 means 90°C wet) USE-2 – Underground Service Entrance wire (-2 means 90°C wet) 6. thermostat wire.3 Control. Primary criteria that are applied to the selection of control cable are voltage level and environmental conditions. Both cables are a heavy-duty construction. XHHW-2 and others. SHD cables are unique in that they not only carry voltage ratings up to 25 kV but also have great flexibility and incredible physical toughness. can withstand frequent flexing and carry a voltage rating of up to 2 kV. wet and dry locations (-2 means 90°C wet) RHW-2 – Thermoset (rubber) insulation. Therefore. This category of wire is typically used as the permanent wiring in residential. For low-voltage applications. solvents and other chemicals (in chemical. TFN. Shovel (SHD) cables are generally used to power heavy-duty mobile mining equipment. 15 or 25 kV and are available with or without a ground check conductor. petroleum. wet and dry locations (-2 means 90°C wet).1 Control Cable Control cables differ from power cables in that they are used to carry intermittent control signals. XHHW. nylon jacket THWN-2 – Thermoplastic. RHW-2.2 Construction and Building Wire Construction and building wire encompasses a wide variety of 300.

Red color code is negative throughout circuit. inert or reducing atmospheres.3. inert or dry reducing atmospheres. insulation requirements. Temperature limit of the thermocouple depends on the thermocouple wire: wire size. Type T (Copper vs Constantan) is used for service in oxidizing. wire insulation. and therefore heavier gauge wire is recommended for longer life at these temperatures. Type R and S (Platinum vs Rhodium) are used in oxidizing or inert atmospheres. flow. Use thermocouple connectors if required. Must be protected from contamination. The conditions of measurement determine the type of thermocouple wire and insulation to be used. oxidizing. It is highly resistant to corrosion from atmospheric moisture and condensation and exhibits high stability at low temperatures.3 Thermocouple Wire A thermocouple is a temperature measuring device consisting of two conductors of dissimilar metals or alloys that are connected together at one end. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. Extension grade wire is normally lower in cost and is recommended for use in connecting thermocouples to the sensing or control equipment. pressure. Must be protected from sulfurous and marginally oxidizing atmospheres.000°F). or for short periods of time under vacuum.4–A Typical Thermocouple Circuit 69 . Exposure to a vacuum should be limited to short time periods. Type E (Chromel vs Constantan) may be used in oxidizing. Reliable and accurate at high temperatures. Thermocouple wire is available in either thermocouple grade or extension grade. They are made of the same alloys and have the same color codes as extension wire. Source: PMC Corporation Figure 6. it is the only type with limits of error guaranteed for cryogenic temperatures. and environmental factors. Note that thermocouple wire color codes can vary around the world. etc. as it is called. Figure 6. inert or dry reducing atmospheres.6.2 Instrumentation Cable Instrumentation cable is generally used to transmit a low-power signal from a transducer (measuring for example. inert or reducing atmospheres or in a vacuum. voltage. Must be protected from sulfurous and marginally oxidizing atmospheres. environment. a small voltage is produced. Electronic equipment senses this voltage and converts it to temperature. Produces the highest EMF per degree of any standardized thermocouple. Thermocouple wire or thermocouple extension wire of the same type must be used to extend thermocouples to indicating or control instrumentation. Type K (Chromel vs Alumel) is used in oxidizing. Reliable and accurate at high temperatures. It is normally available in 300. Temperature range. Iron oxidizes rapidly at temperatures exceeding 538°C (1.) to a PLC or DCS process control computer or to a manually operated control panel. temperature. Thermocouple Types Type J (Iron vs Constantan) is used in vacuum. At this thermocouple junction. Hook up red color-coded wire to negative terminal of instrument. or with individual shields over each pair (or triad) and an overall shield. response and service life should be considered.or 600-volt constructions with a single overall shield.3.2–Control Cable with Overall Shield Figure Figure 6. Thermocouple wire can be fabricated into an accurate and dependable thermocouple by joining the thermoelements at the sensing end.3–Control Cable with Individually Shielded Pairs and An Overall Shield 6.

SRK. SRGK and UL Types SF-2 and SFF-2 SRG. 3074. The table below lists some of the most common high-temperature wire and cable types along with their temperature rating.000 842 482 392 302 257 MG (Non-UL) MG (UL Style 5107) TGGT (UL Styles 5196 and 5214). 3125. 3172 and 3231).4 High Temperature High temperature generally refers to wire or cable with a temperature rating of 125°C (257°F) or higher. TCGT (UL Style 5288) SRG (UL Styles 3071. TKGT (UL Style 5214) TMMG. 3075.1 Thermocouple Type Wire Alloys *Iron (1) vs Constantan (2) Chromel (1) vs *Alumel (2) Copper (1) vs Constantan (2) Chromel (1) vs Constantan (2) Platinum (1) vs 13% Rhodium (2) Platinum (1) vs 10% Rhodium (2) ANSI Symbol J K T E R S +/– Individual White/Red Yellow/Red Blue/Red Purple/Red – – Color Code Jacket Brown Brown Brown Brown – – *Magnetic Table 6. 3213 and 3214 UL Style 3284 and CSA CL1254 Type 70 . TGS and UL Styles 3212. Cable Types and Selection Criteria Table 6.4–High-Temperature Wire and Cable °C 538 450 250 200 150 125 °F 1.1 Thermocouple Type Wire Alloys *Iron vs Constantan Chromel vs *Alumel Copper vs Constantan Chromel vs Constantan Platinum vs 13% Rhodium (2) Platinum vs 10% Rhodium (2) ANSI Symbol JX KX TX EX RX SX +/– Individual White/Red Yellow/Red Blue/Red Purple/Red Black/Red Black/Red Color Code Jacket Black Yellow Blue Purple Green Green *Magnetic 6.6.2–Color Code for Thermocouple Wire Per ANSI/ISA MC96.3–Color Code for Thermocouple Extension Wire Per ANSI/ISA MC96. Table 6.

2 Conductor Size Conductor size is based principally on three considerations: • Current-carrying capacity (ampacity) • Short-circuit current • Voltage drop The current-carrying capacity of a cable is affected primarily by the permissible operating temperature of its insulation. This condition results in full line-to-line voltage stress across the insulation of each of the other two conductors. it is possible to operate ungrounded systems for up to one hour with one conductor at ground potential. the presence of the other cables effectively increases the ambient temperature. Similarly. such as the presence of corrosive agents. a cable installed in a 40°C ambient temperature has an ampacity that is only about 90 percent of the ampacity in a 30°C ambient. proximity of other cables. adjacent sources of heat. 71 . The direct result of such a design is lower cost. as well as reduced cable diameter. It is apparent from the above that many conditions must be known before an accurate current-carrying capacity can be determined for a particular cable installation. emergency overload conditions are also involved and may affect conductor size. • Voltage drop • Special conditions. which decreases the ability of the cable to dissipate its heat. when a cable is run close to other cables.1 Voltage Rating The system voltage on which the cable is to operate determines the required cable voltage rating. The higher the operating temperature of the insulation. the higher the current-carrying capacity of a given conductor size. Running a single-conductor cable through a magnetic conduit will increase the apparent resistance of the cable and will also result in a lower current-carrying capacity due to the additional resistance and magnetic losses. Cables designed for use on grounded systems take advantage of the absence of this full line-to-line voltage stress across the insulation and use thinner insulation.5 Power Below are some of the key considerations when selecting a power cable: • System voltage • Current loading (ampacity) • External thermal conditions such as ambient temperature. Occasionally. flexibility and flame resistance 6. The current-carrying capacity is materially affected by the ambient temperature as well as by the installation conditions. thermal conductivity of soil.5.6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.5. Cables rated 5 kV and above are separated into two classifications: grounded systems (100 percent insulation level) and ungrounded systems (133 percent insulation level). etc. 6. For example. In case of a phase-to-ground fault in a three-phase system. For this reason each conductor of such a circuit must have additional insulation. The temperature at which a particular cable will operate is affected by the ability of the surrounding material to conduct away the heat.

5–Typical Tape Shielded 15 kV Power Cable Figure 6.000 V 8. on short.001-15.6. even though the current load is adequately handled by a smaller size conductor. 72 .0015. From a thermal standpoint there is a limit to the amount of short-circuit current that a cable can handle without damage.000 V 28.000 V Conductor Size (AWG or kcmil) 8 6-4 2 1 1/0-2000 5. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.000 V Percent Insulation Level 100 90 90 90 90 90 100 – 115 115 115 115 133 – 140 140 140 140 100 – – 175 175 175 133 – – 220 220 220 100 – – – 260 260 133 – – – 320 320 100 – – – 280 280 133 – – – 345 345 100 – – – – 345 133 – – – – 420 25. Table 6. high-voltage lines by heating.001-35.6–Typical Wire Shielded 15 kV Power Cable 6.001-28. Due to voltage drop considerations.000 V 15. low-voltage lines is governed by voltage drop. which the cable must be able to carry in an emergency. it might be necessary to increase conductor size.000 V PVC jacket Extruded insulation shield Extruded conductor shield PVC jacket Binder tape Extruded insulation shield Extruded conductor shield Copper conductor Copper shielding tape EPR insulation Copper conductor Copper wire shield XLP insulation Figure 6.5. Generally.5. conductor size on long.4 Voltage Drop Considerations Cable conductor size is sometimes governed by voltage drop rather than by heating.001-25.5–Thickness in Mils of Insulation for Medium-Voltage Cables 2.001-8.3 Short Circuit Current A second consideration in selection of conductor size is that of the short-circuit current.

insulation material. which separates the inner and outer conductors • Jacket.5. Some common types and key characteristics are described below. and the advice of competent engineers obtained.6. These basic types come in various combinations of stranding.5 Special Conditions The following are only a few of the many special conditions that may affect cable selection: • The presence of large sources of heat (boilers. which is the outer polymer layer protecting the parts inside Outer conductor Inner conductor PVC jacket PE dielectric Figure 6.) • The effect of magnetic materials such as pipes or structural members close to large cables carrying heavy current loads • The presence of corrosive chemicals in the soil or other locations in which the cable is installed • The interference that may occur in telecommunication circuits because of adjacent power cables • Flame and radiation resistance • Mechanical toughness • Moisture resistance • Overload and fault current requirements All special conditions should be carefully investigated. see Section 5 – Armor. 6. 6. jacket material.7 Electronic Cable This category of wire and cable covers thousands of small gauge single-conductor wire types along with many types of multiconductor cables. before proceeding with an important cable installation. conductor count.7. etc. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. For information on the various types and their applications.6 Armored Power and Control Armored cables comprise a group of cables that are designed to withstand severe mechanical and chemical environments. steam lines. 6.1 Coaxial Cable A coaxial cable consists of four basic parts: • Inner conductor (center conductor) • Outer conductor (shield) • Dielectric.7–Typical Coaxial Cable 73 . etc.

• Semirigid Coax Semirigid coax has a solid. Uniformity is also measured as structural return loss (SRL). 74 . The dielectric (insulation) separating the two conductors determines the velocity of propagation. many cables have several layers in the outer conductor. • Flexible Coax The most common type. the quality of the dielectric is important to efficient. while the other serves as earth ground. Velocity of Propagation Velocity of propagation is the speed at which electromagnetic energy travels along the cable. In addition. Operating Temperature Range These are the minimum and maximum temperatures at which the cable can operate. however. In free space or air. Velocity of propagation is expressed as a percentage of the speed of light. it does not provide complete shielding – energy (RF signals) can leak through the shield via minute gaps in the braid. For example. In other materials. Although the electromagnetic energy travels in the dielectric. Characteristic impedance is independent of length and typically ranges from 35 to 185 ohms. For example. the current associated with the energy travels primarily on the outside of the center conductor and the inside of the outer conductor (shield). where the consequences of mismatches are more severe. Consequently. This construction gives the cable a very uniform characteristic impedance (low VSWR) and excellent shielding. flexible coax has a braided outer conductor (shield) of extremely fine wires. electromagnetic energy travels at the speed of light. providing better noise immunity and shielding. the energy travels slower. It expresses the uniformity or quality of a cable’s characteristic impedance.900 miles per second – or 35 percent slower than in free space. The two conductors bind the energy within the cable. similar to a pipe.6. which is 186. which is dependent on length. a transmitter. speedy transfer of energy. One outer conductor (shield) serves as a signal ground. The most efficient transfer of energy from a source to a load occurs when all parts of the system have the same characteristic impedance. Speed is important to engineers who must know the transit time of signals for digital transmission. To combat this. a velocity of 65 percent means that the energy travels at 120. Voltage Rating This is the maximum voltage the cable is designed to handle. interconnecting cable and receiver should all have the same impedance. The greater the coverage. One caution: Do not confuse a flexible cable having a multilayer outer shield with triaxial cable. Coaxial Types The following paragraphs describe four common types of coaxial cable.000 miles per second. 75 and 93 ohms. • Triaxial Cable (Triax) This coax has two outer conductors (shields) separated by a dielectric layer. thin foils are sometimes used to supplement the braid to provide better coverage for greater shielding effectiveness. but at the expense of flexibility. • Dual Coax This cable contains two individual coaxial cables surrounded by a common outer jacket. the better the shield. While the braid makes the cable flexible. This need for impedance matching is especially critical at higher frequencies. The characteristic impedance of a cable should not be confused with the impedance of the conductors in a cable. depending on the dielectric constant of the material. tubular metallic outer conductor. VSWR The voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) is a measure of the standing waves that result from reflections. Cable Types and Selection Criteria Characteristic Impedance The characteristic impedance of a coaxial cable is a function of its geometry and materials. The most common values are 50.

9–A Typical Twinaxial Cable 75 . Jacket Twinax Outer conductor (braid) Inner conductor Dielectric Figure 6. In appearance.6. A common use of twinax is high-speed. Balanced mode means that the signal is carried on both conductors.8–Common Types of Coaxial Cable 6. but it is held to the tighter tolerances common to fixed-impedance coaxial cable. balanced-mode multiplexed transmission in large computer systems. Cable Types and Selection Criteria Flexible Coax Jacket Outer conductor (braid) Semirigid Coax Outer conductor Inner conductor Inner conductor Dielectric Triax Jacket Outer conductor (braid) Inner conductor (braid) Jacket Dual Coax Outer conductor (braid) Dielectric Dielectric Inner conductor Dielectric Inner conductor Figure 6.2 Twinaxial Cable (Twinax) Twinax has a pair of insulated conductors encased in a common outer conductor (shield).7. The center conductors may be either twisted or run parallel to one another. which provides greater noise immunity. the cable is often similar to a shielded twisted pair.

5e.0 10.8 48.7 43.0 25.7 40.0 Insertion Loss (dB) 2.4 35.3 10.0 22.6.8 47.0 25. impedance and other electrical parameters are specified in ANSI/TIA-568-B.9 38.0 23.5 20.0 NEXT (dB) 65.3 32.0 4.8 6.8 Return Loss (dB) 20.772 1. crosstalk.8 44.3 23.2 PSNEXT (dB) 43 41 32 28 26 23 Maximum propagation delay: 545 ns/100 m at 10 MHz Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at 16 MHz Characteristic impedance: 10015 ohms from 1 to 16 MHz Table 6.6 21.2 9.3 47.7.0 4.1 5.3 23.8 26.8 41.3 PSNEXT (dB) 62.2 2.0 40. A summary of their electrical requirements are shown below.7–Category 5e Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) 1. 6 and 6A.6 8.5 8.7 34.2 45.9 24.1 NEXT (dB) 43.5 100.0 Insertion Loss (dB) 2. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.0 16.8 51.5 25.0 24.8 50.0 25.8 35.4 32.0 24.8 39.3 44.9 20.3 39.0 8.3 53.6–Category 3 Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) 0.7 37.3 51.8 42.0 16.0 20.3 56.9 35. Because of their relatively low cost these cable types are widely used and are available in several different performance categories (levels) – currently Categories 3. Insertion loss.9 27.3 48.0 10.4 11.0 4.8 30.0 31.25 62.8 45.8 33.1 Maximum propagation delay: 538 ns/100 m at 100 MHz Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at 100 MHz 76 .9 23.8 PSELFEXT (dB) 60.7 13.2 42.0 8.3 ELFEXT (dB) 63.5 9. Table 6.3 27.8 36.6 5.2 and its related addenda.7 17.8 32.3 100 ohm Twisted-Pair Cable 100 ohm unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted pair (STP) are low pair-count cables (usually 4 pairs) that have been designed for use in local area networks such as Ethernet.3 42.

0 72.3 ELFEXT (dB) 70.8 18.8–Category 6 Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) 0.3 51.7 38.2 28.6 58.7 39.8 46.3 54.3 37.8 PSACRF (dB) 64.5 100.0 67.2 5.8 57.0 64.3 60.8 19.8 Return Loss (dB) 20.2 PSANEXT (dB) 67.0 67.4 42.8 24.8 29.0 59.8 5.0 67.0 150.0 500.5 20.8 37.4 20.0 31.7 15.3 39.3 6.0 67.0 67.2 48.3 32.3 39.2 54.8 16.7 38.8 37.3 49.8 40.8 16.25 62.1 36.9 47.8 52.0 25.0 25.2 54.7 47.8 ACRF (dB) 67.0 67.8 53.8 57.0 350.4 10.3 16.8 51.0 23.0 64.9 27.1 18.2 54.5 10.3 37.0 32.8 38.1 35.5 20.3 41.0 23.3 16.0 66.0 450.0 10.3 56.9 47.0 200.1 52.0 250.4 42.0 7.0 20.0 8.3 63.0 Insertion Loss (dB) 1.8 2.7 27.0 24.8 14.3 56.7 47.8 11.0 3.2 30.8 55.4 44.5 61.2 25.7 41.3 60.2 52.5 100.0 24.1 34.8 55.2 52.3 54.772 1. Cable Types and Selection Criteria Table 6.9 24.9 45.3 26.3 65.8 PSELFEXT (dB) 67.2 34.7 10.9 18.5 33.8 52.0 400.0 74.0 67.3 NEXT (dB) 74.3 58.7 27.5 62.3 58.0 67.0 Insertion Loss (dB) 2.2 50.8 5.2 40.0 16.6 21.3 35.3 18.8 59.9 12.8 53.8 34.0 4.2 Maximum propagation delay: 538 ns/100 m at 100 MHz Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at all frequencies 77 .8 34.0 24.8 36.3 38.3 13.0 25.0 19.5 31.8 51.3 23.9 45.3 PSNEXT (dB) 74.2 60.0 10.0 17.0 24.1 34.8 21.0 200.8 43.8 36.1 33.3 51.3 49.5 57.1 23.8 19.4 19.7 13.5 15.3 Maximum propagation delay: 538 ns/100 m at 100 MHz (536 at 250 MHz) Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at all frequencies Table 6.6 21.8 49.6.9 7.9 28.9 15.0 67.6 21.25 62.4 44.0 250.1 58.9 31.9 24.3 65.3 63.7 44.5 15.3 34.3 37.8 39.6 31.8 PSNEXT (dB) 72.1 3.8 46.3 15.8 36.0 16.5 25.7 41.0 67.0 17.0 20.8 59.5 8.0 31.7 45.1 24.6 8.0 25.9 15.5 PSAACRF (dB) 67.5 25.9 28.7 44.9 27.9–Category 6A Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) 1.8 16.8 NEXT (dB) 76.1 42.8 18.8 Return Loss (dB) 19.1 18.0 300.8 40.0 4.0 25.8 39.5 9.0 25.9 31.3 21.8 49.7 32.3 23.8 38.0 8.0 67.8 36.8 15.4 9.7 37.8 43.3 42.4 56.

In a balanced system. because they are often installed in underground ducts or directly buried in the earth. Many high pair-count copper cables have been replaced by optical fiber cables.5 (Token Ring) networks and equipment. mechanical damage and lightning induced voltages. the interstices between insulated conductors are filled with a waterproofing gel to prevent the ingress and longitudinal movement of water. 6. Immunity is the ability of the cable to reject outside signals that might interfere with the proper operation of the circuit or system to which the cable is attached.083 µF per mile) between the “tip” and “ring” conductors and compromises crosstalk (pair-to-pair signal coupling) performance of the cable.1 Outside Cables Outside cables typically range in size from small (2 to 6 pair) constructions.4 IBM Cabling System The IBM Cabling System is a structured building wiring system that is compatible with IEEE 802.” which is a 2-pair DGM cable. Shielded cables generally use an aluminum or copper shield to provide protection.” which contains two DGM pairs plus four VGM pairs and “Type 6. offers better protection from EMI problems. Generally. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 100-ohm Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) vs Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) There are two basic types of electromagnetic interference (EMI) that cable engineers worry about – EMI emissions and EMI immunity.. the shield acts as a barrier to incoming as well as outgoing EMI. the more twists per foot of the cable. The PE jacket and metal armoring isolate signal-carrying conductor pairs from moisture. 6. the better the cable is electrically balanced. Exchange cables are manufactured in “filled” and “unfilled” (aircore) versions. For example. In conjunction with microwave and satellite transmission.8 Telephone Telephone cables play a major role in modern communications. 78 . failure to properly manage EMI can have an adverse effect on the integrity of the transmitted information. inside homes and commercial buildings. up to large 1. In an unshielded (UTP) cable. telephone wire and cable has generally been grouped into three broad categories: 1) fiber. the other to the ring of the plug. Emissions refer to energy that is radiated by the cable that might affect the proper operation of a neighboring circuit or system. which are usually referred to as “service drop” or “buried distribution” wire (the cable installed in many residential backyards). therefore.” which is a 2-pair DGM cable with smaller conductors (26 AWG instead of 22 AWG). “Type 2. Wire or cable used indoors. Water is the “Achilles’ heel” of outdoor telephone cable because it increases capacitance (normally 0. Cable types include “Type 1. Cable used outdoors between the telephone company’s central office and the building being served is referred to as outside cable.g. One conductor was attached to the tip. or sometimes called black cable. e. When properly grounded (connected) to the associated electronic equipment. 2) copper and 3) hybrid (composite) cable with both fiber and copper components under one jacket. Cable types consist of various combinations of shielded data grade media (DGM) and non-shielded voice grade media (VGM). are designed with various combinations of polyethylene (PE) jackets and aluminum. 6. The terms tip and ring are carryovers from earlier days when each twisted pair was terminated with a 1/4-inch diameter plug at a manually operated switchboard. is referred to as premises distribution wiring or more simply as inside cable.8. copper and optical fiber cables provide the communication links that have become essential to society.500 pair “exchange” cables. In local area networks (LANs). Electromagnetic interference is present in all types of cabling to some degree. Category 5e cable has more twists per foot than Category 3 cable and. copper or steel sheaths. With the advent of optical fiber cables in the early 1980s.6.7. With filled cables. which are typically installed between central offices of the telephone company. the currents in the two conductors are equal in magnitude but flowing in opposite directions. there is very little radiation of EMI since the external field from one conductor is effectively canceled by the external field from the other conductor of the pair. Some aircore cable designs are kept dry by pressurizing the core of the cable with dry air or nitrogen. Exchange cables. That is. Telephone cable is usually classified according to its location of use. careful design of the cable and the associated electronic equipment results in a “balance” of the currents in the two conductors of a pair.

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.8.2 Indoor Cables Inside wire and cable is usually divided into 1) station wire and 2) inside cable (sometimes called IC). Station wire is usually 2 to 4 pair, 22 or 24 AWG wire and is typically installed in residences. While station wire is one type of inside wire, it is usually designed for both indoor and outdoor use because it often extends to the exterior of the building. True inside cable, on the other hand, is typically larger (25 to 200 pair) 22 or 24 AWG cable, which is installed exclusively indoors in larger public and commercial buildings. Station wire and inside cables are usually used in plenum, riser, and general purpose versions. The plenum version is a highly flame retardant construction that is capable of passing the Steiner Tunnel Flame Test (NFPA-262). Article 800 of the National Electrical Code (NEC) requires that telephone wire and cable be plenum rated when installed indoors in plenums (air handling spaces) without conduit, i.e., it must carry the marking CMP (CM for communication and P for plenum). When installed in vertical risers in multistory buildings, a riser rating, i.e., Type CMR, is required. General purpose communication cables must be labeled Type CM. Cables installed in one- and two-family dwellings must be identified as Type CMX. 6.8.3 Insulation and Jacket Materials Two thermoplastic polymers are generally used to insulate the conductors of outdoor telephone wire and cable: polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene (PE). These polymers are used primarily because of their low dielectric constant, high dielectric strength (to withstand lightning induced overvoltages), excellent moisture resistance, mechanical toughness, extrudability in thin walls and low cost. Indoor dielectrics include PP and PE but, in addition, include FEP (fluorinated ethylene-propylene or Teflon), ECTFE (ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene or Halar) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride). FEP and ECTFE are used in plenum cables to provide the necessary flame retardancy and are extruded on the wire in either solid or foamed (expanded) versions. The most important telephone wire and cable electrical characteristics and their usual units of measurement include capacitance (microfarads per mile), conductor resistance (ohm per loop-mile), crosstalk (decibel isolation between pairs) and attenuation (decibels per mile). When used for high-speed digital applications, characteristic impedance (ohm) and structural return loss (decibels) also become important. The mechanical and chemical characteristics of telephone cable insulation are as important as the electrical characteristics. Several important mechanical and chemical characteristics include compression cut resistance, low-temperature brittleness, resistance to the base oils used in filling gels, adequate tensile and elongation properties, and acceptable long-term aging characteristics.

79

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.9 Military
The U.S. military has developed extensive specifications for many wire and cable types used in military applications. This includes hook-up and lead wire, airframe wire, control cable and coax. A MIL-Spec wire or cable must meet rigorous performance requirements. Tests that prove the wire or cable meets the specified requirements must be conducted by the manufacturer and must be carefully documented. Following is a partial list of military wire and cable types.
Type MIL-C-5756 MIL-C-7078 MIL-C-13294 MIL-DTL-915 MIL-DTL-3432 MIL-DTL-8777 MIL-DTL-13486 MIL-DTL-16878 MIL-DTL-24640 MIL-DTL-24643 MIL-DTL-25038 MIL-DTL-23053 MIL-DTL-27072 MIL-DTL-27500 MIL-DTL-49055 MIL-DTL-55021 MIL-I-22129 MIL-W-76 MIL-W-5845 MIL-W-5846 MIL-W-81822 MIL-W-47206 Cable, aerospace vehicle (replaced by NEMA WC27500) Field wire (replaced by MIL-DTL-49104–inactive) Shipboard cable (inactive for new design except outboard types) Power and special purpose cables used for ground support systems (“CO” types), 300 and 600 V Aircraft wire, silicone insulated, 600 V, 200˚C (inactive for new design) Cable, special purpose, low tension, single and multiconductor, shielded and unshielded General purpose hook-up and lead wire Shipboard cable, lightweight Shipboard cable, low smoke Aircraft wire, inorganic fibrous/Teflon insulation, high temperature and fire resistant, engine zone wire Tubing, heat shrink (replaced by SAE-AMS-DTL-23053) Cable, power and special purpose, multiconductor and single shielded Aerospace and other general application wire (replaced by NEMA WC27500) Cable, power, flat, unshielded Cable, shielded singles, twisted pairs and triples, internal hook-up Tubing, PTFE, nonshrink General purpose hook-up wire Thermocouple wire, iron and Constantan (cancelled with no replacement) Thermocouple wire, chromel and alumel Solderless wrap (wire wrap), insulated and uninsulated (replaced by SAE-AS81822) Cable, single conductor, twisted pairs; and multiconductor, high temperature (replaced by MIL-DTL-27500) Description Cable and wire, portable power, rubber insulated (replaced by SAE-AS5756)

80

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.10 Shipboard Cables (MIL-DTL-24643, MIL-DTL-24640 and MIL-DTL-915)
Due to concern about flammability, smoke and toxicity, the U.S. Navy introduced the MIL-DTL-24643 cable specification. Generally, this document provides low-smoke, fire-retardant cables that are approximately equivalent in size, weight and electricals to many of the older MIL-DTL-915 constructions. In consideration of circuit density, weight and size, the U.S. Navy produced the MIL-DTL-24640 cable document. The cables covered by this specification are also low-smoke, fire-retardant constructions, but they are significantly lighter in weight and smaller in diameter. MIL-DTL-24640 cables are used to interconnect systems where weight and space savings are critical; however, they are not direct replacements. Because the overall diameters have been reduced and electrical characteristics may have been changed, they should not be used to replace existing MIL-DTL-915 or MIL-DTL-24643 constructions unless a comprehensive electrical and physical system evaluation or redesign has been completed. For many years, most of the shipboard power and lighting cables for fixed installation had silicone-glass insulation, polyvinyl chloride jacket, and aluminum armor and were of watertight construction. It was determined that cables with all of these features were not necessary for many applications, especially for applications within watertight compartments and noncritical areas above the watertightness level. Therefore, for applications within watertight compartments and noncritical areas, a new family of non-watertight lower cost cables was designed. This family of cables is electrically and dimensionally interchangeable with silicone-glass insulated cables of equivalent sizes and is covered by Military Specification MIL-DTL-915.

6.11 Optical Fiber Cables
In all types of optical fiber cables, the individual optical fibers are the signal transmission media that act as individual optical wave guides. The fibers consist of a central transparent core region that propagates the optical radiation and an outer layerµm that completes the guiding structure. 125 µm The core 50 or 62.5 125 µm cladding 8 µm core and the cladding are typically made of pure silica glass, though other materials can be used. To achieve high signal bandwidth capabilities, the core region diameter core diameter diameter diameter sometimes has a varying (or graded) refractive index. Multimode Fiber Single-mode Fiber 6.11.1 Fiber Types
In pulse Out pulse

Multimode 125 µm 50 or 62.5 µm diameter core diameter Multimode Fiber In pulse 8 µm core diameter 125 µm diameter Single-mode

Single-mode Fiber

Out pulse Figure 6.10–Optical Fiber Types

There are two basic fiber types – single-mode and multimode. Single-mode has a core diameter of 8 to 10 microns and is normally used for long distance requirements (e.g., interstate) and high-bandwidth (information carrying capacity) applications. Multimode, on the other hand, has a core diameter of 50 orMultimode 62.5 microns and is usually used intrabuilding. Laser-optimized fibers are a fairly recent development in which 50-micron multimode fibers are optimized for 850 nm VCSEL (vertical cavity surface emitting laser) sources and can provide significantly increased bandwidth performance when compared with standard multimode fiber types. The added bandwidth of laser-optimized 50-micron fiber allows for distance support up to 550 meters for 10 Gigabit Ethernet networks as well as providing a lower overall Single-mode system cost when compared with single-mode systems utilizing higher cost 1300 or 1550 laser sources. Laser-optimized fiber is referred to as “OM3” fiber in ISO/IEC-11801. OM3 fibers are also referenced by other industry standards, such as the ANSI/TIA-568 wiring standards and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). OM1 and OM2 designations are specified for standard 62.5 and 50 micron multimode fibers, respectively.

81

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.11.2 Fiber Selection The three major fiber parameters used in selecting the proper fiber for an application are bandwidth, attenuation and core diameter. Bandwidth The bandwidth at a specified wavelength represents the highest sinusoidal light modulation frequency that can be transmitted through a length of fiber with an optical signal power loss equal to 50 percent (-3 dB) of the zero modulation frequency component. The bandwidth is expressed in megahertz over a kilometer length (MHz-km). Attenuation The optical attenuation denotes the amount of optical power lost due to absorption and scattering of optical radiation at a specified wavelength in a length of fiber. It is expressed as an attenuation in decibels of optical power per kilometer (dB/km). The attenuation is determined by launching a narrow spectral band of light into the full length of fiber and measuring the transmitted intensity. This measure is then repeated for the first 1.5 to 2.5 meters of the same fiber cable without disturbing the input end of the fiber. The dB/km attenuation is then calculated and normalized to 1 km. Core Diameter The fiber core is the central region of an optical fiber whose refractive index is higher than that of the fiber cladding. Various core diameters are available to permit the most efficient coupling of light from commercially available light sources, such as LEDs or laser diodes.

Ray outside acceptance cone Acceptance cone

Cladding

Core

Ray lost in cladding by absorption
Figure 6.11–Optical Fiber Attenuation 6.11.3 Optical Fiber Cable Selection Another important consideration when specifying optical fiber cable is the cable construction. Proper selection depends on the environment in which the cable will be installed. One of two different types of cable construction are generally employed to contain and protect the optical fibers. Loose Buffer The first is a loose buffer tube construction where the fiber is contained in a water-blocked polymer tube that has an inner diameter considerably larger than the fiber itself. This provides a high level of isolation for the fiber from external mechanical forces that might be present on the cable. For multifiber cables, a number of these tubes, each containing one or more fibers, are combined with the necessary longitudinal strength member. Loose buffer cables are typically used in outdoor applications and can accommodate the changes in external conditions (e.g., contraction in cold weather and elongation in warm weather).

82

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

Tight Buffer The second cable construction is a tight buffer tube design. Here, a thick buffer coating is placed directly on the fiber. Both constructions have inherent advantages. The loose buffer tube construction offers lower cable attenuation from a given fiber, plus a high level of isolation from external forces. This means more stable transmission characteristics under continuous mechanical stress. The tight buffer construction permits smaller, lighter weight designs and generally yields a more flexible cable. A comparison of these two cable constructions is shown below.

Fiber

Loose buffer tube

Tight buffer tube

Figure 6.12–Optical Fiber Cable Designs Table 6.10–A Comparison of Loose Tube and Tight Buffer Optical Fiber Cable
Cable Parameter Bend radius Diameter Tensile strength, installation Impact resistance Crush resistance Attenuation change at low temperatures Cable Construction Loose Tube Larger Larger Higher Higher Higher Lower Tight Buffer Smaller Smaller Lower Lower Lower Higher

Strength Members Once the optical fiber is surrounded with a buffer, either loose or tight, strength members are added to the cable structure to keep the fibers free from stress and to minimize elongation and contraction. Such strength members provide tensile load properties similar to electronic cables and, in some cases, are used as temperature stabilization elements. Jacket As with conventional metallic cables, the jacket protects the core from the external environment. With optical fibers, however, the selection of materials is influenced by the fact that the thermal coefficient of expansion of glass is significantly lower than that of the metal or plastic used in the cable structure. Installation Normal cable loads sustained during installation or environmental movements first stress the strength members without transferring the stress to the optical fibers. If the load is increased, the fiber may ultimately be placed in a tensile stress state. This level of stress may cause microbending losses that result in attenuation increase and possibly fatigue effects.

83

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.12 Tray Cables
Tray cables are a special class of cables designed to meet stringent flame test requirements. A tray cable rating is given to a cable if it can meet the UL or CSA Standard for the rating. To obtain the rating, a cable must pass the 70,000 BTU, UL 1685 Vertical Tray Flame test or the Vertical Flame Test described in CSA C22.2 No. 0.3 (See Section 11.2 Fire Safety Tests for additional information). In effect, a cable does not have a tray cable rating unless it is so marked, for example “for CT use” or “Type TC.” Electrical inspectors will usually reject a cable even if it is capable of passing the tray cable fire test unless it is clearly marked on the cable as being a tray-rated cable. A summary of applicable UL Standards, listings and markings is shown in Table 6.11. Note that, in some cases, the tray rating is an optional marking and is not an inherent part of the listing. Other UL and CSA Types that can be installed in tray in accordance with the NEC include CL2, CL2R, CL2P, CL3, CL3R, CL3P, OFN, OFNR and OFNP. Table 6.11–Tray Cable Listings and Markings for Cable Allowed in Tray
Standard UL 4 UL 13 UL Listings (Types) AC PLTC Optional Markings For CT use Low Smoke Direct burial ER (Exposed Run) Wet locations For CT use (1/0 and larger) Sunlight resistant Oil resistant Pump cable (LS) Limited smoke (LS) Limited smoke For CT use Direct burial Sunlight resistant Oil resistant Direct burial Sunlight resistant Oil resistant ER (Exposed Run) LS (Limited Smoke) Direct burial Sunlight resistant CI (Circuit Integrity) Limited combustible Wet location Direct burial Sunlight resistant CI (Circuit Integrity) Limited combustible Wet location For CT USC Sunlight resistant Direct burial (LS) Limited smoke Direct burial Wet location ER (Exposed Run)

UL 44

XHHW-2 RHW-2, RHH, RH SIS, SA

UL 444 UL 1072

CM, CMR, CMP, CMG MV

UL 1277

TC

UL 1424

FPL, FPLR, FPLP

UL 1425

NPLF, NPLFR, NPLFP

UL 1569

MC

UL 2250

ITC

84

13 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings 85 .1 DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors 7.2 DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors 7. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 7.8 7. Electrical Characteristics 7.11 7.5 AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hz 86 89 91 92 93 94 95 96 99 100 101 102 102 7.7 7.7.9 Voltage Drop Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current Maximum Shield Short Circuit Current 7.4 Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz 7.3 DC and AC Resistance of Aluminum Conductors 7.12 Current Ratings for Electronic Cables Ampacity of Power Cables 7.6 Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance 7.10 Resistance and Ampacity at 400 and 800 Hz 7.

the wire or cable must be selected so that its many electrical.127/24 4.728 751.1–DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors Wire Size (AWG/kcmil) 777 750 750 750 700 700 700 650 650 650 646 600 600 600 550 550 550 535 500 500 500 450 450 450 444 400 400 400 373 No.729/24 6.436 494.952/24 703/0.0304 1. 7.0222 0.709 Nominal DC Resistance ohms/1.533 691.0184 0.0220 0.0342 1.028 0. The following sections provide information on some of the most frequently requested electrical parameters.684 644.0200 0.451 399.0158 0.522/30 1.019 455.0169 0.0171 0.0218 0.406 593.0316 1.110/24 427/0.470/24 5.912 505.700 665.028 1.267 744.028 0.1 DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors Table 7. at 20°C (68°F) Silver Plated – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Nickel Plated – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Tin Plated 0.0146 0.930 399.596/24 6.000 ft. chemical and thermal properties match those of the application.826 395.711 752.800 651.0200 0.0146 0.500 551.0292 1.000 373.029 Continued >> 86 .0241 0.372/24 5.332/24 427/0.0157 0.453/30 1.0204 0.0325 1.0165 0.025 0.985/30 703/0.517/30 1.319 452.0148 0.054/30 427/0. of Wires/Size (AWG or in.0243 0.862/24 7.300 538.895 598. safely and efficiently.0200 0.916/30 703/0.0327 1.0306 980/24 3.152 554.990/30 925/24 Strand Class AAR H I K H I K H I K AAR H I K H I K AAR H I K H I K AAR H I K AAR Nominal Area (cmils) 788.) 1.988 698.600 649.125/24 5. Electrical Characteristics For a wire or cable to perform its intended function reliably. physical.400 451.200 448.0183 0.0165 0.0185 0.404 599.800 701.0169 0.141 449.0139 0.647/24 703/0.448/30 703/0.028 0.7.302 545.0244 0.

983 10.259 0.304 66.655 0.264 0.354 249.032 0.947 298. of Wires/Size (AWG or in.053 0.337 345.052 0.084 0.775 104.165 0.376 10.042 0.165 0.409 0. at 20°C (68°F) Silver Plated – – – – – – – – – – – 0.354 6.616 1.066 0.900 260.107 0.682 81.900 210.134 0.037 0.990 250.401 133.107 0.20 1.269 356.103 0.0199 133/25 133/0.65 Continued >> 87 .75 Tin Plated 0.0223 1.861 296.0242 637/24 2.330/30 427/0.031 0.665/30 427/0.0202 817/30 259/0.404 9.0305 Strand Class H I K AAR H I K AAR H I K K H K H K H K H K H K H H H H H H C D H B C D B Nominal Area (cmils) 349.052 0.134 0.10 1.640 0.800 313.205 0.0286 882/24 3.13 1.535 16.325 0.654 1.109/30 427/0. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.818 16.00 1.044 0.669 42.692 0.473 16.052 0.067 0.068 257.500 66.144 0.03 1.082 0.916 299.066 0.628 0.417 0.) 427/0.165 0.000 133.689 0.031 0.105 0.168 0.18 1.259 0.168 0.00 1.018 665/30 259/0.129 0.037 0.116 0.168 0.168 0.164 0.043 0.083 0.500 105.177 0.916 66.053 0.989/30 646/24 427/0.083 0.0385 19/0.59 Nickel Plated – – – – – – – – – – – 0.035 0.393 0.1–DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors (Continued) Wire Size (AWG/kcmil) 350 350 350 313 300 300 300 262 250 250 250 4/0 4/0 3/0 3/0 2/0 2/0 1/0 1/0 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 12  No.164 0.458/30 777/24 427/0.249 0.615 33.0234 37/26 7/0.084 0.052 0.0198 1.202 26.0177 1.500 167.165 0.037 0.343 166.700 83.0211 133/29 7/0.0158 133/27 19/0.088 0.016 133/0.249 0.105 0.512 Nominal DC Resistance ohms/1.045/30 259/0.067 0.642 1.137 0.499/30 2.0295 37/0.043 0.069 0.10 1.137 0.000 ft.0223 133/0.140 52.02 1.066 0.0265 735/24 2.900 212.7.630 0.

10 60.216 700 754 448 475 314 277 304 175 182 112 118 67 43 28 Nominal DC Resistance ohms/1.600 1.69 2. at 20°C (68°F) Silver Plated 1.07 6.105 4. I and K per ASTM 88 .49 4.20 14.0 241.61 2.426 2.0 Tin Plated 1.50 33.99 6.079 4.50 58.60 96.14 4.86 5.41 4.65 4.00 99.5 369.91 1.0 225.70 1.62 4.02 4.00 163.10 33.00 37.10 21.18 9.0092 7/.80 35.71 1.0185 37/28 65/30 7/0.30 82.39 4.78 1. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.87 1.60 14.84 10.80 23.81 2.28 4.0152 7/26 16/30 19/30 19/0.59 2.80 159.580 2.61 5.53 14. H.53 2.60 90.80 2.58 4.0192 19/29 19/0.75 1.60 62.7.82 9. of Wires/Size (AWG or in.70 148.86 5.0 Nickel Plated 1.81 1. D.38 6. C.10 6.503 5.80 39.40 54.70 2.20 88.000 ft.50 36.874 6.600 1.70 24.60 22.80 1.60 1.0147 37/0.60 6.2 Note:  AAR – American Association of Railroads Strand Classes B.78 2.0117 26/30 7/0.0067 7/34 19/38 7/36 19/40 7/38 19/42 7/40 7/42 7/44 Strand Class C C D K B C C D K B C C K B B K C C B K C B C B C B B C B C B C B B B Nominal Area (cmils) 6.14 6.10 5.28 10/30 19/32 7/30 19/34 7/34 19/36 7/0.0 244.27 4.0 391.65 – 9.58 5.67 6.60 24.1–DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors (Continued) Wire Size (AWG/kcmil) 12 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 14 16 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 24 24 25 26 26 28 28 30 30 32 34 36 No.0105 41/30 7/0.23 4.65 2.70 66.22 6.60 13.) 19/25 19/0.30 58.20 4.86 2.15 15.000 1.617 1.62 2.10 36.0 256.600 2.87 2.07 15.63 2.608 1.20 6.27 – 8.111 1.77 7.20 94.69 9.90 34.900 1.500 4.099 3.40 39.769 1.65 2.58 9.0242 19/27 19/0.100 2.088 6.62 2.70 23.831 4.

162 0.9 7.88 1.128 0.96 4.073 0.6 82.57 1.8 260.159 0.3 529.5 7.18 0.203 0.9 119.29 2.6 414.14 1.783 0. Continued >> 89 .102 0.491 0.05 1.122 0.744 0.0 49.515 0.0807 0.1 103.203 0.0807 0.17 0.07 1.0579 †MultiCond. 20°C Conductor Temperature DC (AWG/ kcmil) 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 1. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.102 0.061 DC 75°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.378.184 0.0950 0.8 20.195 0.295 0.1 33. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.5 79.1 0.6 317.0971 0.0629 0.822 0.0799 0.205 0.97 1.744 0.0 789.31 0.29 2.403 0.14 1.154 0.0608 1.13 0.000 ft. Nominal ohms Per 1.99 3.07 1.24 0.2 30.6 125. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.0 827.0639 †MultiCond.2 19.0839 0.325 0.4 10.638 0.0971 0.62 1.466 0.34 5.491 0.466 0.116 0.4 199.29 2.31 0.0794 0.88 1.54 4.18 0. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2. Electrical Characteristics 7.116 0.080.295 0.325 0.184 0.0671 Size Note: 40 AWG through 26 AWG values are for solid conductors.23 3.88 1.250.783 0.9 164.24 0.1 8.2 64.31 0.18 0.163 0.128 0.98 1.8 26.4 75.185 0.0 189.97 1.310 0.154 0.0 648.0769 0.783 0.822 0.1 16.7 480.3 131.126 0.196 0.1 2.0769 0.0639 DC 90°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.98 1.1 332.1 302.515 0.253 0.24 0.31 0.1 0.0 11.98 1.124 0.1 504. all others are for ASTM Class B stranded conductors.295 0.0579 DC 60°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.194 0.0759 0.3 20.162 0. *One single conductor in air.744 0.57 4.105 0.491 0.073 0. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.0923 0.515 0.97 1.0 750.2–DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors.07 1.148 0.0 12.8 209.822 0. †Multiconductor cable or two or three single conductors in one metallic conduit.155 0.1 47.122 0.2 DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors Table 7.147 0.9 13.325 0. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2.7.9 40.118 0.147 0.75 2.064 1.061 †MultiCond. buried or in nonmetallic conduit.3 6.310 0.0923 0.8 52.314.14 1.7 31.466 0.

0123 0.0306 0.0339 0.0369 0.0184 0.031 0.0181 0.0262 0.0373 0.0423 0.0378 0.0302 0.0208 0.500 3.000 1.7.0123 0.025 0.00521 0. 0.0418 0.0198 0.0172 0.0217 ohms per 1.00496 0.0338 0.00983 0.0219 0.00917 0.0246 ohms per 1.0516 0.0229 0.3–Temperature Correction Factors for Copper DC Resistance Temperature (°C) 20°C 60 75 90 0.0353 0.0342 0.00835 – – – †MultiCond.0390 0.750 2.0181 0.00218 0.0152 0.000 ft.822 0.049 0.0141 0.00904 0.0454 0.864 0.00738 0.0231 0.0215 0.0111 – – – 0.000 ft.0117 – – – 0.022 0.0103 0.0145 0. Nominal ohms Per 1.2–DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors.0492 0.00428 0.00278 DC 90°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.00934 0.881 0.0175 0.0411 0.0246 × 0.0137 0.0271 0.00795 – – – †MultiCond. Table 7.0541 0.00847 0.0246 0.0398 0.00874 0.0353 0.0125 0.0113 0.784 Multiplying Factors for Correction To: 25°C 0.0307 0.0326 0.0119 0.0205 0.0138 0.021 0.0108 0.0108 0.000 0.00645 0.01030 0.00818 0.0138 0.00412 0.0178 0.0123 – – – Size Note: 40 AWG through 26 AWG values are for solid conductors.0547 0.0132 0.00861 0.0543 0. 90 .0238 0.0117 0. 0. 0.0573 0.0431 0.250 1.00265 DC 75°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.0208 0.0151 0.881 = 0.0387 0.00433 0.0262 0.0452 0.0219 0.0278 0. 0.00705 0.0135 0.500 1.0249 0. all others are for ASTM Class B stranded conductors.016 0.0461 0.0177 0.00529 0.00982 0.00454 0.0164 0.00701 0.00755 – – – †MultiCond.0355 0.0167 0. 0.00677 0.0437 0.00252 DC 60°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.00774 0.00356 0.0372 0.0409 0.0188 0.0323 0.0433 0.0275 0.0212 0.800 Example: The DC resistance of a 500 kcmil copper conductor at 60°C is 0.035 0. buried or in nonmetallic conduit.0291 0.0483 0.0106 0. (Continued) 20°C Conductor Temperature DC (AWG/ kcmil) 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1.019 0. †Multiconductor cable or two or three single conductors in one metallic conduit.0199 0.000 2.0170 0.0258 0.0518 0. 0.0083 0.0193 0.0226 0.0264 0. *One single conductor in air.0131 0.000 5.00613 0.0129 0.00546 0.0144 0.000 ft.0519 0.00604 0. The resistance at 25°C would be 0.0175 0.838 0. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.0129 0.

03 1.0143 0.7.0806 0.24 2.0578 0.0222 0.253 0.28 0.335 0. 3.240 0.0427 0.0288 0.0320 0.0228 0.0450 0.28 0.507 0.533 0.0273 0.28 0.0741 0.201 0.422 0.0374 0.106 0.93 1.133 0.0121 0.0353 0. 3.0850 0.40 2. 60°C Conductor Temperature DC (AWG/ kcmil) 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1.0500 0. buried or in nonmetallic conduit.167 0.0686 0.0954 0.0253 0.0135 0.808 0.03 1.0406 0.211 0.191 0.0303 0.0269 0.402 0.0605 0.0424 0.101 0.211 0.107 0.266 0.0336 0.0357 0.0744 0.0111 60 Hz AC †MultiCond.0117 75°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC †MultiCond.0292 0.0186 0.319 0.483 0.000 1.0165 3.0158 3.0201 0.0115 0.0177 0.0575 0.483 0.40 2. †Multiconductor cable or two or three single conductors in one metallic conduit.765 0.24 2.765 0.422 0.0216 0.0193 0.0756 0.0307 0.0635 0.808 0.0638 0.0908 0.0448 0.483 0.159 0.533 0. 91 .3 DC and AC Resistance of Aluminum Conductors Table 7.402 0.0353 0.0428 0.101 0.151 0.422 0.319 0. 3.0137 0.159 0.0318 0. 3. Electrical Characteristics 7.303 0.507 0.0203 0.0158 0.848 0.0184 0.382 0.0400 0.266 0.0672 0.0557 0.0445 0.0822 0.0283 0.191 0.4–DC and AC Resistance of Class B Aluminum Conductors.0302 0.0149 0.382 0.34 0.0593 0.0472 0.0162 0.21 0.0370 0.0124 0.0215 0.240 0.0239 0.0322 0.34 0.0111 DC *Single Cond.13 1.0504 0.500 1. 3.765 0.0212 0.0186 0.0288 0.848 0.126 0.0848 0.0525 0.0708 0.0552 0.0370 0.0150 0.167 0.000 ft.126 0.34 0.201 0.0265 0.335 0.0865 0.0218 0.0177 0.93 1.0963 0.0122 90°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC †MultiCond.0706 0.000 3.151 0. 3.402 0.03 1.120 0.167 0.13 1.0207 0.21 0.0168 0.13 1.159 0.303 0.0228 0.0533 0.0808 0.0317 0.0173 Size *One single conductor in air.303 0.0953 0.750 2.0106 DC *Single Cond.0101 *Single Cond.507 0.0608 0.848 0.0142 0.132 0.0507 0.0654 0.266 0.253 0.253 0.211 0. ohms Per 1.382 0.119 0.0892 0.106 0.0333 0.0179 0.08 1.0337 0.0340 0.335 0.201 0.0560 0.119 0.0674 0.08 1.102 0.250 1.0127 0.0890 0.0131 0.0297 0.191 0.132 0.0623 0.21 0.40 2.240 0.0302 0.0176 0.0403 0.93 1.0580 0.24 2.0381 0.127 0.533 0.808 0.319 0.08 1.0720 0.151 0.0170 0.

0520 0.0314 0.0512 0.0779 0.661 0.0627 0.0554 0.0619 0.0440 0.0918 0.659 0.0715 0.1135 0.0328 0.156 0.0926 0. (AWG/kcmil) 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1.181 0.0661 0.0622 0.0842 0.0354 0.0427 0.0476 0.0840 0.0680 0.0673 0.0652 0.0652 0.0276 0.878 0.0685 0.0621 0.7.0264 Impedance 0.0462 0.250 1.0674 0.0876 0.0656 0.835 0.000 1.1000 0.0773 0.0593 0.818 0.0600 0.0639 0.160 0.0640 0.0566 0.0718 0.116 0.0636 0.0701 0.0422 0.137 0.127 0.0664 0.189 0.0687 0.0606 0.151 0.0633 0.0766 0.0532 0.000 ft.0710 0.0880 0.0396 0.6–Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz for Single Copper Conductor Cables Installed in Air.0718 0.000 ft.0582 Impedance 0.0307 0.1025 0.0585 For equations that can be used to calculate inductive reactance for other conductor spacings.0594 0.417 0. Reactance Impedance Reactance Impedance 0.0296 0.118 0.0934 0.664 0.0840 0.861 0.0728 0.0370 0.10.0670 0.0380 0.780 Multiplying Factors for Correction To: 25°C 0.0441 0.424 0. 6 in.0403 × 0.0787 0.0816 0.186 0.0573 0.0403 ohms per 1.0866 0.0706 0.0826 0.0619 0.0789 0.0700 0.1082 0.1070 0.0546 0.0732 0.0588 0.0548 0.108 0.0621 0. The resistance at 25°C would be 0.0753 0.878 = 0.5–Temperature Correction Factors for Aluminum DC Resistance Temperature (°C) 20°C 60 75 90 0.0734 0. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.216 0.0557 0.0500 0.0645 0. 7.000 Reactance 0.0554 0.0360 0.0354 ohms per 1.0814 0.0954 0.0412 0. 92 .0514 0.0892 0.0922 0.0632 0.0760 0.0434 0.0559 0.0512 0.0606 0.000 ft. Buried or in Separate Nonmetallic Conduits Conductor Size 2 in.0518 8 in. per Conductor at 25°C (77°F) Distance Between Centers of Conductors 4 in.0602 0.0500 0.750 2.0481 0.0710 0.0678 0.0522 0.0614 0.0974 0.0597 0.0868 0.0527 0.0376 0.500 1.0400 0. see Section 18.0780 0.0709 0.0460 0.1016 0.796 Example: The DC resistance of a 500 kcm aluminum conductor at 60°C is 0.0682 0.225 0.0404 0.0741 0.0376 0.0660 0.0534 0. Reactance 0.0732 0.0926 0.0819 0.0695 0.0694 0.267 0.0422 0.0908 0.133 0.0539 0.0740 0.0481 0.0815 0.103 0.0272 Approximate ohms per 1.0472 0.0628 0.264 0.0798 0.0869 0.228 0.0660 0.0750 0.261 0.0605 0.0945 0.0772 0.109 0.0700 0.0850 0.0816 0.0561 0.143 0.0884 0.121 0.0982 0.0598 0.175 0.0764 0.0799 0.0527 0.0445 0.0342 0.420 0.255 0.422 0.0976 0.0581 0.0993 0.0285 0.0574 0.4 Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz Table 7.662 0.221 0.0453 0.0853 0.0527 0.0962 0.

Electrical Characteristics 7. For larger conductor sizes the short-circuited sheath losses increase rapidly and the table above does not apply.00 1.7.011 1. two or three cables in the same metallic conduit.06 1.009 1.750 2.00 1.102 1.00 1.000 Single Copper Conductors in Air.19 1.185 1.067 1.16 1.500 1.05 1.21 – – – – – – Source: Underground Systems Reference Book.5 AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hz Table 7. (c) Three-conductor nonshielded cable.039 1.02 1.01 1. two or three cables in the same metallic or nonmetallic duct or conduit. or in Individual Nonmetallic Conduits 1. The single-conductor column in the table above covers single-conductor nonshielded cable having spacing of six inches or more including all conditions of use except when two or more cables are pulled into the same metallic or nonmetallic conduit.03 1. all conditions of use in air.000 1.005 1.00 1.044 1.233 Multiple Copper Conductor Cable or Two or Three Single-Conductor Cables in Same Metallic Conduit 1. multiply DC resistance values corrected for proper temperature by the AC/DC resistance ratio given below. but only with conductor sizes up to 250 kcmils.018 1. Conductor Size (AWG/kcmils) Up to 3 2 and 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 1. in ducts and in conduit.025 1. (d) Three-conductor shielded cable.00 1.034 1.006 1. (b) S  ingle-conductor shielded cable.00 1. Edison Electric Institute.142 1.04 1.08 1. 1957.13 1. The table represents maximum AC losses for the conditions outlined. 93 . The multiple-conductor column in the table above covers the following conditions: (a) Single-conductor cable.00 1.10 1.7–AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hz To determine effective 60 Hz AC resistance. one cable in metal conduit.07 1.250 1.

8–Temperature Correction Factors for the Resistance of Copper Conductors Temp°C 25 40 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 100 105 125 130 150 200 Multiplying Factor 1.308 1.058 1.116 1.193 1.135 1.00393 per degree Celsius 94 . Electrical Characteristics 7.404 1.482 1.000 1.154 1.096 1.212 1.250 1.6 Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance Table 7.289 1.674 The DC resistance of copper wire increases with increasing temperature in accordance with the formula: R =R [1 + a (T – T )] t o o Where: R =Resistance at temperature T t R =Resistance at temperature T o o a =Temperature coefficient of resistance at To [at 20°C (68°F) the temperature coefficient of copper is 0.231 1.385 1.7.173 1.

0029 0.10 for aluminum conductors are calculated at 60°C. For 90°C multiply by 1.577 for single.0064 0.0066 0.0043 100 0.000 80 0.2710 0.0180 0. To obtain values for other circuits.0055 0.1090 0.0270 0.0023 80 0.0260 0.102 for copper and by 1.0095 0. They may be used without significant error for conductor temperatures up to and including 75°C.0110 0.0076 0.9–Phase-to-Phase Voltage Drop Per Amp Per 100 ft.2720 0.9 for copper conductors and 7.0037 0.0050 In Non-Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 0.0023 95 .0085 0.or three-phase line-to-neutral.0140 0.0190 0. Voltage drop = Table value 3 Current in amps 3 Length of circuit in feet 100 Voltage drop in percent = Voltage drop in V 3 100 Circuit voltage in V Table 7.0078 0.0220 0.2080 0.0330 0.0260 0.0320 0.3330 0.0095 0.155 for single-phase line-to-line and by 0.0095 0.0035 0.0130 0.0110 0.0160 0.0088 0.7 Voltage Drop The values in Tables 7.1300 0.0530 0. of Circuit for a Three-Phase.2080 0.0230 0.0078 0.0790 0.0140 0.0066 0.0110 0.0066 In Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 0.0280 0.1200 0.0720 0.0170 0.0062 0.0330 0.0120 0.0100 0.3030 0.0033 0.1910 0.0140 0.0050 0.0530 0.0081 0.0130 0.0340 0.1720 0.0840 0.0054 0. Electrical Characteristics 7.0510 0.1100 0.0260 0.0067 0.1210 0.0073 0.0062 0.0093 0.0190 0. 60 Hz System Operating at 60°C with Copper Conductors Size (AWG/kcmil) 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1.0038 0.1300 0.0085 0.0059 0.1710 0.0220 0.0480 0.0210 0.0061 0.0520 0.0055 100 0.0470 0.0055 0.0730 0.7.3030 0. multiply by 1.0260 0. the estimated average temperature that may be anticipated in service.0310 0.3320 0.0042 0.0073 0.0340 0.0160 0.0210 0.0120 0.0210 0.105 for aluminum.0110 0.0074 0.0120 0.0800 0.0840 0.0120 0.0045 0.0100 0.0073 0.0067 0.0150 0.0088 0.0160 0.0080 0.0097 0.0110 0.0088 0.0170 0.0071 0.1910 0.0059 0.

0140 0.0076 0.5230 0.0083 0.0230 0.0120 0.2070 0.1910 0.1230 0.0140 0.0130 0.0710 0.0079 0.1330 0.0095 0.0180 0.0260 0.0520 0.0100 0.0330 0. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.0840 0.0130 0.0170 0.0073 0.0180 0. 96 .0790 0.0730 0.0320 0.0140 0.4240 0.0260 0.1720 0.0120 0.0130 0.7.0042 80 0.0071 0.0074 0.0500 0.0210 0.3290 0.0460 0.0091 0.1110 0.0140 0.0420 0.0050 0.1890 0.0170 0.0170 0.2690 0.0070 0. respectively.0340 0.0100 0.0120 0.0160 0.0380 0.0088 0.0420 0.2680 0.0063 100 0.0085 0. possible short circuit currents must be considered in power system design.0400 0.8 Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current Because of the high kilovolt-ampere (kVA) capacity of many power systems. A cable’s maximum short circuit current rating is the maximum allowable current that the cable can withstand without damage.0069 100 0.0330 0.2.0110 0.1700 0.0068 0.0088 0.0110 0.0089 0.0042 7.0220 0. of Circuit for a Three-Phase.4750 0.0520 0.0062 0.1320 0.0310 0.1230 0.0780 0.2990 0.0410 0.0260 0.0150 0.0099 0.0510 0.0068 In Non-Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 0.0220 0.0092 0. The maximum allowable short circuit current for copper and aluminum conductors can be determined with the aid of Figures 7.0330 0.0390 0.0082 0.0250 0.5230 0.0059 0.0079 0.0130 0.1 and 7.1120 0.0270 0.0087 0.3290 0.2070 0.0470 0.0210 0.0210 0.0120 0.0055 0.0260 0.0048 0.2140 0. 60 Hz System Operating at 60°C with Aluminum Conductors Size (AWG/kcmil) 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1.0180 0.000 80 0.0150 0.0120 0.10–Phase-To-Phase Voltage Drop Per Amp Per 100 ft.0120 0.4760 0.4260 0.0077 In Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 0.0099 0.0160 0.0830 0.0052 0.

0297 log ---------------T1 + 234 [ ] I = Short circuit current – amperes A = Conductor area – circular mils t = Time of short circuit – seconds T1 = Maximum operating temperature – 90˚C (194˚F) T2 = Maximum short circuit temperature – 250˚C (482˚F) 0.7.5 0.1–Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current for Copper Cables 97 . l Cyc es–0 2667 econ 10 d .8 0. Electrical Characteristics 100 80 60 50 40 eco nd e co Cyc 30 les 0.0 16 7s 1 0.13 7 sec nd 33 Cyc –0 ond 60 s .6 0. 000 s cond 00 es– e 1.2 Conductor copper.1 10 8 6 4 AWG 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 Conductor Size 500 kcmil 1000 Source: ICEA P-32-382 Figure 7.6 00 s cond e 66 7 s cond eco nd s 16 ycl es– 0.4 0. Curves based on formula: [] I --A 2 T2 + 234 t = 0. Insulation cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber.3 0.0 ycl 10 Short Circuit Current–Thousands of Amperes 8 6 5 4 3 2 8C 4C ycl es– es– 0.0 66 33 3s 30 20 e– ycl 1C 2C 0.5 le se 0C ycl s–1.

Electrical Characteristics 100 80 60 50 40 30 10 Short Circuit Current–Thousands of Amperes 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 C Cycle ycl –0 es– .0125 log ---------------T1 + 228 [ ] I = Short circuit current – amperes A = Conductor area – circular mils t = Time of short circuit – seconds T1 = Maximum operating temperature – 90˚C (194˚F) T2 = Maximum short circuit temperature – 250˚C (482˚F) 0.0 67 c 8 C les 33 sec –0 ycl 3 s on e 16 eco d s– .1 10 8 6 4 AWG 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 Conductor Size 500 kcmil 1000 Source: ICEA P-32-382 Figure 7. Curves based on formula: 20 1 0.5 0.2 [] I --A 2 T2 + 228 t = 0.066 0.26 eco d 60 –0 nd 10 Cyc .6 000 66 sec 7 s on eco d nd s Conductor aluminum.50 67 se 0 C le 00 con ycl s–1 es– .6 0.2–Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current for Aluminum Cables 98 .0 sec d ond 1.8 0.7.01 4C y 0.1 nd 7s 30 Cycle 3 e 3 Cyc s– 3 s con les 0.4 0. Insulation cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber.3 0.

11–Maximum Short Circuit Current for Copper Shielding Tape (Amperes) Shield Dia.437 60 518 780 1.300 2 2.079 8.420 2.577 10.143 8. 5 mil copper tape with 12.7.183 Short Circuit Time (Number of Cycles at 60 Hz) 4 2.326 3.504 45.566 1.264 15. final temperature of 200°C.571 4.944 37.032 3.824 22.150 8 1.5 percent overlap.051 6.042 1.215 2.066 4.011 11.107 10. (in.044 8.272 24.101 12.724 41.484 11. Electrical Characteristics 7.122 11.) 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 Effective Shield Area (cmils) 7.955 3.130 14.215 20.164 33.073 10.440 7.104 1.828 2.875 3.274 5.474 1.158 16.591 16 1.568 6.304 1.036 5.708 7.9 Maximum Shield Short Circuit Current Table 7.554 5.044 18.136 12.696 4.540 4. 99 .854 3.749 17.874 8.090 2.840 4.844 2.352 2.008 3.022 4.384 30.880 14.065 7.284 1 4.187 18.289 5.723 6.243 22.061 5.511 2.314 15.613 2.047 4.016 6.585 2.446 12.075 30 733 1.604 26.157 7.137 2.525 3.137 Source: ICEA P-45-482 Information in this chart is based on initial temperature of 65°C.004 1.093 9.018 2.006 5.

57 0.470 0.72 0.05 2.116 0.08 1.06 3.00 1.292 0. nor to cables installed in conduit or adjacent to steel structures.44 1.05 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.32 0.40 1.232 0.154 0.00 1.00 1.528 0.00 1.62 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.575 0.80 0.77 0.122 0.98 0.332 0.16 1.14 1.184 0.60 1.81 0.00 1.08 1.00 1.10 Resistance and Ampacity At 400 AND 800 Hz Table 7.) 0.93 0.0129 800 Hz ac/dc Ampacity ac/dc Ampacity Resistance Ratio Derating Factor* Resistance Ratio Derating Factor* 1.0172 0.00 1.00 1.0515 0.75 0.12–400 and 800 Hz Ampacity Factors for 600 V Copper Cables with Class B Strand.61 0.98 0.40 1.82 2.54 3.65 0.90 0.05 1. 100 .03 1.15 1.00 1.93 0.0767 0. Ampacity equals the 60 Hz ampacity multiplied by the derating factor.00 0.44 0.69 0.) 3.90 2.70 0.00 1.25 0. Electrical Characteristics 7.490 0.780 0.92 1.98 0.310 0.81 0.96 0.998 1.152 Cable Diameter (in.16 1.00 1.0608 0. Installed with Minimum Triangular Spacing in Air or in Nonmetallic Conduit 400 Hz Conductor Size (AWG/kcmil) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 350 500 750 1.84 0.94 0.54 DC Resistance 75°C (ohms/1.146 0.97 1.00 1.681 0.84 0.56 1.74 0.22 1.70 1.87 0.000 ft.50 0.63 0.00 0.12 1.21 0.66 0.097 0.54 Source: ICEA P-43-457 * These derating factors do not apply to cables with metallic sheath or armor.0258 0.39 0.813 0.372 0.30 2.33 1.89 0.000 Conductor Diameter (in.073 0.0368 0.00 1.418 0.24 0.) 0.00 1.092 0.194 0.00 1.38 1.23 0.7.53 1.

Current values are in RMS amperes and are valid for copper conductors only. 10° m C Te tu pera re R 1 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 Conductor Size (AWG) 14 12 10 8 Figure 7. Electrical Characteristics 7. Current ratings for power applications are published by codes and standards groups including NEC.5 * Do not count shields unless used as a conductor.7 16 . To use the current capacity chart (Figure 7. find the current value on the chart for the applicable temperature rise (temperature rating of cable minus ambient temperature) and conductor size. temperature rating and number of conductors for the cable of interest.7. ICEA.15 0.11 Current Ratings for Electronic Cables The maximum continuous current rating for an electronic cable is limited by conductor size. To calculate the maximum current rating per conductor. Next.3).0 4-5 0. CSA. multiply the chart value by the appropriate conductor factor. maximum temperature rating of the cable and environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and airflow.3–Current Ratings for Electronic Cables 101 . first determine conductor gauge. IEEE and IEC. UL. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Current (Amperes) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 35° m C Te tu pera re R ise ise No. electronic communications and control applications. NEMA. of Conductors* Factors 1 1. The chart assumes the cable is surrounded by still air at an ambient temperature of 25°C.6 2-3 1.8 6 . number of conductors contained within the cable.30 0. Note:  Current ratings are intended as general guidelines for low power.

copper or aluminum). ambient temperature.5 5.0 25. temperature rating.0 Basic Impulse Level (kV) 60 75 95 110 150 200 350 650 Source: IEEE 82 Impulse Voltage Tests on Insulated Conductors 102 . These “spikes. tables covering many common situations are available.12 Ampacity of Power Cables The ampacity of a power cable depends primarily on its conductor size.0 35.0 8. Electrical Characteristics 7. installed cable configuration and other factors. is designed to withstand short-term.13 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings Electrical equipment.1 Canadian Electrical Code IEEE Standard 835 Power Cable Ampacity Tables ICEA P-53-426 (NEMA WC 50) Ampacities Including Shield Losses for 15 Through 69 kV Cables ICEA P-54-440 (NEMA WC 51) Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays IEEE Standard 45 Recommended Practice for Installations on Shipboard 7.g. tables covering all situations are not possible. but very high-voltage pulses such as those sometimes caused by lightning and switching surges. conductor material (e.13–Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings System Voltage Rating (kV) 2.5 microseconds and a falltime around 40 microseconds. The basic impulse level (BIL) is the maximum impulse voltage that a cable is designed to withstand.7.0 69.0 15.. Common BIL ratings are shown below. Because so many external conditions affect ampacity. typically have a risetime in the range of 1.0 138. Table 7. Frequently used ampacity tables are contained in the following publications: NFPA Standard 70 National Electrical Code CSA Standard C22. including wire and cable. However.” as they are sometimes called.

3.6 116 119 121 121 121 Vertical Suspension 8.1 Receiving 8. Installation and Testing 8.2 Test Procedure 8.4 Pulling Tension Calculations 8.1 Test Equipment 8.7 Hipot Testing 8.2 Suspended by Conductor 8.4 Evaluation of Results 122 122 122 124 124 103 .5 Overhead Messengers 8.7.1.6.7.1. Handling and Storage 8.5 Pulling Lubricants 8.3 Pulling 8.6 Sidewall Pressure (SWP) 8.2 Tension Limitations 8.3.7 Minimum Bending Radii 8.3 Helpful Hints 8.3.3.2 Handling 8.4 Installation Methods 8.1.3.3.3 Test Voltage 8.3.1 Receiving.8.3 Storage 105 105 105 105 8.2 Conduit Fill 106 111 111 111 112 113 114 114 115 8. Installation and Testing 8.7.1 Suspended by Clamping Around Cable 8.1 Methods of Gripping Cables 8.7.6.

10.11 8.10 Fault Locating Megger Testing Moisture Removal 8.8 8.12 Fiber Optic Testing LAN Cable Testing 127 127 104 . Installation and Testing 8.1 Purging Water from Conductor Strand or Shield 124 125 126 126 8.9 8.8. Installation and Testing 8.

Handling and Storage The following guidelines are recommended to prevent possible deterioration or damage of cable during handling or storage prior to installation. • Each reel should be chocked.2 Handling Cable reels should always be rolled in the direction of the “roll this way” stenciled on the flanges.1. When cable lengths are cut from a master cable reel. If reels must be stored outside they should be supported off the ground and covered with a suitable weatherproof material. control. Be especially alert if: • A reel is lying flat on its side • Reels are poorly stacked • Protective covering (packaging material) is removed or damaged • Cable end seals are removed or damaged • Reel flanges are broken • A reel has been dropped • Cable ties are loose • Nails or staples have been driven into the reel flange. rotate the reel in the same direction it was rotated when the cable was wound onto the reel. Cable reels should only be lifted by forklift trucks from the sides and only if the forks are long enough to cradle both flanges.8. If the roll direction is not indicated. This prevents loosening of the cable turns. all exposed cable ends should be resealed with plastic weatherproof caps or tape to prevent the entrance of moisture. • Each reel should be aligned flange to flange. Steel lifting bars of a suitable diameter and length should be used when lifting cable reels by crane or other overhead lifting devices.3 Storage Where possible.1 Receiving.1. which may cause problems during installation. 105 . all reels should be visually inspected for both hidden and obvious damage. 8. 8. fiber and communication cable. The information has been obtained from many sources and covers some of the major considerations when installing and testing power. dry surface. instrumentation. the use of a lifting yoke is recommended to prevent reels from slipping or tipping during lifting. • Reels should be stored to allow easy access for lifting and moving. Installation and Testing This section is intended as a guide for the installer’s use in the field. 8.1 Receiving Before accepting any shipment. With heavy reels or reels that may be unbalanced. reels should be stored indoors on a hard.1. 8.

) ½ 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 ¾ 7 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 8 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 13 10 6 4 3 1 1 1 1¼ 20 17 13 7 5 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 23 18 10 8 6 2 1 1 1½ 27 23 18 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 39 31 24 14 11 8 3 3 2 2 46 38 30 16 13 10 9 7 5 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 64 51 40 24 18 13 6 5 4 2½ 80 66 53 28 22 17 15 13 9 7 6 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 112 90 70 42 32 24 10 9 7 3 120 100 81 42 34 26 23 20 13 11 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 169 136 106 63 48 36 16 13 11 3½ 157 131 105 55 44 34 30 26 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 221 177 138 83 63 47 20 17 15 4 201 167 135 70 56 44 38 33 22 19 17 14 12 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 282 227 177 106 81 60 26 22 19 Continued >> 106 . For installation in other types of conduits. Installation and Testing 8. TW THW-2 14 12 10 8 6 4 1/0 2/0 3/0 Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (in. RHW 14 RHW-2 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1. THW. Chapter 9 of the National Electrical Code.1–Maximum Number of Conductors in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) Type Conductor Letters Size (AWG/kcmil) RHH. refer to Tables C1 through C12 in Annex C of the 2011 NEC. The table is based on Table 1.2 Conduit Fill Below is a table of the maximum number of conductors that can be installed in electrical metallic tubing (EMT). Table 8. for other wire types or for installation of compact stranded conductors.000 THHW.8.

000 107 .8. 4/0 TW THW-2 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1.000 Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (in. THWN.) ½ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ¾ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 16 10 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 26 16 9 7 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1¼ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 61 45 28 16 12 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1½ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 84 61 38 22 16 10 8 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 138 101 63 36 26 16 13 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2½ 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 241 176 111 64 46 28 24 20 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 364 266 167 96 69 43 36 30 22 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 3½ 12 10 8 7 7 6 4 4 4 3 3 3 476 347 219 126 91 56 47 40 29 25 20 17 14 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 16 13 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 608 443 27 16 11 71 60 51 37 32 26 22 18 15 13 11 10 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 Continued >> THHN. THW. THWN-2 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1. Installation and Testing Table 8.1–Maximum Number of Conductors in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) (Continued) Type Conductor Letters Size (AWG/kcmil) THHW.

Installation and Testing Table 8. TFFN 16 Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (in.8.000 Source: 2011 NEC.1 108 . XHHW-2 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1.1–Maximum Number of Conductors in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) (Continued) Type Conductor Letters Size (AWG/kcmil) 18 TFN.) ½ 22 17 8 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ¾ 38 29 15 11 8 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 63 48 25 19 14 8 6 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1¼ 108 83 43 33 24 13 10 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1½ 148 113 58 45 33 18 14 10 8 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 244 186 96 74 55 30 22 16 14 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2½ – – 168 129 96 53 39 28 24 20 15 13 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 – – 254 195 145 81 60 43 36 31 23 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 3½ – – 332 255 190 105 78 56 48 40 30 25 21 17 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 – – 424 326 243 135 100 72 61 51 38 32 27 22 18 15 13 11 10 8 6 6 5 5 4 4 XHHW. Table C. Annex C.

626 4 4.161 0.826 0.) ½ 0.321 1.210 0.708 Actual ID of Conduit (in.462 0.139 0.297 0.436 0.149 0.864 0.119 0.567 0.212 1.671 0.791 1.) Max.135 1 1.583 1.772 0.200 0.036 0.479 0.155 1.184 0.251 0.988 1.760 0.177 0.509 0.150 0.834 2.171 1¼ 1.653 0.339 0.791 0.294 0.543 0.622 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0.084 0.184 0.324 0.377 0.521 0.385 0.172 0.145 0.383 0.390 0.755 0.213 0.446 3 3.700 0.499 0.673 0.114 0.400 1.252 0.857 0.824 0.360 0.) Source: Based on 2008 NEC.589 0.990 0.061 0.548 3½ 3.332 0.2–Maximum Cable Diameters for Permissible Conduit Fill No.371 1.176 0.245 0. Installation and Testing Table 8.225 1½ 1.509 1.263 0.334 3.356 2.102 ¾ 0.706 1.997 0.613 0.157 0.067 1.005 0.764 0.453 0.867 0.226 1.131 0.705 0.276 0.242 0.291 0.61 1.494 0.462 0.585 0.611 0.165 0. Table 1 109 . Diam.640 0.192 0.197 0.197 0.174 0.546 0.413 0.654 0.261 0.949 0.914 0.733 0.588 0.750 0.867 0.505 0.363 0.731 0.600 0.105 0.119 1.443 1.808 0.356 0.338 2½ 2.814 0.394 0.225 1.322 0.233 0.416 0.576 0.124 0.272 0.969 0.731 1.534 0.349 0.917 0. Chapter 9.455 0.139 0.307 0.38 1.330 0.263 2 2.049 0.233 0.436 0. of Wires or Cables in Conduit (in.221 0.708 0.634 0.767 0.802 0.235 0.504 0.227 0.301 0. of Wires or Cables Conduit Trade Size (in.075 0.282 0.648 0.413 0.271 0.8.309 0.109 0.

in. 110 .8. Chapter 9.54 4. solve as follows: 3.69 6.79 1.81 1. The general equation for calculating wire or cable area is: 2 Area in square inches 5 p 3 OD 3 n 4 Where: p = 3.62 5.356 3. 53 percent Fill 0. please refer to Table 4 in Chapter 9 of the NEC.12 7.12 0.63 1.34 2.067 2.9 Source: 2011 National Electrical Code. Table 4 For other conduit types.17 0.14 3 1.46 0.27 0.2 = 3.) 2 Cond.14 OD = overall diameter of each single-conductor wire or multiconductor cable n = number of wires or cables of that diameter Example: Pulling (3) 2/0 15 kV cables.38 1.3 0.46 0.35 0.21 0.09 0.3–Dimensions and Maximum Allowable Percent Fill of Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) Trade Size (in.) ½ ¾ 1 1¼ 1½ 2 2½ 3 3½ 4 Internal Dia. Installation and Testing Table 8.) 0.39 sq.5 2.82 Allowable Fill (sq.16 0.74 3.6 0.08 1.04 3.824 1.36 5.58 4.1 4.53 0. 2 Using the formula. minimum conduit size would be 4 inches.834 4. in.04 1. 40 percent Fill 0.86 8.57 Over 2 Cond. 31 percent Fill 0.20 inches.) 0. (in.75 1 Cond.61 2.85 11. each cable has an overall diameter of 1.82 2. in.049 1.622 0.731 3.34 3.55 14.334 Total Area (sq. 4 Referring to the table.86 1.28 0.78 3.

In addition. This can be accomplished in a number of ways.006 lb. when pulling eyes are used or when the conductor is formed into a loop) it should be limited to 0. 8. it is possible to damage cables while applying lower tensions if.3 Pulling 8. The above limits are maximum values that should not be exceeded.g. Interlocked Armor Cables When pulling interlocked armor cable it is usually necessary to grip both the armor and the conductors. Long. However. hard pulls will necessitate the use of pulling eyes. per circular mil area of cross-section for copper and 0. When pulls are relatively light a basket-weave grip can often be used. the grip being applied over the armor to prevent it from slipping back.3.008 lb.000 pounds provided this is not in excess of the force calculated above using the 0. Heavier pulls usually require connecting directly to the conductor either by means of pulling eyes or by forming a loop with the conductor itself.1 Methods of Gripping Cables In general. per circular mil for aluminum. In some instances it is desirable to use a grip over the outer covering in addition to the conductor connection to prevent any slippage of one with respect to the other. a basket grip should be applied over the conductors to prevent any slippage and to facilitate guiding the conductors through the pulleys. The appropriate method to use depends on the anticipated maximum pulling tension. One method requires that a portion of the armor be removed. insulated cables may be gripped either directly by the conductors or by a basket-weave pulling grip applied over the cables. Larger sizes are more easily handled by applying a pulling grip over the cable or cables provided the pull is not too severe.008 or 0.3. Electrical tape is then applied over the armor and down over the conductors and a long basket-weave grip is applied such that it grips both the armor and the conductors. This latter approach provides the greatest strength. If more than one cable is involved.2 Tension Limitations When the pulling force is applied directly to the conductor (e. Installation and Testing 8.. Nonmetallic Sheathed Cables Smaller sizes of nonmetallic sheathed cables can usually be gripped directly by the conductors by forming them into a loop to which the pull wire or rope can be attached. 111 . The insulation on each conductor is removed before the loop is formed. Another method requires that two holes be drilled through the cable (armor and conductors) at right angles to each other and a loop formed by passing steel wires through the holes and out over the end of the cable. To limit the sidewall pressure to a safe value at bends in duct and conduit runs. Preassembled Aerial Cable This type of cable should always be gripped by the messenger that is usually attached to a pulling swivel. A third approach is to use a pulling eye and a grip together. or if an interlocked armor cable is pulled around too small a sheave. for example. When a grip is applied over nonmetallic sheathed cables.8. the ends should be bound together with electrical tape before applying the grip overall. Every installation detail cannot be covered here but staying within the above tension limits will help ensure a successful installation.006 factors. there are sharp projections in a poorly constructed duct bank. the pulling force should be limited to 1. the pulling force in pounds should not exceed 300 to 500 times the radius of the bend in feet.

It is calculated as shown in Figure 8. Use the triplexed configuration formula if you are in doubt. Clearance refers to the distance between the uppermost cable in the conduit and the inner top of the conduit. Installation and Testing 8.1–How to Calculate Clearance 112 .3. Clearance should be 1/4 inch at minimum and up to one inch for large cable installations or installations involving numerous bends.366+ D d 2 2  ( ) 2  d 1– (D –d ) Cradled 3 – Clearance= D – d + D d 2 2 2  ( ) 2  d 1– 2(D –d ) Triplexed Figure 8.8. ensure all cable diameters are equal. of Conductors/Cables 1 Configuration Formula Clearance=D2d 3 – Clearance= D – 1.1 where “D” is the inner diameter of the conduit and “d” is the outer diameter of the cable. The cables may be of single or multiple conductor construction. No. When calculating clearance. Do not exceed recommended “conduit fill” requirements. (1)  Be sure there is adequate clearance between conduit and cable.3 Helpful Hints The following suggestions – though not all-inclusive – will give greater assurance of success.

jamming is impossible but clearance should be checked. (4)  Avoid sharp bending of the cable at the first pulley in overhead installations by locating the payoff reel far enough away from the first pulley that the lead-in angle is kept relatively flat. There are a number of commercially available wire pulling compounds (many of which are UL Listed) that are suitable for use with polymer jacketed cables. Installation and Testing (2)  Jamming is the wedging of three cables lying side by side in a conduit. With pulling eye attached to copper conductors. 5 number of conductors 5 0. talc.05D/d is less than 2.05D/d is between 2. Apply plastic or rubber tape to help protect against invisible damage if the cable will be subjected to immersion or rain. Software programs are commercially available that can perform sophisticated modeling of expected pulling tensions and sidewall pressures. These materials can lead to tracking of the cable jacket. • If 1.5. • If 1. IEEE 971. use a sufficient number of rollers to prevent the cable from dragging on the tray.008 times the circular mil area. This usually occurs when cables are being pulled around bends or when cables twist. Example: For copper TM Where: T M n 5 maximum tension.05D/d is larger than 3. Avoid sharp bends in the cable by using a conveyor sheave with multiple small rollers at all 45. Below is an overview of the basic calculations.008 3 n 3 CM CM 5 circular mil area of each conductor 113 .and 90-degree bends. mica or the like. and are designed to have no deleterious effect on the cable. serious jamming is probable. Graphite and other electrically conducting lubricants should not be used on nonshielded cables rated 2 kV and above.3. check that end seals are still intact and have not been damaged to the point where water could enter. • If 1. (6)  When installing interlocked armor cables in cable tray. the maximum pulling tension in pounds should not exceed 0.006 times the circular mil area. (3)  Use adequate lubrication of the proper type to reduce friction in conduit and duct pulls. jamming is impossible.05D is used for the inner diameter of the conduit because bending a cylinder creates an oval cross-section in the bend. (7)  Keep adequate tension on the messenger in aerial cable installations to prevent sharp bends at pulleys. A value of 1. (5)  After installation. They usually consist of soap. IEEE 576 and AEIC CG5. This is particularly important if there will be a delay of some time between the pulling operation and splicing and terminating. Additional information is available in IEEE 1185. lb. the actual overall diameter should be measured prior to computing the jam ratio. which might result in excessive tension. Do not release the tension on the messenger until it is secured to poles on both ends. the maximum pulling tension in pounds should not exceed 0. The jam ratio is calculated by slightly modifying the ratio D/d. (1) Maximum Pulling Tension a.0.8.0.4 Pulling Tension Calculations Pulling tension calculations are recommended in the design stage of all cable installations that are expected to fall in the moderate to difficult category.8 and 3. 8. Because there are manufacturing tolerances on cable. With pulling eye attached to aluminum conductors. Grease and oil type lubricants should not be used on nonmetallic sheathed cables. b. These programs are recommended over manual methods.

Installation and Testing (2) Maximum Permissible Pulling Length: LM 5 TM C3 W Where: LM 5 maximum pulling length.2 to 1. The recommended average quantity of lubricant per pull is equal to: Q 5 0.0 instead of 0. for most 600 V and medium-voltage power cables. L is the length of the pull in feet and D is the inner diameter of the conduit in inches. Cable pulling lubricants should be formulated for the conditions of the pull.0015 3 L 3 D Where Q is the quantity of lubricant needed in gallons. Some LSZH (low smoke zero halogen) cables require special pulling lubricants such as Polywater LZ to prevent chemical damage to the jacket.30 1. lb. 8.70 Bend Angle Degrees 75 90 105 120 Multiplier 1. 114 .3. the multipliers given below are applied to the tension calculated for the straight section preceding the bend. the multipliers would be raised to the one and one-half power.14 1.86 Note:  These multipliers are based on a coefficient of friction of 0. The quantity of lubricant required depends on various factors: The pull length. Table 8..3. it makes the cable more slippery.5. Cable manufacturers generally recommend a maximum SWP of 500 lb.94 2. be safe for the environment. If the coefficient of friction were 0. not degrade the cable jacket and be easy to work with.5 but can vary from 0. 5 coefficient of friction (typically 0.e. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the conditions affecting each pull. lb.8.6 Sidewall Pressure (SWP) To prevent damage to a cable from pressure that develops when a cable is pulled around a bend under tension.75. i.4–Bend Multipliers for Pulling Tension Calculations Bend Angle Degrees 15 30 45 60 Multiplier 1. the condition and size of the conduit and the difficulty of the pull.50 2. The appropriate quantity to use can vary by 6 50 percent from the average depending on installation conditions. 8. the pressure must be kept as low as possible and should not exceed specified values.5. This is accomplished by reducing the friction (technically the coefficient of friction) between the cable and the inside surface of the conduit./ft.5 Pulling Lubricants Many commercial lubricants are available and may be employed to reduce pulling tensions provided they do not affect electrical or mechanical characteristics of the cable. Sidewall pressure = tension out of the bend divided by the radius of the bend.20 2. If the coefficient of friction were 1.0 depending on condition of the duct and the amount of lubricant used) (3) Bend Multipliers For a curved section. the multipliers would have to be squared.48 1. The primary function of a pulling lubricant is to reduce the tension on the cable as it is installed in a duct. M W C 5 weight of cable per foot. feet (valid only for straight sections) T 5 maximum tension.

whichever is greater. 0° 270° Radius 12" 2.D. Fiber Optic Cables Minimum bending radius for fiber optic cable is typically 10 times the cable diameter when under no tension and 15 times diameter at rated maximum tension.2–Calculating Minimum Bending Radius Power Cables with Metallic Shielding The minimum bending radius for all single-conductor cables with metallic shielding is 12 times the overall diameter of the cable.5–Minimum Bending Radii for Cables without Metallic Shielding Thickness of Conductor Insulation (mils) 169 and less 170 and larger 1.8.24. NEMA WC58 (ICEA S-75-381). For cables rated over 5. NEMA WC70 (ICEA S-95-658) 115 . it is seven times the overall diameter or 12 times the individual conductor diameter.34. Portable Cables The minimum bending radius for portable cables during installation and handling in service is six times the cable diameter for cables rated 5.10. Installation and Testing 8. Interlocked Armor or Corrugated Sheath (Type MC) Cables The minimum bending radius for Type MC cable is seven times the external diameter of the metallic sheath.01 and Greater 6 7 Example: If minimum bending radius is six times cable O.3.0" Cable Diameter 90° 180° Figure 8. the minimum bending radius is 12 inches (minimum bending diameter is 24 inches).00 5 6 2.00 and less 4 5 Minimum Bending Radius as a Multiple of Cable Diameter Overall Diameter of Cable in Inches 1.7 Minimum Bending Radii Power Cables without Metallic Shielding The minimum bending radii for both single. IEEE 1185.D. For flat twin cables.01 to 2. 330.0 inches. Sources:  NEC Articles 300.000 volts use eight times the cable diameter. the minor diameter is used to determine the bending radius. The manufacturer should be consulted for specific product limits. is 2. 336.24 and 727. and cable O.and multiple-conductor cable without metallic shielding are as follows: Table 8. NEMA WC74 (ICEA S-93-639).000 volts and less. For multiconductors.

3–Cable Pulling Setups Continued >> 116 .4 Installation Methods Apply lube at entrance of guide-in tube Setup for duct close to floor Setup for overhead into tray (a) Proper (b) Improper The feed-in setup should unreel the cable with the natural curvature (a) as opposed to a reverse “S” curvature (b).8. Installation and Testing 8. Figure 8.

Installation and Testing 8.3–Cable Pulling Setups Continued >> 117 .4 Installation Methods (Continued) Capstan Pulling rope A setup with timbers because pulling eyes were not available Figure 8.8.

The pulleys must be positioned to ensure that the effective curvature is smooth and deflected evenly at each pulley.8. Never allow a polygon curvature to occur as shown. Installation and Testing 8. Radius The fit of the pulley around the cable is also important when the pulling tension is high (for example.4 Installation Methods (Continued) Single sheave Single sheaves should be used only for guiding cables. Remember to use the radius of the surface over which the cable is bent. use multisheave assemblies (also called conveyor sheaves) of the appropriate radius.3–Cable Pulling Setups 118 . Sheave assembly For pulling around bends. not the outside flange diameter of the pulley. Arrange multiple blocks if necessary to maintain minimum bending radii whenever cable is deflected. A 10-inch cable sheave typically has an inside (bending) radius of 3 inches! Figure 8. pulleys at the top of a vertical drop).

800 Type 316 Stainless Steel 7.200 18.500 18.200 23.5 8.930 19.282 9.650 11.200 15. (737 AWG) 1/2 in. (738 AWG) 7/16 in.8 2.1 6.000 ft./1.9 4. 5/16 in.3 4.6 High-Strength Galvanized Steel 1.800 26.400 20.4 Type 316 Stainless Steel 1.3 4.400 30. 30 Percent of Breaking Strength) Nominal Messenger Size 1/4 in.8. 7/16 in.8 5. Nominal Messenger Size 1/4 in.196 13. at 60°F in a 150 ft.5 Overhead Messengers Table 8.5 6. (7312 AWG) 5/16 in.301 10. 30 percent EHS* Copper-Clad Steel 1.800 14.9 5.6–Messenger Breaking Strength in lb.9 Aluminum Clad Steel 1.9 2.7 3.730 EHS* Galvanized Steel 6. Span.1 1.500 13.060 22.5 Type 302 Stainless Steel 2.8–Maximum Core Weight in lb.000 33.000 10.9 3. 3/8 in.0 4. 1/2 in.4 4.750 8. (7310 AWG) 3/8 in.700 * Extra-High Strength Table 8. (Based on Final Sag of 30 in.6 2.890 16.8 7.460 Aluminum Clad Steel 6.890 20.7–Messenger Weight in lb.6 EHS* Galvanized Steel 1.7 5. 30 percent EHS* Copper-Clad Steel 139 204 324 408 515 Aluminum Clad Steel 104 165 262 330 416 EHS* Galvanized Steel 121 205 273 399 517 High-Strength Galvanized Steel 121 205 273 399 517 Type 316 Stainless Steel 136 208 278 405 525 Type 302 Stainless Steel 132 208 278 405 525 Table 8. (736 AWG) 30 percent EHS* Copper-Clad Steel 6. 7/16 in.5 2.900 High-Strength Galvanized Steel 4.300 Type 302 Stainless Steel 8. 3/8 in.650 11.4 119 .020 15.6 3. 1/2 in./ft.900 16.4 3.2 3. 5/16 in.000 26.1 3. Installation and Testing 8. Nominal Messenger Size 1/4 in.5 2.

) 3/16 3/16 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 5/16 5/16 5/16 5/16 5/16 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 7/16 7/16 7/16 1/2 1/2 1/2 Grade Common Utility 2.500 10.250 6.200 5.800 15.000 12.9–Galvanized Steel Strand/Physical Specifications Nominal Messenger Size (in.200 4. 1.000 8.000 11.2 M Common Siemens Martin High Strength Extra High Strength Common Siemens Martin Utilities Grade 6 M High Strength Extra High Strength Common Siemens Martin Utility 10 M High Strength Extra High Strength Siemens Martin High Strength Utility 16 M Siemens Martin High Strength Utility 25 M Weight lb.000 Class A: Minimum amount of zinc coating. Class B: Twice the amount of zinc coating as Class A./1. 73 73 121 121 121 121 205 205 225 205 205 273 273 273 273 273 399 399 399 517 517 517 Minimum Strength lb.100 18.350 6. 120 .750 6. Installation and Testing Table 8.400 1.000 ft.950 11.650 3.150 2.400 9. Class C: Three times the amount of zinc coating as Class A.500 18. Additional information on overhead messengers is available in ICEA P-79-561 Guide for Selecting Aerial Cable Messengers and Lashing Wires.800 25.8.150 4.900 3.350 14.

check sidewall loading.6. 120 ft. per conductor.8 (OK) (1.000 511./1.000) 470 If the suspended cable is installed in a conduit elbow at the top. 35 ft.10–Spacings for Conductor Supports Maximum Support Spacing for Conductors in Vertical Raceways AWG or Circular Mil Size of Wire 18 AWG through 8 AWG 6 AWG through 1/0 AWG 2/0 AWG through 4/0 AWG over 4/0 AWG through 350 kcmil over 350 kcmil through 500 kcmil over 500 kcmil through 750 kcmil over 750 kcmil Aluminum or Copper-Clad Aluminum 100 ft. 60 ft.000 ft. 50 ft. F5 A3T Where A 5 conductor area in sq. 80 ft. 135 ft. 200 ft. total cable weight is 3.8.4. L 5 length in feet F 5 safety factor (must be at least 7. in.080 lb.000] 36.6.240 lb. 100 ft.080/1.000. 85 ft.600 circular mils each) soft-drawn copper conductors.1 Suspended By Clamping Around Cable Table 8. Installation and Testing 8.1 and in NEMA WC 74 (ICEA S-93-639) Section 7./ft.4. in.19 8.0 unless otherwise required by appropriate authority) Example: Suspend 470 ft.1. 40 ft. 95 ft. W 5 cable weight in lb. 121 .2 Suspended by Conductor Additional information on vertically suspended cables is available in NEMA WC 70 (ICEA S-95-658) Section 4. Copper 100 ft. of cable having three 4/0 AWG (211.000 ft. Article 300. W3L T 5 conductor tensile strength in lb.6 Vertical Suspension 8./1./sq.600) (p/4) /1. 180 ft. or 1. each conductor is supported at the top with a full tension terminal: F 5 [(211. Source: 2011 NEC.

25 inches per kV).2 Test Procedure Refer to IEEE Standard 400.3 contain additional details. Read and understand and follow the operator’s manual for the particular test set being used. 122 . Record leakage current at each step. This will preclude damage to such equipment and will prevent test interruptions due to flashovers and/or trip-outs resulting from excessive leakage current. • Ground all circuit conductors not under test and all cable shields as well as nearby equipment. A constant or decreasing leakage current with respect to time at maximum test voltage is the usual acceptance criterion for DC hipot testing. e.. and to other equipment not under test (approximately 0. • Consult termination manufacturer for maximum test voltage recommendations and time limitations. Accessory equipment is necessary to safely conduct high-voltage tests such as safety barriers.” Before performing any DC overpotential tests: • All equipment must be disconnected from the cable circuit. All tests made after cable installation and during the manufacturer’s guarantee period should be made in accordance with applicable specifications. see IEEE Standards 400 and 400.7. Allow sufficient time at each step for the leakage current to stabilize. • At the end of the test period. have more or less been standardized as either a “withstand test” or a “time-leakage current test. • Caution – It should be recognized that DC charges on cable can build up to potentially dangerous levels if grounds are removed too quickly. to the maximum specified. motors. Some equipment will take longer to reach the maximum test voltage because of the amount of charging current. 8. All safety precautions must be observed during testing at high voltage. rubber gloves and nonconducting hard hats.1 Test Equipment Direct current test equipment is commercially available with a wide range of voltages. 8. Acceptance Testing – After installation and before the cable is placed in regular service the specified test voltage is applied for 15 consecutive minutes.8.g. switch taps. surge arrestors. disconnect transformers.7. Allow the residual voltage on the circuit to decay then ground the conductor just tested. • Establish adequate clearance between the circuit test ends and any grounded object. Installation and Testing 8. Maintain solid grounds after the test on the cable for at least four times the duration of the test. although varying slightly in technique. It should be also noted that other field tests are growing in popularity–including VLF (very low frequency) and PD (partial discharge) test methods. set the test set voltage control to zero. Acceptable procedures. For more details.1. etc. Record the leakage current at one minute intervals for the duration of the test. IEEE 400. Proof Testing – At any time during the period of guarantee. It is a good safety practice to maintain these grounds longer and while reconnecting circuit components. • Maintain the test voltage at the prescribed value for the time designated in applicable specifications. • Step Method – Apply test voltage slowly in five to seven increments of equal value. whichever is less.2 and 400.7 Hipot Testing Overview This section provides an overview of high-potential DC testing of power cables. The direct current test may be applied either continuously or in predetermined steps to the maximum value in accordance with applicable specifications: • Continuous Method – Apply test voltage at an approximate rise rate of 1 kV per second or 75 percent of the rated current input of the equipment. the cable circuit may be removed from service and tested at a reduced voltage (normally 65 percent of the original acceptance value) for five consecutive minutes. Normally this requires only a few seconds unless cable circuits of high capacitance are involved. circuit breakers. Always consult an appropriate safety officer.

which is included in the total leakage current. dampness. Erratic readings can be caused by: • Fluctuating voltage to test set • Improper test leads. Humidity. snow) • Failure to provide adequate clearance to ground • Improper shield termination. It is nearly impossible to recommend test voltage values for maintenance. IR in general has little or no direct relationship to breakdown strength. plastic wrap (e. depending on the model).. 123 .8. nonmetallic sheathed cable is dependent upon the environment in which it is installed because the characteristics of the return circuits are unknown. constant voltage source. wind. plastic or glass containers. dew. Some power cable users have adopted a program of testing circuits during planned outages. One advantage of DC high-voltage testing is that it can detect conducting particles left on the creepage surface during splicing or termination. Test equipment should be supplied from a stable. Saran® or Handiwrap®) or suitable electrical putty. The environment must be carefully considered or test results may not be significant. Humidity also increases the termination leakage current. Routine periodic DC maintenance testing of cable for the evaluation of the insulation strength is not a common practice.000 Megohms 5 Microamperes Insulation resistance (IR) may also be measured with instruments that give a direct reading at 500 volts (or higher.g. condensation or actual precipitation on the surface of a cable termination can increase the leakage current by several orders of magnitude. This results in an increase of corona. Consider using a portable motor driven alternator to energize the test set. Common Testing Problems High-leakage current can be caused by: • Failure to guard against corona • Failure to clean insulation surface • Failure to keep cable ends dry (high relative humidity. Installation and Testing Additional Considerations High-potential testing of medium-voltage power cables is usually performed with negative polarity connected to the conductor. Do not use the same source that is supplying arc welders or other equipment causing line voltage fluctuations. It is desirable to reduce or eliminate corona current at the bare metal extremities of cable or terminations. Restated another way the relation is: Kilovolts 3 1. An arbitrary test voltage level could break down a cable circuit that would otherwise render long trouble-free service at normal operating AC voltage. This may be accomplished by covering these areas with plastic envelopes. Wind prevents the accumulation of space charges at all bare energized terminals. these tests can result in damage to the cable insulation. The significance of conducting DC high-voltage tests on nonshielded. fog. High-potential testing is a tool for determining insulation resistance at high voltages. In fact. Effective insulation resistance of the cable system may be calculated by means of Ohm’s Law: R 5 V/I. preferring possible breakdowns during testing rather than experiencing a service outage. The output voltage of the test set must be filtered and regulated.

the device functions much like radar. DC testing is not recommended. A failure can be confirmed by the inability to sustain the second application of the test voltage. 8. After that time. applied for five consecutive minutes. This process will probably continue until eventual failure of the cable unless the voltage is rapidly reduced. applied for five consecutive minutes. a DC proof test may be made at any time within the first five years at the test voltage specified below. commercially available devices that can be used in the field to locate some types of conductor breaks or shorts. other insulations rarely exhibit this type of failure. Nevertheless. If. However.. a violent increase in current occurs accompanied by tripping of the test set. Table 8. 124 . failure or flashover has probably occurred in the cable. this includes shorts having a resistance of less than a few ohms and opens having a resistance greater than several hundred ohms. The device can usually locate faults within 6 2 percent of the cable length.7.4 Evaluation of Results The test current will momentarily increase for each voltage increment due to the charging of capacitance and dielectric absorption characteristics of the cable–ultimately leaving only the conduction current plus any external surface leakage or corona currents.8 Fault Locating One of the many types of fault locating equipment is the time domain reflectometer (TDR). short or tap is encountered. a DC proof test may be made at a voltage not exceeding the test voltage specified below. The time required to reach steady-state current depends on insulation temperature and material. without any increase in applied voltage. Installation and Testing 8. If at any time during the test. Splices. NEMA WC 74 (ICEA S-93-639) Appendix F and ICEA S-97-682 Appendix E 8. sometimes distort the echo and can mask the fault. the method is nondestructive and is used successfully on faults having characteristics within the capabilities of the method. etc.11–Maximum DC Test Voltages for Shielded Power Cables Rated Voltage Phase-to-Phase (kV) 5 8 15 25 28 35 46 Maximum DC Field Test Voltages in kV During Installation 100 Percent (Grounded) 28 36 56 80 84 100 132 133 Percent (Ungrounded) 36 44 64 96 100 124 172 9 11 18 25 26 31 41 First Five Years 100 Percent (Grounded) 133 Percent (Ungrounded) 11 14 20 30 31 39 54 Sources: ICEA S-94-649 Appendix E. gradual insulation failure may be in progress. TDRs are only capable of locating breaks or shorts having an impedance different than that of the cable. a splice or termination.3 Test Voltage DC hipot test voltages are specified by ICEA and NEMA for tests conducted during and after installation as follows: • At any time during installation. These units are portable.7. taps. • After the cable has been completely installed and placed in service. Connected to the end of a cable. Rubber and nonpressurized impregnated paper insulations will usually exhibit this type of insulation failure.8. sending out low-voltage pulses that travel the length of the cable and echo back when an open. For most cables. the current starts to increase slowly at first but at an increasing rate.

• Records – Keep detailed records and provide a copy to the owner. The readings obtained from such testing on nonshielded. Without Being Affected by Leakage to Other Wires. Low resistance readings may be caused by contaminated or moist cable ends. etc.5–Connections for Testing Insulation Resistance Between One Wire and All Other Wires. Refer to the figures below for suggested hook-up. the test is often referred to as a “Megger” test.8. high humidity. Stay clear of energized cable. Operators must know the equipment. G L E Megger insulation tester Figure 8.5 kV). An inherent limitation of low-voltage IR tests is their interpretation. nonmetallic-sheathed cable is very dependent upon the environment because the environment determines the characteristics of the return circuit. Failure to clean water-based cable pulling lubricants from the cable test ends has caused erroneous rejection of good cable. Be sure shields are grounded! Remember that insulated conductors are capacitors. Reminders: • Safety – Follow the test equipment supplier’s instructions. Note Use of the Guard (G) Connection G L E Megger insulation tester Figure 8.4–Connections for Testing Insulation Resistance Between One Wire and Ground. • Voltages – Check cable and termination manufacturer’s guidelines. Without Being Affected by Leakage to Ground 125 .9 Megger Testing If the DC voltage applied during an insulation resistance (IR) test on power cables is relatively low (0. Installation and Testing 8. Low-voltage IR tests are particularly useful in detecting shorts due to installation or handling damage to 600-volt-rated cables.6 to 2.

otherwise the nitrogen gas will only flow through the path offering the least resistance. As shown. several cables may be connected to the gas supply. fittings and flow regulators as shown in Figure 8. Installed Cables: The splices and terminations must be removed if they interfere with the flow of air or nitrogen. Attach a one-gallon plastic bag to the exhaust end of the cable. apply two layers of half-lapped HV insulating tape to act as a sealing cushion. At the cable end having the highest elevation. which turns blue instead of “off” white when wet. Maintain gas flow for at least eight hours after all indications of moisture have stopped.1 Purging Water from Conductor Strand or Shield Cables Not Yet Installed: Remove end seals. All Cables: Purge the shield separately from the insulated strands.10 Moisture Removal 8.6–Moisture Removal Equipment 126 . Connect the cable ends to a dry nitrogen or dry air supply using hoses. The cable can then be purged as described above. supply hose Reducing coupling Clamps Cable Figure 8. Make a small vent hole by clipping one bag corner. Position one cable end to its lowest possible elevation. valves.10. Installation and Testing 8.6. Pressure regulator Dry air or nitrogen Clamp Hose adapter Threaded nipple Hose 1/2 in. A hardware store humidity gauge may also be used.8. Apply 15–25 psi (gauge). Water vapor may be readily detected by sprinkling one tablespoon of anhydrous cupric sulfate in the plastic bag. Secure the bag with tape or clamps. Dry nitrogen is available from welding gas suppliers. The sulfate is available from scientific laboratory supply houses.

The TDR sends a low-voltage pulse along the cable and then “looks” for reflections that result from impedance mismatches that are caused by shorts. splice.11 Fiber Optic TestinG Testing a newly installed fiber optic system can increase the overall performance of a system. Category 3. of course. Low-cost handheld LAN cable testers are available to certify the electrical performance. Cable attenuation can be caused by microbending of the fiber. attenuation. decrease the amount of downtime and reduce costs for the system owner. a broken fiber. An OTDR is able to determine the distance to the reflection and the amount of signal loss at that point. Handheld optical power meters and light sources are used to determine the total attenuation of the fiber including any splices or connectors.12 LAN Cable Testing With society’s dependency on data networks around the world. of newly installed LAN cable. impurities in the fiber. With this method the light source injects light with a known signal level (brightness) into one end of the fiber. 127 .g. 5 or 6.. OTDRs work on a radar-like principle. excessive mechanical force on the cable or. a portion of the optical pulse is reflected back to the source. 4. the ability to maintain proper system operation is extremely important. These devices typically characterize the installed system with regard to crosstalk. The difference is the attenuation and is usually reported in decibels. impedance and other parameters.8. e. opens or severely deformed cable. There are several types of test equipment that are commonly used to evaluate local area network (LAN) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP) cabling. The power meter is attached to the other end of the fiber and measures the light output at a specific wavelength. Installation and Testing 8. TDRs analyze the reflections and report the magnitude of the impedance mismatch and the location of faults. Attenuation is the parameter most frequently measured and includes the attenuation of the cable as well as that of attached connectors. Small optical microscopes are used to visually inspect the workmanship of installed fiber optic connectors. determine length and measure attenuation of the cable. 8. connector. etc.. A light pulse is sent down the fiber and as it encounters a fault. Optical time domain reflectometers (OTDRs) are used to locate faults and to measure attenuation of cables and connectors. Time domain reflectometers (TDRs) are devices used to locate faults.

128 .

7 N Series 9.7 FDDI Connector 9.1.6 UHF 9.1.1.2 Stud Sizes 134 134 136 9.3 Power Connectors 9.1 Selection 9. Cable Accessories 9.1.1.3.1.4 Fiber Optic Connectors 9.1.4.3 LC Connector 9.1.5 SMA 9.5 MTP/MPO Connector 9.2 RJ11 and RJ45 Modular 133 133 9.4.1.9.2 Data Connectors 9.6 FC Connector 9.1.1 Types of Fiber Optic Connectors 9. Cable Accessories 9.1 Selection 9.4.1.8 SMA Connector 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 139 139 139 129 .1 Coaxial Connectors 9.3 TNC 9.1 ST Connector 9.4.4.2 SC Connector 9.2 BNC 9.4.1.4 SHV 9.4.8 F Series 131 131 131 131 131 132 132 133 133 9.4 MT-RJ Connector 9.1.4.1.3.4.1.1.

2.5 Nomenclature 9.3 Additional Load Considerations 9.4.4.4 Fiber Optic Connectors (Continued) 9.4 Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Anaerobic) 140 140 140 140 141 141 142 142 142 142 9.4.2 Mode of the Fiber 9.4.4.6 Additional Information 143 143 143 143 143 144 144 145 9.5.2 Working Load 9.2 Considerations for Selecting Fiber Optic Connectors 9.5.2 Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Heat-Cured) 9.5.4.5.2.3 Fiber Cable Construction 9.3.4 Installation Environment 9.3 Epoxy and Polish Connectors (UV Cured) 9.1 Type and Construction of Connector 9.5.3 Connector Termination Methods 9.3. Cable Accessories 9.9.5 Cable Tray Systems 9.6 NEMA Plug and Receptacle Configurations 130 .2.3.4.5.1 No-Epoxy/No-Polish Connectors (Mechanical Splice Type) 9. Cable Accessories 9.4.4.2.1 Support Span 9.

MIL-PRF-39012 covers many popular types of coaxial connectors. The VSWR indicates the quality of the match. especially when subjected to vibration. It includes mating and overall dimensions. either connector can be used. Cable size determines the connector series as subminiature.1. users generally consider cable size. In most versions. SHV connectors are high-voltage connectors rated to 5. while the BNC is limited to 4 GHz. In selecting a connector. Connectors can be used at frequencies below this range but are not recommended at frequencies above this range where performance (especially VSWR) becomes degraded. 131 . 9. (This is due to the difference between bayonet and screw couplings. They have bayonet coupling but do not have a constant impedance.1. however. a TNC connector is essentially the same.4 SHV For medium-size cables. Both BNC and TNC series connectors. For example. the TNC is the obvious choice. The three common types are bayonet. 9. 75-ohm. Cable Accessories 9. Often the coupling method is the main difference between two series of connectors. The tight interface of the threads.3 TNC A TNC connector is virtually identical to a BNC connector. screw and snap-on. but with a threaded coupling. BNC connectors are the most common for miniature cables because of the easy connection/disconnection offered by their bayonet coupling. Thus. materials. for instance. BNC connectors are 50-ohm connectors rated to 4 GHz.1 Coaxial Connectors Coaxial connectors should appear electrically as extensions to the cable. can be used with miniature cable. allows the connector to maintain a low VSWR up to 11 GHz with flexible cable and up to 15 GHz with semirigid cable. a connector is usually specified by its nominal impedance and its allowable voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). frequency range and coupling method. is usable to 11 GHz. 9.000 volts (rms).1 Selection Just as MIL-DTL-17 covers the main types of coaxial cables. Frequency range determines the upper frequency limit of the application. in other words. a BNC connector uses bayonet coupling. The nominal impedance of the connector indicates its basic match to the nominal impedance of the cable. They were originally designed for high-energy physics applications. 4 GHz connectors are now available to meet the demand and usage of 75-ohm coax cable. they should connect to the cable with as little disruption of the electrical signal as possible.) If the highest frequency of the application is 2 GHz. medium or large.1. If the highest frequency is 8 GHz. except it has a threaded rather than a bayonet coupling.1–BNC Connectors 9.1. The TNC connector. performance and testing procedures for each connector. miniature. Coupling method determines the procedure for joining two mating connectors. Figure 9.9.2 BNC By far.

3–SMA Series Coax Connectors for Flexible Cable 9.1.1.5 SMA Widely used in avionics. radar. Figure 9.4 GHz when used on flexible cable and up to 18 GHz on semirigid cable.6 UHF The first coaxial connectors.2–SMA Series Coax Connectors for Semirigid Cable Figure 9. SMA connectors are the most popular type for subminiature cable and offer the highest performance in their class. military and high-performance test equipment applications. They meet MIL-PRF-39012 requirements up to 12. Their main application is in cost-sensitive consumer applications. Cable Accessories 9. UHF connectors exhibit nonconstant impedance and a low upper-frequency limit of only 500 MHz.9.4–UHF Series Coax Connectors 132 . designed in the 1930s. Figure 9. 2 GHz for the miniature version.

1. Some are designed for use with wires with solid conductors. others for stranded wire.7. With the locking tab down. Despite the connector’s age.7 N Series These screw thread connectors were the first true RF connectors. Rear View Front View 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Side View Figure 9.7–RJ45 (8 pin) Modular Plug 133 . The wiring configuration varies.2. offering dual-crimp. economical and meets the specifications of CATV/MATV systems.2 Data Connectors 9. low-cost commercial and 75-ohm versions in a variety of styles and materials.6–F Series Coax Connector 9. Cable Accessories 9. The F type connector is simple to install.8 F Series The F type connectors are 75-ohm. including Ethernet and other IEEE 802 networks using medium-size coaxial cable. The pins of the plug are numbered 1 through 8 as shown in Figure 9.9. developed during World War II to handle microwave frequencies up to 11 GHz. The most used standards are ANSI/TIA-568-B (wiring methods “A” or “B”). depending on the wiring method selected for the system. and RG-11 type coaxial cables and are the standard for cable television systems. Most connectors are terminated to the cable by a single crimp on the attached ferrule. RG-6. the conductors are inserted into the rear of the plug in a specific pattern.1 RJ11 and RJ45 Modular RJ11 and RJ45 modular plugs and jacks are widely used in communication applications. Figure 9.1. It is the standard coaxial connector for many coaxial cable-based local area networks. it is still widely used. Figure 9. screw threaded couplers for RG-59.5–N Series Coax Connectors 9.

Copper compression connectors are normally manufactured from high-conductivity electrolytic copper. 8 Position Modular Jack Pair Assignments for UTP Figure 9. for a wide variety of applications. Connectors must withstand a wide range of electrical and environmental conditions including current surges.8–Front View of 8 Position Jack with Pair Assignments A (left) and B (right) for an RJ45 Modular Jack 9. lead-plated. 134 . or plated with a proprietary finish to provide corrosion resistance. Oxide-inhibiting compound usually contains homogeneously suspended metallic particles that penetrate the wire’s oxides to establish continuity between the individual strands and the connector barrel for a low-resistance connection.9.1 Selection Figure 9. temperatures.3. The connectors are normally tin-plated. They are designed with sufficient mass and are electro-tin plated to minimize corrosion due to galvanic action between dissimilar metals. Dual-rated aluminum compression connectors may be used on both copper and aluminum conductors. high-purity wrought aluminum. Connector designs are engineered to match the cable size to provide the necessary physical strength requirements for reliable electrical performance. Aluminum compression connectors are usually manufactured from high-conductivity.3 Power Connectors 9. Aluminum compression connectors are recommended for use on aluminum conductors. corrosion and vibration. Selection and Use Copper compression connectors are recommended for use on copper conductors. Cable Accessories The individual pairs of 100-ohm UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cabling are usually connected using one of the two pair assignments shown in Figure 9.8. The connector barrels are typically prefilled with oxideinhibiting compound.9–Typical Compression Connector Compression Connectors Compression connectors are designed for reliable and controllable electrical connections.

11).D.D. splices and tap connectors requiring third-party testing and approval are listed by Underwriters Laboratories. Cable Accessories Tooling Tooling systems are essential for proper installation of a compression connector. Since connectors and dies are designed as a unit for specific wire sizes. The tools include small plier types.D. = L= O.10. only the recommended tools and dies should be used. B L C' P C W W One-hole lug B= C= C1= I. Battery-operated crimping tool Hand-operated crimping tool Figure 9.10–Typical Compression Tools O. = P= W= Length of barrel Edge of tongue to center of stud hole Stud hole spacing (two-hole lugs only) Inner diameter Length of lug Outer diameter Tongue length Tongue width Two-hole lug Figure 9.11–Typical Compression Terminals (Lugs) 135 . Industry Standards Compression terminals (Figure 9. B L P C O. virtually all the air is removed leaving a tight homogeneous mass of connector and conductor.9.D. (See examples in Figure 9. Many have also received CSA approval and are approved under SAE AS7928 (formerly MIL-T-7928) and other standards. tool and die combinations to ensure a quality splice or termination. hydraulically-powered heads and battery actuated tools. while others require a change of die sets or nest die for each connector size. I. I. Many aluminum and copper terminals and splices are marked with a die index number and are color-coded to identify the correct installation die.D. Manufacturers publish extensive tables of suitable connector. Dies marked with the matching die index number and color can be used to install the connector.) Some have permanent die grooves or adjustable dies. All conform to applicable sections of the National Electrical Code.D. Inc. full-cycle ratchet designs. When properly installed.

0 5.750 .450 . Figure 9.3125 Hole Diameter Inch .7 8.500 5/8" .625 3/4" .200 .0 2.5 M4 M5 M6 M8 Bolt Size Metric Bolt Diameter mm 2.7 13.174 .0 8.5 M3 M3.138 .086 .148 .0 3.164 .3.1 11.4 10.4 5.4375 1/2" .0 M18 18.397 M10 10.12–Terminal Stud Size Chart in English and Metric Units 136 .190 .148 .1 6.112 .1 Source: ISO 263 for English stud sizes and ISO 262 for metric stud sizes.656 .0 3. Note: Bolt illustrations not drawn to scale.265 .0 19.3 3/8" .8 3.0 Hole Diameter mm 2.095 .120 .125 .515 .5 3.0 6.0 M16 16.5 4.9.4 3.8 16.8 4.2 Stud Sizes Hole diameter English Bolt Size #2 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4" 5/16" Bolt Diameter Inch . Cable Accessories 9.0 M12 12.250 .328 M2 M2.375 7/16" .781 .0 M10 10.

It was developed in Japan by NTT (the Japanese telecommunications company) and is believed to be an abbreviation for Subscriber Connector. small form factor (SFF) connectors.1 ST Connector The standard-size ST connector was one of the first connector types widely implemented in fiber optic networking applications. There are several varieties of newer small form factor (SFF) connectors that are much smaller than the ST and SC. which is easier to use than the twist-style ST connector when in tight spaces. methods of mechanical coupling.5 mm ferrule with a round plastic or metal body that holds a single fiber. The connector has a bayonet style “twist-on/twist-off” mechanism. Many types of fiber optic connectors are available. It is non-optically disconnecting and has a “keyed” insertion for performance reliability and to prevent tip rotation.1. consumable items and training) required to install them. and two SC connectors are often held together with a plastic clip making this a “duplex” connection. This is the recommended standard-size fiber connector for enterprise cabling installations. Because of their small size. have been around for many years and are still the most widely used. the number of fibers they contain and the particular termination methods (including tooling. ST connections use a 2. The ST is still very popular for building applications but it is slowly being replaced by the SC and the smaller.4.1. such as the ST and SC. Two common SFF connector types are the LC and the MT-RJ. The connector body of an SC connector is square. It is usually used with ribbon cable for high-density backbone. Figure 9.4 Fiber Optic Connectors Fiber optic connectors are used at the ends of optical fiber. The connectors mechanically couple and align the cores of fibers so that light can pass through with a minimum amount of attenuation (loss). The main differences among the types of connectors are their dimensions. Originally developed by AT&T. they allow a higher fiber port density on optical equipment and patch panels.13–ST Connector 9. cross-connect and breakout applications.4.5 mm ferrule to hold a single fiber. 9.14–SC Connector 137 . The SC utilizes a push-on/pull-off mating mechanism. 9.4. Figure 9.2 SC Connector The standard-size SC connector also has a round 2.9. it stands for Straight Tip connector. denser. For higher multi-fiber terminations (up to 12 fibers) there is the MTP/MPO connector. They allow fiber optic equipment and patching connections to be made easily and quickly. Cable Accessories 9.1 Types of Fiber Optic Connectors The larger standard-size fiber connectors.

9. The connector locks into place with a tab (just like a modular RJ-style plug).16–MT-RJ Connectors 9.5 MTP/MPO Connector The MTP is a high-density multifiber optical connector. It is a trademark of US Conec and is an improvement on the original MPO (multi-fiber push-on) connector designed by NTT. It utilizes a push-pull mechanism. similar to the SC. In addition. Two LC connectors are normally held together in a duplex configuration with a plastic clip. The MTP connector contains up to twelve optical fibers within a single ferrule and is available in both multimode and single-mode versions. and the connector body resembles the square shape of SC connectors but it is much smaller. Figure 9.1.4 MT-RJ Connector The MT-RJ is another small form factor (SFF) connector. MTP/MPO applications include horizontal zone cabling systems as well as high-density backbones and cross-connects used in large buildings. data centers.4.15–LC Connector 9.4. It was developed by AMP/Tyco and Corning and MT-RJ stands for Mechanical Transfer-Registered Jack.17–MTP/MPO Connector 138 . The ferrule of an LC connector is 1. The joined duplex LC connector only takes as much space as one SC connector. Figure 9. It was developed by Lucent Technologies and it stands for Lucent Connector. This connector is used with fiber ribbon cable to achieve very high density. it is used at one end of cable assemblies that “break out” multi-fiber cables into separate single fiber connectors at the other end.” This connector fits an adapter with the same footprint of a standard single-fiber connector. The connection is held in place by a push-on/pull-off latch and has a pair of metal guide pins that protrude from the front of the connector for alignment. Each connector holds one fiber. Figure 9.1.1.3 LC Connector The LC connector is the most commonly used small form factor (SFF) connector.25 mm. disaster recovery and industrial operations. The MT-RJ connector closely resembles an RJ-style modular plug and terminates two fibers in a single ferrule so it is always “duplex. Cable Accessories 9. The MTP connector is often used on both ends of preterminated cable assemblies to facilitate the quick and easy interconnection of preconnectorized patch panels.4.

Figure 9. One is the primary and one is for backup. It is actually a fiber-based network access method based on the Token Ring protocol and utilizes two fiber rings. SC or other SFF connectors.” It was originally designed for the military and was in use before the ST connector. It is rarely used in building network applications.1. It is generally used to connect to equipment from a wall outlet while the rest of the network will have ST. There are two types used: SMA 905.4. It is keyed to prevent tip rotation and damage to mated fiber. The FDDI connector is designed to mate to its specific network. Most SMA 906 type connectors come with a plastic ring on the tip so they can be used as a SMA 905 connector.9.18–FC Connector 9.1. it is slowly being replaced by SC and LC connectors. These connectors are typically used for single-mode applications but multimode connectors are available. Figure 9. Not as popular as it once was.1. Figure 9. Cable Accessories 9.5 mm ferrule tip with a threaded screw-on mechanism.19–FDDI Connector 9. It was the dominant connector in data and closed-circuit video applications.4.20–SMA Connector 139 .6 FC Connector The FC connector has a 2. While it is still found in predominantly military and industrial applications. The FDDI connector has a keying system to prevent connections of incompatible network nodes. bulky plastic housing that uses a squeeze-tab retention mechanism. The termination on the fiber optic cable itself is called an FDDI connector also known as an MIC (media interface connector) connector. M and S.4. the use of the SMA connector is diminishing.7 FDDI Connector FDDI stands for fiber distributed data interface. which has an indented (smaller diameter) section on the tip side of the ferrule. B. which has a ferrule that is the same diameter from the base to the tip. There are four receptacle keys: A. and SMA 906. It contains two ferrules in a large.8 SMA Connector This connector was designed by Amphenol and stands for “Subminiature A.

2 Considerations for Selecting Fiber Optic Connectors When selecting fiber optic connectors. • If most opto-electronic equipment in a facility has predominantly one connector type.2–Mode of the Fiber The mode of the fiber is important when selecting a fiber connector. Connectors with stainless steel ferrules (when compared to ceramic or composite). the following must be taken into consideration: • Type and construction of connector (SC. Even though the overall fiber diameter size (core plus cladding) may be the same between single-mode and multimode fibers there is typically a different connector required for each within the same type (i. It is a hard. one should consider using the same type of connectors throughout the facility. it might make sense to use the same type of connector on the fiber infrastructure and distribution cabinets. it has the same overall diameter of 125 µm as the 62. Fibers are either multimode or single-mode. SC is the recommended standard-size connector followed by the ST in popularity (other types are available).5 µm core because cladding layer of glass is thicker. • The MPO/MTP type connector is used for high-density fiber applications usually with ribbon fiber. LC.) 9. the specific style and in some cases the type of material used. However.) • Termination method (heat cure.e. is the same as for multimode.4.5 µm multimode cores. MTP etc. Note that the overall fiber diameter.1–Type and Construction of Connector Choosing the right fiber connector means selecting the proper form factor. • Fiber patch cords with different connector types at each end can be used where the opto-electronic equipment connector does not match the connector on the fiber distribution equipment. Some considerations are: • For new installations.2.4. no epoxy/no polish. • LCs are the most common small form factor (SFF) connector (other types. loose tube. • Many projects have a written specification that defines the particular type of fiber connector required. The three most common form factors (sizes) are “standard” size. however. • Single-mode – The typical fiber size is 8/125 µm which indicates a core diameter of 8 µm surrounded by a cladding layer of glass making the overall diameter of the fiber 125 µm. Single-mode connectors must be manufactured to more precise tolerances. Polymer materials have the advantage of a lower cost without sacrificing performance. 140 . The type of material used in the tip (ferrule) of the connector is also important. • Stainless steel – Stainless steel tips offer durability. breakout. ST. jumper cordage. small form factor (SFF) and the high-density multi-fiber type connector. anaerobic.2. it is more expensive than other materials. These are commonly used materials: • Ceramic – Connector tips made from ceramic are preferred because ceramic closely matches the thermal characteristics of glass. they are generally more expensive. etc. Another type of multimode fiber gaining popularity is 50/125 µm. • When adding fiber and connectors to an existing facility.5 µm fiber but provides a greater bandwidth. MT-RJ. Note that the core size of the 50 µm fiber is smaller than the 62. Cable Accessories 9. such as the MT-RJ connector. durable material that does not wear down even after a high number of reconnections. are also available). at 125 µm. FC.5/125 µm. etc. • Multimode – The most common size for multimode fiber is 62. however. SC single-mode or SC multimode connector). This is because the proper alignment of the 8 µm single-mode core is more critical than on the larger 50 or 62. 9.. UV cure. generate more debris during re-mating and do not perform well during thermal cycling or vibration testing.9. This indicates a core diameter of 62.4. • Composite (polymer) – Connectors with composite tips are not as durable as those made from ceramic or stainless steel but offer a cost-effective solution and are suitable for many applications where a high number of reconnections are not anticipated.) • Mode of fiber being connectorized (single-mode or multimode) • Construction of fiber (tight buffer.5 µm surrounded by a cladding layer of glass making the overall diameter of the fiber 125 µm. have higher typical insertion loss. therefore.

• Ribbon cable – A type of cable construction that provides the highest fiber density in the most compact cable size. in duct or in direct buried applications. and data-center backbones where high-density fiber counts are needed. fiber mode and cable construction are known. necessary for proper installation. however. Choose a connector that matches the breakout kit subunit type for a proper fit. ribbon cable. polishing. Within the same connector types (ST. dual subunit duplex. is to select the desired termination method of the connector. and dual subunit cordages can be directly connectorized. It is available in both single-mode and multimode versions and in indoor and outdoor constructions. loose tube (loose buffer). • Fan-out/breakout cable – Each fiber in a fan-out/breakout cable is jacketed and protected with strength members. most loose-tube cable was not UL Listed for indoor use so it had to be terminated or transitioned to an inside-rated cable within 50 ft.) • What are the consumable costs? (adhesive/epoxy. accessories and in some cases consumable items. of the jacket on the cable. of the fiber up to 900 µm. SC. Each type of connector has its own procedures and requirements for the tools.). that contain several fibers each or there may be one “central” tube that contains all the fibers in the cable. Primary construction types are tight buffered. They may contain multiple small tubes. Loose-tube cable is available in single-mode or multimode versions. It is ideal for mass-fusion splicing and for use with multi-fiber connectors such as the MTP/MPO. It is important that the proper cable be selected based on the environment and application needed. These vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and even within connector types from the same manufacturer. zipcord duplex. • Loose tube (loose buffer) cable – Loose tube cables are used for outdoor applications and contain multiple bare fibers that float freely within larger buffer tubes.9. A connector can be installed directly on each jacketed fiber and the connectorized fibers can be patched directly into electronic equipment or patch panels etc.4. fan-out/breakout cable and jumper cordage. connect. hold and terminate the fibers within the connector itself. These cables can be single-mode or multimode are available in both indoor and outdoor versions. building. 9. once the connector type. Ribbon fiber cable has become very popular as the cable of choice for deployment in campus. Tight-buffered cable has a “buffer” layer of plastic coating extruded onto the fiber. In effect. There are now versions available that are indoor/outdoor rated making it allowable to extend the cable further than 50 ft. Connectors can be directly installed on the ends of 900 µm tight-buffered fibers without the use of a fan-out or breakout kit. zipcord. Cable Accessories 9.) • What is the cost of labor? (curing.D. It is available in both single-mode and multimode versions. each fiber is a simplex jumper cord (patch cable).3–Fiber Cable Construction The construction of the fiber cable needs to be considered when selecting fiber optic connectors.4.3 Connector Termination Methods The final step in choosing a fiber connector. Inside the cable the fibers are typically laid out in rows of 12 fibers each. Traditionally. They come in various constructions depending on whether they will be installed aerially. one row on top of the other. With technical specifications being equal. • Tight-buffered cable (Tight buffered multi-fiber distribution cable) – This type of fiber is used mainly indoors. These cables are water-blocked utilizing gel and/or dry water-swellable tapes or yarns within and around the buffer tube(s) inside the cable. Round duplex usually requires a breakout kit. Loose tube cables require a buffer tube fan-out or breakout kit in order to connectorize the fibers. It is in direct contact with the fiber and surrounds it bringing the O. and round duplex. •J  umper cordage (patch cable) – Jumper cordage is divided into four construction types: simplex. the termination method chosen usually comes down to a matter of cost based on the following considerations: • Is a specific termination method specified? • Is the installer already equipped with the tool kits and accessories needed for use with a particular type of connector termination method? • How many connectors are being installed? • What is the training and experience level of the installer? • What are the material costs? (connector itself. called subunits. there are now tight-buffered outdoor versions available. from the building entrance point within buildings. Simplex. polishing films. of the building entrance point if run exposed. Connectors must be selected that fit the O. setup and tear-down) 141 .2.D. there are different termination methods to choose from based on the connector manufacturer’s design and the particular methods used to to prepare. etc. tooling etc. Multi-fiber building cable has multiple tight-buffered fibers under a common jacket. etc. LC.

Usually a more cost-effective solution than heat-cured connectors.3.3. It is a connector with a polished fiber already factory-installed in the tip along with a mechanical splice type alignment system to facilitate attaching the connector to the end of a fiber.4.3–Epoxy and Polish Connectors (UV Cured) This connector uses UV light to cure the epoxy.4. Cable Accessories The following explains the most common termination methods: 9. The bare fiber is dipped into a primer and then pushed through the ferrule. laser-optimized 50/125 µm multimode and 62.5 /125 µm multimode versions are available for each connector.3. 50/125 µm multimode. An adhesive is injected into the connector ferrule and it will not harden until mixed with a curing agent.4.3.1–No Epoxy/No Polish Connectors (Mechanical Splice Type) This type of connector has become very popular. This causes the primer and adhesive to mix and curing occurs. etc.9. labor and consumables costs of termination. • Epoxy cured by UV lamp – no heat generated • Lower connector cost • Lower consumables cost • Requires polishing (easier polish than heat-cure) • Faster cure and overall installation time than heat-cured connectors • Higher yields/less scrap 9. This type of connector is a cost-effective way to make cable assemblies or to install in locations where a large number of fibers are terminated at one time. • No epoxy or polishing • No consumables and few tools needed • No power source required • Minimal setup required • Connectors cost more • Faster installation • Reduced labor cost 9. • Heat-cured in an oven • Batch termination • Low connector cost • Consumables required (epoxy and polishing paper. • No oven or lamp needed • No electrical source required • Requires polishing • Faster installation time than heat-cured 142 .) • Requires polishing • Longer installation time than no epoxy/no polish 9.2–Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Heat-Cured) The fiber is secured in the connector using epoxy. these type connectors are often the most cost-effective solution.4.4–Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Anaerobic) No ovens or UV lamps are needed for curing. Single-mode. When taking into account the material.

automotive.to 12-foot support spacing (use 12-foot sections) • Long span: 16.to 8-foot support spacing (use 12-foot sections) • Intermediate span: 8.5. power plants): aluminum.5. Considerations include: • Types and numbers of cables to support (total cable load in lb.1 Support Span The support span length is an important consideration as it affects the strength of the system and the length of the straight sections required. Installation Environment Tray material and finish have a significant impact on tray performance in any given environment. Cable Accessories 9. pulp and paper.]) • Power cables in a single layer – width is key issue (refer to applicable electrical code) • Low-voltage cables in a stacked configuration – key issues are loading depth and width (refer to applicable electrical code). hot-dipped galvanized after fabrication (HDGAF) • Outdoor marine (off shore platforms): aluminum. 9. • Indoor dry (institutional. commercial. Typical tray types used in various environments are shown below. wind. fiberglass • Special (petrochemical.5. concentrated load – industrial installations • Ice.5 Cable Tray Systems 9.to 20-foot support spacing (use 20-foot sections) • Extra long span: over 20-foot to 30-foot support spacing (use 24. stainless steel. pregalvanized steel.9.5. loading depth and strength). per linear foot [lb.4.3 Additional Load Considerations • 200-lb. pregalvanized steel • Indoor industrial (automotive. Tray types typically used for various span lengths include: • Short span: 6. possibly hot-dipped galvanized after fabrication (HDGAF) • Outdoor industrial (petrochemical. environmental air): contact manufacturer 143 .2 Working Load The working load depends on tray size (width. light industrial): aluminum./ft. snow loads – outdoor installations 9.or 30-foot sections). 9. power plants): aluminum. office. pulp and paper.

” Article 392 of the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) and on the Cable Tray Institute Web site at www. Cable Accessories 6 8 5 1 10 3 13 9 11 12 2 7 16 4 18 14 17 15 Figure 9. 45 degrees horizontal bend. Frame type box connector 15. 90 degrees vertical outside bend. 90 degrees horizontal bend. ladder-type cable tray 5. ventilated trough-type cable tray 13. ladder-type cable tray 6. ladder-type cable tray 11. ladder-type cable tray 9. 45 degrees vertical outside bend.com. 90 degrees vertical outside bend 9.5. Left-hand reducer.cabletrays.6 Additional Information Additional information on cable tray systems is contained in NEMA VE-1 “Metal Cable Tray Systems. Ventilated trough-type cable tray 3. Horizontal cross.5. Ventilated channel straight section 18. ladder type cable tray 14. ladder-type cable tray 8. Horizontal tee. ventilated-type cable tray 10.” NEMA VE-2 “Cable Tray Installation Guidelines. Barrier strip straight section 16. Ladder-type cable tray 2.21: 1. 30 degrees vertical inside bend. Vertical bend segment (VBS) 12. 144 .9.5 Nomenclature The following items are keyed by number to the parts illustrated in Figure 9. Channel cable tray. Vertical tee down. Straight splice plate 4. Solid flanged tray cover 17. ladder-type cable tray 7.21–Cable Tray System 9.

3-Wire. 3-Wire.1–NEMA Non-Locking Plug Configurations 15 AMP 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 125 V 1-Phase 125 V G W W 2-Pole. Cable Accessories 9. 3-Wire 1-Phase 125/250 V W X Y Y 3-Pole.9. 4-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 250 V G W 3-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 250 V G 3-Pole 3-Wire 1-Phase 277 V G 3-Pole.6 NEMA Plug and Receptacle Configurations Table 9. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V X W G Y Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W Z X Y Z 3-Phase 250 V X Y Z 3-Phase 250 V X G 1-15 5-15 6-15 7-15 20 AMP 11-15 14-15 15-15 18-15 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 250 V 1-Phase 125 V G W 2-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V Z X W G Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 250 V 120/208 V 1-Phase 277 V G 3-Phase 250 V X 3-Phase 250 V X Y G Z W X Y Z 2-20 5-20 6-20 7-20 10-20 30 AMP 11-20 14-20 15-20 18-20 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 250 V 1-Phase 125 V G W 2-Pole. 4-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V Z X W G Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 250 V 120/208 V W X Y Z 1-Phase 277 V G 3-Phase 250 V X 3-Phase 250 V X Y G Z 2-30 5-30 6-30 7-30 10-30 11-30 14-30 15-30 18-30 Continued >> 145 . 4-Wire. 3-Wire 1-Phase 125/250 V W W X Y Y 3-Pole. 3-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 250 V G 3-Pole.

Table 9. 4-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 250 V X Y G 1-Phase 277 V W G L1-15 L5-15 L6-15 L7-15 Continued >> 146 . Grounding 1-Phase 125 V G W 3-Pole. 3-Wire 1-Phase 277 V G W X 3-Pole. Cable Accessories Table 9. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V G Z X W Y X Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W X Y Z 1-Phase 250 V G 1-Phase 125/250 V W Y 3-Phase 250 V X Y 3-Phase 250 V G Z 5-50 6-50 60 AMP 7-50 10-50 11-50 14-50 15-50 18-50 3-Pole. 3-Wire.1–NEMA Non-Locking Plug Configurations (Continued) 50 AMP 2-Pole.2–NEMA Locking Plug Configurations 15 AMP 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 125 V 1-Phase 125 V W G 2-Pole.9. 3-Wire. 4-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V G X W Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W Z X Y Z 3-Phase 250 V X Y G 14-60 15-60 18-60 Note: Receptacle configurations are a mirror image of the plug configurations shown.

4-Wire. Grounding 3-Phase 277/480 V 3-Phase 120/208V Y G X Z W 3-Phase 250 V Y X Z G Y 3-Phase 480 V X Z 3-Phase 120/208 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 120/208 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 277/480 V Y G X Z W 3-Phase 347/600 V Y G X Z W Y X Z W L14-30 L15-30 L16-30 L17-30 L18-30 L19-30 L20-30 L21-30 L22-30 L23-30 Note: Receptacle configurations are a mirror image of the plug configurations shown. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V W X Y G Y 4-Pole. Cable Accessories Table 9. Grounding 1-Phase 250 V G 3-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V W X Y G 4-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125 V W G 3-Pole. 3-Wire 1-Phase 600 V X Y Y Z X W 1-Phase 277 V G W 1-Phase 480 V W X 1-Phase 125/250 V G Y 3-Phase 250 V X Y G Z 3-Phase 480 V W X Y Z 2-20 5-20 6-20 7-20 10-20 20 AMP 11-20 14-20 15-20 18-20 3-Pole. 147 . 4-Wire 3-Phase 600 V G Y X Z G 4-Pole. 3-Wire.9. 4-Wire. 5-Wire. 5-Wire. 4-Wire 3-Phase 480 V Y X Z G 4-Pole. 3-Wire.2–NEMA Locking Plug Configurations (Continued) 20 AMP 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 250 V 1-Phase 125 V G W 2-Pole. 3-Wire 1-Phase 480 V X Y G 1-Phase 250 V X Y G 1-Phase 277 V W G 1-Phase 600 V X Y G 1-Phase 125/250 V X Y W 3-Phase 250 V Y Z X 3-Phase 480 V Y Z X 3-Phase 600 V Y Z X L5-30 L6-30 L7-30 L8-30 L9-30 30 AMP L10-30 L11-30 L12-30 L13-30 3-Pole. Grounding 3-Phase 347/600 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 250 V X Z G 3-Phase 120/208 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 277/480 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 120/208 V Y G X Z W 3-Phase 277/480 V Y G X Z W 3-Phase 347/600 V Y G X Z W L14-20 L15-20 L16-20 L18-20 L19-20 30 AMP L20-20 L21-20 L22-20 L23-20 2-Pole.

148 .

) and Dimensions of Shipping Reels 150 150 150 152 10.10.2 Moving and Lifting 157 157 157 149 . Packaging of wire and cable 10.1.2 Minimum Drum Diameter 10.1.3 Capacities (ft.1 Reel Size 10.2.1.2 Reel Handling 10.1 Storage and Shipment 10. Packaging of Wire and Cable 10.2.1 Reel Terminology 10.

Longitudinally applied corrugated tape B. damage to the material is likely.and multiple-conductor nonmetallic-covered cable 1. If cable is subjected to bends sharper than the minimum radius. The minimum drum (hub) diameters given in Section 10. Flat tape armored 4.1 Reel Size Selection of proper reel (spool) size depends on the length and overall diameter (O. Over 2. and less (2) Outside diameter – 1.1.and multiple-conductor metallic-covered cable 1.1–Minimum Drum Diameter for Wire and Cable Type of Cable A. Aluminum (1) Outside diameter – 1.D.1.1. 0–2.2 Minimum Drum Diameter Table 10. Lead b. Helically applied b.1–Reel Terminology 10.1 Reel Terminology W T B H C D A A = Flange diameter B = Arbor hole diameter C = Clearance D = Drum diameter H = Height T = Traverse W = Overall width Figure 10.10. Corrugated metallic sheath 5. including cable with concentric wires a.751 in. Tape shielded a. 10. Longitudinally applied flat tape c. Single. Packaging of Wire and Cable 10. and larger 2.000 volts b. Tubular metallic sheathed a. Wire armored 3. All wire and cable has a minimum safe bending radius. Single.000 volts (1) Nonjacketed with concentric wires (2) All others 2.) of the cable or wire to be rewound. A reel not matched to the weight of the cable wound on it may be damaged during shipment. Nonshielded and wire shielded.2 should be observed.750 in. Interlocked armor Minimum Drum Diameter as a Multiple of Outside Diameter of Cable 10 12 14 14 20 14 14 25 30 16 16 14 14 Continued >> 150 .

50 F.  For “flat-twin” cables (where the cable is placed upon the reel with its flat side against the drum). 3. The multiplying factors given for item E refer to the outside diameter of the duct. 2.  When metallic-sheathed cables are covered only by a thermosetting or thermoplastic jacket. Bare conductor 26 24 22 21 19 20* 20 Minimum Drum Diameter as a Multiple of Outside Diameter of Cable Notes to Table: 1.51–1. Packaging of Wire and Cable Table 10.50 Over 1. inches –  0. C  ombinations – For combinations of the types described in items A. the highest factor for any component type shall be used.1 Minimum Drum Diameter for Wire and Cable (Continued) Type of Cable C. * Some manufacturers recommend 30. E.00 1. B and C. the outside diameter is the diameter outside of all the material on the cable in the state in which it is to be wound upon the reel.10.and multiple-conductor cable in coilable nonmetallic duct Outside diameter of duct. S  ingle.25 1. In all other cases.26–1. Fiber optic cables (in no case less than 12 inches) G. including self-supporting cables – the circumscribing overall diameter shall be multiplied by the factor given in item A or B and then by the reduction factor of 0. Sources: NEMA WC 26 (EEMAC 201) Binational Wire and Cable Packaging Standard 151 .01–1. the outside diameter is the diameter over the metallic sheath itself.0–0. the minor outside diameter shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor to determine the minimum drum diameter. D.75.  Multiple single conductors cabled together without common covering.50 0.

009 817                     24 12 10 1 30.25 0.509 2.40 1.271 1.354 2.306 1.) 0. (in.681 10.776 5.724 11.10 1.962 4.099 3.55 0.671 1.50 0.036 6.485 1.877 15.270 2.097 2.589 3.436 9.276 2.3 Capacities (ft.05 Cable O.115           30 18 12 2   27.) Traverse (in.354 2.149 1.027                           20 12 8 1 20.188 4.280 1.509 2.886 1.277 1.490 1.694 1.) 1.829 3.182 13.115           32 24 16 2   36.182 19.222 6.75 0.120 3.890 20.207 The following formula from NEMA WC 26 can be used to calculate approximate cable capacity per reel: Footage = 0.515 1.073 1.) of Typical Shipping Reels per NEMA WC 26 Flange Dia.750 13.D.969 5.877 15.969 5.877 6.439 4.10 0.073 1.40 0.987 1.670 1.317 13.886 10.546 4.476 1.65 1. (in.70 16 10 12 1 16 12 6 1 12.991 3.280 1.) Clearance (in.414 9.95 1.397 1.182 1.118                 28 18 12 1   27.55 1.829 3.285 2.681 4.1.35 1.45 0.471 3.35 0.025 920 830 36 24 16 2     30.330 1.855 7.280 9.243 17.144 2.969 2.80 0.744 2.) Drum Dia.60 1.610 1.069 883 742 633 545 475           24 16 10 1 40.338 1.)2 152 .742 1.15 0.10.120 3.668 1.20 0.320 1. (in.65 0.262 × T × (H–C) × (D+H–C) (Wire O.70 0.414 7.15 1.25 1.D.036 6.742 1.297 1.00 1.60 0.320 2.097 2.083 5.546 5.464 2.207 998 838                 24 12 12 1 26.30 1.) and Dimensions of Shipping Reels Table 10. Packaging of Wire and Cable 10.45 1.061 6.464 1.490 1.50 1.576 5.90 0.85 0.20 1.30 0.886 1.109 3.965 1.858 2.681 10.920 3.920 3.485 1.146 1.2–Capacities (ft.012 1.

525 1.10.454 17.681 3.486 5.819 2.275 11.174 5.433 4.545 5.636 1.310 2.618 4.908 7.959 3.860 1.803 7.497         43.122 1.650 2.545 29.243 29.911 4.515 2. Packaging of Wire and Cable 40 30 16 2 42 26 24 2 48 36 24 2 54 32 24 3 60 28 28 3 66 36 36 3 72 36 36 3 78 48 42 3 84 54 48 3 90 54 48 3 96 54 56 3 32.263 20.886 8.274 9.622 3.285 2.476 4.013 4.659 5.566 22.779 4.575 7.489 7.828 11.215 6.632 26.445 31.245 13.116 16.836 12.003 2.640 12.725 12.314 2.527 1.651 16.886 14.558 15.816 48.078 14.862 23.308 6.432 3.995 1.415 2.945 9.628 1.020 5.011 4.505 16.880     45.584 2.214 27.061 8.949 3.634 8.993 2.439 3.499 3.848 1.628 2.882 13.011 4.075 Continued >> 153 .110 5.223 4.928 4.676 19.087 9.301 21.049 10.239 7.958 8.960 15.264 2.637 17.470 6.143 1.942 5.545 5.707 16.996 1.270 3.565 5.633 3.760 1.118 1.963 5.650 2.701 5.624 16.198 37.757 9.994 7.300 5.017 2.362 5.610   43.502 2.193 11.353     44.013 3.215 2.043 15.506 14.392 6.898 1.052 1.439 5.557 7.677 4.044 23.698 22.771 41.601 8.837 4.868 25.773 10.478 1.829 2.995 7.987 8.350 33.890 18.341 1.987 1.456 5.114 4.721         44.951 6.980 6.043 17.723 1.672 10.891 12.434 24.174 6.449 6.808 15.632 28.858 6.477 3.207 3.645 27.523 2.881 26.010 35.261 2.425 2.200 3.829 21.285 8.027 946 875 811 754 703 657   35.908 7.825 1.859 11.853 20.782 34.688 39.519 6.127 11.573 7.471 4.772 2.222 1.913 4.709 11.882 6.510 13.547 3.091 12.285 23.193 2.488 11.769 20.276 12.351 7.957 2.996 6.450 21.753 8.715 2.179 20.333 3.262 23.828 10.756 5.336 6.925 14.108 3.067 9.046 1.566 6.909 2.911 7.738 1.682 12.424 12.638 1.910 3.438 19.926 10.707 6.436 1.731 17.412 4.227 2.900 5.425   40.959 3.139 31.821 6.255 7.773 3.106 3.145 1.302 29.801 14.861 9.490 4.814 13.832 31.092 8.981 2.973 10.557 35.110 9.914 10.318 2.130 7.887 4.590 6.207 2.750 18.231 2.919 24.752 9.309 15.389 9.097 35.359 5.222 8.944 19.658 8.626         46.827 4.237 10.370 12.171 3.955 26.739 2.553 3.467 6.

90 1.D.05 2.05 3.40 2.60 2.35 3.50 Cable O.25 3.) 1.) Drum Dia.40 3.30 3.10 3.) of Typical Shipping Reels per NEMA WC 26 (Continued) Flange Dia.80 2.00 2.10 2.85 1.65 2.70 2.25 2.20 3.15 3.30 2.15 2.20 2.55 2.35 2. (in.45 3. (in.95 3. (in.) Traverse (in.262 × T × (H–C) × (D+H–C) (Wire O.90 2.50 2.D.00 3.45 2.75 2.85 2.80 1.)2 154 .75 1.10. Packaging of Wire and Cable Table 10.) 16 10 12 1 16 12 6 1 20 12 8 1 24 12 10 1 24 12 12 1 24 16 10 1 28 18 12 1 30 18 12 2 32 24 16 2 36 24 16 2 The following formula from NEMA WC 26 can be used to calculate approximate cable capacity per reel: Footage = 0.95 2.2–Capacities (ft.) Clearance (in.

536 90 54 48 3 5.769 1.056 1.366 4.662 1. Packaging of Wire and Cable 40 30 16 2 42 26 24 2 48 36 24 2 54 32 24 3 60 28 28 3 1.904 1.617 4.162 2.516 3.565 1.768 1.122 72 36 36 3 2.468 3.704 3.10.419 5.628 3.408 2.636 1.044 2.700 2.646 1.127 3.911 4.486 2.951 1.322 2.828 2.306 2.048 2.319 3.864 4.277 66 36 36 3 1.561 1.688 2.069 1.358 1.227 2.342 3.438 2.421 2.181 3.527 2.130 4.981 3.800 2.641 2.834 1.511 3.505 1.473 3.178 3.809 2.999 3.326 2.433 155 .108 1.144 2.811 3.124 2.597 2.587 1.356 2.590 1.519 1.636 3.733 5.179 3.488 5.827 1.223 2.227 2.475 1.175 1.202 3.654 1.389 4.791 1.999 1.906 3.559 2.239 2.804 1.978 1.321 2.591 84 54 48 3 4.705 1.033 1.319 3.177 3.420 4.717 1.088 2.762 2.887 1.947 1.585 2.898 1.188 4.429 1.656 4.032 2.222 2.018 1.491 78 48 42 3 3.892 2.293 1.139 2.612 1.232 1.677 1.979 2.142 2.999 1.931 96 54 56 3 5.720 1.689 2.500 2.715 1.774 1.320 3.867 1.918 2.393 2.925 2.798 3.

) 21⁄2 33⁄4 41⁄2 11 21 2 41⁄4 1⁄2 1⁄2 1⁄2 3⁄4 11⁄4 13⁄4 Plywood Plywood Plywood Plywood Plywood Plastic Fiberboard Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal Approx.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 12 13 16 24 30 115⁄8 16 61⁄2 61⁄2 61⁄2 61⁄2 101⁄2 101⁄2 B Arbor Hole (in.) 6 5 5 12 12 8 12 115⁄16 115⁄16 115⁄16 115⁄16 31⁄2 31⁄2 T Traverse (in.10.) 6 123⁄4 12 14 14 35⁄8 31⁄4 11⁄2 2 31⁄4 71⁄2 23⁄4 8 W Overall Width (in.2–Reel Dimension 156 . Packaging of Wire and Cable Table 10.) 63⁄4 123⁄4 123⁄4 15 15 4 3 3⁄4 13⁄4 21⁄4 3 1⁄2 73⁄4 3 81⁄4 (lb.2 below) Reel A Flange Diameter (in. Reel Weight Material W T B H C D A A = Flange diameter B = Arbor hole diameter C = Clearance D = Drum diameter H = Height T = Traverse W = Overall width Figure 10.3–Typical Small Reel Dimensions Reel dimensions (See Figure 10.) 11⁄2 11⁄2 11⁄2 2 2 2 2 3⁄4 3⁄4 3⁄4 3⁄4 15⁄8 15⁄8 D Drum Diameter (in.

Care should be taken so as not to “rack” the reel. Lower carefully. reels should be stored and shipped upright. Smaller diameter cables should be sealed with PVC tape such as 3M Scotch 33 or with end caps (end caps preferred). duct tape may be used in emergencies but not for long term sealing as it’s prone to deterioration. hoist or fork lift. or other tests. If reels of cable will be stored for longer than one month.2.1 Storage and Shipment Except for reels less than two feet in diameter and weighing less than 200 pounds.2 Moving and Lifting Yes No Cradle both reel flanges between forks. i. Always load with flanges on edge and chock and block securely. Lower reels from truck using hydraulic gate. Be sure all staples and nails that might damage the cable are removed.. Cables larger than 1⁄2 inch in diameter should be sealed with tight-fitting heat-shrinkable or hot-dipped (peel coat) end caps designed for the purpose. they should be protected from rain and direct exposure to sunlight to maximize service life.e. Do not lift by top flange. 10. CAUTION: Make sure staples are shorter than flange thickness so that they cannot extend through the flange and damage the cable.2. Reels can be hoisted with a shaft extending through both flanges. Storage or shipment of the reel while lying on its side greatly increases the likelihood of tangling and damage to the cable. Figure 10.2 Reel Handling 10. Never allow fork to touch cable surface or reel wrap. Cables or reel will be damaged. continuity. Refuse or receive subject to inspection for hidden damage. Wooden reels may have nails or bolts come loose if racked during rough handling which may result in cable damage. Do not store or ship reels on their side. Both cable ends should be sealed against the entrance of moisture.10. Upended heavy reels will often arrive damaged.3–Proper Handling of Cable Reels 157 . Caution must also be used to prevent damage to the cable end as it is frequently utilized for hipot. Packaging of Wire and Cable 10. resting on both flanges. Never drop reels.

158 .

1.18 NFPA 11.1.2 AEIC 11.1.13 ISA 11.S.1.1.5 Telcordia (formerly Bellcore) 11.1.1.1.1. Industry Standards 11.1.11 IEC 11. Government Specifications 161 161 161 162 162 164 165 165 166 166 166 167 169 170 170 170 170 171 171 172 172 173 173 175 159 .8 EIA 11.12 IEEE 11.7 ECA 11.11.1.1.23 U.6 CANENA 11.19 RUS 11.17 NEMA 11.1.1.3 ANSI 11.1.16 MSHA 11.1.1.15 ITU-T 11.14 ISO 11.10 ICEA 11.1. Industry Standards 11.4 ASTM 11.1 Industry Standards List 11.1 AAR 11.21 TIA 11.9 FAA 11.1.22 UL 11.1.20 SAE International (formerly Society of Automotive Engineers) 11.1.1.1.

2.1 Fire Safety Test Methods 11.3.3 Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests 11.2 National Electrical Code (NEC) 11.7 ICEA T-29-520 11.1 Underwriters Laboratories 11.3.2 Fire Safety Tests 11.2.8 UL VW-1 (Vertical Specimen) Flame Test 176 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 181 11.2.5 UL 1666 Riser Flame Test 11. Industry Standards 11.2.3 International 182 182 183 185 160 .2 NEC Fire Test Summary 11.3.2.2. Industry Standards 11.4 NFPA 262 Steiner Tunnel Test for Plenum Rated Cable 11.2.2.3 Regulatory and Approval Agencies 11.11.6 UL 1685 Vertical Tray Flame Test 11.

0–600 Volt Cable for Locomotive  and Car Equipment Specification for Single Conductor. Liquid-Filled Cable Cross-Linked Polyethylene Insulated Shielded Power Cables. High-Pressure Pipe Type Impregnated Paper-Insulated. Gas-Filled Impregnated Paper-Insulated Low and Medium-Pressure Self-Contained. Metallic-Sheathed Cable Solid Type Impregnated Paper-Insulated Cable. Low Pressure. Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Jacketed Cable  for Locomotive and Car Equipment ECP Brake System Cable Communications and Signals Manual. Neoprene Jacketed Cable for Locomotive and Car Equipment S Wiring and Cable Specification Specification for Single Conductor.1 Industry Standards LIST 11. 0–300 Volt. 69 through 138 kV (replaced by CS9) Extruded Dielectric Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Extruded Insulation Power Cables and Accessories Rated Above 46 kV through 345 kV Electrically Insulating Low Viscosity Pipe Filling Liquids for High-Pressure Pipe-Type Cables 161 . Wire and Cable 11.1.aeic. Industry Standards 11. Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Integral Insulated-Jacketed. Metallic-Sheathed. Silicone Rubber Insulation. 581.org or www.org Document No.arema. 0–600 Volt. CG1 CG3 CG4 CG5 CG6 CG7 CG8 CG9 CG11 CG13 CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 CS7 CS8 CS9 CS31 Title Guide for Establishing the Maximum Operating Temperatures of Impregnated Paper and Laminated Paper Polypropylene Insulated Cables Installation of Pipe-Type Cable Systems Installation of Extruded Dielectric Insulated Power Cable Systems Rated 69 kV through 138 kV Underground Extruded Cable Pulling Guide Guide for Establishing the Maximum Operating Temperatures of Extruded Dielectric Insulated Shielded Power Cables Guide for Replacement and Life Extension of Extruded Dielectric 5 through 35 kV Underground Distribution Cables Guide for Electric Utility Quality Assurance Program for Extruded Dielectric Power Cables Guide for Installing.3 S-501 S-502 S-503 S-506 S-4210 – Title  pecification for Single Conductor. 125°C Cable for High  Temperature Use on Locomotive and Car Equipment Specification for Single Conductor.1. 0–300 Volt.11. 0–600 Volt. Clean Stripping Ethylene Rubber Insulated.org Document No.1 AAR Association of American Railroads www. Glass Polyester Braided.2 AEIC Association of Edison Illuminating Companies www. 0–600 Volt.aar. Operating and Maintaining Lead Covered Cable Systems Rated 5KV through 46KV Reduced Diameter Extruded Dielectric Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Guide for Testing Moisture Impervious Barriers Made of Laminated Foil Bonded to the Jacket of XLPE Transmission Cables Impregnated Paper-Insulated. Clean Stripping Rubber Insulated. Section 10.

ansi. 0337-D 0338-D 0382-D 0503-D 0684-D 719 X3.4 ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials www. or Soft Tinned Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Copper Trolley Wire Hot-Rolled Copper Rods Hard-Drawn Copper Alloy Wires for Electrical Conductors Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Bunch Stranded Members) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Concentric Stranded Members) Bunch-Stranded Copper Conductors Lead-Alloy-Coated Soft Copper Wire Resistivity of Electrical Conductor Materials Hard-Drawn Copper Clad Steel Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper-Clad Steel Conductors Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper and Copper-Clad Steel Composite Conductors  Aluminum 1350-H19 Wire.1. B1 B2 B3 B8 B33 B47 B49 B105 B172 B173 B174 B189 B193 B227 B228 B229 B230 B231 B232 B233 B246 Title Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Medium-Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors. Medium-Hard. Hard.129 X3.org Document No.148 X3. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR)  Aluminum 1350 Drawing Stock for Electrical Purposes Tinned Hard-Drawn and Medium-Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Continued >> 162 .184 Title Local Distributed Data Interface (LDDI) Network Layer Protocol Data-Link Layer Protocol for Local Distributed Data Interfaces Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Network Layer Protocol Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Station Management Standard FDDI—Media Access Control Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cables Intelligent Peripheral Interface (IPI) Enhanced Physical Interface (withdrawn) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Physical Layer (replaced by document #INCITS 148) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Single-Mode Fiber Physical Layer Medium Dependent  (replaced by document #INCITS 184) 11.org Document No.3 ANSI American National Standards Institute www.astm.1. for Electrical Purposes Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors. Industry Standards 11.11.

Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors. Industry Standards 11. Copper Alloy Wire Copper. Annealed and Intermediate Tempers High Strength.4 ASTM (Continued) Document No. Copper Alloy.1. Aluminum Clad Steel Reinforced (ACASR/AW)  Copper-Clad Aluminum Wire Aluminum 1350 Round Wire. Aluminum Alloy. B258 B263 B298 B324 B399 B400 B401 B452 B496 B500 B549 B566 B609 B624 B694 B736 B800 B801 D470 D866 D1047 D1351 D1523 D1929 D2219 D2220 D2308 D2655 D2656 D2671 D2768 D2770 D2802 D2863 D3554 0337-D 0338-D 0382-D Title  tandard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wire Used as Electrical Conductors S Determination of Cross-Sectional Area of Stranded Conductors Silver-Coated Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Aluminum Rectangular and Square Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Alloy 6201-T81 Conductors Compact Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors Compact-Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors. Aluminum Clad Steel Cable Shielding Stock 8000 Series Aluminum Alloy Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Conductors of 8000 Series Aluminum Alloy Test Methods for Cross-Linked Insulations and Jackets for Wire and Cable Styrene-Butadiene (SBR) Synthetic Rubber Jacket for Wire and Cable Polyvinyl Chloride Jacket for Wire and Cable Polyethylene-Insulated Wire and Cable Synthetic Rubber Insulation for Wire and Cable. 60°C Operation Polyvinyl Chloride Insulation for Wire and Cable.11. Copper-Clad Stainless Steel and Strip for Electrical Cable Shielding Aluminum. Steel Reinforced (ASCR/COMP) Copper-Clad Steel Wire for Electronic Application Compact Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Metallic Coated Stranded Steel Core for Aluminum Conductors. 75°C Operation Polyethylene Jacket for Electrical Insulated Wire and Cable Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Rated 0 to 2. 90°C Operation Test for Ignition Temperature of Plastics Polyvinyl Chloride Insulation for Wire and Cable. Copper-Clad Bronze.000 V Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Rated 2.001 V to 35 kV  Test Methods for Heat-Shrinkable Tubing  General-Purpose Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Jacket for Wire and Cable Ozone-Resisting Ethylene Propylene Rubber Integral Insulation and Jacket for Wire Ozone Resistant Ethylene-Alkene Polymer Insulation for Wire and Cable Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support Candle-Like Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index) Track-Resistant Black Thermoplastic High Density Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Local Distributed Data Interface (LDDI) Network Layer Protocol Data-Link Layer Protocol for Local Distributed Data Interfaces Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Network Layer Protocol Continued >> 163 . High Conductivity.

Heavy-Duty and Extra-Heavy-Duty NBR/PVC Jackets for Wire and Cable Ozone-Resistant Thermoplastic Elastomer Insulation for Wire and Cable.5 Telcordia (formerly Bellcore) www. AASP Bonded.4 ASTM (Continued) Document No. Flame Spread and Mass Loss Testing of Insulating Materials Contained in Electrical or Optical Fiber Cables When Burning  in a Vertical Cable Tray Configuration Duplex.11.1. STALPETH and Bonded PASP) Generic Requirements for Network Outdoor Customer Premises and Universal Cross-Connecting Wire Generic Requirements for Miniature Ribbon Connector and Cable Assembly Generic Requirements for Distributing Frame Wire Generic Requirements for Central Office Cable Generic Requirements for Central Office Coaxial Cable Generic Requirements for Singlemode Optical Connectors and Jumpers Generic Requirements for Telecommunications Power Cable Generic Requirements for Optical Cable Innerduct Generic Requirements for Premises Optical Fiber Cable Generic Requirements for Metallic Telecommunications Cable Generic Requirements for Metallic Telecommunication Wire Generic Requirements for Coaxial Drop Cable Generic Requirements for Coaxial Distribution Cable Single Pair Buried Distribution Wire Multiple Pair Buried Wire Generic Requirements for Network Plenum Cable/Wire Generic Requirements for Network Shielded Station Wire Generic Requirements for Inside Wiring Cable (3 to 125 Pair Sizes) Continued >> 164 . Heavy-Duty and Extra-Heavy-Duty Cross-linked Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Jackets for  Wire and Cable Test Methods for Physical and Environmental Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications  Wire and Cable Test Methods for Electrical Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable Heat Release. 90°C Operation Specification for General Purpose.telcordia.com Document No.1. Base Metal Thermocouple Wire with Glass Fiber or Silica Fiber Insulation Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter  11. GR-20 GR-63 GR-78 GR-110 GR-111 GR-115 GR-126 GR-135 GR-136 GR-137 GR-139 GR-326 GR-347 GR-356 GR-409 GR-421 GR-492 GR-1398 GR-1399 TR-NWT-000123 TR-NWT-000124 TR-NWT-000131 TR-NWT-000132 TR-NWT-000133 Title Generic Requirements for Optical Fiber and Optical Fiber Cable Network Equipment-Building System Requirements: Physical Protection Generic Physical Design Requirements for Telecommunication Products and Equipment Generic Requirements for Thermoplastic Insulated Steam Resistant Cable Generic Requirements for Thermoplastic Insulated Riser Cable Inner-City PIC Screened Cable (Filled. 90°C Dry–75°C Wet Operation Ozone-Resistant Thermoplastic Elastomer Insulation for Wire and Cable. D3555 D4244 D4245 D4246 D4314 D4565 D4566 D5537 E574 E662 E1354 Title Track-Resistant Black Cross-linked Thermosetting Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable General Purpose. Industry Standards 11.

canena.ec-central.org THC (Technical Harmonization Committee) #20 is responsible for wire and cable products. Industry Standards 11. TR-NWT-000134 TR-TSY-000103 TR-TSY-000104 TR-TSY-000105 TA-TSY-000120 TA-TSY-000121 TA-TSY-000122 TA-TSY-000125 TA-TSY-000127 TA-TSY-000128 TA-TSY-000129 TA-TSY-000140 TA-TSY-000141 TA-TSY-000142 Title Generic Requirements for Two Pair Station Wire Pulp Bonded STALPETH Cable Pulp Bonded PASP Cable Pulp Bonded Steam Resistance Cable Customer Premises or Network Ground Wire Generic Requirements for One-Pair Aerial Service Wire Generic Requirements for Multiple-Pair Aerial Service Wire Rural Aerial Distribution Wire Network Aerial Block Wire Bridle Wire Tree Wire Standard Shielded Polyethylene Insulated Twisted Pair Cable Terminating Cable Central Office Hook-up Wire 11. Undercarpet Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 9. Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 6.1. Outdoor Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1. Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 2. Plenum Cable 165 .7 ECA Electronic Components. Riser Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1. Office Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 8. 11.org Document No. Non-Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 2. ECA-199-A ECA-215 ECA-230 ECA-280-C ECA-297-A ECA-364 ECA-403-A ECA-IS-43 ECA-IS-43AA ECA-IS-43AB ECA-IS-43AC ECA-IS-43AD ECA-IS-43AE ECA-IS-43AF ECA-IS-43AG ECA-IS-43AH ECA-IS-43AJ Title Solid and Semisolid Dielectric Transmission Lines Broadcast Microphone Cables Color Marking of Thermoplastic Covered Wire Solderless Wrapped Electrical Connections Cable Connectors for Audio Facilities for Radio Broadcasting Electrical Connector Test Procedures Precision Coaxial Connectors for CATV 75 Ohms Omnibus Specification–Local Area Network Twisted Pair Data Communication Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1.11.1.5 Telcordia (Continued) Document No. Assemblies and Materials Association www.1. Non-Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1.6 CANENA Council for the Harmonization of Electrical Standards of the Americas www.

ihs. Exterior Power Cable.eia.com Document No. Inc.1.10 ICEA Insulated Cable Engineers Association www.global. AC 25.11.869 (a)(4) Title Fire and Smoke Protection Underground Electrical Cables for Airport Lighting Circuits (L-824-A. 25.8 EIA Electronic Industries Alliance www. EIA-492A000 EIA-359-A Title Specification for Multimode Optical Wave Guide Fibers Standard Colors for Color Identification and Coding (Munsell Color) 11.global. Bare and Weather Resistant Ampacities. Inc. C) Airport Lighting Certification Program Airport Construction Standards Control Cable.icea.9 FAA Federal Aviation Administration www.ihs. Industry Standards 11.net ICEA documents are available from Global Engineering Documents.869-1 AC 150/534-7 AC-150/5345-53 AC-150/5370-10 FAA-E-2042 FAA-E-2793 FAA-701 FAR 14.1. S-56-434 S-61-402 S-81-570 P-32-382 P-43-457 P-45-482 P-46-426 P-51-432 P-53-426 P-54-440 P-56-520 S-65-375 S-70-547 Title Polyolefin Insulated Communication Cables for Outdoor Use Thermoplastic-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (NEMA WC 5) (withdrawn) 600 V Direct Burial Cable Single Electrical Conductors and Assemblies with Ruggedized Extruded Insulation Short Circuit Characteristics of Insulated Cable Conductor Resistances and Ampacities at 400 and 800 Hz Short Circuit Performance of Metallic Shields and Sheaths on Insulated Cable Power Cable Ampacities (Replaced by IEEE 835) Copper Conductors. B. Including Effect of Shield Losses for Single-Conductor Solid-Dielectric Power Cable 15 kV Through 69 kV (NEMA WC 50) Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays (NEMA WC 51) Cable Tray Flame Test Varnished-Cloth-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (NEMA WC 4) (rescinded) Weather-Resistant Polyethylene Covered Conductors Continued >> 166 .gov Document No. www.faa. 5 to 25 kV Rubber-Insulated Cable (0–8.com Document No. www.000 Volts) Fire Retardance of Wire and Cable 11. Exterior.1.org EIA documents are available from Global Engineering Documents.

24764 60050-461 60055-2 60079 60092 60096 60141 60169 60173 60183 60189 60204 60227 60228 60229 Title Information Technology–Generic Cabling for Data Center Premises International Electrotechnical Vocabulary.11.1.000 BTU/Hour) Conducting Vertical Cable Tray Flame Tests (70. Control.ch Document No. Industry Standards 11.iec. Instrumentation and Portable Cables (NEMA WC 53) Conducting Vertical Cable Tray Flame Tests (210.11 IEC International Electrotechnical Commission webstore. Control.1. see S-73-532) Optical Fiber Premises Distribution Cable Fiber Optic Outside Plant Communications Cable Concentric Neutral Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Utility Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Indoor-Outdoor Optical Fiber Cable Optical Fiber Drop Cable Test Procedures for Extended Time-Testing of Insulation for Service in Wet Locations Guide for Establishing Stability of Volume Resistivity for Conducting Polymeric Components of Power Cables Guide for Frequency of Sampling Extruded Dielectric Power. Chapter 461. S-73-532 S-75-381 S-80-576 S-82-552 S-83-596 S-87-640 S-94-649 S-97-682 S-104-696 S-110-717 T-22-294 T-25-425 T-26-465 T-27-581 T-29-520 T-30-520 T-31-610 T-33-655 Title Standard for Control Cables (NEMA WC 57) Portable and Power Feeder Cables for Use in Mines and Similar Applications (NEMA WC 58) Category 1 and 2 Unshielded Twisted Pair Communications Cable for Wiring Premises Instrumentation Cables and Thermocouple Wire (NEMA WC 55) (withdrawn.10 ICEA (Continued) Document No. Instrumentation and Portable Cables for Test (NEMA WC 54) Standard Test Methods for Extruded Dielectric Power.000 BTU/Hour) Water Penetration Resistance Test. Paper-insulated metal-sheathed cables for rated voltages up to 18/30 kV (with copper or aluminum conductors and excluding  gas pressure and oil-filled cables) Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres (hazardous locations) Electrical installations in ships Radio-frequency cables Tests on oil-filled and gas-pressure cables and their accessories Radio-frequency connectors Colors of the cores of flexible cables and cords Guide to selection of high-voltage cables Low-frequency cables and wires with PVC insulation and PVC sheath Safety of machinery–electrical equipment of machines (industrial) PVC insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Conductors of insulated cables Tests on cable oversheaths which have a special protective function and are applied by extrusion Continued >> 167 . Electric cables. Halogen-Free (LSHF) Polymeric Cable Jackets 11. Sealed Conductor Low-Smoke.

11.11 IEC (Continued) Document No. definitions Identification of conductors by colors or alphanumeric Rigid precision coaxial lines and their associated precision connectors Extruded solid dielectric insulated power cables for rated voltages from 1 kV to 30 kV Comparative information on IEC and North American flexible cord types Calculation of maximum external diameter of cables for indoor installations Fire hazard testing Mineral insulated cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 750 V Low-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath Calculation of the lower and upper limits for the average outer dimensions of cables with circular copper conductors  and of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Short-circuit temperature limits of electric cables with rated voltages 1 kV and 3 kV Cable networks for sound and television signals Tests on gases evolved during combustion of electric cables Code for designation of colors Heating cables with a rated voltage of 300/500 V for comfort heating and prevention of ice formation Common tests methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables Performance and testing of teleprotection equipment of power systems Tests for power cables with extruded insulation for rated voltages above 30 kV up to 150 kV Winding wires–test methods Electrical test methods for electric cables (including partial discharge) Calculation of thermally permissible short-circuit currents Radio-frequency and coaxial cable assemblies Measurement of smoke density of cables burning under defined conditions (3 meter cube smoke apparatus) Fieldbus for use in industrial control systems Consumer audio/video equipment–Digital interface Power installations exceeding 1 kV AC Part 1: Common rules 168 .1. 60230 60245 60230 60245 60287 60304 60331 60332 60339 TR60344 60364-1 60446 60457 60502 60541 TR60649 60695 60702 60708 60719 60724 60728 60754 60757 60800 60811 60834 60840 60851 60885 60949 60966 61034 61158 61883 61936-1 Title Impulse tests on cables and their accessories Rubber insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Impulse tests on cables and their accessories Rubber insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Calculations of the continuous current rating of cables (100% load factor) Standard colors for insulation for low-frequency cables and wires Tests for electric cables under fire conditions–circuit integrity Tests on electric and optical fiber cables under fire conditions General purpose rigid coaxial transmission lines and their associated flange connectors Calculation of DC resistance of plain and coated copper conductors of low-frequency cables and wires Low-voltage electrical installations–Part 1: Fundamental principles. assessment of global characteristics.

000 V and less) AC Power Circuits Neutral Grounding in Electrical Utility Systems Marine cable for use on shipboard and fixed or floating facilities 169 .11.12 IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 45 48 82 101 120 323 383 400 404 422 510 524 525 532 539 575 576 634 635 690 738 802 816 835 848 930 1017 1018 1019 1143 1185 1202 1394 1407 1580 C2 C62.5 kV through 500 kV Guide for Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Power Generating Stations (withdrawn) Recommended Practices for Safety in High Voltage and High Power Testing Guide to the Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors Guide for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Substations Guide for Selecting and Testing Jackets for Underground Cables Definitions of Terms Relating to Corona and Field Effects of Overhead Powerlines G  uide for the Application of Sheath-Bonding Methods for Single Conductor Cables and the Calculation of Induced Voltages and Currents in Cable Sheaths Recommended Practice for Installation. Industry Standards 11. Inc.5 kV through 765 kV Test Procedure for Impulse Voltage Tests on Insulated Conductors Guide for the Statistical Analysis of Thermal Life Test Data Master Test Guide for Electrical Measurements in Power Circuits Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations Qualifying Class 1E Electric Cables.ieee. Termination.1.41 C62.org Document No. and Testing of Insulated Power Cable as Used in Industrial and Commercial Applications  Standard Cable Penetration Fire Stop Qualification Test Guide for Selection and Design of Aluminum Sheaths for Power Cables Standard for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems for Class 1E Circuits in Nuclear Power Generating Stations Standard for Calculating the Current-Temperature of Bare Overhead Conductors Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Overview and Architecture Guide for Determining the Smoke Generation of Solid Materials Used for Insulations and Coverings of Electrical Wire and Cable (withdrawn)  Power Cable Ampacity Tables Standard Procedure for the Determination of the Ampacity Derating of Fire-Protected Cables Statistical Analysis of Electrical Insulation Breakdown Data Field Testing Electric Submersible Pump Cable Specifying Electric Submersible Cable-Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Insulation Specifying Electric Submersible Pump Cable-Polypropylene Insulation Guide on Shielding Practice for Low Voltage Cables Guide for Installation Methods for Generating Station Cables Standard for Propagation Flame Testing of Wire and Cable Standard for a High Performance Serial Bus Guide for Accelerated Aging Test for MV Power Cables Using Water-Filled Tanks Marine Cable For Use on Shipboard and Fixed or Floating Facilities National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) Surge Voltages in Low-Voltage (1. Field Splices and Connections for Nuclear Power Generating Stations Guide for Field Testing and Evaluation of the Insulation of Shielded Power Cable Systems Standard for Extruded and Laminated Dielectric Shielded Cable Joints Rated 2. www.92 1580 Title Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations on Shipboard Test Procedures and Requirements for AC Cable Terminations 2.

1. Industry Standards 11.int Document No. Blue Book.3 Title Transmission Media Characteristics 11.org Document No.01 50.gov Document No.itu. 4589 5657 TR9122 Title Oxygen Index Test Radiant Cone Flame Test Toxicity Testing of Fire Effluents 11.1.isa.1.msha.15 ITU-T International Telecommunication Union/Telecommunications Sector www. 30 CFR 7. Systems and Automation Society www.14 ISO International Organization for Standardization www.iso.13 ISA Instrumentation.06. Facicle III.11.16 MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration www.407 Title Flame Tests 170 .02 Title Wiring Methods for Hazardous (Classified) Locations Instrumentation Part 1: Intrinsic Safety Fieldbus Standard for Use in Industrial Control Systems 11.1.org Document No. RP 12.

org Document No.17 NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association www.000 Volts Aerospace and Industrial Electrical Cable 11. K (600 Volts) and KK (1.2 WC 66 WC 67 WC 70 WC 71 WC 27500 Title Electrical and Electronic PTFE Insulated High Temperature Hook-up Wire.18 NFPA National Fire Protection Association www.4 WC 26 WC 50 WC 51 WC 52 WC 53 WC 54 WC 56 WC 57 WC 58 WC 61 WC 62 WC 63.org Document No. Control.0 kHz Insulation Continuity Proof Testing of Hookup Wire Standard for Control Cables (ICEA S-73-532) Portable and Power Feeder Cables for Use in Mines and Similar Applications (ICEA S-75-381) Transfer Impedance Testing Repeated Spark/Impulse Dielectric Testing Twisted Pair Premise Voice and Data Communications Cables Coaxial Premise Data Communication Cable Category 6 and Category 7 100 Ohm Shielded and Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables Uninsulated Conductors Nonshielded Power Cables Rated 2.1.1 WC 63. Control.000 Volts) High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cable High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with FEP Fluorocarbons High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with ETFE Fluoropolymers High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with Cross-Linked (Thermoset) Polyolefin (XLPO) High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with ECTFE Fluoropolymers Wire and Cable Packaging Ampacities. Including Effect of Shield Losses for Single-Conductor Solid-Dielectric Power Cable 15 kV through 69 kV (ICEA P-53-426) Ampacities of Cables Installed in Cable Trays High-Temperature and Electronic Insulated Wire Impulse Dielectric Testing Standard Test Methods for Extruded Dielectric Power.11.1.001–5.3 HP 100.nfpa. Instrumentation and Portable Cables (ICEA T-27-581) Guide for Frequency of Sampling Extruded Dielectric Power.1 HP 100. E (600 Volts) and EE (1.nema.000 Volts) Electrical and Electronic FEP Insulated High Temperature Hook-up Wire: Types KT (250 Volts). HP 3 HP 4 HP 100 HP 100. 70 75 79 99 130 258 262 Title NEC® (National Electrical Code) Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery Health Care Facilities Handbook Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems Recommended Practice for Determining Smoke Generation of Solid Materials Test for Flame Travel and Smoke of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces 171 . Types ET (250 Volts). Instrumentation and Portable Cables for Test 3.000 Volts or Less Nonshielded Cables Rated 2.2 HP 100. Industry Standards 11.

Electric. or Polyarylene Insulated. Copper or Copper Alloy 172 .usda.11.sae. Truck-Tractor. Cross-linked Polyalkene.rurdev. 1753F-150 1753F-151 1753F-152 1753F-204 1753F-205 1753F-206 1753F-208 1753F-601 Title Construction of Direct Buried Plant Construction of Underground Plant Construction of Aerial Plant Aerial Service Wires (PE-7) Filled Telephone Cable (PE-39) Filled Buried Wires (PE-86) Filled Telephone Cable with Expanded Insulation (PE-89) Filled Fiber Optic Cables (PE-90) 11.19 RUS Rural Utilities Service (formerly REA) www. Copper or Copper Alloy Wire Wiring Aerospace Vehicle Wire.1.20 SAE International (formerly Society of Automotive Engineers) www. Cross-linked Alkane-Imide Polymer. J156 J378 J1127 J1128 J1292 J1654 J1678 J1939 J2394 J2549 AS22759 AS50861 AS50881 AS81044 Title Fusible Links Marine Propulsion System Wiring Low Voltage Battery Cable Low Voltage Primary Cable Automobile Truck.org Document No.gov Document No. Industry Standards 11. Trailer.1. and Motor Coach Wiring High Voltage Primary Cable Low Voltage Ultra Thin Wall Primary Cable Serial Control and Communications for Vehicle Network Seven-Conductor Cable for ABS Power Single Conductor Cable for Heavy Duty Application Fluoropolymer Insulated Electrical Wire PVC Insulated.

RHW-2. Industry Standards 11. TBS. SJ. TFE. UF-B) Continued >> 173 . FEP. THWN.1. CL3R.11. TIA-225 TIA-232-F TIA-259 TIA-422-B TIA-423-B TIA-440-B TIA-485-A TIA-455-B TIA-492AAAA-A TIA-568-B. Graded-Index Optical Waveguide Fibers Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces Residential Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard Administration Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Industrial Premises Sectional Specification for Fiber Optic Premises Distribution Cables Sectional Specification for Fiber Optic Cables for Outside Plant Use Specification for Fiber Optic Type FSMA Connectors Specification for Optical Fiber Cable Splice Closures 11. TFFN. Inc. 75 Ohms Electrical Characteristics of Balanced Voltage Digital Interface Circuits Electrical Characteristics of Unbalanced Voltage Digital Interface Circuits Fiber Optic Terminology Generators and Receivers for Balanced Digital Multipoint Systems Standard Test Procedures for Fiber Optic Fibers. CL2P.1.org Document No. RHH. THWN-2. THHW. TA. CL3X.21 TIA Telecommunication Industries Association www. TFN. CMR. SIS) Flexible Cord & Fixture Wire (Types SO.1 TIA-569-B TIA-570-B TIA-606-A TIA-942 TIA-100S TIA-472C000 TIA-472D000 TIA-475C000 TIA-515B000 Title Rigid Coaxial Transmission Lines 50 Ohms Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Communication Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange Rigid Coaxial Transmission Lines and Connectors. Transducers.) Fixture Wire Thermoplastic-Insulated Wires and Cables (Types TW. SOW-A. www. SJO. THW.com Document No.5 µm Core Diameter/125 µm Cladding Diameter Class 1a Multimode. etc.ul. PLTC) Thermoset-Insulated Wires & Cables (Types XHHW. CL3. CMP) Wire Connectors Splicing Wire Connectors Sealed Wire Connector Systems Equipment Wiring Terminals for Use with Aluminum and/or Copper Conductors Thermoplastic Insulated Underground Feeder & Branch Circuit Cables (Types UF.22 UL Underwriters Laboratories. FEPB) Manufactured Wiring Systems Communication Cables (Types CMX. 4 13 44 62 66 83 183 444 486A-486B 486C 486D 486E 493 Title Armored Cable (Type AC) Power-Limited Circuit Cable (Types CL3P. CM.tiaonline. XHHW-2. CL2R. SA. SOW. RH. THW-2. THHN. Connecting and Termination Detail Specification for 62. Cables. RHW. SPT-1.

Cables. PPE) Optical Fiber Cable Standard Test for Flame Propagation Height of Electrical and Optical Fiber Cables Installed Vertically in Shafts Stage Lighting Cables Vertical-Tray Fire-Propagation and Smoke-Release Test for Electrical and Optical-Fiber Cables Data-Processing Cable (Type DP) Industrial Robots Communication Circuit Accessories Fire Resistive Cables (“CI” Rated) Cables for Use in Hazardous Locations (Type MC-HL) Instrumentation Tray Cable (Type ITC) Wire and Cable Test Methods (Trinational) Cables for Network-Powered Broadband Systems Festoon Cable Recreational Vehicle Cable Limited-Combustible Cable Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres 174 . USE-2) Machine Tool Wires and Cables (Type MTW) Medium Voltage Power Cable (Type MV) Welding Cables Power and Control Tray Cables (Type TC) Marine Shipboard Cable Cables for Power-Limited Fire-Alarm Circuits Cables for Non-Power-Limited Fire-Alarm Circuits Electric Cables for Boats Telephone Equipment Positioning Devices Reference Standard for Electrical Wires. SE-U. Industry Standards 11.22 UL (Continued) Document No. NMC-B) Tests for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials Appliance Wiring Material (Type AWM) Gas-Tube-Sign Cable Cord Sets and Power-Supply Cords Service Entrance Cables (Types USE.1. and Class III Hazardous (Classified) Locations Portable Power Cable (Types G. and Flexible Cords Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and II. SE-R.11. SE. G-GC. 497 719 723 758 814 817 854 1063 1072 1276 1277 1309 1424 1425 1426 1459 1565 1581 1604 1650 1651 1666 1680 1685 1690 1740 1863 2196 2225 2250 2556 2261 2273 2276 2424 60079 Title Protectors for Communication Circuits Nonmetallic-Sheath Cables (Types NM-B. W. Division 2.

Electrical (300–600 Volts) Wire.23 U. 600 V. for Shipboard Use Wire. Fiber Optic.11. Hookup. Power. Hermaphroditic Cable Comparison Handbook Data Pertaining to Electric Shipboard Cable Splices. Lightweight for Shipboard Use General Specification for Cable and Cord. Round Conductor General Specification for Cables Twisted Pairs and Triples. Flexible and Semirigid General Specification for Cable and Cord. Electrical General Specifications for Wire.dla. Electrical. Crimp Style. Special Purpose. Electrical. Electrical.daps. Copper. 200°C General Specifications for Cable. Unshielded). Fiber Optic. Electrical. Low Smoke. Radio Frequency. Copper. Coaxial. Electrical. Electrical.mil/quicksearch Document No. Government Specifications http://assist. Single Terminus General Specifications for Connectors. Industry Standards 11. Electrical (Flexible. Electrical. Semirigid. Insulated General Specification for Cable. Electrical. Flat. Foam Dielectric General Specification for Cable. Airport Lighting. Uninsulated Weather-Resistant Power & Cable Flexible Cord and Fixture Wire (Replaced by UL 62) General Specifications for Cables. Polymide-Insulated Copper or Copper Alloy General Specification for Connectors. Electrical. Corrugated Outer Conductor Cable. Chromel and Alumel Thermocouple Cable and Wire. for Shipboard Use Cable (Power & Special Purpose) and Wire. Portable (replaced by Qualified Products Database) 175 . Polyethylene XLP General Specifications for Cables. Environment Resistant (replaced by SAE-AS 81824) Wire and Cable. Cross-Linked. Multiconductor and Single Shielded Power Cable General Specification for Cable. Electric. Circular. Insulated Wire. Coaxial. High Temperature. Radio Frequency. Semirigid.1. Radio Frequency. Silicone-Insulated. Electrical. AA-59544 A-A-59551 J-C-145C J-C-580B MIL-DTL-17H MIL-DTL-915G MIL-DTL-3432H MIL-DTL-8777D MIL-DTL-13777H MIL-DTL-16878G MIL-DTL-23806B MIL-DTL-24640G MIL-DTL-24643B MIL-DTL-25038H MIL-DTL-27072F MIL-DTL-28830D MIL-DTL-38359C MIL-DTL-49055D MIL-DTL-55021C MIL-DTL-81381C MIL-C-83522D MIL-DTL-83526C MIL-HDBK-299 MIL-S-81824 MIL-W-76D MIL-W-5846C QPL-AS5756-I Title Wire & Cable Electrical Power Electrical Copper Wire. Environmental Resistant. Internal Hookup Wire-Electric. Fire Resistant and Flight Critical Special Purpose. Insulated. Electric. Power. Power.S.

2 Fire Safety Tests 11. Riser Test Vertical Tray.1 Fire Safety Test Methods Table 11. IEEE 1202. VW-1. CSA FT4.1–Fire Safety Test Methods Some common fire safety test methods used in the wire and cable industry are listed below: Fire Hazard North America Worldwide Ignitability Propagation Smoke Toxicity Corrosivity Halogen Content 11.000 Btu/hr 70.000 Btu/hr 3. Industry Standards 11. AC CL2 CL3 PLTC ITC FPL NPLF OFN or OFNG OFC or OFCG CM or CMG No listing CATV Flame Energy 300. UL 1685 Vertical Wire.2 NEC Fire Test Summary Table 11. Class 2 Power-Limited 725.11.2–NEC Fire Test Summary National Electrical Code Article 645 Under Raised Floor of IT Room 725. CSA FT6 UL 1666.2.2. MC.000 Btu/hr 527.000 Btu/hr Limited Use (Vertical Wire) – CL2X CL3X No listing No listing No listing No listing No listing No listing CMX CMUC CATVX NFPA 262. Class 3 Power-Limited 725 Power-Limited Tray Cable 727 Instrumentation Tray Cable 760 Fire Protective Power-Limited 760 Fire Protective Non-Power-Limited 770 Optical Fiber Nonconductive 770 Optical Fiber Conductive 800 Communication 800 Undercarpet Communication 820 Cable TV Cable Application Plenum Space Riser Shaft General Use Limited Use ASTM D2863 UL 1685 and IEEE 1202 UL 1685 and ASTM E662 University of Pittsburgh IEC 60754 MIL-DTL-24643 IEC 60332 IEC 60332 IEC 61034-2 ISO TR 9122 IEC 60754-2 IEC 60754-1 Plenum (NPFA 262) All types shown below CL2P CL3P No listing No listing FPLP NPLFP OFNP OFCP CMP No listing CATVP Common Names Riser (UL 1666) All types shown below CL2R CL3R No listing No listing FPLR NPLFR OFNR OFCR CMR No listing CATVR General Use (Vertical Tray) DP. CSA FT1 176 . Steiner Tunnel.

with no spaces Yes h 0.4 0. =Not applicable in the UL 1581/2556 version.17 m3/s 2 1.3 2. 2.3 2. respectively.1 N/A N/A 1.40 150 b IEC 60332-3 20 20.15 No No CSA FT4 20 20 No 300 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 3.) Alternate source Burner placements Angle of burner Tray length (m) Tray width (m) Sample length (m) Width of tray used for cables (m) Thin-size cables to be bundled Test enclosure specified Test runs needed Max. b=Version with CSA FT-4/IEEE 1202 flame exposure.30 front or front +back Mounted flush. 40g No 600 mm 75 mm in front Horiz.3 2.2. char length (m. =Not yet specified.4 0.4 0. c=Height above bottom of tray and distance from d e f specimen surface.3 0. =Time is 20 minutes for Category C.3 Full front only if D< 13 mm Yes 0. Industry Standards 11. =Depends on amount j of cable loading =IEEE 383 now directly references IEEE 1202 Source: NIST Technical Note 1291 Total smoke released N/A N/A N/A (m2) a 177 .786 N/A IEEE 1202 20 20 No 300 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 2.25 front only if D< 13 mm Yes >0.786 N/A =Version with UL 1581/2556 flame exposure.5 0.11.3–Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests ICEA T-29-520 Burner power (kW) Time of flame (min.4 Full front only if D< 13 mm Yes 5m3/s 1 1.4 a UL 1685 /IEEE 21 20 No 457 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 2.3 2.4 N/A 1 3.15 front only No Yes 5 m3/s 1 2.786 0. from bottom) Peak smoke release rate (m2 s-1) 62 20 No 300 mm 200 mm in back Horiz. 40 minutes for Categories A and B.65 m3/s 2X2 f J UL 1685 /UL 21 20 No 457 mm 75 mm in back Horiz. =This dimension is 457 mm in the UL 1581/2556 version.3 2.5 3. 2.4 0.0 0.4 0.3 Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests Table 11.5 0. 3. =Two each g h i on two different sizes of specimens.4 0.25 95 Required air flow rate N/A 2 2.

Two circular burners are mounted vertically at the intake end of the tunnel just in front of the cable tray.11. along with a 240 ft.000 Btus./min. A 25-foot long Steiner Tunnel is used for the test.5 maximum peak. and optical density is less than 0.62 m) Cables Burners Figure 11. The cable samples are mounted in a cable tray in one layer in the tunnel and the tunnel is sealed. A cable is listed for plenum use if flame spread is less than 5 feet from the end of the ignition flame. and the flame is extinguished.4 NFPA 262 Steiner Tunnel Test for Plenum Rated Cable The NFPA 262 “Steiner Tunnel” Flame Test (formerly UL 910) measures flame spread and smoke generation in a simulated air handling plenum. The output of the burner is 300. and 0.1–NFPA Steiner Tunnel Flame Test 178 .000 Btu/hr and the energy consumed for the test is 100. with intake and exhaust ducts and a means of regulating flow velocity of air through the tunnel. and an optical device in the exhaust of the chamber measures smoke density.15 maximum average. Flame spread and smoke density are monitored throughout the test. Methane is burned. The Canadian version of this test is known as the CSA FT6 fire test. Windows at 1-foot intervals allow for flame spread measurements. forced draft through the tunnel for twenty minutes.2. Industry Standards 11. Photocell Air Flow 25 ´ (7.

000 Btu/hr and the cable is subjected to 23. Steel fire doors provide access to the second and third levels for installing cables. The flame is applied for twenty minutes and then removed. Industry Standards 11. The burner is mounted on the edge of the riser hole on the floor of the second level.). A 6 to 1 mixture of air to propane is burned using a 10-inch wide ribbon burner. A cable may continue to burn after the burner is shut off. The 1685 standard also includes the CSA FT4/IEEE 1202 Flame Test. A mixture of air and propane is burned for thirty minutes and then shut off. 7´(2.750 Btus. The chamber for the test is a three-story block construction design.66 m ) Burner 4´ (1.500 Btu/hr. 179 .333 Btus for the test. or a consumed test energy of 263. however. This test simulates a fire in a nonflame stopped riser within a high-rise building. A steel ladder type tray 12 inches wide x 3 inches deep and 8 feet long with 1-inch x 1/2-inch rungs spaced 9 inches apart is mounted vertically on the floor of the test chamber. extinguishing the burner flame. The energy output of the burner is 70.5 UL 1666 Riser Flame Test The Riser Flame Test.22 m) 8 ´(2.44 m) Figure 11. 2 feet from the floor and midway between two rungs.11.2–UL 1666 Riser Flame Test 11. A burner is made up of a 1⁄4 in. The UL 1685 test was formerly in the UL 1581 standard. A cable may be listed as riser cable if the flame does not propagate up to the floor of the third level.2. The burner is placed horizontally 3 inches from the back of the tray. as described in Underwriters Laboratories Standard 1666.13 m) Cable Tray Air Flow Block Wall 12´ (3. gas pipe with 90 degree elbow mounted below a 1-foot square drilled steel plate. the test is not complete until the cable stops burning. and 1-foot x 2-foot rectangular holes in both the second and third level floors allow cable to be installed in racks extending between the first and third levels.2. was developed to test cable flammability in riser applications. The energy output of the burner is 527. The center 6 inches of the tray is filled with cable samples in one layer spaced 1/2 cable diameter apart. A cable passes the vertical tray test if it does not propagate flame to the top of the tray (6 ft.6 UL 1685 Vertical Tray Flame Test The Vertical Tray Flame Test is used as a good approximation of flame spread in cables run in groups.

In the 210.000 Btu test except the gas flow is increased to generate 210. 180 .30 m) 96˝ (2. the setup is essentially the same as with the 70.3–UL Vertical Tray Flame Test 11. IEEE 1202 or CSA FT4 are often used instead.3 for more details.000 Btu/hr instead of 70.000 Btu/hr of flame energy and the burner-to-cable spacing is increased to 200 millimeters.44 m) 18˝ (0.11.000 Btu flame test specified in ICEA Standard T-29-520.2.000 Btu test.7 ICEA T-29-520 A variation on the UL 1581 (UL 1685) Vertical Tray Test is the 210.2.46 m) Figure 11. This test method appears to be losing favor in the industry. See Section 11. Industry Standards 1 ´ (0.

The flame is applied to the sample for 15 seconds five times (total 75 seconds) with a minimum 15 seconds between flame applications or until burning ceases. whichever is longer. 14-inch deep and 24-inch high steel box open at the front and top. A general overview of the test is as follows.2. the cable doesn’t burn longer than 60 seconds after any flame application. Indicator Flag 10˝ (0. A Tirrill burner (similar to a Bunsen burner) is mounted on a 20-degree angle block and has a flame 4 to 5 inches high with a 1/2-inch inner blue cone.11. and the cotton batting is not ignited by dripping particles. Ten inches above this point a kraft paper “flag” is placed on the sample facing away from the burner. and cotton batting covers the floor of the chamber to a height 9 inches below the point.25 m) Cotton Figure 11.4–UL VW-1 (Vertical Specimen) Flame Test (formerly UL 1581 VW-1 Flame Test) 181 . Industry Standards 11. The fixture used is a bench-mountable 12-inch wide. The test measures relative flame propagation of a single wire or cable.000 Btu/hr and the test energy is less than 65 Btus. The burner is placed so the inner cone meets the test sample surface. The energy output of the burner is less than 3. The test procedure was formerly detailed in Underwriters Laboratories Standard 1581. The VW-1 test is very similar to CSA’s FT1 flame test. A sample passes VW-1 if less than 25 percent of the flag is burned away.8 UL VW-1 (Vertical-Specimen) Flame Test The VW-1 Flame Test was the first flame test developed for studying flame spread on wire and cable. Clamps hold a single specimen vertically in the center of the box. but is now in UL 2556.

SA. and Flexible Cords Portable Power Cables UL Listing(s) Covered in the Standard AC CL3P. SO. SOO. ZW CMP. GT0-10. TFE. THNN. ST. Cables. THW-2. RHW-2.3. G. TS. NMC AWM and all UL “Styles” GTO-5. RH. TPT.4–Summary of Wire and Cable Types Covered by UL Standards UL Standard 4 13 44 62 83 444 493 719 758 814 854 1063 1072 1276 1277 1426 1569 1581 1650 Armored Cable Power-Limited Circuit Cable Rubber Insulated Wires & Cables Flexible Cord & Fixture Wire Thermoplastic Insulated Wires Communication Cables Thermoplastic Insulated Underground Feeder & Branch Circuit Cables Nonmetallic-Sheath Cables Appliance Wiring Material Gas-Tube-Sign Cable Service-Entrance Cables Machine-Tool Wires & Cables Medium Voltage Power Cable Welding Cable  lectrical Power & Control Tray Cables with E Optional Optical-Fiber Members Electrical Cables for Boats Metal Clad Cables Reference Standard for Electrical Wires. TFFN. TST. FEPB. RHH. RHW. THHN. CL2. STOW. PLTC XHHW. XHHW-2 TFN. STOOW THW. CL2R. CL3. USE-2 MTW MV WELDING CABLE TC Boat Cable MC – W.3 Regulatory and Approval Agencies 11. CMR. SE. THWN-2. FEP. Industry Standards 11. CL3R. CL2P. S. STO.11. SEO.5–Typical UL Marks 182 . G-GC. STOO. Z. CMX UF NM. PPE Typical examples of UL’s mark appear below: ® Figure 11. SE.1 Underwriters Laboratories Table 11. CM. GTO-15 USE. SIS.

Flexible Metal Conduit: Type LFMC Liquid-Tight.e.2 National Electrical Code (NEC) History and Articles The first NEC document was written in 1897 at the insistence of various insurance.” (AHJ) i.000 Volts Armored Cable: Type AC Flat Conductor Cable: Type FCC Medium Voltage Cable: Type MV Metal-Clad Cable: Type MC Mineral-Insulated. Up to and including 2008. there have been a total of 51 editions. performance. the local inspector. proper operation or long life of equipment – these considerations are beyond its scope.60 (B) Article 320 Article 324 Article 328 Article 330 Article 332 Article 334 Article 336 Article 338 Article 340 Article 344 Article 350 Article 356 Article 358 Article 362 Article 392 Article 396 Article 400 Definitions Requirements for Electrical Installations Use and Identification of Grounded Conductors Branch Circuits Feeders Branch-Circuit.15 Article 310. It is revised on a regular three-year schedule. National Electrical Code Articles related to the wire and cable industry include: Article 100 Article 110 Article 200 Article 210 Article 215 Article 220 Article 225 Article 230 Article 250 Article 300 Article 310 Article 310. It does not attempt to ensure the reliability. Enforcement and interpretation of the Code is ultimately the responsibility of “the authority having jurisdiction. architectural and other interested parties. Metal-Sheathed Cable: Type MI Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Types NM. NMC and NMS Power and Control Tray Cable: Type TC Service-Entrance Cable: Types SE and USE Underground Feeder and Branch-Circuit Cable: Type UF Rigid Metal Conduit: Type RMC Liquid-Tight..11. Industry Standards 11. The Code is published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) as a “recommended standard” and does not become law until it is officially adopted by state or local governments. The National Electrical Code is divided into approximately 120 articles. The intent of the Code is to ensure the electrical and fire safety of electrical equipment. electrical. Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit Type: LFMC Electrical Metallic Tubing: Type EMT Electrical Nonmetallic Tubing: Type ENT Cable Trays Messenger Supported Wiring Flexible Cords and Cables Continued >> 183 . Feeder and Service Calculations Outside Branch Circuits and Feeders Services Grounding and Bonding Wiring Methods Conductors for General Wiring Ampacities for Conductors Rated 0–2000 Volts Ampacities of Conductors Rated 2001 to 35.3.

II. Divisions 1 and 2 Article 501 Article 502 Article 503 Article 504 Article 505 Article 590 Article 604 Article 610 Article 645 Article 690 Article 694 Article 725 Article 727 Article 760 Article 770 Article 800 Article 820 Article 830 Article 840 Chapter 9 Class I Locations Class II Locations Class III Locations Intrinsically Safe Systems Class I. but may not be so marked. and III. Industry Standards 11. etc. Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits Instrumentation Tray Cable: Type ITC Fire Alarm Systems Optical Fiber Cables and Raceways Communication Circuits Community Antenna Television (CATV) and Radio Distribution Systems Network-Powered Broadband Communication Systems Premises-Powered Broadband Communications Systems Tables (Conduit fill.2 National Electrical Code (NEC) (Continued) Article 402 Fixture Wires Article 409 Industrial Control Panels Article 500 Hazardous (Classified) Locations. Remote-Control. Class 2. 1.) Table 11.005 amps 10 amps Note: The above is a highly simplified overview only. Zone 0. conductor properties. 184 . and 2 Locations Temporary Installations Manufactured Wiring Systems Cranes and Hoists Information Technology Equipment Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems Small Wind Electric Systems Class 1. Classes I.5–NEC Article 725 – Summary of Remote Control. Class 3. See Article 725 of the NEC for complete requirements.3. Signaling and Power-Limited Circuit Types Circuit Type Class 1 Remote Control and Signaling (Not Power-Limited) Class 1 Power-Limited Class 2 Power-Limited (Fire and Shock Safe) Class 3 Power-Limited (Fire Safe Only) Circuit Voltage 0 through 600 0 through 30 0 through 30 30 through 150 30 through 150 Maximum Current Unlimited 33 amps 8 amps 0. Class 2 cables must be rated at least 150 volts and Class 3 cables must be rated at least 300 volts.11.

3 International Table 11. More than 60 around the world More than 60 around the world Italy Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland USA France Germany V D E CEBEC Country(ies) Represented Symbol ® Note 1: Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 185 . KEUR (NV tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen) NEMKO (Norges Electriske Materallknotroll) SEMKO (Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten) SEV (Schweizerischen Electrotechnischen Verein) UL (Underwriters Laboratories) UTE (Union Technique de L’Électricité) VDE (Verband Deutscher Elektrotechnischer) Canada Belgium Denmark Finland See Note 1.11.3.6–Symbols of International Organizations Agency CSA (Canadian Standards Association) CEBEC (Comite Electrotechnique Belge Service de la Marque) DEMKO (Danmarks Electriske Materailkontrol) SETI (Electrical Inspectorate Sakiniementie) CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standards) IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) ISO (International Standards Organization) IMQ (Istituto Italiano del Marchio di Qualità) KEMA. Industry Standards 11.

186

12. Continental Europe

12. Continental Europe
12.1 European Union (EU) Standards
12.1.1 CENELEC 12.1.2 CENELEC Cable Identification 12.1.3 CENELEC Color Codes 12.1.4 CENELEC Copper Conductors 12.1.5 CEN 12.1.6 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations

189
189 191 193 193 196 196

12.2

Austrian Standards
12.2.1 ÖVE 12.2.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration 12.3.1 CEBEC 12.3.2 NBN 12.3.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations 12.4.1 DEMKO 12.4.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration

197
197 197

12.3 Belgian Standards

198
198 198 198

12.4 Danish Standards

199
199 199

12.9 Dutch Standards
12.9.1 KEMA 12.9.2 NEC 12.9.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

199
199 199 199

12.5

French Standards
12.5.1 UTE 12.5.2 AFNOR 12.5.3 CIGRE 12.5.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations

200
200 200 200 200

12.6

German Standards
12.6.1 DIN 12.6.2 VDE 12.6.3 DKE 12.6.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations

202
202 203 204 204

187

12. Continental Europe

12. Continental Europe
12.7 Irish Standards
12.7.1 NSAI 12.7.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

204
204 204

12.8 Italian Standards
12.8.1 IMQ 12.8.2 CEI 12.8.3 CESI 12.8.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

205
205 205 205 205

12.10 Norwegian Standards
12.10.1 NEMKO 12.10.2 NPT 12.10.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

206
206 206 206

12.11 Portuguese Standards
12.11.1 IPQ 12.11.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

207
207 207

12.12 Spanish Standards
12.12.1 AENOR 12.12.2 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations

208
208 208

12.13 Swedish Standards
12.13.1 SEMKO 12.13.2 ITS 12.13.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

209
209 209 209

12.14 Swiss Standards
12.14.1 SNV 12.14.2 ESTI 12.14.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

210
210 210 210

188

12. Continental Europe

12.1 European Union (EU) Standards
12.1.1 CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization www.cenelec.org
Document No. EN 50143 EN 50173 EN 50214 EN 50395 EN 50396 EN 60079-11 EN 60079-14 EN 60228 EN 61138 HD 21 HD 22 HD 308 HD 359 HD 505 HD 586 HD 603 HD 604 Title Cables for Signs and Luminous–Discharge–Tube Installations Rated 1 through 10 kV Information Technology–Generic Cabling Systems Flat PVC Sheathed Flexible Cables Electrical Test Methods for Low Voltage Cables Non-electrical Test methods for Low Voltage Cables Intrinsically Safe Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Conductors of Insulated Cables Cables for Portable Earthing and Short-Circuitting Equipment PVC Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages up to and Including 450/750 V Rubber Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750 V Identification and Use of Cores of Flexible Cables Flat PVC Sheathed Cables for Lifts and Similar Applications Test Methods for Insulating and Sheathing Materials of Electric Cables Mineral Insulated Cables with Rated Voltage Not Exceeding 750 V Distribution Cables of Rated Voltage 0.6/1 kV 0.6/1 kV Power Cables with Special Fire Performance for Use in Power Stations

CENELEC has adopted common standards for the European community. CENELEC adopts existing IEC standards whenever possible. As a result, HD 21 and HD 22 CENELEC documents are based on relevant IEC specifications. The member countries adopt these standards without any fundamental changes. Each country’s testing authority can do its own testing for a manufacturer to obtain HAR (Harmonized) approval. Additional information is available at www.eepca.org. The countries in Table 12.1 are CENELEC members that recognize the HAR mark. When wire and cable is manufactured in a CENELEC country and is marked with the HAR approval on the jacket, it may be used interchangeably in the member countries. The HAR identification mark is applied along with the marks of origin and testing authority, to at least one conductor or the outer jacket. For example, Siemens products are marked: SIEMENS ¡vVDEx vHARx. In addition, there are country identification threads that are colored black, red and yellow. The different lengths of the colors indicate the nationality of the testing authority. For example, black 3 cm (1.2 inches) long, red 1 cm (0.4 inches) long, and yellow 1 cm (0.4 inches) long, indicates Germany.

189

12. Continental Europe

Table 12.1–CENELEC Harmonized Approvals in the European Union
Member Country Licensing Body/ Certification Agency Imprint or Embossing on Jacket or Insultation Black in. cm in. Red cm in. Yellow cm

Austria Belgium Denmark France Germany Ireland Italy Netherlands

Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik (ÖVE) Comité Electrotechnique Belge (CEBEC) Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontroll Union Technique de l’Electricité (UTE) Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI) Istituto Italiano del Marchio de Qualita (IMQ) N.V. tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen (KEMA) Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll (NEMKO) Asociación Electrotécnica y Electrónica Española (AEE) Svenska Elektriska Materielkontrollanstalter (SEMKO) British Approvals Service for Cables

vÖVEx vHARx CEBEC vHARx vDEMKOx vHARx UTE vHARx vVDEx vHARx vIIRSx vHARx IMQ vHARx KEMA vHARx

1.181 0.394 1.181 1.181 1.181 1.181 0.394 0.394

3 1 3 3 3 3 1 1

0.394 1.181 0.394 1.181 0.394 1.181 1.181 1.181

1 3 1 3 1 3 3 3

1.969 0.394 1.181 0.394 0.394 1.969 1.969 1.181

5 1 3 1 1 5 5 3

Norway Spain Sweden

vNEMKOxvHARx eUNEe vHARx vSEMKOx vHARx

0.394 1.181 0.394

1 3 1

0.394 0.394 0.394

1 1 1

2.756 2.756 1.963

7 7 5

United Kingdom

BASEC vHARx

0.394

1

0.394

1

1.181

3

­

190

12. Continental Europe

12.1.2 CENELEC Cable Identification

Type of Cable H Harmonized standards A Recognized national standards N Non-authorised national standards Rated Voltage U0/U 01 100 V 03 300/300 V 05 300/500 V 07 450/750 V Insulating and sheathing material B EPR (ethylene propylene rubber) E4 PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) E6 ETFE (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene) E7 PP (polypropylene) Q4 PA (polyamide) Special constructions H Flat construction - divisible H2 Flat construction - nondivisible Conductor form U Rigid, round conductor, solid (Class 1) R Rigid, round conductor, stranded (Class 2) K Flexible conductor for fixed installations (Class 5) F Flexible conductor of a flexible cable (Class 5) H Highly flexible conductor of a flexible cable (Class 6) Y Tinsel conductor Number of conductors Green/yellow conductor for earthing X Without earthing conductor G With earthing conductor Nominal cross section of the conductors

Figure 12.1–CENELEC Cable Identification Code

191

300/500 V. 300/500 V.2–Example of a CENELEC Cable Identification Code Below are CENELEC identification codes for some common cable types: Cenelec Harmonized ID Code H03VH-H H03VV-F2 H03VV-F3 H03VVH2-F2 H05RR-F2 H05RR-F3 H05RR-F4 H05RR-F5 H05V-U H05VV-F2 H05VV-F3 H05VV-F4 H05VV-F5 H07V-K H07V-R H07V-U H05VVH2-F PVC Flexible Figure “8” Cable PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 300/500 V.5 mm 2 Figure 12. 300/500 V. 300 V. 3 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. Single Conductor PVC Single Conductor Building Wire. 300/500 V. 2 Core Oval Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. Continental Europe Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Harmonized type Rated voltage 450/750 V Rubber insulated Neoprene jacketed Fine-stranded. Solid Copper Flat Flexible Elevator Cable 192 . 450/750 V PVC Single Conductor Building Wire. 2 Core Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 450/750 V. 300 V. 5 Core PVC Appliance Wire.12. 4 Core Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 450/750 V PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 450/750 V. 3 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 300/500 V. 300 V. 4 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 3 Core Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 5 Core PVC Single Conductor Building Wire. 2 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 300/500 V. flexible 3 conductors With protective ground conductor Conductor size 2. 2 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 300/500 V.

black and grey • 5 conductor Green/yellow.08 1.0 10.78 2.50 5.3 CENELEC Color Codes Through CENELEC.0 25.0 6. brown and blue • 4 conductor Green/yellow. Table 12. grey and black • .S.12. brown.1.83 1.0 35. • For cables WITHOUT a green/yellow earth conductor: • 1 conductor All colors except yellow.65 6.0 16.61 3. black and grey • 5 conductor Blue. white or grey • 2 conductor Not specified • 3 conductor Green/yellow. the EU countries have established the following color code for flexible cables as of 2006.5 2.4 CENELEC Copper Conductors In the EU.2–DC Resistance of Class 1 (Solid) Copper Conductors Nominal Conductor Size (mm ) 1. brown.2 through 12.10 7.76 3. green.41 4. “Green/yellow” indicates green insulation with a yellow stripe. Continental Europe 12. blue.1. black and grey • . others black with white numbers Reference: CENELEC HD 308 12. system.5 conductors One conductor green/yellow. Tables 12.0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Minimum Number of Wires Approximate Diameter of Wire (mm) 1. black and grey • 4 conductor Blue.25 2. CENELEC standard EN 60228 contains additional information. For example. green. black. brown. brown.15 0.38 1.60 Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/km) 12.5 give the DC resistance for some common conductor sizes and stranding types. the number of wires in a conductor (the fineness of the strand) is indicated by a numeral instead of by a letter as with the U.5 conductors All conductors black with white numbers • For cables WITH a green/yellow earth conductor: • 1 conductor All colors except yellow.524 193 .57 4.5 4.727 0. white or grey • 2 conductor Brown and blue • 3 conductor Brown. a Class 6 conductor has more wires than a Class 5.

268 0.0 240.0 6.12.153 0.10 7.387 0.0221 0.0 500.0 10.193 0.0 1.41 4.0176 194 .0 150.0601 0.0 50.0 185.0 400.0 120.83 1.0 630.0 800.0 300.0 70.0991 0.3–DC Resistance and Stranding of Class 2 Copper Conductors Minimum Number of Wires Nominal Conductor Size (mm ) 1.08 1.0 95.727 0.0470 0.0 25.0 16.0754 0.0 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 19 19 19 37 37 37 61 61 61 61 91 91 91 – – – – – 6 6 6 6 12 15 18 18 30 34 34 53 53 53 53 53 2 Circular Compact Circular or Sector Shaped Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/km) 12.0 35.0366 0.5 4.15 0.5 2.61 3.0283 0.524 0. Continental Europe Table 12.124 0.000.

0 10.386 0.0 70.0801 0.0486 0.565 0.31 0.41 0.0 13.554 0.09 3.0654 0.39 1.0 26.780 0.5 13.795 0.0817 0.21 0.0 120.129 0.277 0.51 0.0 16. Continental Europe Table 12.26 0.95 3.51 0.0 400.210 0.91 1.21 0.51 0.5 2.0 50.12.51 0.0 6.0641 0.0 240.0495 0.108 0.21 0.0 1.0384 Tinned Copper (ohms/km) 40.0 25.61 Plain Copper (ohms/km) 39.0 500.0 35.5 0.51 0.393 0.106 0.41 0.164 0.5 4.41 0.24 0.95 1.4–DC Resistance and Stranding of Class 5 (Flexible) Copper Conductors Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C Nominal Conductor Size (mm ) 0.0 2 Maximum Diameter of Wires (mm) 0.0 185.51 0.41 0.26 0.132 0.0 95.161 0.1 26.98 4.7 8.31 0.75 1.3 7.0 300.0 19.51 0.41 0.0391 195 .0 150.7 20.21 5.272 0.206 0.51 0.21 0.30 1.

0391 12.1.95 1.31 0.0 70.31 0.164 0.16 0.0 2 Maximum Diameter of Wires (mm) 0.554 0.5 0.7 20 13.0817 0.21 5.24 0.0 185.0801 0.31 0.0 240.0 6.5 4.0 95.21 0.0 50.39 1.106 0.6 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12.16 0.98 4.5 2.129 0.31 0.0 150.31 0.30 1.0 10.565 0.21 0.21 0.206 0.0641 0.Table 12.95 3.75 1.0 120.210 0.51 0.16 0.0654 0.21 0.6–EU Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) 50 50 Voltage 220 250 196 .1.3 7.0495 0.31 0.0 16.795 0.16 0.132 0.31 0.780 0.eu 12.0 300.cen.7 8.272 0.161 0.16 0.21 0.0384 Tinned Copper (ohms/km) 40.0 500.393 0.5 CEN European Committee for Standardization www.0486 0.1 26.21 0.0 25.0 400.31 0.16 0.91 1.277 0.108 0.386 0.0 1.0 35.61 Plain Copper (ohms/km) 39 26 19.5 13.09 3.5–DC Resistance and Stranding of Class 6 (Highly Flexible) Copper Conductors Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C Nominal Conductor Size (mm ) 0.

12.2 Austrian Standards 12.2.7–EU Power Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 12.at 12.2.8–Austrian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.1 ÖVE Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik www. Continental Europe Table 12. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances that are not double insulated. Table 12.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration Table 12.ove.9–Austrian Plug Configuration Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug PlugDescription Description Description Description “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 197 .

and 15 kV Power Cables Power Cables–Insulated Overhead Transmission Lines Rated 0.11–Belgian Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug PlugDescription Description Description Description Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 Belgium Socket Belgium SocketBelgium Socket CEE 7/7 plug CEE 7/7 plug CEE 7/7 plug 198 .sgs.com 12.3 Belgian Standards 12.2 NBN Bureau de Normalisation www.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12. NBN C 33-111 NBN C 33-121 NBN C 33-211 NBN C 33-221 NBN C 33-321 NBN C 33-322 NBN 759 Title Armored Cables Insulated with Impregnated Paper for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy Armored.10–Belgian Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) 50 50 Voltage 127/220 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. 12. Continental Europe 12. Aluminum Conductor Cables Insulated with Impregnated Paper for 1.6/1 kV Underground Power Cables Rated 1 kV Power Cables 12.nbn.3. Table 12.12. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.be Document No.3.3.cebec. PVC Insulated Cables for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy Armored.1 CEBEC CEBEC Comité Electrotechnique Belge www. 6.

kema.V.9. KEMA 157 KEMA 149 KEMA 250 Title Cables for temporary installations rated 450/750 kV Cross-linked polyethylene insulated.9.9 Dutch Standards 12.14–Dutch Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.4 Danish Standards 12.nl 12.dk 12.demko.13–Danish Plug Configuration Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug PlugPlug Plug Description Description Description Description Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 12.1 KEMA N.12–Danish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 Table 12.9.12. screened and PVC sheathed EMC cables rated 0.4.1 DEMKO Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontrol www. 199 .nen.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration Table 12.4. tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen www.com Document No. Continental Europe 12.2 NEC Netherlands Electro-Technical Committee www.6/1 kV 12.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.6/1 kV Screened flame retardant EMC cables with XLP insulation and halogen-free thermoplastic sheaths rated 0.

5.16–French Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) 50 50 Voltage 220/230 127/220 200 .3 CIGRE Conference International des Grands Reseaux Electriques a Haute Tension www.afnor. NF C32-207 NF C33-209 Title Insulated Cables Covered with a Light PVC Sheath and Rated 300/500 V Bundle Assembled Cores for Overhead Systems Rated 0.ute-fr.6/1 kV 12.5. Continental Europe Table 12.org 12.cigre.5.5 French Standards 12.12.1 UTE Union Technique de l’Electricité www.2 AFNOR Association Française de Normalisation www.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12.org 12.com Document No.15–Dutch Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug DescriptionDescription Description Description Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 12.5.

Continental Europe Table 12.17–French Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description Ungrounded Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 French Socket French Socket French Socket CEE 7/7 plug CEE 7/7 plug CEE 7/7 plug “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 British Standard British Standard British Standard BS 1363 BS 1363 BS 1363 201 .12.

6 German Standards 12.1 DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung www.18–DIN 47100* Color Code for Single Conductors (WITH Color Repetition Above 44) Conductor No.de Document No. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Color White/Red Brown/Red White/Black Brown/Black Grey/Green Yellow/Green Pink/Green Yellow/Pink Green/Blue Yellow/Blue Green/Red Yellow/Red Green/Black Yellow/Black Grey/Blue Pink/Blue Grey/Red Pink/Red Grey/Black Pink/Black Blue/Black Red/Black 202 . Continental Europe 12.din. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 * Standard withdrawn in 1998 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 Color White Brown Green Yellow Grey Pink Blue Red Black Violet Grey/Pink Red/Blue White/Green Brown/Green White/Yellow Yellow/Brown White/Grey Grey/Brown White/Pink Pink/Brown White/Blue Brown/Blue Conductor No. VDE 0888 (EN 60793) Title Optical Fibres–Measurement Methods and Test Procedures Table 12.12.6.

6.6/1 kV High voltage cable for special applications rated 0.000 V Conductors of cables. 0250 0265 0266 0271 0281 0282 0293 0295 0472-815 Title Insulated Power Cables Polymer Insulated Lead Sheathed Power Cables Power Cables with Improved Behavior in Case of Fire Rated 0. wires and flexible cords Tests for halogen content of wires and cables V D E 203 .19–DIN 47100* Color Code for Paired Conductors (WITH Color Repetition Above 22) Pair No.de Document No.vde-verlag. Continental Europe Table 12.12.6/1 kV Wire and cable for power circuits with thermoplastic insulation rated to 450/750 V Wire and cable for power circuits with rubber insulation rated to 450/750 V Identification of conductors in cables and flexible cords used in power installations rated up to 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 * Standard withdrawn in 1998 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Wire A White Green Grey Blue Black Grey/Pink White/Green White/Yellow White/Grey White/Pink White/Blue White/Red White/Black Grey/Green Pink/Green Green/Blue Green/Red Green/Black Grey/Blue Grey/Red Grey/Black Blue/Black WIre B Brown Yellow Pink Red Violet Red/Blue Brown/Green Yellow/Brown Grey/Brown Pink/Brown Brown/Blue Brown/Red Brown/Black Yellow/Grey Yellow/Pink Yellow/Blue Yellow/Red Yellow/Black Pink/Blue Pink/Red Pink/Black Red/Black 12.2 VDE Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (German Electrotechnical Society) www.

20–German Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 Table 12.7.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.ie 12. Continental Europe 12.3 DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Informationstechnik www.1 NSAI National Standards Authority of Ireland www.22–Irish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.21–German Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Description Plug Description Description Description UngroundedUngrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 12.7 Irish Standards 12.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.6.7.12.6.dke.nsai. 204 .de 12. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.

voltage tolerance: 610 percent.ceiweb.8.imq. The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.cesi.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.3 CESI Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano www.8. 205 . Continental Europe Table 12.12.1 IMQ Istituto Italiano del Marchio de Qualita www.8.8.2 CEI Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano www.24–Italian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.it 12.23–Irish Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 British Standard British Standard British Standard BS 1363 BS 1363 BS 1363 12.8 Italian Standards 12.it 12.it 12. Frequency tolerance: 62 percent.

com 12.12.25–Italian Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Description Plug Description Description Description UngroundedUngrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 12.26–Norwegian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 230 206 .10 Norwegian Standards 12.1 NEMKO Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll www.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.no 12.npt.nemko. Continental Europe Table 12.10.2 NPT Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority www.10.10.

2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.27–Norwegian Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Description Plug Description Description Description UngroundedUngrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 12.28–Portuguese Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 207 .11 Portuguese Standards 12.11.pt 12.11.1 IPQ Instituto Portugues da Qualidade www.ipq.12. Continental Europe Table 12.

30–Spanish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 50 Voltage 127/220 220/380 A grounding conductor is required for the 220/380 voltage.12.12.12 Spanish Standards 12.es Document No.1 AENOR Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación www. 208 . UNE 20432 UNE 21172 Title Tests on Electrical Cable Under Fire Conditions Measurement of Smoke Density of Electric Cable Burning in Defined Conditions UNE 12.aenor.12.29–Portuguese Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 Old British Standard Old British Standard Old British Standard BS 546 BS 546 BS 546 12.2 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12. Continental Europe Table 12.

Continental Europe Table 12.13 Swedish Standards 12.1 SEMKO Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten www.12.13.13.se 12.its. 209 .32–Swedish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.se 12. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.2 ITS Informationstekniska Standardiseringen www.semko.31–Spanish Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 Old British Standard Old British Standard Old British Standard BS 546 BS 546 BS 546 12.13.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.

12.snv.14.34–Swiss Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.ch 12. 210 .14 Swiss Standards 12.33–Swedish Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description UngroundedUngrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 12.14.esti.1 SNV Schweizerische Normen-Vereinigung www.ch 12. Continental Europe Table 12.5 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.14. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.2 ESTI (formerly SEV) Eidgensisches Starkstrominspektorat www.

Continental Europe Table 12.12.35–Swiss Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description UngroundedUngrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 211 .

212 .

5 BRB 13.1.1.14 Network Rail 13.1.12 London Underground Limited 13.1.9 ERA Technology Ltd.3 BBC 13.7 Department of the Environment 13.13.8 Department for Transport 13.6 British Telecom (BT Group) 13.1 BSI 13.1.1.1. United Kingdom 13.1.1.1.4 BNFL 13.1.13 Ministry of Defense (MODUK) 13.1.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 213 .1 Standards 13.10 ENA 13.15 RIA 214 214 216 216 216 216 216 217 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 13.2 BASEC 13.1.11 IET (Formerly IEE) 13.1. United Kingdom 13. 13.1.

000 V Insulated flexible cords Specification for trailing cables for mining purposes Thermoset insulated.1.1 Standards 13.com Document No. United Kingdom 13.1 BSI British Standards www. for overhead power transmission Welding cables Bare fine resistance wire for precision electrical equipment Radio frequency cables Wrought aluminum wire for electrical purposes Polyethylene-insulated copper conductor telecommunication distribution cables Tin or tin-lead coated copper wire PVC-insulated split concentric cables with copper conductors for electric supply L. BS 6004.13. BS 6007 and BS 7919 Insulated flexible cables and cords for coil leads Mineral-insulated cables PVC-insulated flexible cables for switchgear and controlgear wiring rated 600/1. BS 3G 210 BS 115 BS 183 BS 215 BS 638-1 BS 1117 BS 2316 BS 2627 BS 3573 BS 4393 BS 4553 BS 4808 BS 5099 BS 5308 BS 5467 BS 6004 BS 6007 BS 6141 BS 6195 BS 6207 BS 6231 BS 6500 BS 6708 BS 6724 BS 6746C Title PTFE insulated equipment wires with silver-plated conductors Metallic resistance materials for electric purposes General purpose galvanized steel wire strand Aluminum conductors and aluminum conductors.bsi-global. cables and wires with PVC insulation and PVC sheath for telecommunication Spark testing of electric cables Instrumentation cables Specification for armored cables with thermosetting insulation for electricity supply PVC-insulated cables for electric power and lighting Single core heat resisting cables Replaced by specifications BS 6500.F. armored cables having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases Color chart for insulation and sheath of electric cables Continued >> 214 . steel-reinforced.

evolved gases Conductors of insulated cables Tests on electric and optical cables under fire conditions Test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Mechanical and compression connectors for power cable Cancelled 215 .13. round copper wire for electrical conductors Specification for coaxial cables for wired distribution systems Cables for signs and luminous-discharge-tube installations Copper and copper alloy grooved contact wire for electric traction Conductors for overhead lines: aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloy wires Conductors for overhead lines: zinc coated steel wires Test methods for cables under fire conditions.1 BSI (Continued) Document No. wire for general purposes Copper and copper alloys for electrical purposes. bar and wire Copper and copper alloys. United Kingdom 13. rod. drawn. vertical flame spread Flat Polyvinyl Chloride sheathed flexible cables Test methods for cables under fire conditions.1. BS 6883 BS 6899 BS 6977 BS 7655 BS 7671 BS 7884 BS 7919 BS EN 10244-2 BS EN 10257 BS EN 12166 BS EN 13601 BS EN 13602 BS EN 50117 BS EN 50143 BS EN 50149 BS EN 50183 BS EN 50189 BS EN 50266 BS EN 50214 BS EN 50267 BS EN 60228 BS EN 60332 BS EN 60811 BS EN 61238 PD 6455 Title Elastomer insulated cable for fixed wiring in ships Replaced by specification BS 7655 Replaced by specification BS EN 50214 Insulating and sheathing materials for cables IEE Wiring Regulations Copper and copper-cadmium conductors for overhead power transmission  lectric Cables-Flexible cables rated up to 450 V/750 V for use with appliances and equipment intended for industrial E and similar environments Zinc or zinc alloy coatings on steel wire Galvanized steel wire for armoring land and submarine cables Copper and copper alloys.

13. jelly-filled.5 BRB British Railways Board www.uk BASEC is a product marking and certification agency similar to UL and CSA in North America.1 “BS 6724” for additional information) 13. United Kingdom 13. jelly-filled.com Document No.basec.2 BASEC British Approvals Service for Cables www.1.4 BNFL British Nuclear Fuels (inactive) Document No.co.btplc.bbc.3 BBC British Broadcasting Company www. PSF 1/2M PSF 1/3M PSF 1/9M PSF 4/1M Title Video cable (similar to Belden 8281) Video cable Flexible camera cable Microphone cable 13. twisted-pair telephone cable for outdoor use (up to and including 100 pairs) External telephone cable Coaxial cable Polyethylene insulated and sheathed. PM73479 Title Cables for electricity supply and control having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases when affected by fire (see Section 13.1.6 British Telecom (BT Group) www. CW1109 CW1128 CW1198 CW1229 CW1236 CW1252 CW1257 CW1293 CW1308 CW1311 CW1316 CW1378 CW1600 Title Single.1.uk (inactive) Document No.1. 13.1. 10 “LFH” insulated and sheathed telephone cable for indoor use 216 . TDE/76/P/16 Title Single core cables for traction and rolling stock (cross-linked polyolefin types) 13.1.uk Document No.org.brbr.co. twisted-pair telephone cable for outdoor use (above 100 pairs) Self-supporting aerial telephone cable Jumper wire Internal telephone cable PVC-insulated and sheathed telephone cable for indoor use Telephone cordage Undercarpet telephone cable Drop wire no. twin and triple jumper wire for electronic equipment Polyethylene insulated and sheathed.

13. United Kingdom

13.1.7 Department of the Environment www.doeni.gov.uk
Document No. M&E 42 Title Aviation ground lighting. Single core 6 mm2 (2,000 V) PVC-sheathed cable

13.1.8 Department for Transport www.dft.gov.uk
Document No. TR 1173 TR 1238 TR 2029 Title Multipair communications cable, polyethylene-insulated, polyethylene-sheathed, armored Power cable for motorway communication systems (split concentric, armored) Inductive loop cable for vehicle detection systems

13.1.9 ERA Technology Ltd. www.era.co.uk
Document No. ERA 69-30 Part I ERA 69-30 Part III ERA 69-30 Part V ERA 93-0233R ERA 98-0668 Title Sustained current ratings for paper-insulated, lead-sheathed cables Sustained current ratings for PVC insulated cables Sustained current ratings for cables with thermosetting insulation User’s guide to power cable fault location Cabling installations: user friendly guide (EMI separation recommendations)

13.1.10 ENA www.energynetworks.org
Document No. 09-6 09-7 09-8 09-12 43-13 Title Auxiliary multicore and multipair cables PVC-insulated concentric service cables with stranded copper conductors and copper concentric conductors Impregnated paper insulated 600/1,000 V cable with three solid aluminum phase conductors and aluminum sheath/neutral conductor (CONSAC) Impregnated paper insulated corrugated aluminum sheathed 6,350/11,000 V cable (PICAS) Aerial bundled conductors (ABC) insulated with cross-linked polyethylene for low voltage overhead distribution

13.1.11 IET (formerly IEE) www.theiet.org
Document No. BS7671 Title IEE Wiring Regulations

217

13. United Kingdom

13.1.12 London Underground Limited www.tfl.gov.uk/tube
Document No. G4727 G4726 RSE/STD/024 part 6 Title 2, 3 and 4 core SWA cable low voltage, limited fire hazard (low smoke nonhalogenated), 2.5 mm2 to 300 mm2 Single core cable insulated nonsheathed, limited fire hazard (low smoke nonhalogenated), 1.5 mm2 to 300 mm2 Cables for use on rolling stock (“LFII” types)

13.1.13 Ministry of Defense (MODUK) British Defense Standards www.dstan.mod.uk
Document No. DEF STAN 02-525 DEF STAN 02-526 DEF STAN 02-527 DEF STAN 02-711 DEF STAN 02-713 DEF STAN 61-12 part 1 DEF STAN 61-12 part 2 DEF STAN 61-12 part 4 DEF STAN 61-12 part 5 DEF.STAN 61-12 part 6 DEF STAN 61-12 part 8 DEF STAN 61-12 part 9 DEF STAN 61-12 part 18 DEF STAN 61-12 part 25 Title Requirements for electric cables, thin-wall insulated, limited fire hazard Requirements for cables, electric, rubber insulated, limited fire hazard, sheathed for general services Requirements for cables, electric, fire survival, high temperature zones and limited fire hazard, sheathed Determination of the smoke index of the products of combustion Determination of the toxicity index of the products of combustion Cables, electrical (insulated flexible cords and flexible cables) Cables, electrical (for power and lighting) Cables, special purpose, electrical (subminiature electric cables) Cables, special purpose, electrical, and cables, power, electrical (small multicore cables) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene, or silicone rubber insulated equipment wires PTFE insulated equipment wire Cables, radio frequency (coaxial) Equipment wires, low toxicity Cables, electrical, limited fire hazard, up to conductor size 2.5 mm2

13.1.14 Network Rail www.networkrail.co.uk
Document No. NR/PS/SIG/00005 Title Flame retardant compound insulated cables for railway signalling

13.1.15 RIA Railway Industry Association www.riagb.org.uk
Document No. NBRB/RIA 10 BRB/LUL/RIA 21 Title Twin and multicore jumper cables for diesel and electric vehicles Single-core cables for installation on traction and rolling stock (rubber types)

218

13. United Kingdom

13.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 13.1 – United Kingdom Supply Voltage
Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 230/400

Table 13.2–United Kingdom Plug Configurations
Jack Jack Plug Plug Description Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

British Standard BS 1363

219

220

14. Latin and South America

14. Latin and South America
14.1
222 14.1.1 ANCE 222 14.1.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration 223

Mexican Standards

14.2

Venezuelan Standards
14.2.1 FONDONORMA

223 223

14.3 Brazilian Standards

224 14.3.1 ABNT 224 224 14.4.1 ICONTEC 224 224 14.5.1 IRAM 224

14.4

Colombian Standards

14.5

Argentine Standards

221

14. Latin and South America

14.1 Mexican Standards
14.1.1 ANCE Asociación de Normalización y Certificación www.ance.org.mx
Document No. NOM-001-SEDE NMX-E-034-SCFI NMX-J-008-ANCE NMX-J-010-ANCE NMX-J-012-ANCE NMX-J-013-ANCE NMX-J-014-ANCE NMX-J-032-ANCE NMX-J-036-ANCE NMX-J-040-ANCE NMX-J-066-ANCE NMX-J-177-ANCE NMX-J-178-ANCE NMX-J-186-ANCE NMX-J-190-ANCE NMX-J-191-ANCE NMX-J-192-ANCE NMX-J-193-ANCE NMX-J-212-ANCE NMX-J-294-ANCE NMX-J-312-ANCE NMX-J-417-ANCE NMX-J-437-ANCE NMX-J-451-ANCE NMX-J-498-ANCE NMX-J-556-ANCE Title Mexican Code Standard for Electrical Installations Plastics Industry–Carbon Black Contents on Polyethylene Materials–Test Method Tinned Soft or Annealed Copper Wire for Electrical Purposes Conductors with Thermoplastic Insulation Rated 600 V Concentric Lay Stranded Copper Conductors for Electrical Purposes Rope Lay Stranded Copper Conductors Having Concentric Stranded Members for Electrical Purposes Rope Lay Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch Stranded Members for Electrical Purposes Concentric Lay Stranded Aluminum Cable for Electrical Purposes Soft or Annealed Copper Wire for Electrical Purposes Determination of Moisture Absorption in Insulations and Jackets of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Determination of Diameters of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Determination of Thickness in Semiconductive Shielding, Insulations, and Jackets of Electrical Conductors– Test Method Ultimate Strength and Elongation of Insulation, Semiconductive Shielding, and Jackets of Electrical Conductors– Test Method Accelerated Aging in Forced Air Convection Oven of Semiconducting Shields, Insulations and Jackets of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Thermal Shock Resistance of PVT Insulations and PVT Protective Coverings of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Heat Distortion of Semiconductive Shielding, Insulations and Protective Coverings of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Flame Test on Electrical Wires–Test Method Cold Bend of Thermoplastic Insulation and Protective Jackets, Used on Insulated Wire and Cable–Test Method Electrical Resistance, Resistivity and Conductivity–Test Method Insulation Resistance–Test Method Tensile Strength and Elongation by Strain of Wires for Electrical Conductors–Test Method Convection Laboratory Ovens for Evaluation of Electrical Insulation–Specifications and Test Methods Determination of Light Absorption Coefficient of Polyethylene Pigmented with Carbon Black–Test Method Power Cables with XLP or EP Insulation Rated 600 V Vertical Tray–Flame Test–Test Method Wire and Cable Test Methods

222

000 V and control cables Compacted bare aluminum conductors for electrical use Round aluminum alloy 6201-T 81 wires for electrical use Conductors with aluminum alloy 6201 T-81 wires Flexible cords and wires Bare soft copper wires. Latin and South America 14.org Document No.14.ve or www.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration Table 14.1.2 Venezuelan Standards 14. rectangular Aluminum conductors with aluminum alloy reinforcement (ACAR) Wires and Cables.S.1 FONDONORMA Fondo para la Normalización y Certificación de Calidad www. National Electrical Code [NFPA 70]) Wires and single-conductor cables with thermoplastic insulation Calculation of the permissible current in cables Sampling and methods of test to determine the cross-sectional area of conductors Bare copper cables.2–Mexican Plug Configuration Jack Jack Plug Plug Description Description North American Ungrounded 14.fondonorma. Specifications and methods test.codelectra. 0200 0397 0457 0468 0529 0530 0533 0534 0541 0555 0556 0557 0558 0777 1110 2570 2644 2645 3198 3484 Title Venezuelan National Electrical Standard (Código Eléctrico Nacional) (Based on the U.1–Mexican Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 127/220 Table 14. reinforced with steel Insulated wires and cables for distribution of electrical energy up to 2. Aluminum 1350/1370 for manufacture of electrical conductors Aluminum conductors 1350 with concentric stranding Conductors with twisted concentric aluminum layers. Determination of the level of extinction of partial discharges Compacted concentric round aluminum cables Round aluminum wire 1350.2. annealed and of intermediate tempers Multi-pair telephone cables for external plant Enameled coil wire 223 .org.

br Document No.3.1 ABNT Associação Brazileira De Normas Técnicas www.org.5.icontec.3 Brazilian Standards 14.1 IRAM Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación www.abnt.14.4 Colombian Standards 14.com. NBR 5410 NBR 11301 NBR 14039 Title Low Voltage Electrical Installations Calculation of the Continuous Current Ratings of Cables at 100 percent load factor Installation of Electrical Systems Rated 1.ar Document No.5 ArgEntine Standards 14.org. National Electrical Code [NFPA 70]) 14.2 kV 14. Latin and South America 14. NM 247 NM 274 NM 280 2214 62266 Title PVC Insulated Cables Rated up to 450/750 V Silicone Insulated Cables Rated up to 450/750 V Conductors of Insulated Cables Cathodic Protection Cables Power and Control Cables with Low Smoke Emission and No Halogen (LSZH) Rated 1 kV 224 .iram.0 kV to 36.S.4.1 ICONTEC Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas www.co Document No. NTC 2050 Title Colombian National Electrical Standard (Based on the U.

Canada 15.4 Fire Ratings 15. Canada 15.2 “FT4” Fire Test 15.1.5 Single Conductor Teck 90 Terminations 225 .4 Designations 232 232 232 232 232 233 15.1.15.4.1 Standards 15.2 Cable Types 15.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 15.2 SCC 226 226 227 228 231 15.4.3 “FT6” Fire Test 15.4.4.1 CSA 15.1 “FT1” Fire Test 15.

2 No. 35 C22.2 No. Canada 15.2 No.2 No.2 No. 49 C22. 0.2 No.2 No.2 No.1 CSA Canadian Standards Association www. 18 C22. Conduit Boxes and Fittings Cord Sets and Power Supply Cords Wireways. Auxiliary Gutters and Associated Fittings Extra-Low-Voltage Control Circuit Cables. Part I General Requirements—Canadian Electrical Code. 38 C22. 42 C22.2 No.2 No.2 No. 52 C22.ca and www.org Document No. 126 C22.2 No. 65 C22. 41 C22.csa. 0. 26 C22. 62 C22. 56 C22.2 No. 130 C22.2 No. 174 C22. 179 C22.2 No. C22.2 No. 131 C22. 96 C22. Attachment Plugs and Similar Wiring Devices Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Flexible Cords and Cables Armored Cables Service-Entrance Cables Flexible Metal Conduit and Liquid-Tight Flexible Metal Conduit Surface Raceway Systems Wire Connectors Thermoplastic-Insulated Wires and Cables Portable Power Cables Aluminum-Sheathed Cables Mineral-Insulated Cable Cable Tray Systems Equipment and Lead Wires Neutral Supported Cable Heat Cable Systems Type TECK 90 Cable Heat Tracing Cable and Cable Sets for Use in Hazardous Locations Cables and Cable Glands for Use in Hazardous Locations Airport Series Lighting Cables Splicing Wire Connectors 226 . 75 C22. 48 C22. 123 C22.15.2 No.2 No. 124 C22.1 C22. 138 C22.2 No.2 No.2 No.12 C22.2 No. Part II Test Methods for Electrical Wire and Cables Safety Functions Incorporating Electronic Technology Wiring Space and Wire Bending Space in Enclosures for Equipment Rated 750 V or Less Outlet Boxes.2 No.2 No.8 C22. 0. 127 C22.2 No. 51 C22. 0 C22. 21 C22.2 No. 188 Title Canadian Electrical Code.2 No.csa-international.1 Standards 15.2 No.2 No. Low-Energy Control Cable and Extra-Low-Voltage Control Cable Thermoset-Insulated Wires and Cables Grounding and Bonding Equipment General Use Receptacles.3 C22.1.2 No.2 No. 129 C22.

services and systems.ca Standardization is the development and application of standards – publications that establish accepted practices. innovation and trade.3 C49.3 C83 Z243 Title PVC Insulating Tape Sealed Wire Connector Systems Fire Alarm and Signal Cable Appliance Wiring Material Products Non-Metallic Conduit Communications Cables Type FCC Under-Carpet Wiring Systems Tray Cables Optical Fiber Cables Control and Instrumentation Cables Marine Shipboard Cable Optical Fiber Cable and Communications Cable Wire and Cable Test Methods Compact Aluminum Conductors Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Aluminum Alloy 1350 Round Wire. Canada Document No. Standards help ensure better. 227 . The Standards Council carries out a variety of functions intended to ensure the effective and coordinated operation of standardization in Canada.2 C49.2 No.scc. 556 C49.1.2 No. C22. It also represents Canada’s interests on standards-related matters in foreign and international forums.2 No. safer and more efficient methods and products. 222 C22. 230 C22.2 No. 198 C22. 210 C22. technical requirements and terminologies for products.2 No. 245 C22.15. 232 C22.2 SCC Standards Council of Canada www.5 C57 C68.2 No.1 C68.2 No. and are an essential element of technology. 239 C22. 197 C22.2 No. 262 C22.2 No.2 No.2 No.2 No.2 No. 211 C22. 208 C22. 214 C22. All Tempers for Electrical Purposes Compact Round Concentric-Lay Aluminum-Stranded Conductors (Compact ASC) Electrical Power Connectors for use in Overhead Line Conductors Paper-Insulated Power Cable Concentric Neutral Power Cable Rated 5-45 kV Communication and Power Line Hardware Information Processing Systems 15.

(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Nylon jacketed thermoplastic-insulated cable Non-metallic-sheathed cable R90 TW T90 NYLON NMD90 TECK90 ACWU90 RW75 RL90. Canada 15. NMWU 90 60 90 90 90 90 75 90 75 90 90 60 75 60 90 75 90 60 75 75 90 60 90 90 90 60 Continued >> For exposed wiring in wet locations Armored cable Rubber. RW90 TW.1–CSA Cable Types Conditions of Use For exposed wiring in dry locations only For exposed wiring in dry locations where exposed to corrosive action. LWMI TW TW75. TWN75 NMWU TECK90 RW75 R90. RW90 RA75 RA90 MI.(thermoset-) insulated cable Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable For exposed wiring where subjected to the weather Armored cable Rubber. if suitable for corrosive conditions encountered For exposed wiring in dry locations where not exposed to mechanical injury For exposed wiring in dry locations and in Category 1 and 2 locations. TWU TWU75 NS-75 NS-90 NMWU TECK90 AC90 NMD90 NMW.2 Cable Types Table 15. NMWU 90 60 Rubber.15. where not exposed to mechanical injury For exposed wiring in dry or damp locations Trade Designation Armored cable Armored cable CSA Type Designation TECK 90 AC90 TECK 90 Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C 90 90 90 Non-metallic-sheathed cable Non-metallic-sheathed cable NMD90 NMW.(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Neutral-supported cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable For concealed wiring in dry locations only For concealed wiring in dry and damp locations For concealed wiring in dry locations and in Category 1 and 2 locations where not exposed to mechanical injury Armored cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable 228 .

(thermoset-) insulated lead-sheathed cable Rubber. RWU90 TW. in wet locations For use in ventilated and nonventilated cable trays in vaults and switch rooms For direct earth burial (with protection as required by inspection authority) For service entrance above ground Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Neutral supported cable 229 .1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use For concealed wiring in wet locations Trade Designation Armored cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Rubber.(thermoset-) insulated cable Armored cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable Rubber. TWN75.(thermoset-) insulated cable Aluminum-sheathed cable For direct earth burial (with protection as required by inspection authority) Mineral-insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Airport series lighting cable Tray cable Armored cable TECK90 ACWU90 RA75 RA90 MI. except cable trays.15. RWU90 RA75 RA90 MI. TWU TW75. in dry or damp locations For use in raceways.(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable For use in ventilated. except cable trays. LWMI R90 TW T90 NYLON RW75. Canada Table 15. nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in dry locations only For use in ventilated.(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Nylon jacketed thermoplastic-insulated cable Rubber. LWMI RL90 RW75 RW90 ACWU90 TECK90 NMWU RWU75 RL90. nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in wet locations Armored cable CSA Type Designation TECK90 ACWU90 NMWU RA75 RA90 MI. TWU75 AC90 TECK90 Armored cable Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Rubber. LWMI TWU TWU75 ASLC TC AC90 ACWU90 TECK90 RA75 RA90 MI NS-75 NSF-90 Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C 90 90 60 75 90 90 90 60 90 75 90 60 75 90 90 90 90 75 90 90 90 75 90 90 90 60 75 90 75 90 90 60 75 90 90 90 90 90 75 90 90 75 90 Continued >> For use in raceways. RWU75 RW90.

OFN. OFNR. or in ceiling air handling plenums For use in fire alarm. signal and voice communication circuits where exposed.15. in dry or damp locations For use in Class 2 circuits in dry locations in concealed wiring or exposed wiring where not subject to mechanical injury For use when concealed indoors under carpet squares in dry or damp locations For use in communication circuits when exposed. OFCH As marked on cable As marked on cable Conductive optical fiber cable As marked on cable Continued >> 230 . or in plenums Extra-low-voltage control cable Flat conductor cable Communication cable FCC CMP. OFCG. where exposed. in exposed or concealed Extra-low-voltage control cable wiring or use in raceways. concealed or used in raceways. where exposed. CM. OFC. concealed or used in raceways including cable trays.1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use For service entrance below ground Trade Designation Service-entrance cable CSA Type Designation USEI75 USEI90 USEB90 Thermoplastic-insulated wire Rubber. indoors in dry or damp locations.(thermoset-) insulated cable Armored cable Aluminum-sheathed cable For high-voltage wiring in luminous-tube signs For use in raceways in hoistways Luminous-tube sign cable Hoistway cable TWU TWU75 RWU75 RWU90 TECK90 ACWU90 RA75 RA90 GTO. Canada Table 15. CMR. CMG. nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in wet locations and where exposed to weather For use in cable trays in Class I Division 2 and Class II on cable Division 2 hazardous locations For use in buildings in dry or damp locations. concealed or used in raceways. or in plenums For use in buildings in dry or damp locations. indoors in dry or damp locations For use in raceways including ventilated. OFNG. concealed or used in raceways including cable trays. CMX. OFCR. GTOL – LVT ELC Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C 75 90 90 60 75 75 90 90 90 75 90 60 60 60 60 For use in Class 2 circuits. CMH FAS FAS 90 FAS 105 FAS 200 60 60 Fire alarm and signal cable 60 90 105 200 As marked on cable Tray cable TC Tray cable Non-conductive optical fiber cable TC OFNP. OFNH OFCP.

in ceiling air handling plenums. direct earth burial. 4-wire systems such as 120/208 volts are available as well as 347/600 volts for commercial establishments.3–Canadian Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description North American North American Ungrounded NorthUngrounded American Ungrounded North American North American North American NEMA 5-15 NEMA 5-15 NEMA 5-15 231 .2–Canadian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 60 Voltage 120/240 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. where exposed or concealed Trade Designation Hybrid conductor cable CSA Type Designation NMDH90 CIC Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C 90 250 (dry or damp locations) 90 (wet locations) For use in ventilated non-ventilated and ladder type Control and instrumentation Cable (without armor) trays.1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use For use in buildings in dry or damp locations. for exposed or concealed wiring (or damp or dry) locations For use in ventilated non-ventilated and ladder type Armored control and instrumentation cable trays. for exposed or concealed (other than steel wire armor) wiring in wet (or damp or dry) locations in ceiling air handling plenums ACIC 250 (dry or damp locations) 90 (wet locations) Source: Canadian Electrical Code (CSA C22. Table 19) 15. Table 15.15.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 15. Canada Table 15.1. direct earth burial. Three-phase.

” depending on which of the specified flame test requirements they fulfill. or ceiling and roof.4 Fire Ratings The Canadian Electrical Code. For the cable to pass the test. is the national safety code for electrical installations that is adopted into law by each province and territory with amendments or local rules.4. Cables are marked from “FT1” to “FT6. 0.11.3 “FT6” Fire Test The FT6 test procedure is known as the Plenum Flame Test (published in CSA Standard C22. Cables are subjected to five. burning must cease within 60 seconds after removal of the flame source.15.4).4. 15.2 No. Canada 15. 0. that may be used as a plenum in buildings of combustible or noncombustible construction.4. Wires and cables with combustible outer jackets or sheaths that do not meet the above classifications should be located in noncombustible raceways. para 4.11. 232 . 15.2 “FT4” Fire Test The FT4 test procedure is known as the Vertical Flame Test – Cables in trays (published in CSA Standard C22. Cables are mounted on a vertical tray and exposed for 20 minutes to a 70.6). para 4.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables. and FT4 – W  ires and cables that are suitable for installation in: (a) buildings of noncombustible and combustible construction. published by the Canadian Standards Association. 15 second duration applications of a specified flame. 0. para 4. and not more than 25 percent of the extended portion of the indicator can be burned. The Code includes references to a stringent series of tests developed for flame testing of wires and cables.4.5 meters from the point of flame application. 15. For the cable to pass the test. and (b) s  paces between a ceiling and floor.000 Btu/hr flame.1).1 “FT1” Fire Test The FT1 test procedure is known as the “Vertical Test” (published in CSA Standard C22.2 No.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables. 15.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables. the resulting char distance must not be greater than 1.11. masonry walls or concrete slabs.2 No.4 Designations The markings for wires and cables meeting the flame spread requirements of the National Building Code of Canada (without additional fire protection) are: FT1 – Wires and cables that are suitable for installation in buildings of combustible construction.

15.1–Termination of Single-Phase Single-Conductor Teck 90 Cables for Circuit Ampacity Over 425 Amps 233 . Connectors and lock nuts of nonmagnetic materials Nonferrous metal Insulating material Supply end Ground wires and armor are connected to panel body and earthed Separate ground conductor Ground wires cut off inside and isolated. One acceptable method is shown in Figure 15. Canada 15.1. Armor and ground wires are isolated from each other Load end Figure 15.5 Single Conductor Teck 90 Terminations Single-conductor high-current armored cables require special termination methods to prevent excessive heating caused by induced “circulating currents” in nearby conductors and “eddy currents” in nearby magnetic materials.

234 .

2 CNIS 240 240 240 235 .16.2.3.1.2 Singapore Standards 16.1.1 SPRING Singapore (formerly PSB) 16.3.4.4 Chinese Standards 16.2 ACMA 16.1 JSA 16.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 238 238 238 16.4.1.2.4 Limiting Temperatures for Insulated Cables 236 236 236 236 237 16.1 CQC 16. Asia Pacific 16.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configuration 16. Asia Pacific 16.3 Japanese Standards 16.2 Plug Configuration 239 239 239 16.1 SAA 16.1.1 Australian Standards 16.

Socket-Outlets and Couplers for General Industrial Application Fibrous-Insulated Electric Cables and Flexible Cables for Working Voltages of 0.2 ACMA Australian Communications and Media Authority www.1 Australian Standards 16.2 AS/NZS 5000.1.saiglobal.1–Australian Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) 50 50 Voltage 240/415 250/440 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.3 AS/NZS 60702 AS/ACIF S008 AS/ACIF S009 Title Impregnated Paper Insulated Cables for Electricity Supply at Working Voltages Up To and Including 33 kV (Metric Units) Conductors in Insulated Electric Cables and Flexible Cords Welding Cables Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres — Explosion Protection Techniques Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres — Selection.1.1 SAA Standards Australia www.gov. Installation and Maintenance Classification of Hazardous Areas Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules Electrical Installations — Selection of Cables: Cables for Alternating Voltages Up To and Including 0.1 AS/NZS 5000.6/1 kV Cables for High-Voltage Luminous Discharge Tube Installations Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — For Distribution and Service Applications Electric Flexible Cords Electric Cables — Aerial-Bundled Voltages Up To and Including 0.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configuration Table 16. Asia Pacific 16.au 16. 236 .org.1.6/1 kV Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — For working voltages Up To 450/750 V Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — Multicore Control Cables Mineral-Insulated Cables and Their Terminations Up To 750 V Requirements for Authorized Cabling Products Installation Requirements for Customer Cabling (Wiring Rules) 16.1 AS/NZS 3112 AS/NZS 3123 AS/NZS 3158 AS/NZS 3166 AS/NZS 4961 AS/NZS 3191 AS/NZS 3560 AS/NZS 1972 AS/NZS 5000.com Document No.16.standards. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances that are not double insulated. AS/NZS 1026 AS/NZS 1125 AS/NZS 1995 AS/NZS 2380 AS/NZS 2381 AS/NZS 2430 AS/NZS 3000 AS/NZS 3008.6/1 kV Mining Cables Other Than Reeling and Trailing Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — For Working Voltages Up To and Including 0.6/1 kV Plugs and Socket-Outlets Plugs.acma.au or www.

2–Australian Plug Configuration Jack Jack Plug Plug Description Description Australian Standard AS/NZS 3312 16.4 Limiting Temperatures for Insulated Cables Table 16.3–Limiting Temperatures for Australian Insulated Cables Type of Cable Insulation Cable Operating Temperature. °C Normal Use Minimum -40 -20 -20 -20 -50 -50 0 -20 0 -20 0 0 0 0 -70 -70 Elastomer compounds Type R-EP-90 Type R-CSP-90 Type R-CPE-90 Type R-HF-90 Type R-S-150 Type R-S-200 90 90 90 90 150 200 75 75 75 75 75 150 200 350 90 90 Thermoplastic compounds Type V-75 Type HFI-75-TP Type V-90 Type HFI-90-TP Type V-90-HT Heat-resisting fibrous insulation Type 150 Type 200 Type 350 Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) Type X-90 Type X-HF-90 Source: Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules (AS/NZS 3000) 237 . Asia Pacific Table 16.16.1.

2. BS6500. IEC 60331 and IEC 60502. 16.sg Document No.2. Asia Pacific 16. Table 16.2 Singapore Standards 16.gov. BS6346.spring.5–Singapore Plug Configurations Jack Jack Plug Plug Description Description Ungrounded Europlug CEE 7/16 British Standard BS 1363 238 .16. SS254 SS299 Part 1 SS300 SS358 Title Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Fire Resistant Circuit Integrity Power Cables Methods of Test for Gases Evolved During Combustion of Electric Cables PVC Insulated Power Cables up to and Including 450/750 V The following British and international cable standards are also used in Singapore: BS6004.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 16.4–Singapore Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 230/400 A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.1 SPRING Singapore (formerly PSB) www.

6–Japanese Plug Configuration Jack Jack Plug Plug Description Description Japanese Standard JIS C 8303 (Same as NEMA 5-15 and CSA 22.2 Plug Configuration Table 16.3. No.3.jsa.or.3 Japanese Standards 16. JIS C3307 JIS C3316 JIS C3401 JIS C3406 JIS C3605 JIS C3606 JIS C3609 JIS C3612 JIS C3621 JIS C3650 JIS C3653 JIS C3660 JIS C3662 JIS C3663 Title 600 V PVC Insulated Wires PVC Insulated Wire for Electrical Apparatus Control Cables Low Voltage Cables for Automobiles 600 V Polyethylene Insulated Cables High-Voltage Cross Linked Polythylene Insulated Cables High-Voltage Drop Wires for Pole Transformers 600 V Flame Retardant Polythylene Insulated Wires 600 V Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Insulated Cables Installation Methods of Cables Embedded in Concrete Installation Methods of Cables Buried Underground Test Methods for Insulating and Sheathing Materials of Electric Cables PVC Insulated Cables Rated Up To 450/750 V Rubber Insulated Cables Rated Up To 450/750 V 16. 42) 239 .16.jp Document No.1 JSA Japanese Standards Association www. Asia Pacific 16.2.

GB 5013 GB 5023 GB 12528.16. CQC Chinese Quality Certification Center www.gov.4 Chinese Standards 16. Asia Pacific 16.cn 16.1 GB 12972 GB 15934 Title Rubber Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750 V Polyvinyl Chloride Insulated Cables for Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750 V Insulated Cables (Wires) for Railway Vehicles of Rated Voltage Up To and Including 3 kV Flexible Rubber-Sheathed Cables for Mining Purposes Cord Sets 240 .cqc.4.cnis.cn Document No.com.2 CNIS Chinese National Institute of Standardization www.4.

Conversion tables 17. Power and Energy 242 244 246 248 249 249 17. Weight.4 Temperature Conversion 17.5 kVA to Amperes 17.3 Metric to English Conductor Size Circular Measurements – Diameter.2 17. Conversion Tables 17.6 Horsepower to Amperes 241 . Area.17.1 17. Circumference and Area Length.

000 634.000 – – 1.000 300.800 138.300 44.000 – – 800 – – 630 – – – 500 – 400 – – – – 300 – – 240 – – – 185 – – – 150 – – Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) 2.100 66.1 Metric to English Conductor Size Table 17.5 10.000 365.900 105.240 22.000 296.700 Continued >> 242 .250 – – – 1.500.660 52.000 455.6 50 43.000 325.000 234.717 31.900 69.3 27 25 22.1 16 13.500 1.000 350.000 1.6 13.000 900 888 800 761 635 630 626 520 508 500 449 400 381 380 322 305 300 273 254 240 231 230 195 185 178 165 152 150 140 127 Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) – 1.792 26.620 49.4 21 19 17 16. Conversion Tables 17.015 1.3 11.000 133.000 748.240.233.000 500.700 72.000 400.1–Conductor Size Conversion: Metric to English and English to Metric Metric Conductor Area (mm2) 1.000 1.780.128 41.000 1.000 250.600 98.820 19.000 537.600 101.655 20.740 37.00 Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) 120 – – – 95 – – 70 – – – – 50 – – – 35 – – – 25 – – – – – 16 – – – – 10 Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) – – 4/0 – – 3/0 – – 2/0 – 1/0 – – – 1 – – 2 – 3 – – 4 – 5 – – – 6 – 7 – English Conductor Area (cmil) 237.430 33.000 – – – 750 – – 600 – – 500 – – 400 – – 350 – 300 – – 250 English Conductor Area (cmil) 2.000 1.000 1.000 1.17.000 1.000 211.000.000 600.100 83.100 119.000 276.800 141.000 750.360 61.000 1.000 789.750.000 384.500 86.000 Metric Conductor Area (mm2) 120 119 107 100 95 85 72 70 67 60.9 54 51.750 – 1.600 26.000.000 474.024.090 31.000 592.000 884.000 1.000 187.000 1.000 987.7 42 37 35 34 31.000 167.970.250.580.600 197.5 10.

61 6.95 0.75 0. Conversion Tables Table 17.205 Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) – – – – – 6 – – – – 4 – – – 2.2 9 – – 10 – – – – 12 – – – 14 – – – – 16 – – – 18 – – – 20 – – 22 24 Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) – 8 – – English Conductor Area (cmil) 19.58 0.930 4.38 8.50 1.128 0.26 5.530 5.17.510 16.324 0.339 1.0050 0.52 0.82 0.790 13.292 13.00 6.110 3.27 7.142 1.85 1.081 0.00 5.889 8.620 2.8 25.970 1.093 2.12 1.00 0.00 3.31 2.49 0.294 4.0013 Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) – – – – – – – – – – – Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 English Conductor Area (cmil) 253 159 100 63.08 1.0 15.644 3.50 2.206 1.00 2.93 5.25 4.02 4.5 – – – – 1.246 16.0032 0.50 0.580 2.871 1.5 – – – 1 – – 0.2 39.56 Reference: IEC 60228 243 .25 4.800 11.64 6.032 0.380 9.620 1.082 4.57 1.7 9.092 6.1–Conductor Size Conversion: Metric to English and English to Metric (Continued) Metric Conductor Area (mm2) 9.013 0.682 10.68 0.372 7.18 2.090 11.0020 0.50 – – 0.020 987 965 640 404 Metric Conductor Area (mm2) 0.890 7.020 0.58 2.60 3.0080 0.31 1.960 2.77 8.051 0.75 – – – 0.480 1.33 1.

) Decimal (in.937500 3.73708 0.968750 1 1 1/16 1 1/8 1 3/16 1 1/4 1 5/16 1 3/8 1 7/16 1 1/2 1 9/16 1 5/8 1 11/16 1 3/4 1 13/16 1 7/8 1 15/16 2 2 1/16 2 1/8 2 3/16 2 1/4 2 5/16 2 3/8 2 7/16 2 1/2 2 9/16 2 5/8 2 11/16 2 3/4 2 13/16 2 7/8 2 15/16 3 Diameter Fractional (in.65763 7.94524 3.66897 1.00019 0.981748 1.187500 2.31969 4.7583 3.156250 0.562500 1.42478 244 .312500 2.12334 4.9761 4.15033 0.04909 0.468750 0.51849 0.01227 0.7771 7.27627 1.37122 0.294524 0.57080 1.11045 0.9483 3.92699 4.71239 4.67588 6.125000 1.53429 3.01917 0.062500 1.812500 0.08684 6.906250 0.17257 0.69029 0.12962 0.27688 0.2365 2.875000 1.000000 1.40574 0.09281 0.2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.06213 0.750000 2.9396 6.593750 0.4119 5.87223 7.4301 4.343750 0.) 0.5466 3.64504 0.031250 0.000000 2.84707 2.656250 0.65072 2.500000 1.437500 2.46128 7.312500 0.) 3.098175 0.14159 3.99402 1.15984 2.55254 2.04342 (sq.000000 (in.69414 5.47937 0.2272 1.03758 0.375000 2.07992 1.250000 0.312500 1.3410 3.3530 1.35619 2.24668 8.062500 2.74889 2.062500 0.883573 0.00173 0.750000 1.26493 7.0686 Continued >> Decimal (in.562500 0.00307 0.45437 2.9175 2.63938 8.4849 1.046875 0. in.86532 1.4978 6.812500 1.44303 8.22166 0.2000 4.47262 1.625000 1.687500 1.90874 5.1572 5. Conversion Tables 17.03208 9.125000 2.531250 0.6230 1.125000 0.) 0.500000 0.5802 2.6664 4.24850 0.937500 0.17. Circumference and Area Table 17.589049 0.015625 0.0739 2.281250 0.049087 0.218750 0.562500 2.60132 0.85398 8.49779 5.1075 1.147262 0.4053 2.47953 6.19635 0.625000 2.) Circumference (sq.093750 0.22843 9.375000 1.196350 0. Circumference and Area Diameter Fractional (in.) 1.187500 0.33824 0.07670 0.437500 0.00019 0.06858 7.30680 0.28319 6.88664 0.718750 0. in.06167 2.1416 3.875000 2.89049 6.78540 0.843750 0.7612 2.51604 4.750000 0.937500 2.05033 8.55914 0.687500 0.37445 1.73064 3.875000 0.96350 2.44179 0.02761 0.187500 1.781250 0.687500 2.2 Circular Measurements – Diameter.812500 2.76715 1.375000 0.392699 0.7671 1.00690 0.30144 5.250000 2.625000 0.) 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 9/32 5/16 11/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 15/32 1/2 17/32 9/16 19/32 5/8 21/32 11/16 23/32 3/4 25/32 13/16 27/32 7/8 29/32 15/16 31/32 Circumference (in.17810 1.9087 5.687223 0.785398 0.490874 0.437500 1.83573 9.250000 1.33794 3.6727 5.25802 2.) 0.500000 2.406250 0.2126 6.10509 5.

179 45.785 37.687500 3.375000 3.465 30.758 24.937500 5.5984 21.0962 27.3700 12.904 16.375000 5.1767 12.664 47.9408 14.6715 17.301 24.312500 5.0642 18.0447 11.186 14.125000 8.9591 13.500000 8.81748 10.625000 3.875000 4.7262 14.) 3 1/16 3 1/8 3 3/16 3 1/4 3 5/16 3 3/8 3 7/16 3 1/2 3 9/16 3 5/8 3 11/16 3 3/4 3 13/16 3 7/8 3 15/16 4 4 1/16 4 1/8 4 3/16 4 1/4 4 5/16 4 3/8 4 7/16 4 1/2 4 9/16 4 5/8 4 11/16 4 3/4 4 13/16 4 7/8 4 15/16 5 5 1/16 5 1/8 5 3/16 Decimal (in.9911 22.364 13.274 29.6211 9.0277 20.648 22.687500 5.967 26.6350 20.375000 6.7992 10.688 28.7445 13.9678 10.871 41.9798 8.8496 19.721 18.4889 Circumference (sq.2788 17.3518 13.437500 4.1919 11.1007 16.122 38.919 33.000000 4.2806 9.3662 7.629 21.5846 11.5116 15. Circumference and Area (Continued) Diameter Fractional (in.456 55. in.875000 3.187500 3.) 21.2423 19.962 13.2605 18.1189 15.) 3.3108 26.750000 3.875000 5.750000 5.7932 12.437500 5.4943 16.7627 12.0824 17.183 34.937500 6.3473 24.500000 4.625000 7.500000 6.2058 21.9226 15.5619 23.535 27.129 20.4159 11.187500 4.125000 5.282 42.6699 7. in.625000 6.687500 4.500000 5.3153 15.9773 12.691 23.250000 6.472 35.800 17.772 14.3838 22.3206 10.250000 4.6179 8.849 53.625000 4.7765 23.312500 3.7810 11.) 7. Conversion Tables Table 17.6796 11.562500 3.1692 23.426 60.7035 27.625000 5.4751 17.937500 4.375000 4.2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.2102 10.132 Continued >> 245 .707 50.125000 6.750000 (in.3883 11.17.250000 7.8131 21.5299 14.9043 16.4065 10.250000 8.406 25.875000 8.750000 6.147 19.665 19.257 17.000000 5.500000 7.062500 4.7400 25.750000 7.1554 13.1327 25.4589 18.125000 3.500000 3.033 15.562500 4.135 5 1/4 5 5/16 5 3/8 5 7/16 5 1/2 5 9/16 5 5/8 5 11/16 5 3/4 5 13/16 5 7/8 5 15/16 6 6 1/8 6 1/4 6 3/8 6 1/2 6 5/8 6 3/4 6 7/8 7 7 1/8 7 1/4 7 3/8 7 1/2 7 5/8 7 3/4 7 7/8 8 8 1/8 8 1/4 8 3/8 8 1/2 8 5/8 8 3/4 Diameter Fractional (in.173 48.062500 5.375000 8.750000 4.2958 8.187500 (in.) 16.466 15.2970 Circumference (sq.6029 10.5254 25.7050 15.265 51.812500 4.6897 16.1737 12.875000 7.745 58.221 23.812500 3.125000 7.4202 20.349 16.5481 13.9546 24.812500 5.000000 6.607 15.190 18.000000 8.566 12.109 27.8861 17.9956 11.01380 10.) 5.1372 14.635 20.250000 5.) 9.562500 5.850 25.062500 3.250000 3.000000 7.088 56.375000 7.680 31.5664 12.3335 14.312500 4.9462 9.718 44.62113 9.625000 8.166 22.8678 18.6532 18.437500 3.125000 4.9181 26.) Decimal (in.485 39.

397 67.125000 9.875000 9.4 to calculate mm.3048 2.4159 Notes:  1.000000 9.029 91⁄2 95⁄8 93⁄4 97⁄8­ 10 Diameter Fractional (in.540 29.3701 0.8451 30.0005067 0. Multiply inches by 25.875000 10.2808 39.3–Conversion Factors Note: Frequently used conversions are shown in bold type.375000 (in.16 to calculate mm .2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.882 72.7854 0.6093 0.240.0232 31.) Decimal (in.3 Length. 2.00155 1.750000 9. Power and energy Table 17.00 10.) 27. Weight.862 63.0597 29.48 0.155 0.662 76.000.3701 1.201 69. divide by the factor given in the table.250000 9.0929 1.4 1.000.760 74. 3. Multiply inches by 1.6305 31.2732 0.6670 29.589 78. To convert in the reverse direction.9144 To Multiply By Continued >> 246 .) 61.3937 0.2743 28.) Circumference (sq.00 0.000.4524 2 Circumference (sq.000 to calculate mils.) 8. in.00 6. 17.625000 9.0254 25.17.617 65.000000 (in.273.2378 30.03281 30. Multiply square inches by 645.764 0.8816 28.) 8 7/8 9 9 1/8 9 1/4 9 3/8 Decimal (in.16 1.) 9.973.500000 9. in. Circumference and Area (Continued) Diameter Fractional (in.0000007854 0. Area.0254 0. Conversion Tables Table 17.000001 To Multiply By To Convert From Length Centimeters Centimeters Feet Feet Inches Inches Inches Inches Kilometers Meters Meters Meters Miles Millimeters Millimeters Mils Mils Yards Inches Feet Centimeters Meters Centimeters Meters Millimeters Mils Miles Feet Inches Yards Kilometers Inches Mils Inches Millimeters Meters 0.0936 1. To Convert From Area Circular mils Circular mils Circular mils Square centimeters Square feet Square inches Square inches Square inches Square inches Square meters Square millimeters Square millimeters Square mils Square mils Square inches Square mils Square millimeters Square inches Square meters Circular mils Square centimeters Square millimeters Square mils Square feet Square inches Circular mils Circular mils Square inches 0.53 1.6214 3.) 70.4516 645.001 0.54 0.03937 39.

0226 0.8327 0.000 feet Ohms per 1.1516 Foot-pounds Joules Watt-hours British thermal units Joules Kilogram-meters Joules British thermal units Ergs Foot-pounds Gram-calories Kilogram-meters Foot-pounds Joules British thermal units To 778.7375 0.8117 3.4482 To Multiply By To Convert From Miscellaneous Diameter circle Diameter circle Diameter sphere cubed U. gallons U.001341 0.7375 0.3–Conversion Factors (Continued) To Convert From Power Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Foot-pounds per second Horsepower Horsepower Horsepower Kilogram-meters per sec.4536 1.00 0.000 yards Pounds Pounds per 1.0936 0.1416 0.356 33. gallons Cubic feet Feet of water (4°C) Inches of mercury (0°C) Knots Circumference Side of equal square Volume of sphere Imperial gallons (British) Cubic feet Pounds of water (20°C) Pounds of water (4°C) Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Miles per hour 3.4912 1.233 9.0936 0.000 feet Pounds per 1.427 0.25 0. Conversion Tables Table 17.4960 1.000. 0.2248 4.293 0.00 1.000 feet Ohms per kilometer Ohms per kilometer Kilograms Kilograms per kilometer Kilograms per kilometer Pounds per kilometer Pound-force Newtons 2.00 550.186 0.000 yards Pounds per 1.5236 0.1383 4.356 0.0000303 0.00 746 9.S.2388 0.8862 0.S.S.807 44.001818 1.33 62. gallons U.4336 0.10198 7.2808 1.6719 0.205 0.000947 107.3048 3.4126 Multiply By To Multiply By 247 .000 feet Ohms per 1.17.1337 8. Watts Watts Watts Watts Horsepower Watts Horsepower Watts Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Watts Watts Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Horsepower Kilogram-meters per sec.055.00 0.001285 1.488 0.000 yards Newtons Pound-force Pounds Pounds per 1.1020 To Multiply By To Convert From Energy British thermal units British thermal units British thermal units Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Gram calories Joules Joules Joules Joules Joules Kilogram-meters Kilogram-meters Watt-hours To Convert From Weight Kilograms Kilograms per kilometer Ohms per kilometer Ohms per 1.

6 199.2 194.912 3.8 98.000 1.6 244.4 219.0 -38.2 266.8 170.600 1.2 -0.6 172.2 -18.0 267.8 233.2 140.632 – – – – – – – – *Freezing †Boiling 248 .32) °C -80 -70 -60 -50 -45 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 °F -112.0 -11.800 1.4 255.0 114.2 23.2 °C 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 †100 101 102 103 104 °F 167.200 1.500 1.400 1.0 15.472 1.0 177.0 -2.4 1.4 183.6 82.8 134.8 -22.4 93.300 1.000 1.2 °C 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 °F 221.0 24.6 10.2 158.8 35.2 41.6 208.4 282.4 246.6 190.6 -23.4 201.8 251.2 68.4 165.732 2.8 107.4 291.8 44.6 19.0 240.4 138.8 260.4 Temperature Conversion Table 17.2 149.4 111.2 77.8 188.2 176.6 289.8 8.6 46.4 102.2 95.4 -34.8 242.8 -31.0 87.6 181.8 125.6 91.0 159.0 392 410 428 446 464 482 572 662 752 932 – – – – – – – – – – – – °C 600 700 800 900 1.0 249.2 122.0 -49.4 30.4 21.4–Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) vs.8 89.0 213.452 3.4 -7.2 86.4 147.0 6.0 123.6 73.0 150.6 145.8 -13.6 163.0 60.6 28.0 285.0 356.6 -14.000 – – – – – – – – °F 1.4 84.0 258.2 -9.2 °C 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 °F 113.0 -20.292 1.2 °C -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 *0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 °F 5.8 287.2 230.6 280.2 248.4 75.6 298.6 64.4 156.2 °C 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 300 350 400 500 °F 275.0 132. Conversion Tables 17.652 1.8 143.2 °C 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 °F 59.0 168.4 -25.8 71.0 195.0 338.6 217.8 80.6 235.2 302.832 2.8 26.0 -94.6 100.192 2.2 131.17.6 253.8 197.4 120.0 78.272 3.4 39.6 271.0 374.2 257.092 3.8 -4.6 127.0 105.0 231.2 14.2 284.8 53.4 48.372 2.0 96.552 2.700 1.0 -29.0 294.0 33.0 42.2 -27.2 293.4 174.6 37.4 228.2 *32.8 179.6 109.0 51.0 69.0 186.8 296.2 -36.112 1.6 136.2 203.012 2. Degrees Fahrenheit Conversion Formula: °  F=9/5°C+32°C °C=5/9 (°F .0 222.8 206.6 262.6 118.2 104.4 129.8 62.8 215.6 55.2 †212.4 192.900 2.6 226.0 -58.4 3.8 161.4 -16.8 269.8 116.4 273.2 185.4 57.0 204.4 237.4 210.8 17.4 300.2 239.0 -76.0 320.8 224.0 -40.2 50.6 -5.8 152.4 66.4 12.0 141.6 -32.4 264.6 154.8 278.0 276.

17.6 36 72 108 180 270 360 480 540 720 960 1.24 8.66 25 41 62 83 124 208 312 416 624 830 1.5 KVA to Amperes Table 17.4 21.0 125 208 312 415 554 625 830 1.2 10.8 18 36 54 90 135 180 240 270 360 480 600 900 600 V 2.6 25.33 12.7 14.9 5.12 4.33 12.4 15.5 50 75 100 167 200 Current in Amperes at: 120 V 8.5 150 200 225 300 400 500 750 120 V 8.200 1.5 21 31 42 62 104 156 208 312 415 695 833 480 V 2.5 2 3 5 7.16 6.6 21 31 52 78 104 156 207 348 416 kVA Rating 3 6 9 15 30 45 75 112.380 2.110 1.08 3. Conversion Tables 17.080 Three-Phase Circuits Current in Amperes at: 240 V 7.8 8.5 10 15 25 37.5 16.800 480 V 3.3 16.8 43 72 108 144 192 216 288 384 480 720 249 .390 1.2 14.4 28.0 41.16 6.5–kVA to Amperes Single-Phase Circuits kVA Rating 1 1.6 83.1 10.660 240 V 4.6 7.

6 Horsepower to Amperes Table 17.2 2. see Table 430.8 14.0 49.9 125 250 500 – 480 V 1.8. Check with applicable codes for specific ampere values to size overcurrent protective devices or conductors.4 125 250 624 Note: Based on a motor efficiency of 90 percent and system power factor of 0.5 6. Above values are theoretical values based solely on numerical calculations.8 57.2 12.6–Horsepower to Amperes Three-Phase Circuits Horsepower Rating 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 300 Current in Amperes at: 208 V 2.9 5. For example.5 25.0 12.5 5. 250 .17.5 25.4 28.250 of the National Electrical Code.0 62.6 144 288 576 – 240 V 2.

Formulas and Constants 18.8 18.3 Resistance.4 Series and Parallel Connections 18. Formulas and Constants 18.5 Engineering Notation 18.2 Resistance and Weight of Conductors 18.18. Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits 18.7 Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices 18.1 Electrical Properties of Circuits 18.9 Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter Coaxial Capacitance 252 252 253 253 254 255 255 256 256 257 18.10 Inductive Reactance 251 .6 Diameter of Multiconductor Cables 18.

000 IxV 1. in.000 IxV 1. = Efficiency of motor I= Current (amperes) kw = Kilowatts kVA = Kilovolt–amperes hp = Horsepower 18.176 Cross-sectional area in cmils Area in sq. in.73 x V x cos q x Eff.854.09 or area in cmils x 0. 746 hp x 746 V x Eff. kw x 1.000 1. x 3.0081455 or Cross-sectional area in sq.1–Electrical Properties of Circuits Alternating Current Desired Data Kilowatts (kw) Kilovolt–amperes (kVA) Horsepower output Amperes (I) when horsepower is known Amperes (I) when kilowatts are known Amperes (I) when kilovolt-amperes are known Single Phase I x V x cos q 1. 10371. 746 hp x 746 1.73 x I x V 1.000 feet = 0.000 feet = pounds per 1.000 I x V x cos q x Eff.2 Resistance and Weight of Conductors The resistance and weight of any uncoated copper wire at 20°C (68°F) having a conductivity of 100 percent IACS may be calculated from the following formulas: ohms per 1.18.0030269 252 . kw x 1.000 V x cos q kVA x 1.000 1. 746 hp x 746 V x cos q x Eff. kw x 1.73 x I x V x cos q x Eff.000 1.1 Electrical Properties of Circuits Table 18.73 x V IxV 1.000 I x V x Eff.73 x V x cos q kVA x 1.000 V kVA x 1.000 V Direct Current cos q = Power factor of load (pf) V = Volts between conductors Eff. Formulas and Constants 18.73 x I x V x cos q 1.000 V Three Phase 1.000 1.

18.1416 f = Frequency in cycles per second 18.3–Series and Parallel Connections Resistance (R) Series R=R +R +R +… 1 2 3 1=1+1+1+ R R1 R2 R3 … Inductance (L) L = L1 + L2 + L3 + … 1=1+1+1+ L L1 L2 L3 … Capacitance (C) 1=1+1+1+ C C1 C2 C3 … C=C +C +C +… 1 2 3 Parallel 253 . Formulas and Constants 18. Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits Table 18.2–Resistance. L and C) Reactance O 2pfL 1 2pfC 2pfL 2 Impedance R 2pfL 1 2pfC “V” for Current “I” IR I2pfL I 2 Power Factor 1 O O 1 2pfC 2 2 2  R + (2pfL) R2 + 1 2pfL I 2  R + (2pfL) R2 +  R + (2pfL) 2 R 2 1 2pfC  x c x 1 2pfL – 2pfC 2 I  x c  x c 1 2pfL R + 2 R 1 2pfL 2 2pfL – 1 2pfC c  x 2 R + 2pfL – 1 2pfC c x 2 R 1 2pfC R2 + 2pfL – c 2 V = Voltage in volts R = Resistance in ohms I= Current in amperes C = Capacitance in farads L = Inductance in henries p = 3. Inductance and Capacitance in Series (R. Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits If Circuit Contains Resistance (R) Only Inductance (L) Only Capacitance (C) Only Resistance and Inductance in Series (R and L) Resistance and Capacitance in Series (R and C) Resistance.3 Resistance.4 Series and Parallel Connections Table 18.

000 1. greater than # less than or equal to .000.000.4142  3 = 1.000 100 10 0.000000000001 0.001 0.000.000000000000001 0.000.000000000000000001 109 106 10 10 3 102 1 10-1 10 -2 10-3 10-6 10 10 -9 10-12 -15 10-18 Table 18. less than $ greater than or equal to 254 .000 1.1 0.000.000 1.18.000.1416  2 = 1.7321 p/4 = 0.000000001 0.000001 0.01 0. Formulas and Constants 18.5–Engineering Notation Engineering Notation e = 2.7183 p = 3.5 Engineering Notation Table 18.7854 1/C = one conductor 3/C = three conductor .4–Engineering Notation Multiplying Factor Prefix tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Symbol T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a Scientific 10 12 Conventional 1.

377 0.6–Diameter of Multiconductor Cables Number of Conductors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Factor 1.700 3.155 2. Table 18.7 Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices The following factors permit the calculation of the maximum size conductor that will fit into the interstices (open spaces) of various conductor configurations. Formulas and Constants 18.000 2. Table 18.18.000 2.7–Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices Number of Conductors 2 3 4 5 6 Factor 0.000 3.310 3.6 Diameter of Multiconductor Cables To calculate the overall diameter of a group of round conductors of uniform diameters twisted together.610 18.414 2. Multiply the diameter of one main conductor by the factor from the chart below to obtain the largest diameter that will fit into the interstices.354 255 .483 0.000 3.414 0.667 0. while keeping within a circumscribing circle. multipy the diameter of an individual conductor by the applicable factor below.

332 x No. of Wires 18.354e Log10 (1 + 2t /d) C e t d Where: is capacitance in picofarads per foot is the dielectric constant (also known as SIC) is insulation thickness in mils is diameter over the conductor (diameter under the insulation) in mils C = 2 Other forms of this equation include: 0. multiply the diameter of an individual wire by the applicable factor below: Table 18. C2 is capacitance in microfarads per kilometer e is the dielectric constant D is diameter over the insulation d is diameter under the insulation 256 .8–Concentric Stranded Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter Number of Wires in Conductor 3 7 12 19 37 61 91 127 169 217 271 Factor to Calculate Conductor Diameter 2.18.00 15.000 11.0169e or C = 1 0.000 4.000 7.9 Coaxial Capacitance C= 7.155 3. Formulas and Constants 18.000 ft.00 For a greater number of wires use the formula: Conductor Diameter = Wire Diameter x 1.0556e Ln d Ln d xDc xDc Where: C1 is capacitance in microfarads per 1.00 13.155 5.00 17.00 19.000 9.8 Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter To calculate the nominal diameter of any concentric-lay-stranded conductor made from round wires of uniform diameters.

Formulas and Constants 18. concentric stranded conductors.386d for a 61-wire strand where “d” is the diameter of the conductor. GMR ranges from 0.363d for a 7-wire strand up to 0.023 Ln ( GMD ) ohms/1.18.000 ft.0754 Ln ( GMD ) ohms/km L GMR Where: GMD = geometric mean distance (equivalent conductor spacing) GMR = geometric mean radius of conductor For conductors in a triplexed configuration. 257 . L GMR or X = 0. For round.10 Inductive Reactance The inductive reactance of a shielded three-conductor medium-voltage power cable at 60 Hz can be calculated with the following formulas: X = 0. GMD is equal to the center-to-center spacing.

258 .

Glossary GLOSSARY 259 .

ABSORPTION—Physical phenomenon that attenuates light traveling in fibers by ADMITTANCE—A measure of how easily alternating current flows in a circuit. Used in overhead transmission and distribution. and d) applicable codes. AEIC—Association of Edison Illuminating Companies. steel reinforced using aluminum clad steel wire. Communications cable specification. It is expressed in mhos. ACSR/GA—Aluminum conductor. signals to digital signals. AGING—The irreversible change of material properties after exposure to an environment for an interval of time. etc. composite reinforced aerial cable. ALTERNATING CURRENT—Electric current that periodically reverses direction. a peripheral device. fuels. AERIAL CABLE—A cable suspended in the air on poles or other overhead structure. ACSR—Aluminum conductor. A special high-strength aluminum alloy. usually aluminum around steel. (2) A UL cable type (armored cable) with flexible metal ACAR—Aluminum conductor. AC—(1) Alternating current. steel reinforced using Class B zinc-coated ACSR/GC—Aluminum conductor. then joining and curing the adhesive to form a cable. ACSR/AZ—Aluminum conductor. A protective device that detects arcing and breaks the circuit to protect the load when arcing is detected. ACCELERATED LIFE TEST—A test in which a cable is subjected to extreme conditions to determine the life of a cable. with a moisture barrier. closely fitting aluminum tube. or process control system. AMPACITY—The rms current that a device can safely carry within specified temperature limitations in a specified environment: dependent upon a) temperature rating. A method of adding information to an electronic signal where the amplitude of the wave is changed to convey the added information. AF—Audio frequency. steel reinforced using Class A zinc-coated ACSR/GB—Aluminum conductor. This construction is also referred to as an air dielectric. A feedback circuit that automatically adjusts the system gain. b) power loss. aluminum-reinforced cable. steel reinforced using aluminum coated steel wire. c) heat dissipation. Absorption results from impurities and defects in the glass structure. AFCI—Arc fault circuit interrupter. See ELFEXT. altitude. individual substances. See BONDED CABLE. A bare composite of aluminum and steel wires. ACCR—Aluminum conductor. AAR—American Association of Railroads. AGC—Automatic gain control. A or B. ACSR/AW—Aluminum conductor. This transmission line has fully annealed A/D CONVERTER–ANALOG/DIGITAL—An circuit device that converts analog 260 . AM—Amplitude modulation. Electric energy industry association. Contains a ceramic strength member to reduce sag at high temperatures (up to 210°C). ADHESIVE-BONDED—Cables bonded by adding an adhesive coating to the surface of the cable components. beads or braided filaments. AIA—Aluminum interlocked armor.Glossary # 0–10 V—A common analog process control signal voltage range. or any other unit or component in a network. aluminum for better sag and high-temperature performance than ACSR. The conductor may be centered by means of a spirally wound synthetic filament. solvents. ACRF—Attenuation to crosstalk ratio far-end. steel reinforced. AIR CORE CABLE—A cable in which the interstices in the cable core are not filled AIRCRAFT WIRE—An electrical wire primarily designed for the extreme conditions (temperature. Alternating current is generally abbreviated AC. AMBIENT—Conditions existing at a location prior to energizing of equipment (example: ambient temperature). AIR SPACED COAX—A coaxial cable in which air is basically the dielectric material.) of airborne equipment. using Class C zinc-coated steel wire. ACSS—Aluminum conductor steel supported. a node. ADDRESS—The digital location of a terminal. A A—Common abbreviation for ampere (see AMPERE). converting it into heat. A type of cable consisting of insulated conductors enclosed in a continuous. AAAC—All-aluminum alloy conductor. thereby raising the fiber’s temperature. tape armor. steel reinforced. steel wire. Listed type in the Canadian Electric Code. AB SWITCH—A coaxial cable switch capable of switching one cable to one of two branch cables. AL—Aluminum ALLOY—A substance (usually metallic) composed of two or more ALS—Aluminum sheathed. Admittance is the reciprocal of impedance. ABRASION RESISTANCE—Ability of a material to resist surface wear. steel wire. A type of cable sheath consisting of interlocked pieces of aluminum armor. 4–20 mA—A common analog process control signal current range.

and utilities charge extra for loads that require large amounts of reactive power. ARAMID YARN—Strength elements that provide tensile strength. circuitry or free air. connecting equipment rooms or communications closets. It has been replaced by silicone oils. formed so each convolution locks mechanically upon the previous one (interlocked armor). ARRHENIUS PLOT—A statistical method used to predict time-to-failure. It is measured in decibels per unit length of cable. while improving its flex life. This also generally lowers the tensile strength of the material. AUDIO—A term used to describe sounds within the range of human hearing. UL 758 is the AWM standard. ANTIOXIDANT—Retards or prevents degradation of materials exposed to APPLIANCE WIRING MATERIALS (AWM)—A classification covering insulated wire and cable for internal wiring of appliances and equipment. parallel twin lead construction. by heating to just below its melting point and then slowly cooling it. An organization that sets standards on various material tests for industry. One method for generating this plot is given in IEEE Standard 101. AWM—Appliance Wiring Material. which is the relative rate of amplitude decrease of voltage or current in the direction of travel. ATTENUATION CONSTANT—A rating for a cable or other transmitting medium. sometimes twisted pair or triplexed for open wiring of bell circuits and other low-voltage systems. ASTM—American Society for Testing and Materials. AWM comes in many different styles. Attenuation is measured as a ratio or as the logarithm of a ratio (decibel). ANNUNCIATOR WIRE—Usually single solid copper. such as metal or glass. ANNULAR CONDUCTOR—A number of wires stranded in reversed concentric ARMATURE—(1) Rotating machinery: the member in which alternating voltage is generated. BACKFILL—The materials used to fill an excavation. may be a formed metal tube (CCW) or a helical wrap of wires. A UL 758 designation for a type of wire. ANTENNA LEAD-IN WIRE—Not coaxial. Kevlar is a brand name of aramid fiber. ARMOR-X—Southwire’s trademark for CCW aluminum armor. AWG—American Wire Gauge.Glossary AMPERE—A standard unit of current. Wiring must be sized to handle the apparent power. B BACKBONE—The main portion of network cabling. AMPLITUDE—The peak value of a electrical signal. An ampere of current is flowing when one coulomb of charge is passing a point every second. a not-for-profit professional organization. The interface between the Ethernet/IEEE 802. ARMOR—Mechanical protector for cables. oxygen (air). Usually AUI—Attachment unit interface. usually stated in terms of the time required to render the material electrically conductive. to an electronic signal where the amplitude of the wave is changed to convey the added information. APPARENT POWER—The product of the voltage and amperage (VA) in a system. large industrial loads are often power factor corrected using large capacitors to prevent drawing the reactive power needed from the utility distribution system. Also used to describe devices that are designed to operate within this range. ANNEALED WIRE—See SOFT WIRE. ANSI (American National Standards Institute)—A not-for-profit ATTENUATION—The decrease in magnitude of a signal as it travels through any transmitting medium. conductor of the pair are equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity with respect to ground. such as a cable. Designated as the amount of current that flows when one volt of EMF (electromotive force) is applied across one ohm of resistance. AMPERE-TURN—The product of amperes times the number of turns in a coil. organization that publishes nationally recognized standards. instead drawing from the capacitors and presenting a less reactive load to the grid. These cables often have the largest number of fibers and/or the longest continuous cable runs. usually a helical winding of metal tape. ASKAREL—Synthetic insulating oil that is nonflammable but very toxic. BALANCED CIRCUIT—A circuit so arranged that the impressed voltages on each additional protection for fiber bundles. support and ARC RESISTANCE—The ability of a material to resist the action of a high-voltage electrical arc. A common wire diameter specification. based on ASCII—American National Standard Code for Information Interchange. such as sand in a trench. (2) Electromagnet: the member which is moved by magnetic force.3 controller and the baseband transceiver or broadband modem. AUDIO FREQUENCY—The range of frequencies audible to the human ear. For this reason. 20–20. AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM)—A method of adding information ANALOG—A continuously varying waveform that has not been digitized. A seven bit plus parity code established by the American National Standards Institute to achieve compatibility among data services and consisting of 96 displayed upper and lower case characters and 32 hidden control codes. layers around a core. ANNEAL—To soften and relieve strains in any solid material.000 Hz. a device’s performance at different temperatures. ASME—The American Society of Mechanical Engineering. plastic jacketed with fixed 300-ohm impedance for connecting a remote antenna to a receiver. AMPLIFIER—A device used to boost the strength of an electronic signal. ANTENNA ROTOR CABLE—Multiconductor flat or round cable used to supply power to a motorized antenna and control wires for changing direction of rotation. 261 .

BONDED CONSTRUCTION—An insulation construction in which the glass braid and nylon jacket are bonded together. main cable. BOOSTER—A device inserted into a line (or cable) to increase the voltage. BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE—The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors breaks down and becomes conductive. BRAID—Textile or metallic filaments interwoven to form a tubular structure that may be applied over one or more wires or flattened to form a strap. regular intervals for identification. BARREL-PACKED—Method of coiling wire into a drum for shipment. The ratio of received bits that are in error. BARE CONDUCTOR—A conductor having no insulation or jacket. BASEBAND LAN—A local area network employing baseband signaling. Boosting reinforced metallic foil. measured as frequency (in cycles per second. Braiding machines are identified by the number of carriers. BNC—Common connector for coax. or the designation of one of two possible and equally likely states (such as 1 and 0) of anything used to store or convey information. BENDING RADIUS—The radius of a circle that can be tightly fitted into the inside BRAID ANGLE—The smaller of the angles formed by the shielding strand and the BRAID CARRIER—A spool or bobbin on a braiding machine that holds one group of strands or filaments consisting of a specific number of ends. The strands are wound side by side on the carrier bobbin and lie parallel in the finished braid. BEND LOSS—A form of increased attenuation caused by (a) having an optical fiber curved around a restrictive radius of curvature or (b) micro bends caused by minute distortions in the fiber imposed by externally induced perturbations. Also refers to the connectors and straps used to ground equipment. wire or connector in addition to the normal BORDER LIGHT CABLE—Same as stage cable but more than two conductors. Type BORE HOLE CABLE—Power and/or communications cable suspended down a vertically drilled hole to equipment underground. 262 . The carrier revolves during braiding operations. BER—Bit error rate. Used extensively in automobiles and aircraft to prevent static buildup. BAND MARKING—A continuous circumferential band applied to a conductor at BANDWIDTH—The width of a communications channel. relative to a specific number of bits received. Also. curvature of a bent wire or cable. BEDDING—A layer of material applied to a cable immediately below the armoring. BIMETALLIC WIRE—A wire formed of two different metals joined together (not alloyed). BONDED CABLE—Cable consisting of preinsulated conductors or multiconductor components laid in parallel and bonded into a flat cable.Glossary BALANCED LINE—A cable having two identical conductors with the same electromagnetic characteristics in relation to other conductors and to ground. A channel’s bandwidth is a major factor in determining how much information it can carry. half the diameter of a drum around which a wire is wound. BRAID ENDS—The number of strands used to make up one carrier. BRAZING—The joining of ends of two wires. generators are also used to raise the level of a DC line. BINDING POST—A device for clamping or holding electrical conductors in a rigid position. (2) A form placed around the wire termination of a multicontact connector to contain the liquid potting compound before it hardens. BONDING—The method used to produce good electrical contact between metallic parts of any device. or groups of wires with nonferrous filler metal at temperatures above 800°F (427°C). The manufacturer or industry standards specify the minimum bending radius for a cable. SO cable is often used. or layers of jacket on a cable. plated or coated wire. The crest value of a lightning impulse voltage of a specified wave shape that a high-voltage cable or termination is required to withstand under specified conditions. BIT—Abbreviation for binary digit. or hertz). BREAKING STRENGTH—The maximum force that a conductor can withstand when tested under tension to rupture. BITS PER SECOND (bps)—The number of bits of data transmitted through a digital process control cable in one second. BELTED-TYPE CABLE—Multiple conductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors. rods. BINDER—A tape or thread used for holding assembled cable components in place. BALLAST—A device designed to stabilize current flow. BRAIDING MACHINE—Machine used to apply braids to wire and cable and to BRANCH JOINT—A cable joint used for connecting one or more cables to a produce braided sleeving and braids for tying or lacing purposes. A unit of information equal to one binary decision BREAKDOWN (PUNCTURE)—A disruptive discharge through insulation. BOOT—(1) Protective coating over a cable. The term booster is also applied to antenna preamplifiers. BIRDCAGE—The undesirable unwinding of a stranded cable. It can include wire with a steel core. usually expressed as a number referenced to a negative power of 10. BELDFOIL—Belden trademark for a highly effective electrostatic shield using BELT—Layers of insulation on a conductor. BIL—Basic impulse level. BNC is said to be an abbreviation for BayonetNeill-Concelman. BASEBAND—A signaling technique in which the signal is transmitted in its original form and not changed by modulation. axis of the cable being shielded. Transformers are usually employed to boost AC voltages. jacketing or insulation.

ability. used mainly in referring to parallel BRIDGED TAP—Multiple appearances of the same cable pair at several distribution points (e. Gauge and the legal standard of Great Britain for all wires. crush-resistant polymer tube applied over optical fibers BUILDING WIRE—Commercial wires used in the building trades because they are independently tested and listed in the National Electric Code. higher frequencies have greater loss than lower frequencies and follow a logarithmic function. CABLE ASSEMBLY—A cable assembly is a cable with plugs or connectors on each end for a specific purpose. to provide mechanical protection. data and video. B and S—Brown and Sharpe wire gauge—same as AWG. CABLE CLAMP—A device used to give mechanical support to the wire bundle or cable at the rear of a plug or receptacle. BROADBAND LAN—LAN that uses FDM (frequency division multiplexing) to divide C C—Symbol for capacitance and Celsius. a telephone party line). now known as SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber). BRIDGE—A circuit that measures by balancing four impedances through which the same current flows: • Wheatstone measures resistance • Kelvin measures low resistance • Schering measures capacitance. BUTT WRAP—Tape wrapped around an object or conductor in an edge-to-edge condition. dissipation factor BUSHING—A mechanical device used as a lining for an opening to prevent abrasion to wire and cable. BUTYL RUBBER—Synthetic rubber formerly used for electrical insulating purposes. BUNA—A synthetic rubber insulation of styrene butadiene. an 8-bit quantity of information. or against a stop.” BUS—A network topology in which a signal line is shared by a number of nodes using rules to control traffic on the bus. dielectric constant • Wien measures capacitance. THW and THHN wire. RHW. also generally referred to in data communications as an octet or character. CABLE CORE BINDER—A wrapping of tapes or cords around the conductors of a CABLE FILLER—The material used in multiple-conductor cables to occupy the interstices formed by the assembly of the insulated conductors. nitrogen and oil are the most common fluids. The cable attenuation is a function of frequency. In some designs. thus forming a cable core.. Many power and communications applications using numerous types and sizes have been developed using buoyancy. dissipation factor. BSL (Basic Switching impulse insulation Level)—The crest value of a switching impulse voltage of a specified wave shape in which a high-voltage cable termination is required to withstand under specified conditions. CABLE—A cable may be a small number of large conductors or a large number BROADCAST—The act of sending a signal to all possible receivers in a system. It may be formed in various configurations. in the center of a splice. PRESSURIZED—A cable having a pressurized fluid (gas or oil) as part of the insulation. BUFFER TUBE—A loose. BURIED CABLE—A cable installed directly in the earth without use of underground conduit. CABLE. media type and cable length. contained within a single protective covering or housing. BUNCH STRAND—A conductor arrangement in which all individual wires are BUNCHER—A machine that twists wires together in a random arrangement. CABLE CLAMP ADAPTER—A mechanical adapter that attaches to the rear of a plug or receptacle to allow the attachment of a cable clamp. CABLE LOSS—The amount of RF (radio frequency) signal attenuated by coaxial cable transmission. New British Standard (NBS). BUTT SPLICE—A splice wherein two wire ends butt against each other. BELTED—A multiconductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors.Glossary BREAKOUT—The point at which a conductor or group of conductors breaks out from a multiconductor cable to complete circuits at various points along the main cable. usually color coded and with a protective overall jacket.g. BUOYANT CABLE—Originally military type MIL-C-2401 with built-in floatation CABLE JOINT—A completely insulated splice. a single physical channel into a number of smaller independent frequency channels. of small conductors cabled together. BUS-BAR WIRE—Uninsulated tinned copper wire used as a common lead. Also known as Standard Wire Gauge (SWG). CABLE CORE—The portion of an insulated cable lying under a protective covering. semiconductor capacity and data storage. English Legal Standard and Imperial Wire Guide. was known as GR-S. multiple-conductor cable used to hold them together. CABLE. The different channels created by FDM can be used to transfer different forms of information: voice. BX—A common type of armored building wire rated 600 volts. the insulating material may also serve as the protective covering. Cable losses are usually calculated for the highest frequency carried on the cable. such as types RHH. BYTE—Generally. Also called “direct burial cable. BUFFER—A protective coating in intimate contact with an optical fiber. twisted in the same direction without regard for geometrical arrangement. or group of insulated splices. For coaxial cable. 263 . BRITISH STANDARD WIRE GAUGE—A modification of the Birmingham Wire data transfer.

CCW—Continuously corrugated and welded.Glossary CABLE SHEATH—The protective covering applied to cables. CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLENE (CSP)—A rubbery polymer used for CI CABLE—Circuit Integrity cable. Carl Concelman. converting upstream (toward the head-end) signals into downstream signals (away from the head-end). including shield. An optional rating for UL Listed cable types that meet the two-hour fire survival requirements of UL Standard 2196. CAPACITANCE. such as an electrolytic cell. (2) The woven CATHODE—(1) The negative electrode through which current leaves a nonmetallic CATHODIC PROTECTION—Reduction or prevention of corrosion by making the insulations and jackets. Refers to the use of a coaxial or fiber cable to CATV CABLE—General term for all cables used for community antenna TV service CB—Citizens band. consisting of CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE—A written statement normally generated by a quality control department that states that the product being shipped meets a particular specification. It is measured in ohms and is equal to 1/(2 p f C) where f is the frequency in Hz and C is the capacitance in farads. CARRIER—(1) An AC electrical signal that is used to carry information. metal to be protected the cathode in a direct current circuit. (2) The positive pole of a storage battery. resulting in a desirable reduction of dielectric constant. which results in a pickup of external noise energy.. UNBALANCED-TO-GROUND—An inequality of capacitance between the ground capacitance of the conductors of a pair. Also called a circuit facility. CHANNEL—(1) A path for electrical transmission. and feeders. type of dielectric and spacing between the conducting surfaces. 264 . When terminated in its characteristic impedance. in a broadband LAN) used to transmit one information signal at a time. over a conductor. usually from power transmission lines. (3) A spindle. individual closed cells of inert gas suspended in a polyethylene medium. A type of two-way radio communication. tube. capacitance is determined by the area of the surface. CABLING—The method by which a group of insulated conductors is mechanically assembled (or twisted together). (2) A specific and discrete bandwidth allocation in the radio frequency spectrum (for example. Also called received line signal detector (RLSD) and data carrier detect (DCD). cable or circuit. CAPACITIVE COUPLING—Electrical interaction between two conductors caused by the potential difference between them.I. CAPACITANCE—Capacitance is that property of a system of conductors and CCTV—Closed-circuit television. CFR—Code of Federal Regulations. distribution and house drops. CAPACITANCE.g. DIRECT—The capacitance measured from one conductor to another conductor through a single insulating layer. CELLULAR POLYETHYLENE—Expanded or “foam” polyethylene. conductor. spool. modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. link or path. An RS-232 control signal (on Pin 8) that indicates that the local CENELEC—Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique. CHEMICAL STRIPPING—Removal of insulation by chemical means. One of the services often found on broadband networks. CAPACITANCE. CERTIFIED TEST REPORT (CTR)—A report reflecting actual test data on the CAPACITANCE. C is named after CAD—Computer-aided design. or bobbin (on a braiding machine) containing yarn or wire. cable shipped. UNBALANCED—An inequality of capacitance between the wires of two or more pairs that result in a transfer of unwanted signal from one pair to others. element of a braid consisting of one or more ends (strands) which creates the interlaced effect. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE—An electrical characteristic of transmission lines. dielectrics that permits the storage of electricity when potential differences exist between the conductors. reflections from the end of a line are minimized. Previously manufactured by E. e. short circuited to ground. MUTUAL—The capacitance between two conductors (typically of a pair) with all other conductors. C CONNECTOR—A bayonet-locking connector for coax. CATV—Community Antenna Television. One of the European Union’s key electrical standards bodies. FPLP-CI. employed as a braid. distortion and delay distortion to within specific limits. line. CHANNEL TRANSLATOR—Device used in broadband LANs to increase carrier frequency. A type of cable armor. capacitance of a capacitor. C CONDITIONING—A type of line conditioning that controls attenuation. DuPont under the trade name of Hypalon. CD—Carrier detect. transmit television or other signals to subscribers from a single head-end location. CAPACITIVE REACTANCE—The opposition to alternating current due to the CAPACITOR—Two conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric material. The CAPILLARY ACTION—Movement of a liquid along a small interstice due to surface tension. Tests are normally conducted by the quality control department and show that the product being shipped meets the required test specifications. CIC CABLE—Circuit Integrity in Conduit cable. CAM—Computer-aided manufacture. CABLE SUPPORT—A device to mount a cable on a supporting member. A generic term for cables that meet CIGARETTE WRAP—Tape insulation wrapped longitudinally instead of spirally the two-hour fire survival requirements of UL Standard 2196 when installed in metallic conduit per UL category FHIT.

The direction of lay is reversed in successive layers and generally with an increase in length of lay for successive layers. circuit) between calling and receiving stations is established on demand for exclusive use by the connected parties until the connection is released. a twisting of all conductors about a “common axis” to result in smaller diameter constructions. coaxials. such as copperweld (copper over steel) or alum-o-weld (aluminum over steel). CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically-laid wires. CONCENTRICITY—The measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the circular insulation. around which are laid one or more helical layers of such members. ROPE-LAY CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed of a bunch-stranded or a concentric-stranded member or members. CONDUCTANCE—The ability of a conductor to carry an electric charge. CONVENTIONAL CONCENTRIC CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically-laid wires. See COATED WIRE. above audio frequencies. tracers. CONDUCTOR—A material suitable for carrying an electric current. all layers having a common length of lay. The test specimen is cooled in a low-temperature box to a specified temperature. CIRCUIT TRACING—Locating or identifying a specific conductive path. quads. direction of lay being reversed in successive layers. clad.g. better insulating. Tends to result in greater susceptibility to electromagnetic and electrostatic interference.Glossary CIRCUIT SWITCHING—A switching technique in which an information path (i. often at high speeds in line with insulating equipment.. the size of a wire increases. etc. usually filled with air. e. each type of wire being plain. but more expensive than open cell material. COIL EFFECT—The inductive effect exhibited by a spiral wrapped shield. ideally creating a cold weld. The ratio of the current flow to the potential difference causing the flow. as a central wire. clad wire is any metal covered with a relatively heavy coating of different metal. PARALLEL CORE CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central core of parallel-laid wires surrounded by one layer of helically-laid wires. triples. By grounding at either end rather than both ends (usually grounded at source) one can reduce this interference. Several types COMPACT ROUND CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more preshaped (nonround) helically-laid wires and formed into final shape by rolling. drawing or other means. zinc or other alloy by a dip bath and wipe process. COMMON MODE NOISE—Noise caused by a difference in ground potential. CLAD WIRE—Different from coated wire. CIRCULAR MIL (CM)—A term universally used to define cross-sectional areas of conductors. Generally harder. See TINNED WIRE. etc. CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR—A layer of uninsulated wires twisted around a central wire with subsequent layers spirally wrapped around the inner layers to form a single conductor. conductor manufactured to a diameter not more than 3 percent below the nominal diameter of a noncompressed conductor of the same cross-sectional area. The reciprocal of resistance. COMPOSITE (CLAD) WIRE—A wire having a core of one metal with a fused outer COMPOSITE CONDUCTOR—A conductor consisting of two or more types of wire. pairs. are as follows: COLD BEND—Generally refers to a test to determine cable or wire characteristics COLD-DRAWING—Reducing the cross section by pulling through a die or dies. centered inside a metallic tube or shield. 265 . CLOSED CELL—Foamed or cellular material with intact cell walls. shell of a different metal. EQUILAY CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by more than one layer of helically-laid wires. or coated-stranded together to operate mechanically and electrically as a single conductor. approximately 8 to 10 percent below the nominal diameter of a noncompact conductor of the same crosssectional area. COLD FLOW—Permanent deformation of the insulation due to mechanical pressure COLOR CODE—A color system for wire or circuit identification by use of solid colors. As the number of circular mils increase. (not due to heat softening). braids. COMMON AXIS CABLING—In multiconductor constructions.. separated by a dielectric material and usually covered by an insulating jacket.e. CONDUCTIVITY—Capacity of a material to carry electrical current–usually expressed as a percentage of copper conductivity (copper being 100 percent). COMPRESSED STRANDED CONDUCTOR—A conventional concentric COATED WIRE—Any metal covered by a relatively thin coating of a different metal COAXIAL CABLE—A cylindrical transmission line comprised of a conductor COHERENT SOURCE—A fiber optic light source that emits a very narrow. COMPACT STRANDED CONDUCTOR—A unidirectional or conventional concentric conductor manufactured to a specified diameter. COMBINATION STRANDED CONDUCTOR—A conventional concentric conductor in which the wires in the outer layer are larger in diameter than the wires in the inner layer or layers and the diameters of all wires are within plus and minus 5 percent of the nominal wire diameter for the same size noncombination stranded conductor. such as tin. COMPRESSION LUG OR SPLICE—A connection installed by compressing the connector onto the strand. at a temperature lower than the recrystallization temperature. COMPOSITE CABLE—A cable containing more than one gauge size or a variety of circuit types. surface printing. especially at low temperatures. It is an area equal to the area of a circle 1/1000 of an inch in diameter. The wire specimen is then wound around a mandrel after which it is examined for cracks or other defects caused by bending at low temperatures. unidirectional beam of light of one wavelength (monochromatic).

A jacketing compound sold by Dow Chemical under the trademark Tyrin. CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENE—A dielectric material used for insulating and jacketing. dependent upon resistance of the soil at the tower base. also known as back EMF. CROSS-LINKED—Intermolecular bonds created between long-chain thermoplastic polymers by chemical or electron bombardment means. such as additional components. sheath or armor. for copper-clad steel conductor. Buried counterpoise wire is connected to overhead ground wires and towers. core concentricity and tolerances in connectors when two fibers are spliced together. (cross-linking) of wire insulating and jacketing materials. CONNECTOR—A metallic device of suitable electric conductance and mechanical strength. Also referred to as CV cured. caused by a flow of current in the coil. COUPLING—The transfer of energy between two or more cables or components COUPLING LOSS—Signal losses in an optical fiber due to small differences in numerical aperture. Synonymous with Copperweld. all layers having a common direction of lay. DELTA—Interconnection of three electrical equipment windings in a DELTA (triangular) configuration. core diameter. CORONA RESISTANCE—The time that the insulation will withstand a specified level of ionization that does not result in the complete breakdown of the insulation. a component or assembly of components over which other UNILAY CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded materials are applied. CPE—Chlorinated polyethylene. COPPERWELD—Trademark of Copperweld Steel Co. Also referred to one coulomb equals one ampere-second. A television-like picture tube used in terminals. Also referred to as “XLP” or “XLPE. Connectors usually fall into one of the following types: • Solder • Welded • Mechanical • Compression or indent CONTACT—The part of a connector that carries the electrical current. or as a terminal connector on a single conductor. by more than one layer of helically-laid wires. The higher percentage of coverage. CRT is commonly used as a synonym for the CRT terminal. CRT WIRE—High-voltage lead wire for energizing cathode-ray tubes. COPPER-CLAD STEEL—Steel with a coating of copper welded to it before drawing as opposed to copper-plated. CORD SET—Portable cords fitted with a connector at one or both ends. The properties of the resulting thermosetting material are usually improved. by soldering. brazing. used to splice the ends of two or more cable conductors. The term is loosely used to also include coupling at higher frequencies. CORROSION—The destruction of the surface of a metal by chemical reaction. CONDUCTOR CORE—The center strand or member about which one or more layers CONDUCTOR SHIELD—A conducting layer applied to make the conductor a CORONA—A discharge due to ionization of the air around a conductor due to a potential gradient exceeding a certain critical value. Conductors are sometimes spliced without connectors. with increase in length of lay for each successive layer. the transparent glass or plastic section with a high refractive index through which the light travels by internal reflections. of a circuit. CORD—A flexible insulated cable. COULOMB—The derived SI unit for quantity of electricity or electrical charge: smooth surface in intimate contact with the insulation. COUNTER EMF—The voltage opposing the applied voltage and the current in a coil. shield. CONTACT SIZE—The largest size wire that can be used with the specific contact. COVERAGE—The calculated percentage that defines the completeness with which a metal braid covers the underlying surface. Also. See PARTIAL DISCHARGE. all layers having a common length and direction of lay. CROSSTALK—A type of interference caused by audio frequencies from one circuit different monomers. similar to UL in the United States. CONTINUOUS VULCANIZATION—Simultaneous extrusion and vulcanization CONTRAHELICAL—Wire strands spiraling in an opposite direction than the preceding layer within a wire or cable. COUNTERPOISE WIRE—Bare copper wire used to offset the impact of lightning surges along high-voltage overhead lines and around the base of towers. Also known as splicing loss and transfer loss. CONDUIT—A tube or trough for protecting electrical wires or cables. as raceway. the diameter of the engagement end of the pin. CONNECTION. sometimes called Extruded Strand Shield (ESS). CSA (CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION)—Standards body for Canada. or welding.” being coupled into an adjacent circuit. of wires or members are laid helically to form a concentric-lay or rope-lay conductor. WYE—Interconnection of three electrical equipment windings in WYE (star) configuration. CONNECTION. Numerous methods of application are used.Glossary UNIDIRECTIONAL CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by more than one layer of helically-laid wires. the greater the protection against external interference. CRT—Cathode-ray tube. CONTROLLED IMPEDANCE CABLE—A package of two or more insulated COPOLYMER—A compound resulting from the polymerization of two conductors where impedance measurements between respective conductors are kept essentially constant throughout the entire length. CORE—(1) In cables. CONTROL CABLE—A cable used for remote control operation of any type of electrical power equipment. (2) In fiber optics. CONTINUITY CHECK—A test performed on a length of finished wire or cable to determine if an electrical current flows. 266 .

CURRENT DENSITY—The current per cross sectional area. DC RESISTANCE—See RESISTANCE. The standard unit used to express the relative strength of two signals. CURL—The degree to which a wire tends to form a circle after removal from a spool. electrostatic energy stored per unit volume for unit potential gradient. including reversal of the flow. DIELECTRIC HEATING—The heating of an insulating material when placed in a radio-frequency field. CURRENT—The rate of transfer of electricity. Delay skew is caused primarily because twisted pairs are designed to have different twists per foot (lay lengths). A type of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE). A type of brominated flame retardant sometimes used in wire and cable and other products. It is expressed as a ratio. DETECTOR—A fiber optic device that picks up light from the fiber and converts the information into an electrical signal. temperature and pressure required for curing. DEMAND—(1) The measure of the maximum load of a utility’s customer over a short period of time. DERATING FACTOR—A factor used to reduce the current carrying capacity of a wire when used in environments other than that for which the value was established. A type of industrial automation system in which the processors are distributed in various locations though out the facility. to a change in frequency. the capacitance of polyethylene is 2. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT—The property of an insulation which determines the D D/A—Digital to analog. 267 . ALTERNATING (AC)—An electric current that periodically reverses direction of electron flow. DIELECTRIC—An insulating (nonconducting) medium. CURE—To change the properties of a polymeric material into a more stable. CURRENT. Zero dBmV is equal to 1 millivolt across an impedance of 75 ohms. DIELECTRIC LOSS—The power dissipated in a dielectric as the result of the friction produced by molecular motion when an alternating electric field is applied. CYCLE—The complete sequence. the equipment that provides the functions required to establish. CURING CYCLE—The time. a rate of one coulomb/second. Delay skew could cause data transmitted over one channel to arrive out of sync with data over another channel. It may be constant or pulsating as long as their movement is in the same direction. DCS—Distributed control system. CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY—The maximum current an insulated conductor can safely carry without exceeding its insulation and jacket temperature limitations. CV—Continuous vulcanization. of an alternating electric current.Glossary CSA Certified—A product that has been tested and found to comply with applicable Canadian standards. caused by internal losses during the rapid polarization reversal of molecules in the material. DAC—Digital to analog converter. images and video. usable condition by the use of heat. The charging current will be 90° out of phase with the voltage. The unit of current is the ampere. while that for polyethylene is 2. synonymous with modem. radiation or reaction with chemical additives. Normally the failure of an insulation because of excessive voltage. Therefore. In common usage.) DCE—Data communications equipment. DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN—Any change in the properties of a dielectric that causes it to become conductive. (see CURRENT. The number of cycles in a given unit of time (generally a second) is called the frequency of the current. When referring to a single signal measured at two places in a transmission system. text. Same as ampacity. CUT-THROUGH RESISTANCE—The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure without damage. DCL—Data carrier level. determined by the capacitance of the cable. CSPE—A jacketing compound based on DuPont’s chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon). DELAY SKEW—The difference between the propagation delay of any two pairs CURRENT. CT—Cable Tray. Sometimes abbreviated CSP. A device that converts a digital input signal to an DATA—Digitally represented information including voice. It is also referred to as specific inductive capacity or permittivity. CURRENT. (2) The load integrated over a specified time interval.3. dB—Decibel. DIRECT (DC)—Electrical current whose electrons flow in one direction only. A cable marking that indicates a cable is suitable for use in a cable tray. DecaBDE—Decabromodiphenyl ether. DIELECTRIC DISPERSION—The change in relative capacitance due analog output signal carrying equivalent information. The level at any point in a system expressed in dBs above or below a 1 millivolt/75 ohm standard is said to be the level in decibel-millivolts or dBmV. CHARGING—The current needed to bring the cable up to voltage. Usually in units of amperes/square meter. maintain and terminate a connection as well as the signal conversion required for communications between the DTE and the telephone line or data circuit. An insulation and jacketing curing process. it expresses either a gain or loss in power between the input and output devices. “K” for air is 1.0. dBmV—Decibel millivolt.3 times that of air. from NEC Article 392. within the same cable sheath. DIRECT. DC—Direct current.

DUPLEX CABLE—A cable composed of two insulated single conductor cables twisted together. a measure of the center of a conductor’s (root-mean-square) value of an alternating voltage. DIRECT CAPACITANCE—The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer. one for transmit and one for receive. DISTURBED CONDUCTOR—A conductor that receives energy generated by the field of another conductor or an external source such as a transformer. DIN—Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN). usually expressed as a gradient in V/mil (volts per mil). designated as left-hand or right-hand. DISTORTION FACTOR—An undesirable change in waveform as a signal passes location with respect to the circular cross section of the insulation. the representation of information in discrete binary form. A voltage higher than normal operating voltage is applied across the insulation. Inductive coupling. Dissipation factor is quite sensitive to contamination and deterioration of insulation.Glossary DIELECTRIC STRENGTH—The maximum voltage that an insulation can withstand without breaking down. The cotangent of the phase angle between voltage and current in a reactive component. to a dwelling. magnetic field. as opposed to the analog representation of information in variable. DISPERSION—The variation of the refractive index of an optical fiber with wavelength. causing light of different wavelengths to travel at different velocities in the fiber. DISTURBING CONDUCTOR—A conductor carrying energy whose field(s) create spurious energy in another conductor. DIELECTRIC STRENGTH TESTING—A common test performed on electrical DIGITAL—Refers to communications procedures. techniques and equipment by which information is encoded as either a binary “1” or “0”. DISTRIBUTION CABLE—(1) In a CATV system. products that is often called hi-pot testing. but continuous. the transmission cable from the distribution cable DSR—Data Set Ready. the transmission cable from the distribution amplifier to the drop cable. DRAIN WIRE—An uninsulated wire in contact with a shield throughout its length. DUPLEX—Two-way data transmission on a four-wire transmission cable. in which the wires of a conductor run over the top of the conductor as they recede from an observer looking along the axis of the conductor. Elevator lighting and control cable. DIRECTIONAL COUPLER—A passive device used in a cable system to divide or combine unidirectional RF power sources. ELECTROMAGNETIC—Referring to the combined electric and magnetic fields caused by electron motion through conductors. (2) In an electric power system. DIP COATING—An insulating coating applied to the conductor by passing the conductor through an applicator containing liquid insulating medium. provides lowvoltage service to the customer. pulling the metal through a die or series of dies to reduce diameter to a specified size. DROP CABLE—In a CATV system. An RS-232 modem interface control signal (sent from the DUAL CABLE—A two-cable system in broadband LANs in which coaxial cables provides two physical paths for transmission. instead of dividing the capacity of a single cable. DOWNLOAD—The process of loading software into the nodes of a network from one node or device over the network media. DTR—Data terminal ready. E E—(1) Symbol for voltage. Polyethylene for example has a dielectric strength of about 800 V/mil. DIRECT BURIAL CABLE—A cable installed directly in the earth. Expressed as a percentage of displacement of one circle within the other. DTE—Data terminal equipment. DIRECTION OF LAY—The lateral direction. through a device. DUCT—An underground or overhead tube for carrying electrical conductors. German standards body. One of the control signals on a standard RS-232-C connector. waveforms. EDDY CURRENT—Circulating currents induced in conducting materials by varying magnetic fields. DISSIPATION FACTOR—Energy lost when voltage is applied across an insulation. DTE to the modem on pin 20) that indicates that the DTE is ready for data transmission and which requests that the modem be connected to the telephone circuit. ECCENTRICITY—Like concentricity. ECTFE—Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene. discontinuous in time. It indicates whether the data communications equipment is connected and ready to start handshaking control signals so that transmission can start. (2) A UL cable type. Usually used to represent direct voltage or the effective EARTH—British terminology for zero-reference ground. ELECTROMAGNET—A device consisting of a ferromagnetic core and a coil that produces appreciable magnetic effects only when an electric current exists in the coil. DRAWING—In wire manufacturing. Halar is a Solvay Solexis trademark for this material. used for terminating the shield. This test can increase product reliability by detecting faulty workmanship. Also known as power factor. ELASTOMER—Any material that will return to its original dimensions after being stretched or distorted. Used as an insulation or jacketing material. DUOFOIL—Belden trademark for a shield in which metallic foil is applied to both sides of a supporting plastic film. ELECTROMAGNETIC COUPLING—The transfer of energy by means of a varying 268 .

P-propylene. Often referred to as a polyolefin.16 attocoulomb. A static electric charge. the system. ENDOSMOSIS—The penetration of water into a cable by osmosis. etc. Designations for a synthetic rubber based upon the hydrocarbon ethylene propylene. Elevator lighting and control cable with thermoplastic insulation. zero halogen. printers or other devices using nonlinear. The federal regulatory agency responsible for EPDM—Ethylene propylene diene monomer.) ELECTRO-TINNED—Electrolytic process of tinning wire using pure tin. from a transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring pair measured at the far-end. or power as integral members of a finished cable. the immersion time is long. ELONGATION—The fractional increase in the length of a material stressed in tension. EXIT ANGLE—The angle between the output radiation vectors and the axis of the fiber or fiber bundle. A polymer often used for the jacket in low smoke. flame-retardant and moisture-retardant finish. ELEXAR—Shell trademark for a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE).3. EPROM—Erasable programmable read only memory. EP. coaxial. fluorescent lights. charge = 0. External signals that disrupt the data being EXPANDED DIAMETER—Diameter of shrink tubing as supplied. SI unit is the volt. 300 V. ET—A UL cable type. EPR. A transmission control character used to indicate the end of transmission. ELECTRO-OSMOSIS—The movement of fluids through dielectrics because of electric current. (ELFEXT is FEXT adjusted to discount insertion loss. EVA—Ethylene vinyl acetate. Capacitive coupling. ENDS—In braiding. ELECTROSTATIC COUPLING—The transfer of energy by means of a varying electrostatic field. Inc. Elevator lighting and control cable with thermoset insulation. performs testing. the tubing will shrink to its extruded diameter. personal computers. flame retardant cables. EMBOSSING—Identification by means of thermal indentation that leaves raised lettering on the sheath material of cable. EMF—Electromotive force. May have steel supporting strand in the center. EMERGENCY OVERLOAD—A situation in which larger than normal currents are carried through a cable or wire for a limited period of time. these external signals emanate from universal motors with brushes. EOT—End of transmission character. for example. It has a minimum conductivity of 99. EMA—Electrical moisture absorption. ETL—Electrical Testing Laboratories. current to flow in a circuit. or electricity at rest. ELFEXT—Equal-level far-end crosstalk. ELECTRON VOLT—A measure of the energy gained by an electron passing through ELECTRONIC WIRE AND CABLE—Wire or cable used in electronic applications. Tefzel is DuPont’s trademark for this material. with the object being to accelerate failure due to moisture in the insulation. Permits exposed runs between cable tray and utilization equipment. simulates buried cable. accelerated by DC voltage on the cable. aggravated and 269 . EQUILAY CONDUCTOR—See CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR. EPDM—E-ethylene. A force that tends to cause electrons to flow. Formerly called Open Wiring rated. D-diene. Typically. ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (EMF)—Pressure or voltage. ITC ELECTROSTATIC—Pertaining to static electricity. relative to the received signal level measured on that same pair.9 percent. ENERGIZE—To apply voltage to a circuit or device in order to activate it. ETHERNET—A baseband frame-based networking local area network (LAN) communication standard. switch-mode power supplies. When heated EXTERNAL WIRING—Electronic wiring that interconnects subsystems within EXTRUDED CABLE—Cable that is insulated by applying insulation material in a continuous extrusion process. the number of essentially parallel wires or threads on a carrier. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates these emissions in the U. A water tank test during which sample cables are subjected to voltage and water maintained at rated temperature. EPR—Ethylene propylene rubber. three braids. Referred to as ACR-F (insertion loss to crosstalk ratio far-end) in the ANSI/TIA-568-B. The force that causes ELECTRON—An elementary particle containing the smallest negative electric charge.Glossary ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CABLES—Dual purpose composite cables made up of support strands capable of supporting predetermined loads together with communication.2-Addendum 10 draft. Standardized as IEEE 802.S. ER RATED—Exposed Run. ETCHED WIRE—A process applied to Teflon wire in which the wire is passed through a sodium bath to create a rough surface to allow epoxy resin to bond to the Teflon. which may include one or more texts and any associated message headings. ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD)—An instantaneous flow of an electrical charge on a nonconductor through a conductor to ground. M-monomer. similar to UL. An independent testing laboratory that ETPC—Abbreviation for electrolytic tough pitch copper. EMI—Electromagnetic interference. EPM. an electric field produced by one volt. An optional UL rating on UL Listed cable Types TC. EPA—Environmental Protection Agency. Diameter = 1 femtometer. ETFE—Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene. EO—A UL cable type. transmitted on the local area network or electronic device being operated. A measure of the unwanted signal coupling and PLTC that meet the same crush and impact requirements as metal clad (Type MC) cables. One of the dominant LAN technologies. keeping and improving the quality of our living environment–mainly air and water.

an exact copy. 18 AWG–16 AWG. FLOATING—Refers to a circuit that has no electrical connection to ground. Often used as a shield material in cables. The process is continuous and uses rubber. Some filling compounds may also serve as the insulation. neoprene or a variety of plastic compounds. FARAD—A unit of capacitance when a difference of potential of 1 volt produces a FATIGUE RESISTANCE—Resistance to metal crystallization. FOAMED INSULATION—Insulations having a cellular structure. Common ones include Teflon. GROUND—A fault to ground. FM—Frequency modulation. transit times of various modes (a mode is one ray of light). transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring pair measured at the far-end. Kynar and Halar. FIELD TESTS—Tests that may be made on a cable system after installation as an acceptance or proof test. or. (3) A substance used to promote or facilitate fusion. as opposed to limpness that is bending due to the cable’s own weight. This is done so that the finished cable will be round. more technically. which leads to conductors or wires breaking during flexing. A technology that uses light as an information carrier. FLUOROPOLYMER—A class of polymers used as insulating and jacketing materials. A cross section of the finished cable approximates the figure “eight. FLAT CABLE—A cable with two essentially flat surfaces. like IEEE 400. Transmission in two directions simultaneously. 14 AWG to 2 AWG. FAULT. Fluorinated ethylene propylene insulated wire with FEXT—Far-end crosstalk. (2) The rate of flow of energy across or through a surface. liquid insulator. bidirectional simultaneous two-way communications. FILLING COMPOUND—A dielectric material poured or injected into a splice housing or cable to prevent the entry of water. FLEXIBILITY—The ease with which a cable may be bent. crush-resistant cylinder applied over individual fibers to provide mechanical protection. Various types of cables are available depending on the type of flexing required. commonly used in soldering. Fiber optic cables (light guides) are a direct replacement for conventional cable and wire pairs. FDX—Full duplex. FIBER DISPERSION—Pulse spreading in an optical fiber caused by differing FIBER OPTICS—Transmission of energy by light through glass fibers. FLAMMABILITY—The measure of a material’s ability to support combustion. FLAT CONDUCTOR—A wire having a rectangular cross section as opposed to a round or square conductor. Various standards with test recommendations exist.” FILLED CABLE—A cable construction in which the cable core is filled with a material that will prevent moisture from entering or passing through the cable. FINE STRANDED WIRE—Stranded wire with component strands of 36 AWG or smaller. Teflon is DuPont’s trademark for this material. Also called a buffer tube. In general. FEPB—A UL cable type. FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)—An ANSI-defined token-passing FLAME RESISTANCE—The ability of a material to not propagate flame once the heat source is removed. continuous sheet of metal. 90°C dry/damp or 200°C dry maximum operating temperature. A measure of the unwanted signal coupling from a FFH-2—A UL type of heat-resistant rubber-covered fixture wire with flexible stranding. glass braid. FIELD COIL—A suitable insulated winding mounted on a field pole to magnetize it. FCC—Federal Communications Commission. FLEX-LIFE—The measurement of the ability of a conductor or cable to withstand repeated bending. the fibers are immune to electrical interference. FILLER—Fillers are used in multiconductor cables that occupy the interstices formed by the assembled conductors. FLEXIBLE—That quality of a cable or cable component that allows for bending under the influence of an outside force. FIBER TUBING—A loose. 600 V rating. The glass-based transmission cable occupies far less physical volume for an equivalent transmission capacity. Filling compounds may require heating or mixing prior to filling. FOIL—A thin. A modulation technique in which the carrier frequency is shifted by an amount proportional to the value of the modulating signal. Tefzel. ring using fiber optic media to attain a 100 Mbps transmission rate. The deviation of the carrier frequency determines the signal content of the message. The farad is a very large unit and much smaller units. FIELD MOLDED SPLICE—A joint in which the solid dielectric joint insulation is FLUX—(1) The lines of force which make up an electrostatic field. 75°C maximum operating temperature. usually specified as expected total number of cycles before failure.Glossary EXTRUSION—A method of applying insulation to a conductor or jacketing to a cable. FEP—Fluorinated ethylene propylene. FLASHOVER—A disruptive discharge around or over the surface of a solid or FLAT BRAID—A woven braid of tinned copper strands rolled flat at the time of manufacture to a specified width. fused and cured thermally at the job site. FIGURE 8 CABLE—An aerial cable configuration in which the conductors and the steel strands that supports the cable are integrally jacketed. like the microfarad (µF) or picofarad (pF) are more commonly used. 270 . displacement of one coulomb in a capacitor. finer stranding gives greater flexibility. F FACSIMILE—The remote reproduction of graphic material.

HALF DUPLEX—Two-way communications in which data are sent in only one direction at a time. A portable power cable similar to Type G. This cable is intended for use with gas-tube systems for signs. GFCI—Ground fault circuit interrupter. Often used on automated test and measurement equipment in manufacturing environments. fluorine. Also referred to as a spectrum analyzer. See AWG. GUY—A tension wire connected to a tall structure and another fixed object to add strength to the structure. bromine or iodine. (10. G-GC—A UL cable type. Rated 2. in sizes 18-10 AWG copper. FUSED CONDUCTORS—Individual strands of heavily tinned copper wire stranded together and then bonded together by induction heating. One hertz is one cycle per second. 60°C maximum operating temperature when exposed to oil. “F” TYPE CONNECTOR—A low-cost connector used by the TV industry to connect sends and receives data at the same rate. Required by the NEC for some installations. 90°C maximum dry.000. GAS FILLED CABLE—A self-contained pressurized cable in which the pressure GAUGE—A term used to denote the physical size of a wire. GIGA—A numerical prefix denoting one billion (109). GROUND POTENTIAL—Zero potential with respect to the ground or earth. HALOGENATED—Containing halogen atoms such as chlorine. In the U.S.000 cycles per second. forming a metallurgical bond to the base material. UL Listed as single conductor Type GTO-5 (5.000 V). the FCC defines uses for various frequency bands. ground check (GC) conductor to monitor the continuity of the grounding circuit. GROUND CHECK CONDUCTOR (GC)—An insulated conductor commonly used in mining cables to monitor the health of the grounding conductor(s) in the cable. coaxial cable to equipment. GALVANIZED STEEL WIRE—Steel wire coated with zinc. as it enters a metal enclosure. per square centimeter. and interior lighting. The spiral wrapped tape is passed through a sintering oven where the overlaps are fused together. PVC cables after many years in service. 271 . FREQUENCY PLAN—Specification of how the various frequencies available in a communications system are allocated for use. FREQUENCY ANALYZER—An instrument to measure the intensity of various component frequencies from a transmitting source. GLAND—A device used to terminate.000 V) or GTO-15 (15. GTO-10 G G—A UL portable power cable type with thermoset insulation and thermoset fiber reinforced oil-resistant jacket. Generally found to be plasticizer (a component of PVC) contaminated with a copper compound that is green in color. expressed in hertz (Hz).000. medium is an inert gas having access to the insulation. Sometimes called a fitting or a connector. A protective device that detects abnormal current flowing to ground and then interrupts the circuit. GREEN GOOP—A viscous liquid that occasionally oozes from the end of installed FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM)—Method of encoding a carrier wave by varying the frequency of the transmitted signal. Two to five #8 AWG or larger conductors with ground wires.000 V). GAUSS—A unit of magnetic induction (flux density) equal to 1 Maxwell GENERAL PURPOSE INSTRUMENTATION BUS (GPIB)—A protocol standard defined by the IEEE. GROUND CONDUCTOR—A conductor in a transmission cable or line that GROUND FAULT—A type of electrical failure in which current flows to ground. FUSED COATING—A metallic coating that has been melted and solidified. Used up to 1 GHz. FUSED SPIRAL TAPE—A PTFE insulation often used on hook-up wire. outline lighting. FREQUENCY COUNTER—An electronic measuring instrument that precisely counts the number of cycles of a periodic electrical signal during a given time interval. GROUND LOOP—The generation of undesirable current flow within a ground conductor. GROUND PLANE—Expanded copper mesh that is laminated into some flat cable constructions as a shield.000 V. GROUNDED NEUTRAL—The neutral wire that is metallically connected to ground. GTO—Gas tube sign cable. is grounded. GROUND—A voltage reference point that can be the same as earth or chassis ground. but also having a GHz—Gigahertz frequency: 1.Glossary FREQUENCY—The number of cycles per second at which an (electrical) event occurs. FULL DUPLEX—Two-way communications in which each modem simultaneously FUSE WIRE—Wire made from an alloy that melts at a relatively low temperature to open a circuit when over-current conditions occur. seal and/or ground the metallic armor of a cable GND—Common abbreviation for ground. H HALAR—Solvay Solexis trademark for ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE). owing to the circulation currents which originate from a second source of voltage. GANG STRIP—Stripping all or several conductors simultaneously.

have been tied together or pulled into a rubber or plastic sheath. HIGH-TEMPERATURE WIRE AND CABLE—Electrical wire and cables that have maximum operating temperatures of 150°C and higher. These materials can cause damage to human respiratory systems and to electrical equipment. HSJO—A UL thermoset jacketed heater cord type. minimum maximum operating temperature of 90°C. minimum maximum operating temperature of 90°C. HOT MODULUS—Stress at 100 percent elongation after 5 minutes of conditioning at a given temperature (normally 130°C). usually 12 AWG and smaller.000 volts. HEAT SINK—A device that absorbs heat. HL—Hazardous location.5 kV and above. An optional rating for UL Listed Type MC cables. cause fire or explosion as defined in Article 500 of the NEC. types HPD. under tension. For use in dry. etc. HARD-DRAWN WIRE—As applied to aluminum and copper. 300 V rating with two. Only certain UL cable types are allowed to be used in hazardous in accordance with the NEC. HIGH BOND INSULATION—Insulation exhibiting great bond strength to the conductors. Article 501 of the NEC permits Type MC-HL Listed cables to be used in Class I. voltages equal to or greater than approximately 69. frequency of 1 hertz. colored. HERTZ (Hz)—Cycles per second. 300 V rating with two or three 18-12 AWG conductors. HARNESS—An arrangement of wires and cables. HOT STICK—A long insulated stick having a hook at one end that is used to open HOT TIN DIP—A process of passing bare wire through a bath of molten tin to provide a coating. Oil-resistant thermoset insulation and jacket. Identification markings are made by pressing heated tape and marking foil into softened insulation surfaces. spiral stripe applied to a conductor for HELIX—Spiral winding.and high-voltage cables. HPN. HOT STAMPING—Method of alphanumeric coding. energized switchgear. For use in nonhard usage and damp locations. HID—High-intensity discharge. A cycle that occurs once every second has a HF—High frequency. HAZARDOUS LOCATION—An area of ignitable vapors. etc. minimum maximum operating temperature of 90°C. HS. HEAT SHOCK—A test to determine stability of material by sudden exposure to a high temperature for a short period of time. high-voltage equipment. HDTV—High-definition television. or four HV—High voltage. gas and oil igniters. See DIELECTRIC STRENGTH TESTING. or fibers that may HDPE—High-density polyethylene. HSJ. circuit identification. HDX—Half-duplex transmission. Usually Type GTO. HEAT DISTORTION—Distortion or flow of a material or configuration due to the HEAT SEAL—Method of sealing a tape wrap jacket by means of thermal fusion. Division 1 Hazardous Locations. HIGH-VOLTAGE CABLE TERMINATION—A device used for terminating alternating current power cables having laminated or extruded insulation rated 2. HOUSING—A metallic or other enclosure for an insulated splice. which HASH MARK STRIPE—A noncontinuous helical stripe applied to a conductor for identification. HIGH-TENSION CABLES—Generally unshielded high-voltage ignition wires for combustion engines. 272 . The guard band between the forward and reverse directions (180 MHz to 220 MHz) provides isolation from interference. 18-12 AWG conductors. application of heat. usually with many breakouts. HMWPE—High molecular weight polyethylene. HIGH-SPLIT—A broadband cable system in which the bandwidth used to send toward the head-end (reverse direction) is approximately 6 MHz to 180 MHz and the bandwidth used to send from the head-end (forward direction) is approximately 220 MHz to 400 MHz. HYBRID CABLE—Multiconductor cable containing two or more types of components. HENRY—A unit of inductance equal to the inductance of a current changing at the rate of 1 ampere per second inducing a counter electromotive force of 1 volt. HOLDING STRENGTH—Ability of a connector to remain assembled to a cable when HOOK-UP WIRE—Small wires used to hook up instruments or electrical parts. 300 V rating with two. Compare with FULL DUPLEX. nonhard use locations. For use in non-hard usage and damp locations. HEATER CORD—A group of cable types defined in Article 400 of the NEC such as HELICAL STRIPE—A continuous. HPD—A UL portable heater cord type. Oil-resistant thermoset insulation and jacket.Glossary HALOGENS—Chemical elements such as chlorine and bromine that when present in a cable are released when burned. used to interconnect an electric circuit. conductors with thermoset insulation and a cotton or rayon outer covering. directions simultaneously. HEAD-END—A central point in broadband networks that receives signals on one set of frequency bands and retransmits them on another set of frequencies. three. wire that has been cold drawn to final size so as to approach the maximum attainable strength. neon signs. dust. three or four 18-12 AWG HPN—A UL portable heater cord type with parallel construction. mercury metal halide and sodium lamps. Transmission in either direction but not in both HINGE CABLE—A cable connected between a hinged or swinging device and a HIPOT—A DC high-potential test used on medium. HSJO and HSO.000 volts or less than 230. HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER (system voltage ratings)—A class of system stationary object. Allows safe separation of user and high-voltage source.

cable or component offers to alternating current. Named IMPEDANCE MATCHING STUB—A section of transmission line or a pair of IMPEDANCE MATCHING TRANSFORMER—A transformer designed to match the impedance of one circuit to that of another. eight control lines and eight signal grounds. Hz—Hertz. IEEE-488—An IEEE standard for a parallel interface bus consisting of eight IEEE-802—Standards for the interconnection of local networking computer IEEE 802. chemical and electrical rigors of an industrial environment. HYDROSCOPIC—Used to describe material that absorbs and retains moisture. magnetic field or electrostatic charge INDUCTION HEATING—Heating a conducting material by placing it in a rapidly INDUCTIVE COUPLING—Crosstalk resulting from the action of the electromagnetic field of one conductor on the other. It causes current changes to lag behind voltage changes and is measured in henrys. The changing field induces electric currents in the material and I2R losses account for the resultant heat. this is the frequency between the baseband frequency and the higher frequency RF. equipment. Token ring. IEEE 802. changing magnetic field. cable or device to which it is connected.15—Wireless PAN. In a frequency up-converter. INSULATED SPLICE—A splice with a dielectric medium applied over the connected conductors and adjacent cable insulation.017241 ohm-mm2/m. IN-BAND SIGNALING—The transmission of signaling information at some frequency or frequencies that lie within a carrier channel normally used for information transmission. IACS—International Annealed Copper Standard for copper used in electrical conductors. INDUCTION—The phenomenon of a voltage. IMSA—International Municipal Signal Association. An international professional IEEE 10BASE2 Network—A network conforming to the IEEE 802. network standard. INSULATED RADIANT HEATING WIRE—Similar to blanket wire but heavier construction for applications such as in ceiling panels.Glossary tester. INPUT—(1) A signal (or power) that is applied to a piece of electric apparatus.184 feet). diffuse beams of light of many wavelengths.3—An IEEE standard describing the physical and data link layers of a local area network based on bus topology and CSMA/CD.11—Wireless LAN.800 meters (9. From the French word for current intensity (intensite du courant). after experimenter Heinrich Hertz. Inc. Also called matching stub. buried in ground or driveway and concrete walks. Widely used in industrial process control networks. INDEX EDGE—Edge of a flat (ribbon) cable from which measurements are made. Formerly IPCEA. The IEEE 802. Ethernet. normally indicated by the location of the printing which is near the index edge. The network is capable of carrying information at rates up to 10 Mbps over distances up to 2. A measure of frequency or bandwidth equal to one cycle per second.600 meters. It includes both resistance and reactance (frequency dependent resistance) and is generally expressed in ohms. HYPOT—Registered trade name of Associated Research. Sometimes indicated by a thread or other identification stripe. being produced in an object by lines of force from an outside source. INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET CABLES—Cables specially designed to withstand the mechanical. HYPALON—DuPont’s trademark for chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSP).3 local area INCOHERENT SOURCE—A fiber optic light source that emits wide. IMPACT TESTS—Tests designed to reveal the behavior of material of a finished part if it were subjected to impact or shock loading. INDUCTANCE—A property of a conductor or circuit that resists a change in current. INSERTION LOSS—A measure of the attenuation of a device by determining the output of a system before and after the device is inserted into the system. society that issues its own standards and is a member of ANSI and ISO. ICEA—Insulated Cable Engineers Association. conductors cut to match the impedance of a load. IEC—International Electrotechnical Commission. See HIPOT. (Bluetooth) IF—Intermediate-frequency.5—A physical layer standard specifying a LAN with a token-passing access IEEE 802. Matched impedances reduce reflections that decrease the power transfer efficiency. IMPEDANCE MATCH—A condition whereby the impedance of a particular cable or component is the same as the impedance of the circuit. for its high-voltage HYSTERESIS—The time lag between transitions in state exhibited by a body while reacting to changes in applied forces. (Wi-Fi) IEEE 802. The association of cable manufacturing engineers who publish nationally recognized specifications for cables. method on a ring topology. (2) The terminals on the apparatus to which a signal or power is applied. I I—Symbol used to designate current. 100 percent conductivity at 20°C is 0. INDOOR TERMINATION—A cable termination intended for use where it is protected from direct exposure to both solar radiation and precipitation. IEEE 10BROAD36—10 million bits per second over broadband coaxial cable with node-to-node coverage of 3. IEEE—Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. hand-held tool used to insert contacts into a connector. The IEEE-802 standard deals with the Physical Link Layers of the ISO Reference Model for OSL. bidirectional data lines. INSERTION TOOL—A small. which provides for connection to an IEEE-488 device. 273 . IMPEDANCE—The total opposition a circuit.3 specification for running Ethernet on broadband.

shield and armor on contiguous lengths of cable. INTERCALATED TAPES—Two or more tapes helically wound and overlapped on a cable. INTRINSICALLY SAFE—Incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal I/O—Input/Output. an electrical circuit. INSULATION LEVEL—A thickness rating for power cable insulation. ISO—International Organization for Standardization. I2R—Formula for power in watts. usually INTERSTICE—The space or void between assembled conductors and within the overall circumference of the assembly. Circuits having fault detectors that interrupt fault currents within one minute are rated 100 percent level. aircraft power. INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY—A frequency to which a signal is converted for INTERMEDIATE TEMPER—As applied to aluminum.Glossary INSULATING (ISOLATING) JOINT—A cable joint that mechanically couples and electrically separates the sheath. INSULATION RESISTANCE—The electrical resistance of an insulating material at a specific time and condition as measured between two conductors. ITU—International Telecommunications Union. any temper between soft and hard drawn. (2) When a liquid. JITTER—The slight movement of a transmission signal in time or phase that can introduce errors and loss of synchronization in high-speed synchronous communications. INSULATION THICKNESS—The wall thickness of wire insulation. INSULATION TEMPERATURE RATING—A maximum operating temperature assigned to insulations based on laboratory testing. JACKET—Pertaining to wire and cable. usually expressed in dB. Usually has a red jacket. A standard that covers a wide range of data communication issues but primarily the integration of voice and data. the exposure of the material to high-energy emissions for the purpose of favorably altering the molecular structure. gas or solid is caused to lose or gain electrons due to the passage of an electric current. military specifications). ease of handling. INSULATION STRESS—The potential difference across an insulator. JOULE’S LAW—When electricity flows through a material the rate of heating in watts will equal the resistance of the material in ohms times the square of the current in amperes. The potential at which an atom gives up an electron. W = I2R. See Article 504 of the NEC. Receives its name from the fact that it is an intermediate step between the initial and final conversion or detection stages. IONIZATION FACTOR—This is the difference between percent dissipation factors at two specified values of electrical stress. JOINT—That portion of the conductor where the ends of two wires. the outer sheath that protects against the environment and may also provide additional insulation. where l = current in amperes. soldering. of a three-phase cable system. IR DROP—A method of designating a voltage drop in terms of both current and resistance. J JACK—A plug-in type terminal widely used in electronic apparatus for temporary connections. JUMPER CABLE—Extra flexible cables with high-voltage insulation for use as temporary connections. The process of transmitting data to and from the processor and its peripherals. JAN SPECIFICATION—Joint Army-Navy specification (replaced by current JET STARTER CABLE—Single conductor 600 V cable used for external INTERNAL WIRING—Electronic wiring that interconnects components. ISOLATION—The ability of a circuit or component to reject interference. INTERCONNECTION—The joining of devices mechanically to complete INTERFACE—The two surfaces on the contact side of both halves of a multiple-contact connector that face each other when the connector is assembled. IONIZATION VOLTAGE—The potential at which a material ionizes. the lower of the two stresses is usually so selected that the effect of the ionization on dissipation factor at this stress is negligible. IRRADIATION—In insulations. INSULATION—A material having good dielectric properties that is used to separate close electrical components. R = resistance in ohms. within one hour are rated 133 percent level and over one hour are rated 173 percent level. IONIZATION—(1) The creation of ions when polar compounds are dissolved in a solvent. welding or by mechanical means. The stress on insulation is expressed in volts per mil (V/m) or kilovolts per meter (kV/m). INTERCONNECTING CABLE—The wiring between modules. INSULATION VOLTAGE RATING—The nominal phase-to-phase operating voltage INTERAXIAL SPACING—Center-to-center conductor spacing in paired wire or center-to-center spacing between conductors in a flat cable. within a sealed subsystem. INTERFERENCE—Disturbances of an electrical or electromagnetic nature that introduce undesirable responses into other electronic equipment. rods or groups of wires are joined by brazing. ISDN—Integrated Services Digital Network. See WATT. ISO 9000—A set of quality standards widely used around the world. units or the larger portions of a system. energy under normal or abnormal conditions to cause ignition of a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most ignitable concentration. 274 . such as cable conductors and circuit components.

L L—Symbol for inductance. conductor or conductor strand to complete one revolution about the axis around that it is cabled. or leakage of the line. LAMINATED TAPE—A tape consisting of two or more layers of different materials bonded together. LEAD—A wire. 275 .024 bytes. LIGHT SOURCE—An object capable of emitting light. in their electrical characteristics with respect to each other. LF—Low frequency. LINE BALANCE—The degree to which the conductors of a cable are alike LAY—Pertaining to wire and cable. LEAD CURED—A cable that is cured or vulcanized in a metallic lead mold. L BAND—The band of frequencies between 390 and 1. Sometimes KEVLAR—A high-strength DuPont polymer used as a cable messenger K-FIBER—A polyaramid-based material used for jacketing high-temperature cables. high-volume data LASER DIODE—A semiconductor diode that emits coherent light. kB—Kilobyte. used mainly with multimode fiber. See LAY. an insulating material. A user-owned. designated by the Federal Communications Commission. Such loss. kbps—Thousands of bits per second (bps). KILO—Prefix meaning thousand. the light source is normally a LED or a laser. line or circuit.000 watts of power. device that accepts electrical signals and converts the LENGTH OF LAY—The axial length of one turn of the helix of a wire or member. kV—Kilovolt (1. A band of frequencies extending from 30 to 300 kHz in the radio spectrum. LIFE CYCLE TESTING—A test to determine the length of time before failure in a controlled. shortened to “kcm. LINE DROP—A voltage loss occurring between any two points in a power transmission line. to other conductors and to ground. energy to a light signal. In fiber optics. moisture absorption. replaced “MCM” in the 1990 NEC. is due to the resistance. LINE LOSS—A total of the various energy losses occurring in a transmission line. LAUNCH ANGLE—The angle between the radiation vector and the axis of an optical fiber.000 volts). LEAD-IN—The conductor or conductors that connect the antenna proper to electronic equipment. LEVEL—A measure of the difference between a quantity or value and an established reference. kcmil—One thousand circular mils. LINE EQUALIZER—A reactance (inductance and/or capacitance) connected in series with a transmission line to alter the frequency-response characteristics of the line. that connects two points in a circuit. Described as “right hand” or “left hand. LIMITS OF ERROR—The maximum deviation (in degrees or percent) of the indicated temperature of a thermocouple from the actual temperature. A nonleaching wire will retain its plasticizer under extreme temperature conditions and remain flexible after baking. transmission facility connecting a number of communicating devices within a single building or campus of buildings. LEAKAGE CURRENT—An undesirable flow of current through or over the surface of LEAKAGE DISTANCE—The shortest distance along an insulation surface LED—Light-emitting diode. or drop. the main light source for optical-fiber transmission. short circuit or ground in an electrical LINE LEVEL—The level of a signal at a certain point on a transmission line. LINE FAULT—A fault such as an open circuit. Usually expressed in decibels.” LAYER—Consecutive turns of a coil lying in a single plane.550 megahertz. 1. LEACHING AND NONLEACHING—In a leaching wire the plasticizer will migrate when exposed to heat. etc.Glossary K KAPTON—DuPont’s trademark for polyimide. usually accelerated environment. LACING AND HARNESSING—A method of grouping wires by securing them in bundles of designated patterns.” or strength member. LIMPNESS—The ability of a cable to lay flat or conform to a surface. kW—Kilowatt. with or without terminals. trademark for polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). KYNAR—Arkema Inc. LACQUER—A liquid resin or compound applied to textile braid to prevent fraying. kVA—Kilovolt ampere. the axial distance required for one cabled LAY DIRECTION—The twist in the cable as indicated by the top strands while looking along the axis of the cable away from the observer. LIGHTNING GROUND CABLE—A specially stranded single conductor cable used to connect lightning rods (air terminals) to grounding rods. 1. LAN—Local area network. between conductors. with lasers. user-operated. Transmission speeds are measured in kB/second.

smoke requirements contained in UL Standards. useful work. MATV—Master Antenna Television System. LOC-TRAC—Alpha’s registered trademark for a zipper tubing closure track that does LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)—A network that is located in a localized geographical area (e. applied longitudinally with the axis of the cable. Also used for weighing and force measurement applications. area managers and cell controllers over a broadband token-passing bus network. zero halogen. MAXIMUM CABLE DIAMETER—The largest cable diameter that a high-voltage MINIMUM CABLE DIAMETER—The smallest cable diameter that a high-voltage cable termination is designed to accommodate. converter. each strand is enamel insulated. even during extreme flexing. cells with instruments in electronic strain gauges. a system rated LPF—Low pass filter. building. LONGITUDINAL WRAP—Tape applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being covered. e. LOW BOND INSULATION—An insulation that exhibits a small bond strength LOW FREQUENCY—A band of frequencies extending from 30 to 300 kHz in the radio spectrum. M mA—Milliampere (one-thousandth of an ampere). A filter that greatly attenuates signals of higher than a specified frequency. Used for low inductance coil windings. insulated conductor that identifies the manufacturer and sometimes the specification to which the wire is made.” LV—Low voltage. (2) A power system voltage rating of 1. LOAD—A device that consumes or converts the power delivered by another device. LONGITUDINAL SHRINKAGE—A term generally applied to shrink products denoting the axial length lost through heating in order to obtain the recovered diameter. Dielectrics with tan δ below 0. Defined as candela-steradians and abbreviated “lm. LONGITUDINAL SHIELD—A tape shield. MARKER THREAD—A colored thread laid parallel and adjacent to the strand in an MASTIC—A meltable coating used on the inside of some shrink products that when heated flows to help create a waterproof seal.Glossary LINE VOLTAGE—The value of the potential existing on a supply or power line. loop in which measurements will locate the fault. Generally dropped through borings in subsurface mining or well applications. MAP—Manufacturing automation protocol. LOOP RESISTANCE—The total resistance of two conductors measured round trip from one end. LOGGING CABLE—Usually FEP/Tefzel self-supporting instrumentation cable.g. complex of buildings. Sometimes also written LS0H (0=zero). Loading is used to provide a given set of characteristics to a transmission line. or campus). as applied to ignition cable. LOW-LOSS DIELECTRIC—An insulating material that has a relatively low LOW-NOISE CABLE—A cable specially constructed to eliminate spurious electrical disturbances caused by capacitance changes or self-generated noise induced by either physical movement or adjacent circuitry. transformers and MAGNETIC FIELD—The field created when current flows through a conductor. 276 . to the conductors. The OSI profile championed by General MARKER TAPE—A tape laid parallel to the conductors under the sheath in a cable. LOOP TEST—A long line test where a good line is connected to a faulty line to form a LOSS—The portion of energy applied to a system that is dissipated and performs no LOSS FACTOR—The power factor times the dielectric constant. not require any sealants to keep it closed. LONGWALL MACHINE—A mining machine used to undercut coal. other electromagnetic devices. or battery. an office.000 volts or less. Motors Corporation to provide interconnectivity between plant hosts. but passes with minimal attenuation all signals lower in frequency. cable termination is designed to accommodate.. LUMEN—(lm) A SI unit of measurement for light output as perceived by the human eye. designated by the Federal Communications Commission. imprinted with the manufacturer’s name and the specification to which the cable is made. MAGNET WIRE—Insulated wire used in the windings of motors.g. A cable that meets the requirements can be marked “LS. dielectric loss. LOW TENSION—Low voltage. (2) A UL cable type (metal clad). LOW VOLTAGE—(1) As defined in the National Electrical Code.01 (approximately) are considered low-loss materials. LITZ WIRE—Very fine. #44 AWG bare copper. low-cost medium to which many nodes can be connected. LOAD CELL CABLE—Small multiconductor shielded cables for connecting load LOADED LINE—A transmission line that has lumped elements (inductance or nominal 24 volts or less. LS (LOW SMOKE)—An optional rating for UL Listed cable types that also pass low LSZH—Abbreviation for low smoke. MAXIMUM DESIGN VOLTAGE—The maximum voltage at which a high-voltage cable termination is designed to operate continuously under normal conditions. flat or corrugated. A combination of components providing multiple television receiver operations from one antenna or group of antennas. Commonly used term in the thermocouple industry. MC—(1) Main cross-connect.” capacitance) added at uniformly spaced intervals. such as polyethylene or Teflon. supplied from a transformer. and whose communications technology provides a high-bandwidth.

refractory minerals and enclosed in a liquid-tight and gas-tight metallic tube sheathing. picofarad (pf). MOISTURE ABSORPTION—The amount of moisture. MOLDED PLUG—A connector molded on either end of a cord or cable.000 kilohertz. Bureau of mines. MHz—Megahertz (one million cycles per second). a MICROPHONE CABLE—A very flexible. 8. transformers and stator or field windings. MIL-W-22759—A military specification for fluorocarbon insulated copper and copper alloy wire. Obsolete abbreviation. MICROBENDING LOSS—A signal loss due to small geometrical irregularities along the core-cladding interface of optical fibers. MICROMICROFARAD—One-millionth of a microfarad (abbreviated µµf). The bandwidth used to send toward the headend (reverse direction) is approximately 5 MHz to 100 MHz and the bandwidth used to send away from the head-end (forward direction) is approximately 160 MHz to 300 MHz. MEMBER—A group of wires stranded together that is in turn stranded into a multiple-membered conductor. MICROPHONICS—Noise caused by mechanical movement of a system component. MEGGER—A special ohmmeter for measuring very high resistance. MONO FILAMENT—A single-strand filament as opposed to a braided MONOMER—The basic chemical unit used in building a polymer. heat and moisture resistant finish. Primarily used for checking the insulation resistance of cables. phase of an analog signal to encode and convey (typically digital) information. MICROWAVE—A short (usually less than 30 cm wavelength) electrical wave. MULTICAST—The ability to broadcast messages to one node or a select group 277 . MIPS—Millions of instructions per second. One or more conductors insulated with highly compressed resistance. 450°C.000 feet. Replaced by SAE AS22759. 90°C to 105°C. MOISTURE RESISTANCE—The ability of a material to resist absorbing moisture from the air or when immersed in water. having tensile strength less than the minimum for hard-drawn wire. frequency. Formerly MIL-C-16878. MIL—A unit of length equal to one-thousandth of an inch (. MSHA regulations appear in CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) Title 30. Formerly known as MESA. that a material will absorb under specified conditions. between transmit and receive frequencies. MIL-DTL-17—A military specification covering many coaxial cables. 600 V appliance wire. Usually rated 5. in. but greater than the maximum for soft wire. MICROFARAD—One-millionth of a farad (abbreviated µf). MEDIUM FREQUENCY—The band of frequencies between 300 and 3. MID-SPLIT—A broadband cable system in which the cable bandwidth is divided MEDIUM VOLTAGE—A class of nominal power system voltage ratings between MEGA—Prefix meaning million. MI—A UL cable type. surface). it is also useful for equipment leakage tests. high dielectric strength and high heat resistance. MEDIUM HARD-DRAWN WIRE—As applied to copper wire. Also. amplification. The Federal enforcement agency for employee safety in mines and mills. MODULATION—Systematic changing of properties. for example. however. MIL-DTL-16878—A military specification covering various wires intended for internal wiring of electric and electronic equipment. MSHA—Mine Safety and Health Administration. MEGAHERTZ (MHz)—One million cycles per second. 600 V. in percentage..4 and 46 kV. for audio signals. 2. MHO—The unit of conductivity. MOTOR LEAD WIRE—Wire that connects to the fragile magnet wire found in coils. microphonics can be caused by the shield rubbing against the dielectric as the cable is flexed. MELT INDEX—The extrusion rate of a material through a specified orifice under specified conditions. The reciprocal of an ohm. Thermoplastic insulated. = 1 mil). of nodes. MTW—Machine tool wire.001 in. MILLI—Prefix meaning one-thousandth. MICA—A transparent silicate that separates into layers and has high insulation MICRO—Prefix meaning one-millionth.g. UL 1063 is the governing standard. or 15 kV. MG—Glass reinforced mica tape insulated cable with an overall sheath of woven glass yarn impregnated with a flame. MFD—Microfarad (one-millionth of a farad). or twisted filament. MESSENGER WIRE—A metallic supporting member either solid or stranded that may also perform the function of a conductor. In a single conductor microphone cable. a UL cable type. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY—The ratio of stress (force) to strain (deformation) in a material that is elastically deformed. MIL-SPEC—Military specification. MFT—Abbreviation for 1. M is one thousand in the Roman numeral system. e. usually shielded cable used MPF—Mine power feeder cables.Glossary MECHANICAL WATER ABSORPTION—A check of how much water will be absorbed by material in warm water for seven days (mg/sq. One measure of processing power. Chapter 1. Formerly MIL-C-17.

Defined the U. NOMINAL VOLTAGE (NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE)—A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (as 120/240. MUTUAL CAPACITANCE—Capacitance between two conductors in a cable. Nonmetallic sheathed cable. Wet or dry use. NETWORK—A series of nodes connected by communications channels. MYLAR—DuPont’s trademark for polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) film.S. 90°C conductor rating. A measure of the unwanted signal coupling from a transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring (nonenergized) pair measured at the near-end. N CONNECTOR—A threaded connector for coax. NICKEL CLAD COPPER WIRE—A wire with a layer of nickel on a copper core where the area of the nickel is approximately 30 percent of the conductor area. Usually rated 5–35 kV. either by splitting of the frequency band (frequency-division multiplex) or by using this common channel at different points in time (time-division multiplex). signals over one physical circuit. A binary encoding technique in which a change in state represents a binary 0 and no change in state represents a binary 1. standard definition color TV standard. N is named after Paul Neill. mV—Millivolt (one-thousandth of a volt). NEGATIVE SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE—The electrical impedance of a three- NONCONTAMINATING PVC—A polyvinyl chloride formulation that does not produce electrical contamination through plasticizer migration. NOMOGRAPH—A chart or diagram with which equations can be solved graphically by placing a straight edge on two known values and reading the answer where the straight edge crosses the scale of the unknown value. “Negative sequence” refers to the phase relationship of the currents in the conductors. mW—Milliwatt (one-thousandth of a watt). MULTIPLE-CONDUCTOR CONCENTRIC CABLE—An insulated central conductor with one or more tubular stranded conductors laid over it concentrically and insulated from one another. NEMA—National Electrical Manufacturers Association. NEWTON—The derived SI unit for force. Also called polychloroprene. Now called NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). NEOPRENE—A synthetic rubber with good resistance to oil. NFPA—National Fire Protection Association.Glossary to propagate.). NEXT—Near-end crosstalk. the force that will give one kilogram mass an acceleration of one meter per second. flame-retardant nylon. NONFLAMMABLE—The property of a material that is not capable of being NONMIGRATING PVC—Polyvinyl chloride compound formulated to inhibit NRZI—Nonreturn to zero inverted. 600 volts. NODE—A station or point in a network. Nonmetallic sheathed cable. Equals 0. MUX—Multiplex. NIST—National Institute of Standards and Technology. etc. NTSC—National Television System Committee. N-SERIES CONNECTOR—A coaxial connector (RG-8/U) used in standard Ethernet networks. NM-B—A UL cable type rated 600 volts and intended for use per Article 334 of the NEC. 90°C conductor rating. MULTIPLEX—The use of a common physical channel in order to make two or more MULTIPLEXER—Equipment that permits simultaneous transmission of multiple MULTIPOINT CIRCUIT—A single line connecting three or more stations. 480Y/277. plasticizer migration. Formerly the National Bureau of Standards. NMC-B—A UL cable type rated 600 volts and intended for use per Article 334 of the NEC. phase power cable with the phase rotation reversed as compared to normal operation.2248 pounds force. Has the same numerical value as the positive sequence impedance. NOMEX—DuPont’s trademark for a heat-resistant. MULTIMODE—Optical fiber that allows more than one mode (or ray) of light MULTIPLE-CONDUCTOR CABLE—A combination of two or more conductors cabled together and insulated from one another and from sheath or armor where used. The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment. chemicals and flame. Used for jacketing. For dry use. MV—Medium-voltage cables. NBR/PVC—A blend of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Publishes the NEC and other codes and standards. 278 . NBS—National Bureau of Standards. NEC—National Electrical Code. To transmit two or more signals over a single channel. NONCONTAMINATING—A type of PVC jacket material whose plasticizer will not migrate into the dielectric of a coaxial cable and thus avoid contaminating and destroying the dielectric. MURRAY LOOP TEST—A method used to localize cable faults. logical channels. a material with good oil and chemical resistance. easily ignited. or component or property of a conductor is identified and to which tolerances are applied. NOMINAL—Name or identifying value of a measurable property by which a conductor N NBR—Butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber. NOISE—In a cable or circuit any extraneous sounds or signal that tends to interfere with the sound or signal normally present in or passing through the system.

that is used to transmit light signals. Williams-Steiger laws passed in 1970 covering all factors relating to safety in places of employment. transmission of light energy. of oxygen and nitrogen. OVERALL DIAMETER—Finished diameter of a wire or cable. OSCILLOSCOPE—Test instrument for visually showing the changes in a varying OSHA—Abbreviation for Occupational Safety and Health Act.Glossary NUMERICAL APERTURE—The acceptance angle of an optical fiber that determines the angle at which light can enter the fiber. It provides for the connection of individual optical fibers with optical fiber patch cords. made of dielectric materials. PARALLEL CIRCUIT—A circuit in which identical voltage is presented to all components and the current divides among the components according to the resistances or the impedances of the components. which carries the signal and cladding. Polyamide. OPEN CIRCUIT—A break in an electrical circuit so there can be no current flow. OEM—Original equipment manufacturer. P PAIR—Two insulated wires of a single circuit associated together. Analogous OSCILLATORY SURGE—A surge that includes both positive and negative polarity values. Usually softer and less expensive than closed cell material. OPEN CELL—Foamed or cellular material with broken cell walls. A class of flame retardants sometimes used in wire and cable products. Specifically the OSMOSIS—The diffusion of fluids through membranes. Air fills in the spaces in the material. character. PBDE—Polybrominated diphenyl ether. reel or other package. voltage by means of a line made on a fluorescent screen using the deflection of a beam of cathode rays. are sent simultaneously. PBDEs are generally banned by European Union RoHS regulations. 279 . PARALLEL TRANSMISSION—A type of data transfer in which all bits of a OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE—A fiber used for optical communications. OPTICAL CONDUCTOR—Materials that offer a low optical attenuation to OPTICAL CROSS-CONNECT—A cross-connect unit used for circuit administration. NYLON—An abrasion-resistant thermoplastic with good chemical resistance. OUTPUT—The useful power or signal delivered by a circuit or device. PAYOFF—The process of feeding a cable or wire from a bobbin. OPTICAL FIBER—Any filament or fiber. More formally referred to as limiting oxygen index (LOI). I is current in amperes and R is resistance in ohms. OPTICAL ENCODER—A device whose position is determined by a photoelectric device and converted to an electrical data output. or R = V/I where V is voltage. OZONE—An extremely reactive form of oxygen. expressed as a number that is equivalent to the sine of the angle.—Outside diameter. normally occurring around electrical discharges and present in the atmosphere in small but active quantities. See also FIBER OPTICS. A device used for testing and characterization of fiber optic cables. OXYGEN INDEX—A test to rate relative flammability of materials in a mixture OIL AGING—Cable aged in an accelerated manner by placement in an oil bath and heated to a preset temperature for a stated time. optical fiber usually consists of a core. potential difference of one volt will maintain a current of one ampere. OUTGASSING—Dissipation of gas from a material. OUTDOOR TERMINATION—A cable termination intended for use where it is not protected from direct exposure to either solar radiation or precipitation. Wire is fed from a payoff reel onto a take-up reel. OFHC—Oxygen-free high-conductivity copper. a substance with a higher refractive index than the core. to a waveguide used for microwave communications. In sufficient concentrations it can break down certain insulations. OTDR—Optical time domain reflectometer. I = V/R. also known as a “balanced” transmission line. following the application of a specified higher voltage. The payoff is the source reel. The value of resistance through which a OHM’S LAW—Stated V = IR. or multiple-bit data blocks. or over a multiple-conductor cable. which surrounds the core and serves to reflect the light signal. PARTIAL DISCHARGE (CORONA) EXTINCTION VOLTAGE—The voltage at which partial discharge (corona) is no longer detectable on instrumentation adjusted to a specific sensitivity. OHM—The electrical unit of resistance.D. OVERCOAT CONDUCTOR—A stranded conductor made from individual strands OVERLAP—The amount the trailing edge laps over the leading edge of a spiral tape wrap. over a single channel using multiple frequencies. Commonly used in data centers to interconnect computer networking hardware. of tin-coated wire stranded together and then given an overall tin coat. either over separate communications lines or circuits. PARALLEL STRIPE—A stripe applied longitudinally on a wire or cable parallel to the axis of the conductor. PATCH CABLE—A cable with plugs or terminals on each end of the conductors to connect circuits of equipment together. Usually defined as the percentage of oxygen in air required to sustain combustion of the material. O O.

PDN—Public data network. rotating cradles that hold the axis of the spool in a fixed direction as the spools are revolved so the wire will not kink as it is twisted. PITCH—In flat cable. PICOFARAD—One-millionth of one-millionth of a farad (10-12). by weight. not fastened to the other mating half. PILC CABLE—Paper insulated. The measurement in picks per inch indicates the degree of coverage. PERCENTAGE CONDUCTIVITY—Conductivity of a material expressed as a PFA—Perfluoroalkoxy.000 PICK—Distance between two adjacent crossover points of braid filaments. for terminating purposes. POLARIZATION—(1) The orientation of a flat cable or a rectangular connector. POLYARAMID—Generic name for Kevlar. PLTC—Power limited tray cable. PLENUM—The air return path of a central air handling system. Mylar is DuPont’s trademark for polyester. PEAK—The maximum instantaneous value of a varying current or voltage. Results are calculated on a weight basis or volume basis and so specified. Sometimes also referred to as aramid fiber. extra flexible. A type of industrial control system. A colorless organic thermoplastic used for its robustness. lead covered. Old cable style present in many urban distribution networks. A widely used thermoplastic insulation and jacket compound. 1. PICO—Prefix meaning one-millionth of one-millionth (10-12). Also called crest. PCP—Polychloroprene (neoprene). POLISHING—Act of smoothing ends of optical fibers to an “optically smooth” finish. PIN ASSIGNMENT—A predetermined relationship between the terminals in a connector and the conductors in a cable that specifies the terminals to which each conductor is to be terminated. stranded single conductor wire used to connect photovoltaic electricity generating panels to each other and to collection. 600 V. different from the rms value that is usually used to categorize AC voltages. 2. POLYESTER—Polyethylene terephthalate. used extensively as a moisture-resistant cable core wrap. Common characteristic of antennas.000 V. The phase angle between the input and output signals of a system. Most are scheduled for replacement due to lead content and age. to provide an electrical connection between the conductive patterns on both sides of a printed circuit or an anchor for soldering an inserted wire. V. insulated. rated 300 volts. generally using abrasives. POLYCHLOROPRENE—See NEOPRENE. PEEL STRENGTH—The force necessary to peel a flexible member from another PERCENT CONDUCTIVITY—The ratio of the resistivity of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) at 20°C to the resistivity of a material at 20°C. member that may be either flexible or rigid. open space over a suspended ceiling. either ductwork or PLENUM CABLE—Cable approved by a recognized agency such as UL for installation in plenums without the need for conduit due to a higher flame resistance rating. PEEK—Poly ether ether ketone. set reach their positive maximum values: a) zero phase sequence–no phase shift. PHASE—The location of a position on a waveform of an alternating current. A micromicrofarad. in relation PHASE SEQUENCE—The order in which successive members of a periodic wave PHASE SHIFT—A change in the phase relationship between two alternating quantities. A packet-switched or circuit-switched network available for use by many customers. PLATED HOLE—A hole with walls that have been plated with conductive material PLC—Programmable logic controller. PERCENT PLATING—Quantity of plating on a conductor expressed as a percentage percentage of that of copper. the nominal distance between the index edges of two adjacent conductors. PHOTOVOLTAIC WIRE (PV WIRE)­—A UL cable type. expressed in percent. PITCH DIAMETER—Diameter of a circle passing through the center of the conductors in any layer of a multiconductor cable. to the start of a cycle. POLYBUTADIENE—A type of synthetic rubber often blended with other synthetic rubbers to improve their properties. and b) plus/minus phase sequence–normal phase shift. picofarad (abbreviation pF). PLUG—The part of the two mating halves of a connector that is movable when PLY—The number of individual strands or filaments twisted together to form a single thread. POINT-TO-POINT WIRING—An interconnecting technique wherein the connections between components are made by wires routed between connecting points. Teflon is DuPont’s trademark for this material. (2) Orientation of the electric field in an electromagnetic wave. 280 .Glossary PCB—Printed circuit board. with 360 corresponding to one complete cycle. rope lay lead wire attached to a shield POLYAMIDE—The chemical name for nylon. PDNs may offer value-added services at a reduced cost because of communications resource sharing and usually provide increased reliability due to built-in redundancy. or PIGTAIL WIRE—Fine stranded. Also referred to as PWB (printed wiring board) to distinguish this usage from the chemical usage (polychlorinated biphenyls–persistent organic pollutants that are banned in many countries). distribution and utilization equipment. PE—Polyethylene. PLANETARY TWISTER—A cabling machine whose payoff spools are mounted in PLASTICIZER—A chemical added to plastics to make them softer and more flexible. Measured in degrees.

PRODUCTION TESTS—Tests made on components or subassemblies during POLYURETHANE—Broad class of polymers noted for good abrasion and solvent resistance. twisted together. Also referred to as power sum alien equal-level far-end crosstalk (PSAELFEXT).Glossary POLYETHYLENE—A thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties. chlorine. POROSITY—Generally defined as the percentage of space occupied by voids in an insulation cross section. PSNEXT—Power sum near-end crosstalk. PROPAGATION DELAY—The time it takes a signal. single or multiconductor.O. A computation of the unwanted signal coupling from multiple transmitters at the near-end into a neighboring (non-energized) pair measured at the near-end. measured at the near-end. PRIMARY—The transformer winding that receives the energy from a supply current. and back to the original value in a finite length of time. A computation of signal coupling POWER CABLES—Cables of various sizes. the interface between a process and a communications or transmission facility. measured at the far-end. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)—A general purpose thermoplastic used for wire and cable insulations and jackets. topcoat tinned or overcoat tinned. applied voltage or the ratio of real power flow to the apparent power flow expressed as a ratio between zero and one. composed of electromagnetic energy to travel from one point to another over a transmission channel. PSANEXT—Power sum alien near-end crosstalk. Kapton is DuPont’s trademark for polyimide.. designed to distribute primary power to various types of equipment. cable. or jacketing material. rubber or elastomer. A cable parameter used by electrical system engineers to calculate voltage drop. PRIMARY INSULATION—The first layer of nonconductive material applied over a conductor. a network or other electronic device. PULSE—A current or voltage that changes abruptly from one value to another PULSE CABLE—A type of coaxial cable constructed to transmit repeated highvoltage pulses without degradation. PROXIMITY EFFECT—Nonuniform current distribution over the cross-section of a conductor caused by the variation of the current in a neighboring conductor. 281 . A computation of signal coupling from multiple pairs of disturbing channels. POLYHALOCARBON—A general name for polymers containing halogen atoms. POSITIVE SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE—The electrical impedance of a three-phase power cable during normal operation. PROPAGATION TIME—Time required for a wave or pulse to travel between two points on a transmission line. PPE—Polypropylene ethylene. POWER RATIO—The ratio of the power appearing at the load to the input power. POWER FACTOR (PF)—The cosine of the phase difference between current and POWER LOSS—The difference between the total power delivered to a circuit. PORT—A point of access into a computer. “Positive sequence” refers to the phase relationship of the currents in the conductors. PSAFEXT—Power sum alien far-end crosstalk. from multiple near-end disturbing channel pairs into a disturbed pair of a neighboring channel or part thereof. electrical connections. P. POLYIMIDE—A relatively high-temperature plastic developed for use as a dielectric POLYMER—A substance made of many repeating chemical units or molecules. or device and power delivered by that device to a load.—Abbreviation for point-of-sale (e. a cash register station). Nonlinear loads have PFs less than one. PT—Thermostat cable with solid conductor. The term polymer is often used in place of plastic. possible only PROPAGATION VELOCITY—The velocity of the propagation of a wave or pulse PROTECTIVE COVERING—A field-applied material to provide environmental protection over a splice or housing. whose prime function is to act as electrical insulation. The halogens are flourine.S.g. along a transmission path. PRINTING WIRING—A printed circuit intended to provide point-to-point production for the purpose of quality control. Expressed in dB. POLYOLEFINS—A family of plastics including cross-linked polyethylene and various ethylene copolymers. PREBOND—Stranded wire that has been fused. Can be in solid or cellular form. constructions and insulations. normally. One type of Teflon. usually most noticeable in communicating with satellites. Usually expressed in watts and equal to I2R in electrical systems. or both. Sometimes abbreviated TFE. A computation of signal coupling from multiple near-end disturbing channel pairs into a disturbed pair of a neighboring channel or part thereof. PSAACRF—Power sum insertion loss to alien crosstalk ratio far-end. individual insulation. to a disturbed pair in another channel measured at the far-end and relative to the received signal level in the disturbed pair at the far-end. bromine and iodine. PREMOLDED SPLICE—A joint made of premolded components assembled in the field. the speed-of-light delay. Resistive loads have a power factor of unity. the physical or electrical interface through which one gains access. POTTING—Sealing by filling with a substance to exclude moisture. when conductors are located in assigned positions with relation to each other throughout the entire length of a cable. POWER—The amount or work per unit of time. POSITION CODING—Identification of conductors by their location. PULLING EYE—A device attached to a conductor to pull cable into or from a duct. PTFE—Polytetrafluorobthylene. it is equal to 10 log10 (P2/P1) where P1 is input power and P2 is the power at the load. POLYPROPYLENE—A thermoplastic similar to polyethylene but stiffer and having a higher temperature softening point.

QUAD—A series of four separately insulated conductors. electromagnetic energy reflections can occur at an impedance mismatch in a transmission line. Arkema Inc. inductance.S. brown-red growth sometimes found on silver-coated copper conductors and shield braids. RESISTOR—An electronic component designed to have a specific value of resistance. Compliance requires the investigation of the supply chain for the presence of certain chemicals called SVHCs (substances of very high concern). PVDF—Polyvinylidene difluoride. Also known as the “cold” junction. RECOVERED DIAMETER—Diameter of shrinkable products after heating has caused it to return to its extruded diameter. RESISTIVE CONDUCTOR—A conductor with high electrical resistance. REACH began in 2008. that is noncontaminating. RANDOM WINDING—A winding in rotating equipment wherein wires do not lie REA (RURAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION)—A federally supported program to provide electrical service to rural areas. a surface. REACTANCE—The opposition to an alternating electron flow by a capacitance or 282 . REFLOW SOLDERING—The process of connecting two solder-coated conductive surfaces by remelting of the solder to cause fusion. REFRACTION—The bending of light waves or rays as they go from one material to another due to the difference in velocities in the materials. PYROMETER—See THERMOCOUPLE. A black polyvinyl chloride with excellent weathering and abrasion properties. EVALUATION AND AUTHORIZATION OF CHEMICALS)—A European community regulation on the safe use of chemicals.Glossary PVC—Polyvinyl chloride. For example. the opposition a material offers to current. REFERENCE EDGE—See INDEX EDGE. RADIO FREQUENCY—The frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum that are used for radio communications.’s trademark for this material is Kynar. contamination. R R—Symbol for electrical resistance. PWB—Printed wiring board. The reactance of a capacitor decreases with an increase in frequency. specified time period or amount of usage. PVC-IIA—A MIL-DTL-17 coax jacket type. temperature. Resins are broadly classified as thermoplastic or thermoset according to whether they soften or harden with the application of heat. etc. measured in ohms. A common insulating and jacketing material used on cables. Can be used for direct burial. When there is a fourth color band. A band of frequencies between 10 kilohertz and 100 gigahertz. The amount of such opposition varies with the frequency of the current. A second color represents the second significant figure and the third is the multiplier or the number of zeros that follow two significant figures. RELIABILITY—The probability that a device will function without failure over a RESIN—A solid or semisolid organic substance. It has good weathering and abrasion-resistant properties and can be used for direct burial. A gray polyvinyl chloride material which is semi-noncontaminating. See RUS. used for winding flexible cable. it is usually located at the EMF measuring device. PVC-I—A MIL-DTL-17 coax jacket type. Companies selling into the European market are required to provide compliance information to their downstream users. Also called a spool. QPL—A Qualified Products List issued by the U. The first color represents the first significant figure of the value. alloying. originally of plant origin but largely synthesized now. usually a braided fiber. RESISTANCE—In DC circuits. Chemicals will be added for a period of several years. Replacing PCB in common usage to avoid confusion with chemical PCBs. PVC-II—A MIL-DTL-17 coax jacket type. REFLECTION—(1) The change in direction (or return) of waves or pulses striking Q Q band—The band of frequencies between 36 and 46 gigahertz. resistance is the real component of impedance and may be higher than the value measured at DC. RED PLAGUE—A powdery. A black or gray polyvinyl chloride material REEL—A revolving flanged device made of plastic. In AC circuits. REDRAW—The consecutive drawing of wire through a series of dies to reach a desired wire size. in an even pattern. molded in place between layers. together in pairs. (2) Change in direction of a light wave or ray in an optical fiber. The unit of volume resistivity is the ohm-cm. government. causing standing waves. REFERENCE JUNCTION—The junction of a thermocouple that is at a known reference temperature. RESISTIVITY—A material characteristic that opposes the flow of electrical REACH (REGISTRATION. it indicates the tolerance. energy through the material. REINFORCED SHEATH—The outer covering of a cable that has a reinforcing material. wood or metal. RESISTOR COLOR CODE—A method of indicating resistance value and tolerance. The unit of surface resistivity is ohms/m2. It is affected by temper. generally twisted REFLECTION LOSS—The part of a signal that is lost to reflection of power at a line discontinuity. the opposite occurs with an inductance. but is a contaminating type and will cause cable attenuation to increase with age.

heat and moisture-resistant. A UL cable type. equipment or circuits. RIGID COAXIAL CABLE—Nonflexible coaxial cable. usually a metal tube armored coaxial cable. Made with RFI—Radio frequency interference. RHH—Rubber-insulated. An RS-232 modem interface signal (sent from the DTE to the modem on pin 4) that indicates that the DTE has data to transmit. ETHYLENE PROPYLENE (EPR)—A synthetic rubber insulation 283 .1 to 0. RHW-2—Rubber-insulated building wire. ROUND CONDUCTOR FLAT CABLE—A cable made with parallel round ROUND WIRE SHIELDS—Shields constructed from bare. RTS—Request-to-send. The radio noise appearing on conductors of electric rms—See ROOT MEAN SQUARE. Converts temperature to an electrical signal.10. during production for the purposes of quality control. It is similar to ITU-T V. ROCKWELL HARDNESS—A measure of hardness determined by resistance to indention by a small diamond or steel ball under pressure. tinned or silver-plated copper wire that include braided. It is the ratio. PBB and PBDE.9 of its final value. RHW—Rubber-insulated building wire. RIDGE MARKER—One or more ridges running laterally along the outer surface of a plastic insulated wire for purposes of identification. RS-423—An ANSI/TIA standard for cable lengths that exceed the RS-232 50-foot limit. REW—A 600 volt Canadian wire type covered by CSA standards. spiral and reverse spiral. A UL cable type. The disruption of radio signal reception caused by any source that generates radio waves at the same frequency and along the same path as the desired wave. 75°C dry or wet. ROMEX—A type of nonmetallic sheathed (Type NM) cable. Similar to ITU-T V. RF MODEM—Radio frequency modem. current or voltages.28. Although introduced as a companion standard with RS-422. RUBBER. cadmium. RS-422 is most frequently implemented on unused pins of DB-25 (RS-232) connectors. Root mean square (rms)—The effective value of an alternating ROPE CONCENTRIC—A group of stranded conductors assembled in a concentric manner.11. A European Union regulation (Directive 2002/95/EC). conductors in the same plane. mercury. which became effective in 2006 that requires the elimination of six hazardous substances from electrical and electronic products sold in the EU including lead. RoHS—Restriction of Hazardous Substances. RS-423 is not widely used.” RINGING OUT—Locating or identifying specific conductive paths by passing current through selected conductors. a common standard for connecting data processing devices. rated 90°C in dry and damp locations. RETURN WIRE—A ground wire or the negative wire in a direct-current circuit. RETRACTILE CORD—A cord having a specially treated insulation or jacket so it will retract like a spring. RS-232-C SERIAL I/O PORT—A standard connection interface for computer peripheral equipment. heat-resistant wire. Sometimes called “hardline. A trademark of the Southwire Company.24/V. Retractability may be added to all or part of a cord’s length. 90°C dry or wet. of the amplitude of a reflected wave echo to the amplitude of the main wave at the junction of a transmission line and a terminating impedance. RS-422—An ANSI/TIA standard for cable lengths that exceed the RS-232 50-foot limit. ROPE UNILAY—A group of stranded conductors assembled in a unilay manner. RIV—Radio influence voltage. RS-232 defines the electrical characteristics of the signals in the cable that connect DTE (data terminal equipment) with DCE (data communications equipment). RING TONGUE—A solderless terminal that connects wire to a stud. ROPE STRAND—A conductor composed of a center group of twisted strands surrounded by layers of twisted strands. having excellent electrical properties. RS-232—An ANSI/TIA recommended standard (RS). it specifies a 25-pin connector (the DB-25 connector is almost universally used in RS-232 applications). expressed in decibels. Although introduced as a companion standard with RS-449.” A UL cable type. ROTATING CABLE—A coil of cable whose inner end is attached to a member that rotates in relation to a member to which the outer end of the cable is fastened. Similar to ITU-T V. thermoset insulation. hexavalent chromium. RISE TIME—The time it takes the voltage to rise from 0. ROPE-LAY CONDUCTOR—See CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR. RIP CORD—Two or more insulated conductors in a parallel configuration that may be separated to leave the insulation of each conductor intact. RTD—Resistance temperature sensing device. heat and moisture-resistant.Glossary RESONANCE—An AC circuit condition in which inductive and capacitive reactance interact to cause a minimum or maximum circuit impedance. A device used to convert digital data signals to analog signals (and from analog to digital) then modulate/demodulate them to/from their assigned frequencies. or parts. ROUTINE TESTS—Tests made on each high-voltage cable or upon a representative number of devices. RG/U—“RG” (radio guide) is the military designation for coaxial cable and “U” stands for “general utility. Similar to EMI. RIBBON CABLE—A flat cable of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and held together by means of adhesive or an extruded polymer web. RETURN LOSS—A measure of the degree of impedance mismatch between two impedances.

200°C. paper. SGO—A CSA cable type. shaped into a required configuration from coils or reels. S S—A UL cable type. Same as SW except with ground wires. Also see SO and SJ. sheath over polyethylene insulation. SHIELDED INSULATED SPLICE—An insulated splice in which a conducting material is employed over the full length of the insulation for electric stress control.550 and 5. Same as SF. etc. 600 volts. with grounding conductors. Silicone rubber-insulated equipment wire. assembled to give a substantially circular cross section. SF—A CSA cable type. 284 . Usually made by adding carbon particles to an insulator and used to provide a graduated transition between conductor and insulation in high-voltage cable. they are not the same. SEPARATOR—Pertaining to wire and cable. Automotive standards body. etc. Frequently confused incorrectly with the term shield percentage. SEMICONDUCTOR—In wire industry terminology. screen or braid of metal. Also GRS or Buna-S. Silicone rubber insulated fixture wire. SECONDARY INSULATION—A nonconductive material that protects the conductor against abrasion and provides a second barrier. germanium. such as silicon. plasticizer content. Same as SWO except with ground wires. to contain any unwanted radiation. SEGMENTAL CONDUCTOR—A stranded conductor consisting of three or more stranded conducting elements. EPR. or between various components of a multiple-conductor cable. S BAND—A band of frequencies between 1. CPE and others. SE—A UL cable type.Glossary RUBBER INSULATION—A general term used to describe wire insulations made of elastomers such as natural or synthetic rubbers. SHEATH—The outer covering or jacket over the insulated conductors to provide mechanical protection for the conductors. SCHERING BRIDGE—See BRIDGE. thus preventing the line from radiating radio waves. of information in which the bits composing a character are sent sequentially. or to keep out any unwanted interference. SHD—Portable mine power cable. SEW. SG—A CSA cable type. or the transfer SERIES CIRCUIT—A circuit in which the components are arranged end to end to form a single path for current. between a cable jacket and the components it covers. SE-R—Style R residential service entrance cable. a layer of insulating material such RUS—Rural Utilities Service. SELF-EXTINGUISHING—Characteristic of a material whose flame is extinguished after the igniting flame source is removed. each element having approximately the shape of the sector of a circle. SEWF—A CSA cable type.. A federal agency formerly known as the REA. which is placed between a conductor and its dielectric. It can be used to improve stripping qualities and/or flexibility. Service entrance cable.. SDN—A small diameter multiconductor control cable with neoprene jacket and nylon SERVE—A filament or group of filaments such as fibers or wires. CSPE. SERIAL INTERFACE—An interface that requires serial transmission. neoprene. solid or seven-strand conductor. SENSITIVE CONDUCTOR—A conductor terminated to a circuit that is adversely affected by spurious signals. as textile. usually copper. SHIELD EFFECTIVENESS—The relative ability of a shield to screen out undesirable radiation. SERVING—A wrapping applied over the core of a cable or over a wire. wound around SERVED WIRE ARMOR—Spiral wrap of soft galvanized steel wires wrapped around a cable to afford mechanical protection and increase the cable-pulling tension characteristic. SEMICONDUCTING JACKET—A jacket having a sufficiently low-electrical resistance so its outer surface can be kept at substantially ground potential. three or four individually shielded conductors. Implies only a single transmission channel. or can offer additional mechanical or electrical protection to the components it separates. essentially finite space inside a tubular conducting surface called the sheath. SEMISOLID—An insulation cross-section having a partially open space between the conductor and the insulation perimeter. 5 kV through 25 kV. Mylar. SHIELDED LINE—A transmission line whose elements confine radio waves to an SEPARABLE INSULATED CONNECTOR—An insulated device to facilitate cable connections and separations. SAE—Society of Automotive Engineers. SEMIRIGID CABLE—Generally refers to Type MI or Type ALS that can be bent or SEMIRIGID PVC—A hard semiflexible polyvinylchloride compound with low SHIELD—A sheet. SHIELD COVERAGE—See SHIELD PERCENTAGE. Hard service flexible cord with thermoset insulation and jacket. SFF—A CSA cable type. SBR—A copolymer of styrene and butadiene. aluminum or other conducting material placed around or between electric circuits or cables or their components.200 megahertz. used for making transistors and diodes. Not the same as semiconductor materials. a material possessing electrical conduction properties that fall somewhere between conductors and insulators. a central core. except flexible stranding 150°C.

SPIRAL WRAP—The helical wrap of a tape or thread over a core. SPECIFIC INDUCTIVE CAPACITY (SIC)—Dielectric constant of an SPIRAL SHIELD—A metallic shield of fine stranded wires applied spirally rather SPIRAL STRIPE—A color coding stripe applied helically to the surface of an insulated wire or cable. conductor. Same construction as type S. All thermoset. expressed as a percentage. two-conductor light duty cord for pendant or portable use in damp locations. Also. SJOO—Same as SJO but with oil-resistant insulation as well as an 285 . oil-resistant jacket. Spacing is accomplished by ceramic or plastic hangers suspended from a support messenger. but with oil-resistant jacket. SOO—Same as SO but with oil-resistant insulation. Can be in thermosetting elastomer or liquid form. 300 V. Junior hard service thermoplastic or rubber insulated conductors with overall thermoplastic jacket. SPAN—In flat conductors. but 300 V. In round conductors. 300 V. usually expressed in dB. SIGNAL CABLE—A cable designed to carry current of usually less than one ampere per conductor. SHRINK TUBING—Tubing that has been extruded.Glossary SHIELDING. SJTOO—Same as SJTO but with oil-resistant insulation. power to mobile equipment. 600 V. SOOW—A UL or CSA cable type. SJ—A UL or CSA cable type. SOFT WIRE—Wire that has been drawn or rolled to final size and then heated (annealed) to remove the effects of cold working. SHOVEL CABLE—Normally an SHD-GC type that supplies high-voltage (2 kV to 25 kV) to travel only on the surface of a conductor. SIC (SPECIFIC INDUCTIVE CAPACITANCE)—See DIELECTRIC CONSTANT. Junior hard service. SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO—A ratio of the amplitude in a desired signal to the amplitude of noise. strength as well as good electrical conductivity. distance between centers of the first and last conductors. SPLICE—A connection of two or more conductors or cables to provide good mechanical SPLITTER—A passive device used in a cable system to divide the power of a single input into two or more outputs of lesser power. Can also be used as a combiner when two or more inputs are combined into a single output. SHUNT WIRE—A conductor joining two parts of an electric circuit to divert part of the current. Usually employed for fluorocarbon. SOLID CONDUCTOR—A conductor consisting of a single wire. than braided. SP-1—A UL cable type. SILICONE—A material made from silicon and oxygen. SINGLE-MODE—Optical fiber in which only one mode of light can propagate. SO—A UL or CSA cable type. Portable cord and control cable. same construction as type S except SHIELD PERCENTAGE—The physical area of a circuit or cable actually covered by shielding material. with or without a third conductor for grounding purposes. parallel-jacketed. SJT—A UL or CSA cable type. SIGNAL—Any visible or audio indication that can convey information. but UL Listed or CSA Certified for outdoor use. rubber-insulated pendant or portable cord. nonextrudable materials. SNM—Shielded nonmetallic sheathed cable. SJTO—Same as SJT but oil-resistant thermoplastic outer jacket. 300 V. which when reheated or released will return to its original diameter. 600 V. oil-resistant thermoset jacket. distance between the reference edge of the first and the last SPC—Statistical process control. S/N—See SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO. cross-linked and mechanically expanded. Same as SOO SOURCE COUPLING LOSS—Loss of light intensity as the light from a source SPACER CABLE—A type of overhead power distribution cable. the information conveyed through a communications system. SOLEF—Solvay’s trademark for its PVDF polymer. insulating material. SI—An international system of standardized units of measurement. SINGLE CABLE—A one-cable system in broadband LANs in which a portion of the bandwidth is allocated for send signals and a portion for receive signals. S METER—An instrument to measure signal strength. SHRINKING RATIO—The ratio between the expanded diameter and recovered diameter of shrinkable products. SKIN EFFECT—The tendency of alternating current. SHUNT—A very low-resistance component used to divert a portion of the electric current. but heavier construction. SHRINK TEMPERATURE—The temperature that effects complete recovery of a heat shrinkable product from the expanded state. SJO—Same as SJ. SP-2—Same as SP-1. Hard service cord. POWER CABLE—A conducting layer applied to increase safety. SINTERING—Fusion of an extruded paste or a spirally applied tape wrap insulation or SIS—Switchboard wiring made with cross-linked polyethylene insulation. jacket by the use of high heat to a homogenous continuum. SHORT—A low-resistance path that results in excessive current flow and often in damage. control dielectric stresses and prevent partial discharges. The thermosetting elastomer form is noted for high heat resistance. passes into an optical fiber. as its frequency increases. with a guard band in between to provide isolation from interference.

SURGE—A temporary and relatively large increase in the voltage or current in an electric circuit or cable. The existence of voltage and current maximum and minimum along a transmission line is a result of reflected energy from an impedance mismatch. or a resistor in series with.Glossary SP-3—Same as SP-2. SURFACE RESISTIVITY—The resistance of a material between two opposite sides of a unit square of its surface. ST—A UL cable type. 60°C to 105°C. STRIP—To remove insulation from a wire or cable. STRAIN HARDENING—An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range. each of which consists of one or more conductors. STRUCTURAL RETURN LOSS—Backward reflected energies from uneven parts SUBSTRATE—Insulating material layer on a printed wiring board. conductor. 125°C. SUPPRESSOR—A device used to reduce or eliminate unwanted voltages in electric or electronic circuits. It is usually expressed in ohms. 60°C. STANDING WAVE—The stationary pattern of waves produced by two waves of the same frequency traveling in opposite directions on the same transmission line. between the cables being joined.and moisture-resistant finish. Cable core of insulated conductors shielded or unshielded and an overall jacket of braided K-fiber impregnated with flame-.” STO—A North American flexible cord type. measured longitudinally. heat. in one turn. heat. usually twisted. manufactured so it will be reliable and interoperable (compatible) with others of the same type from different manufacturers. waveguide or analogous system. yarn conductor jacket. heat.400 volts. Two wires. SUGGESTED WORKING VOLTAGE—AC voltage that can be applied between SUPERCONDUCTORS—Materials whose resistance and magnetic permeability are virtually zero at very low temperatures. STRANDED CONDUCTOR—A conductor composed of a group of wires. Same as ST but with an oil-resistant thermoplastic outer jacket. SRK—A cable with ozone-resistant silicone rubber insulation with an overall jacket of braided K-fiber impregnated with flame-. STABILITY FACTOR—The difference between the percentage power factor at STANDARD—A set of rules or protocols that describe how a device should be STRESS-RELIEF CONE (TERMINATION)—A device used to relieve the electrical stress at a shielded cable termination. SQUIRREL CAGE MOTOR—An induction motor having the primary winding (usually the stator) connected to the power and a current is induced in the secondary cage winding (usually the rotor). or of any combination of such groups of wires. wound around each other to help cancel out any induced noise in balanced circuits. SR—Silicone rubber cable 600 V. 600 V. ST1—Smoke Test #1. same as type S except thermoplastic construction. two.and moisture-resistant finish. An optional rating for UL Listed cable types that also pass the Limited Smoke requirements contained in UL Standards. jacketed.” STRAND LAY—The distance of advance of one strand of a spirally stranded STRESS-RELIEF CABLE—Cable used to relieve stresses in the process of welding pipe joints by inducing heat in pipe sections to be welded. the cable ends at their points of termination and to keep any pull on the cable from being transferred to the electrical connections. used to anchor STEP INDEX FIBER—A multimode optical fiber consisting of a core of uniform STIFFNESS—As applied to copper. STANDING WAVE RATIO (SWR)—In a transmission line. SRG—A cable with ozone-resistant silicone rubber insulation with an overall jacket of braided glass yarn impregnated with flame-. adjacent conductors. generally used above 2. A cable that meets the requirement can be marked “ST1. a spark plug cable to suppress interference that would otherwise affect radio reception in and near the vehicle. STOOW—Same as STOO but suitable for use in wet locations. 150/200°C 600 V multiconductor cable. of the cable structure. surrounded by cladding of slightly lower refractive index. a figure of merit used to express the efficiency of the system in transmitting power. STATIC CHARGE—An electrical charge that is bound to an object. STOO—Same as STO but with oil-resistant insulation. 300 V. STRAIGHT JOINT—A cable splice used for connecting two lengths of cable. Commonly caused by environmental conditions (lightning) or sudden load changes. but heavier construction for refrigerators or room air conditioners. STRAND—One of the wires of any stranded conductor. 286 . flexible copper strand. STOP JOINT—A splice that is designed to prevent any transfer of dielectric fluid STP—Shielded twisted pair. refractive index. 80 volts/mil and at 40 volts/mil measured on wire immersed in water at 75°C for a specified time. Hard service cord. 150/200°C 600 V appliance and motor lead wire. Protective devices are employed to prevent damage from surges. SRGK—A cable with ozone-resistant silicone rubber insulation with braided glass STRAIN GAUGE—A device for determining the amount of strain (change in dimension) when a stress is applied. 600 V. An unmoving STAY CORD—A component of a cable.or three-conductor parallel cord. 200°C 600 V fixture wire and power cable. electrical charge. the property of a conductor that causes it to resist permanent deformation by bending. Also called transient. usually a high-tensile textile. a resistance conductor in. Frequently called “zip cord” or “lamp cord. SPT—A UL type of thermoplastic-insulated. For example. Multiple pairs of wires are contained in one sheath and each wire pair is shielded. Also referred to as lay length.and moisture-resistant finish.

TC—A UL cable type. 300 V 60°C. TERMINATOR—A resistive device used to terminate the end of cable or an unused tap into its characteristic impedance. module to the network. SVTO—A North American cable type. TANK TEST—A dielectric strength test in which the test sample is submerged in water and voltage is applied between the conductor and the water acting as ground. 250°C appliance wire. Same as SV except thermoplastic jacket. 250°C. TFFN—Same as TFF but with nylon outer jacket. nickel-clad iron or copper. THERMOCOUPLE—A device consisting of two dissimilar metals in physical contact. TG—Flexible nickel or nickel-clad copper conductor. NEC Article 336. Solid or stranded single conductor. flame and fraying resistant compound. cannot be resoftened by heating. SVO—A North American cable type. 300 V. Overall rubber jacket. Same as SV except oil-resistant thermoset jacket. which when heated will develop an EMF output. TAP—(1) Baseband. 60°C or 90°C. 300 V. 60°C. cable. TAPED SPLICE—A joint with hand-applied tape insulation. TF—A UL cable type. Teflon tape. 90°C nylon-jacketed building wire for use in dry and damp locations. 600 V. T TAKE-UP—The process of accumulating wire or cable onto a reel. A passive device used to remove a portion of the signal power from the distribution line and deliver it onto the drop line. Also known as PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). TFN—Same as TF but with nylon outer jacket. thermocouple to a junction box. 600 V. The application of heat or radiation is called “curing. THERMOCOUPLE EXTENSION WIRE—A pair of wires of dissimilar alloys T CONNECTOR—A cable adapter that attaches a PC with a network interface TEAR STRENGTH—The force required to initiate or continue a tear in a material under specified conditions. or for making temporary electrical connections. TFF—Same as TF but flexible stranding. once set. 200°C. 600 V. Also called a directional tap or multitap. the device for pulling wire or cable through a piece of equipment or machine. Teflon tape. TERMINALS—Metal wire termination devices designed to handle one or more 287 . strands. (2) Broadband. 600 V. TEXTILE BRAID—Any braid made from threads of cotton. Vacuum cleaner cord. thermoplastic-covered solid or seven TFE—One of three types of Teflon. such that when properly connected allows the EMF to be accurately transmitted to the reference junction. The terminator prevents interference-causing signal reflections. SW—A CSA cable type. silk or synthetic fibers. THERMOCOUPLE EXTENSION CABLE—A cable comprised of one or more twisted thermocouple extension wires under a common sheath. two or three conductor. and an overall sheath of braided glass yarn impregnated with a moisture. Same as SVT. and to be attached to a board. conductors. Also. plastic insulated. bobbin or some other type of pack. PTFE and PFA polymers. but without associated parts such as terminal block. SWR—Standing wave ratio. TENSILE STRENGTH—The maximum load per unit of original cross-sectional area that a conductor attains when tested in tension to rupture. TEFLON—Trademark of the DuPont Co. glass braid. 105°C. THERMOCOUPLE ELEMENT—A thermocouple designed to be used as part of an assembly. having EMF temperature characteristics complementing the thermocouple with which it is intended to be used. for FEP. See also VSWR. or nickel conductor. TGGT—PTFE Teflon tape insulation with an insulation covering of wrapped glass yarn TGS—Solid or flexible copper. Fixture wire. rubber insulated.” THHN—A UL cable type. 60°C. and which. 60°C. Rubber jacketed power supply cable (8 AWG to 2 AWG) 600 V. TAPED INSULATION—Insulation of helically wound tapes applied over a conductor or over an assembled group of insulated conductors. TEMPERATURE RATING—The maximum temperature at which an insulating material may be used in continuous operation without loss of its basic properties. connecting head or protecting tube. connecting instruments to a circuit temporarily. TEW—CSA appliance wire type. on cooling. insulated lead wire used for making tests. silicone glass braid. For light duty in damp locations. TAPE WRAP—A spirally applied tape over an insulated or uninsulated wire. TEST LEAD—A flexible. See Tray Cable. A test created by the EPA to determine whether an item can be safely discarded in an ordinary (nonhazardous) landfill. bus or block with mechanical fasteners. The component of a connector that attaches a transceiver to a THERMAL AGING—Exposure to a thermal condition or programmed series of conditions for predescribed periods of time. SWEEP TEST—A test to check attenuation at a range of frequencies. The ratio of incoming to reflected energy in a cable system. 60°C or 90°C. SVT—A North American cable type. except with oil-resistant thermoplastic jacket. heat. THERMOCOUPLE LEAD WIRE—An insulated pair of wires used from the THERMOPLASTIC—A material that softens when heated and becomes firm THERMOSET—A material that has been hardened or set by the application of heat or radiation. TCLP—Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure.Glossary SV—A North American cable type.

g. 600 V apparatus and motor lead wire. telephony. maneuvering motors. Thermoplastic vinyl-insulated building wire. and dry locations. THREE-PHASE THREE-WIRE SYSTEM—An alternating current supply system comprising three conductors over which three-phase power is sent. controller allowing nodes to be placed away from the baseband medium. Sometimes also referred to as a “surface transfer impedance” test. TRAY CABLE—A factory-assembled multiconductor or multipair control cable approved under the National Electrical Code for installation in trays. Flame-retardant. TRANSCEIVER CABLE—Cable connecting the transceiver to the network interface TRANSFER IMPEDANCE TEST—A laboratory test that measures the effectiveness of a cable shield to keep EMI in (or out) of the cable. TRIBOELECTRIC NOISE—Noise generated in a shielded cable due to variations in TROLLEY WIRE—A round or shaped solid. Usually conducted per NEMA WC61. THW—A UL cable type. flameand fraying-resistant compound. TRANSITION SPLICE—A cable splice that connects two different types of cable. or other form of intelligence by wire. TKGT—PTFE Teflon tape insulation with an insulating covering of felted K-fiber yarn and an overall sheath of braided glass yarn impregnated with a moisture-. TNC is said to be an abbreviation for TOPCOATED—Bare (untinned) copper wire. TRAY—A cable tray system is an assembly of units or sections and ancillary fittings. a second circular conductor concentric with and insulated from the first. channels. with each strand a very thin conductor ribbon spirally wrapped around a textile yarn. See TRANSMISSION LINE. Thermoplastic vinyl-jacketed building wire. Usually expressed in decibels. Rated 75°C in wet THWN-2—A UL cable type. TWIN COAXIAL—A coaxial cable configuration containing two separate. message. capacitance between shielding and conductor as the cable is flexed. then coated with tin. and an impervious sheath overall. and a third circular conductor insulated from and concentric with the second. THWN—A UL cable type. Same as THW but with nylon jacket overall. Thermoplastic vinyl-insulated building wire. facsimile. video. OVERCOAT CONDUCTOR and TOPCOATED. TREEING—Microscopic tree-like channels in medium-voltage cable insulation that can lead to cable failure. 75°C rated in dry and wet locations. bare. 250°C. TV CAMERA CABLE—Multiconductor (often composite) cable to carry power for camera. signal from a computer or terminal and imposes it on the baseband medium. TPE—Thermoplastic elastomer. TRANSCEIVER—A device required in baseband networks which takes the digital TR-XLP—Tree retardant cross-linked polyethylene. made of noncombustible materials used to support cables. threaded-Neill-Concelman. one of which is maintained at a potential midway between the potential of the other two. TRACER—A means of identifying an individual conductor (e.). Line impedance is determined by the diameter and spacing of the conductors. moisture and heat resistant. TWINAXIAL CABLE—A shielded coaxial cable with two central insulated conductors. hard conductor ordinarily used to supply current to motors through traveling current collectors. TRANSMISSION LINE—A signal-carrying circuit with controlled electrical TRANSMISSION LOSS—The decrease or loss in power during transmission of THREE-QUARTER-HARD WIRE—As applied to aluminum.. TIN OVERCOAT (TOC)—Tinned copper wire. lights. etc. TRUNK CABLE—A main cable used for distribution of signals over long distances throughout a cable system. TURNKEY SYSTEM—Refers to any system that is completely assembled and tested by one party for another that only requires the purchaser to turn the key on to be fully operational. moisture resistant and rated 60°C. TRIAXIAL—A three-conductor cable with one conductor in the center. heat-. TUBING—A tube of extruded unsupported plastic material. TRANSMISSION CABLE—Two or more transmission lines. TNC—A threaded connector for miniature coax. Contrast with BNC. TL-9000—A quality system for the telecommunications industry based on ISO 9000. characteristics used to transmit high-frequency or narrow-pulse signals. 288 . Rated 90°C in TIA—Telecommunications Industries Association. THREE-WIRE SYSTEM—A DC or single-phase AC system comprising three conductors. etc. TRANSPOSITION—Interchanging the relative positions of wires to neutralize the effects of induction to or from other circuits or to minimize interference pickup by the lead-in during reception. 90°C rated in dry and wet locations. stranded. complete TWIN-LEAD—A transmission line having two parallel conductors separated by insulating material. wet and dry locations. stranded then coated with pure tin. TINSEL WIRE—A low-voltage stranded wire. TRANSMISSION—The dispatching of a signal.THREE-PHASE CURRENT—Current delivered through three wires. Same as THW but with nylon jacket overall. THW-2—A UL cable type. TRUE CONCENTRIC—A cable conductor in which each successive strand layer has a reversed direction of lay from the preceding layer. coaxial cables laid parallel or twisted around each other in one unit. for polarity. solid bottom trays and similar structures. TINNED WIRE—See COATED WIRE. Usually heavy-duty jacketed. or other means. TW—A UL wire type. Cable tray systems include ladders. energy from one point to another. wire that has been processed to produce a strength approximately midway between that of half-hard wire and that of hard-drawn wire. radio. intercom signals to operators. Flame-retardant. telegraphy. moisture and heat resistant. with each wire serving as a return for the other two. troughs. a similar nonthreaded bayonet connector.

000 MHz as designated by the Federal Communications Commission. Inc.g. compare with BALANCED LINE. 289 . UNBALANCED-TO-GROUND—Describing a two-wire circuit. VCSEL—Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is a type of semiconductor UL STYLE—A subset of UL Type AWM (appliance wiring material) consisting of thousands of different styles. usually twisted around each other to help cancel out induced noise in adjacent circuits. that cause microagitation. One volt is the difference in potential between two points of a conducting wire carrying a constant current of one ampere when the power dissipated between these two points is equal to one watt. The band extending from 30 to 300 MHz as designated VIDEO PAIR CABLE—A transmission cable containing low-loss pairs with an impedance of 125 ohms. 600 V or 3.. USE—A UL cable type. three symmetrically positioned grounding conductors and an overall RF shield. VOICE FREQUENCY (VF)—Describes an analog signal within the range of transmitted speech. identifies each style.. Listing also involves regular follow-up to ensure continued compliance. VA—Volt-ampere. A power cable specially designed for use with VFDs. CSPE or XLP jacketed. An unshielded twisted-pair cable usually contains four pairs in a single cable jacket. Usually has three-phase conductors. where the impedance-to-ground on one wire is measurably different from that on the other. The SI unit of electrical potential difference. typically supported by an analog telecommunications circuit. VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION—The transmission speed of an electrical signal down a length of cable compared to its speed in free space. Used for TV pickups. XLP or rubber-insulated. telephone carrier circuits. consumption. UNIDIRECTIONAL STRANDING—A term denoting that in a stranded conductor UNILAY—More than one layer of helically-laid wires with the direction of lay and length of lay the same for all layers. VAR—A unit of reactive power that means volt-amperes. See CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR. TWINNER—A device for twisting together two conductors. Usually expressed as a percentage.g. VDE—Association of German Electrical Engineers. TWISTED PAIR—A pair of insulated copper conductors that are twisted around UTP—Unshielded twisted pair. V V—Volts. Thermoplastic underground feeder or branch circuit cable. Many UL styles are single-conductor hook-up wire.S. independent testing laboratory that also publishes standards for most products in the NEC. It represents the energy available per unit charge within an electrical system (joules /coulombs). as designated by the Federal Communications Commission. UL 1015. Utilities charge more for loads that consume large amount of reactive power. TWINNING—Synonymous with pairing. the band extending from 300 to 3. A unique four or five digit number. ULTRAVIOLET—Radiant energy within the wavelength range 10 to 380 nanometers. VLF—Very low frequencies. VC—Varnished-cambric insulation. Two wires. Styles identify an additional subset of features from the referenced standards in order to allow customers to quickly identify the type of wire needed.Glossary each other. coaxial cable). ULTRASONIC CLEANING—Immersion cleaning aided by ultrasonic waves ULTRASONIC DETECTOR—A device that detects ultrasonic noise such as that produced by corona or leaking gas. UNBALANCED LINE—A transmission line in which voltages on the two conductors are unequal with respect to ground (e. VISCOSITY—Internal friction or resistance to flow of a liquid: the constant ratio of shearing stress to rate of shear. 130°C. U U-BEND TEST—A cable test in which the insulation is tested for resistance to corona and ozone. closed-circuit TV. typical of telephone and LAN wiring. A U. UL LISTED—A product that has been tested and found to comply with applicable standards. VG—Varnished-glass or nylon braid. UNIDIRECTIONAL CONDUCTOR—See CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR. UL—Underwriters Laboratories. Underground service entrance cable. all layers have the same direction of lay. Also called adjustable speed drive (ASD) cable. reactive.000 V. VAR METER—An instrument used by power companies to measure the kVAR V BAND—A band of frequencies between 46 and 56 gigahertz. etc. UF—A UL Underground Feeder cable type. VHF—Very high frequency. See APPARENT POWER. VFD CABLE—Variable frequency drive cable. laser diode operating in the 850-nm wavelength window that is commonly used in Ethernet-based networks. by the Federal Communications Commission. A designation of power in terms of volts and amperes. The band extending from 10 to 30 kHz. mainly to cancel the effects of electrical noise. e. It is invisible and can be filtered out by glass. UHF—Ultrahigh frequency.

WIRE BRAID—Flexible wire constructed of small size strands in tubular form. WIRE GAUGE (AWG)—The American Wire Gauge. and (b) time in microseconds from virtual zero to the instant at which one-half of the crest value is reached on the tail. then decreasing the voltage until corona is extinct. A UL fire rating for single conductor cables. Usually welding cable strands cabled with a hose core for carrying coolant used in heavy-duty welding equipment. VOLTAGE BREAKDOWN—A test to determine the maximum voltage insulated wire can withstand before failure. Usually. VOLTAGE DROP—The voltage developed across a conductor by the current and the VOLTAGE. without grounds. Volt is a SI unit. VOLTAGE RATING—The highest voltage that may be continuously applied to a wire or cable in conformance with standards or specifications.Glossary VOLT—A unit of electrical “pressure. WAVESHAPE REPRESENTATION—The designation of current or voltage by a combination of two numbers. VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO (VSWR)—The ratio of the maximum VOLTAGE TO GROUND—The voltage between an energized conductor and earth. around or less than 2 percent is ideal.” One volt is the amount of electrical potential that will cause one ampere of current to flow through one ohm of resistance. 290 . thickness increases for higher voltages. or electric current. or (b) by cold pressure. WATER-COOLED LEADS—Furnace cables. Used for shielding or connections where constant flexing is required. by means of a flame torch. time is represented on the horizontal axis and the current or voltage value is represented on the vertical axis. 600 V. VOLTAGE. rods or groups of wires: (a) by fusing. WHEATSTONE BRIDGE—A device used to measure DC resistance. For other than rectangular impulses: (a) virtual duration of the wave front in microseconds. VULCANIZATION—A chemical reaction in which the physical properties of a VW-1—Vertical wire flame test. See also RoHS and REACH. One watt is equivalent to the power represented by one ampere of current under a pressure of one volt in a DC circuit. using the application of heat or pressure or both. Less than 5 percent is recommended by the NEC. (Directive 2002/96/EC) which holds the manufacturer responsible for proper recycling or disposal when it reaches end-of-life. WIRE—A rod or filament of drawn or rolled metal whose length is great in comparison WALL THICKNESS—The thickness of a applied insulation or jacket.6 percent apart based on the cross-sectional area. High-energy cables. Using larger conductor (less resistance) if possible will solve voltage drop problems. resistance or impedance of the conductor. The ratio of the velocity of the wave to the frequency of the wave. determined by applying a corona producing voltage. VOLUME RESISTIVITY—The resistance in ohms of a body of unit length and unit VSWR—See VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO. with the major axis of its cross section. WATER-BLOCKED CABLE—A multiconductor cable having interstices filled with a water-blocking compound to prevent water flow or wicking. VOLTAGE—Electrical potential or electromotive force expressed in volts. originally called Brown & Sharpe Gauge. and (b) duration in microseconds. the base units are joules (energy) per coulomb (charge) (J/C). WELDING—Joining the ends of two wires. (partial discharge). a vertical section of tray. Gauge sizes are each 20. electric arc. See BRIDGE. WAVEFORM—A graphical representation of a varying quantity. WATER TREEING—A type of insulation deterioration that can occur after long-term immersion in water with an electrical stress applied. WICKING—The longitudinal flow of a liquid in a wire or cable due to capillary action. INDUCED—A voltage produced in a conductor by a change in magnetic flux from an outside source. WEEE—Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. WAVE FRONT—(1) That portion of an impulse (in time or distance) between the 10 percent point and the point at which the impulse reaches 90 percent of crest value. WAVELENGTH—The distance between the nodes of a wave. cross-sectional area. effective voltage to the minimum effective voltage measured along the length of a mismatched radio frequency transmission line. plating and various chemical processes. Long runs of cable sized closely to the operating ampacity can suffer significant voltage drop that affects the load. Also refers to the voltage used in a system to overcome the wiring resistance. Formerly designated as FR1. Generally wall WATER ABSORPTION—A test to determine the amount of water absorbed by a material after a given immersion period. A European Union regulation WEIGHT RESISTIVITY—The resistance in ohms at a specified temperature of a copper wire of uniform cross section and of unit weight and unit length. electric furnace applications. series to which a voltage is applied and from which one or more voltages can be obtained across any portion of the network. The test is described in UL Standard 1581. CORONA EXTINCTION—The minimum voltage that sustains corona VOLTAGE DIVIDER—A network consisting of impedance elements connected in WATERFALL—The point at which cables installed horizontally in a tray transition to WATT—A unit of electrical power (energy consumed per unit time). W W—(1) Symbol for watt or wattage. A system of numerical wire sizes starting with the lowest numbers for the largest sizes. (2) The rising part of an impulse wave. (2) A UL cable type. For rectangular impulses: (a) minimum value of current or voltage. polymer are changed by reacting it with cross-linking agents. one to six conductors. Heavy-duty portable power cable.

291 . ZERO SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE—The electrical impedance of a three-phase power cable under fault (short-circuit) conditions. ZETABON—Dow’s trade name for an acrylic acid copolymer coated aluminum tape. WP—Weatherproof construction for overhead wires. The zipper arrangement allows installation with no need to disconnect installed wire. Z Z—Symbol for impedance. It is typically 2. Cross-linked polyethylene insulated small diameter building wire rated 90°C wet and dry. or receive data from.Glossary WIRE NUT—A closed-end splice that is screwed on instead of crimped. WORKSTATION—(1) Input/output equipment at which an operator works.5 to 3 times the positive sequence impedance. WIRE WRAPPING TOOLS—Portable electric tools and automatic stationary machines used to make solderless wrapped connections of wires to terminals.200 and 10. WIRE-WRAPPED CONNECTION—A solderless connection made by wrapping bare wire around a square or rectangular terminal with a power or hand tool. Cross-linked polyethylene insulated small diameter building wire rated 75°C wet and 90°C dry. X X—Symbol for reactance. disruptive discharge. X BAND—A band of frequencies between 5. ZIPPER TUBING—Alpha’s trade name for harnessing/jacketing material containing ZYTEL—DuPont’s trademark for nylon resins. Also written XLPE. a computer or other workstation for the purpose of performing a job. See LOC-TRAC. XHHW-2—A UL cable type. (2) A station at which a user can send data to. Y YIELD STRENGTH—The point at which a substance changes from elastic to viscous. puncture or other electric failure when voltage is applied under specified conditions. WITHSTAND TEST VOLTAGE—The voltage that the device must withstand without flashover. a zipper-track type closure.000 megahertz. WRAPPER—An insulating barrier applied as a sheet of tape wrapped around a coil periphery. XHHW—A UL cable type. XLP—Cross-linked polyethylene.

Glossary 292 .

............................ . 166 for Conductors Rated 0–2...................... 119 compression connectors............... ........ 183 210........................................................... ......... ....... 172 AFNOR... 122 AC/DC resistance ratio at 60 Hz................ 166............. 165...... 89 293 ...................... .............. .000 Volts...................................... .............................. 171 including shield losses for 15 through 69 kV cables........... 3-Wire........................... 69 Aluminum 1350 solid round wire........ 145 2-Pole............ .............3-Phase.... 228 Accelerated aging test for MV power cables....................................................................... ...... 131 100-ohm Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) vs Shielded Twisted Pair.............................................................. 100 600 V control cable............................................................................... ................................ 224 Abrasion resistance... .... 22 wire................ 161 AENOR...... ... ................................... 47 ACMA....................... 5-Wire.. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR)................ 208 Aerial cable messengers. 226 Alcohol resistance............................ .................. 161 ABNT.... 120 Aerial Service Wire(s)................................ ... 221............................................... ...... ...................... .......... .......................... ..... ............................ 236 AC resistance....... 6 American National Standards Institute.................... ............ 93 of Class B aluminum conductors...................... 145 15 kV power cable......................... 134 Conductors....................... .. 47 Allowable Fill...000 Btu flame test......... ...................................... 3-Wire......................................................................................................................................................... II....................................... 68 8000 Series aluminum alloy wire..... 147 4-Pole...... ............ ................... ...................................... . 47 Alkali resistance............ .... 163 ACRF.......................................................... 102 of cables in open-top cable trays... 190 AEIC........ ................ II. ................. 22 clad steel.................................. .... 231 Acid resistance.. 131 4-Pole.......................... 229 AEE................ 145 4 GHz connectors............... 91 of Class B copper conductors.............. .............................000 Volts....... ...... ... 179 400 and 800 Hz ampacity factors... 200 Aircore cable...................... 169 Acceptance cone................ ....................... ........... 82 Acceptance testing. 47 AC90.... . .......... 3-Phase............ .................. 162 American Wire Gauge............. .............. 77 ACWU90............... . 72 50-ohm connectors.......... ............ 145 3 meter cube smoke apparatus................... .....................General Index General Index Symbols 2-Pole.................. 78 Airframe wire... 147 4-Wire..... 172 Aerospace Vehicle Wiring... .................. 2-Wire........... 78 35.......... 175 series lighting cables.......... 93 ACIC. .... 162 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)............ 4-Wire............................. 6 Ampacities....... ... .... ...... 168 3-Pole. 110 Alumel.......... 166 at 400 and 800 Hz... 183 A AAR..................... ..... 171 of Conductors Rated 2001 to 35............... 145 3-Pole........... 24 strand properties............................... 4-Wire........................... .................. 183 including effect of shield losses............... .................... 102 of Cables Installed in Cable Trays........... 80 Airport lighting............................................................000 Volts...........

......................................... 73.............. 162 D2863..................................... 216 Breaking load........... ...................... 115 Bend multipliers................. ................................................ ............... .................. 164 Bending radii for cables without metallic shielding............... 82 BASEC................................... 169 power cables........................................................................................... ........ 224 Association Française de Normalisation.............. 200 Association of American Railroads.... 111 Bayonet........................ 235 AS/NZS 3000. ........................................ .................... and Motor Coach Wiring........................ 63 pulling grip......... etc.................................... ...................................... 165 294 .................................................................................... ........... 208 Associação Brazileira De Normas Técnicas......................... ...................................... 83 of the fiber....... ................. ........ ...... .... ......... 222 Angle of burner...............................................................General Index Ampacities at 400 and 800 Hz.................... ............. 81 at a specified wavelength................ 62 Armored cable(s).. ............ 162 Appliance Wiring Material........................................ 161 Brazilian standards............. 172 AWM.... 177 Annular conductor....................... 115 for fiber optic cable... ......... . 115 for Type MC cable........ 2................................ 161 Association of Edison Illuminating Companies.......... ............................................... ..................... ............... 8 ANSI... 236 Austrian Plug Configuration..................... 141 Bridle wire. .. 43 Belgian plug configurations................................................ ................. 127 at high frequencies............ ............................... 182 B Balanced mode.............. 131 BNFL. ................. 10 Breaking strength......................................... ..................................... 82................................................. 12 Breakout kit.... 150 Argentine standards....... 221.......................................................... ...... 236 Asociación de Normalización y Certificación....................................... ....... resistance............................. 252 when kilowatts are known.......... 72 BNC connector.... Trailer.... 237 Standards............ 115 for portable cables................................ 102 Basic principles of electricity......................... .............................. 114 for pulling tension calculations......... ..................................... ... ......... 224 Armor............................................... ................................ ......................... Truck-Tractor................ 198 Bellcore.. . 115 Bending radius................... ... 102 Binder tape.... 174............... 166 Ampacity............ 140 ANCE............................................................................... 75 Bandmarking........ 161 ASTM........ 10 change at low temperatures........... ........ ...... 127 Australian Communications and Media Authority.................................. 197 Standards........................ 115 for all single conductor cables with metallic shielding..... ...................... toluol. 198 standards................... ............... .............. .................. 1 Basket-weave armor.. 216 Belden electronic color code............... ... ......... 224 BRB. 59 Brake system cable..... ............................... .......................................... ................................ 156 diameter........... ..... ................... 79............................. 173 power and control............. ................................ 102 Ampere................. 190....... 236 Asia Pacific...... 131 coupling................. 47 BIL ratings.. ...................................... ........... ............................. 114 Benzol...... 252 Anaerobic.......... 174 Arbor hole.. .. 197 Authority having jurisdiction...... 183 Automobile Truck.. 46 Bandwidth........... 252 when kilovolt-amperes are known....................................................................... 100.................... 182 Braid shield... .. 216 Boat cable............................... 102 tables............. 216 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings. 131 BBC........................... ...... 236 Plug Configuration. .................. ... 2 Amperes when horsepower is known. 102 derating of fire-protected cables. 52 Attenuation........ ........................................................................... 222 Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación...... ... .................. 73 AS/ACIF S009................

................ ..... .................... 216 thermal units....... 127 3 UTP performance..... 253.......... ......................... 164 coaxial cable............... 226 C22............ ........... ... 226 Cable accessories. .................................... 216 Broadcasting Company....... 232 Building Wire......... ............. ...................... 76 6 and Category 7 100 ohm shielded and unshielded twisted pair cables....................... 62 CEBEC 185. ........ 232 Electrical Code..................................... ................................................... 65 Cables for boats....................................... 174 Cabling for data center premises................ 143 types and selection criteria.......................... 5e........................................ ...... 218 Nuclear Fuels............................ .......... 116 for LAN twisted pair data communications.............. II........... 152 Categories 3... ..................... CEI........2 No... 144 trays..................... 161 for power circuits with rubber insulation rated to 450/750 V... 226 CANENA...... ........ 174 for Power-Limited Fire-Alarm Circuits.. ........... .... ......................................2 No........ 226 C22......... 20 Bureau de Normalisation................ .. 190.................................................. 198 (Comite Electrotechnique Belge Service de la Marque)................... .......... 256 Capacities and dimensions of shipping reels. 189 harmonized approvals................... 6 Canada........ 216 Buffer tube fanout...... 4.................... 5 or 6.................................... 216 standards....... 131.......... ................ Part I.............. 203 for power circuits with thermoplastic insulation rated to 450/750 V............... 77 CCW armor........... 48 CEN.......................... 205 Channel cable tray....................... 185....... 166............................ 11............ 183 tray systems.......................................................... ....... 6 and 6A........ 78............. 174 for Non-Power-Limited Fire-Alarm Circuits................................... 177 295 ......... 162 Bunch stranding... .............................. .................... 127 pulling guide.................................... 191 length measurement.1. 165 feed-in setups......................... 205 Cellular polyethylene................................... 196 CENELEC cable identification. ..... ... .......................... ......... 123 tray installation........ .. 164 hook-up wire............. ......... ....... .................... 111 identification code................... 214 Telecom...... .......................... ... 141 Building Code of Canada..................... 0............. ........................ .............................................................. .................... .... 74 Charging current.................................... 144 Characteristic impedance.. ........................ 161 termination...... 203 grips............... 171 6A UTP performance.......... 247 BSI....... 214 BT Group.................... ..................... 79 of a coaxial cable......... 190 Central office cable.......... 78 C C22............. ....... ......................................... ........................ .................. 47...................................... ............................ ............. ..... 226 FT4 test.. .... 231 Standards Association (CSA)............ ................. 193 copper conductors..... 179 plug configurations....................... ............................................................................. ............................ .............. ..... 165 for locomotive and car equipment...... ............ 167 Cadmium.. 7........ 165 Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano....... ....................... ....................... ....... .................. 122 Char length.................................... 68 Bunch-stranded copper conductors....... 165 Capacitance......... ................... . ......General Index British Approvals Service for Cables............................................ ........................ 76 Category 3.. 216 Defense Standards............................................. ..................... 76 5e UTP performance...................... ........................... 226 Canadian Electrical Code.................................. 198 Buried distribution............. 193 (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standards)............................................ ...................... 205 CESI.... ........................ 77 6 UTP performance.......................................... 129 Connectors for Audio Facilities for Radio Broadcasting........... 191 color codes............................. ................. 216 Railways Board...

........................................... 205 Comité Electrotechnique Belge... 14 B........ ... 191 5 .......... 224 Color identification and coding....................... .... 255 CL2............... ....... ....... reverse-lay aluminum 1350 conductors.... 173 transmission lines and connectors..... 200 Circular measurements diameter........................ ........................ ............ 182 CMP............... C................................................................... 165 distribution cable............ 131 connectors for CATV 75........................... 182 Cladding................ ............ 177 Composite tips........ 256 connectors...... ......... ............... ................................... .................................................... ............................ 14 H copper.... ................................ 112 CM..... C and D compact and compressed copper.................................................. 6..... 240 Quality Certification Center..... 84..... 70 Color coding..... . 173 types............................................ 233 Circumscribing circle.......................... ........................... ............ 193 for thermocouple extension wire.. 16 B concentric-lay-stranded compressed... 132 Coaxial cable.... 240 Coatings... 6 Communication cables...................................................................... 169 2 ..... .................... 10 Coax Connectors for Flexible Cable... 166 Color chart for insulation and sheath of electric cables................... ....................... 198 Common conductor materials.......... 164 Chromel........ 74 Coefficient of friction.............................. ......................... II vs alumel......... 79 CNIS...................................................... 73 capacitance.. 81 Class 1E electric cables..................................... ............. 84 CMX........................ 84............... .................. 8 strand............................ ............................... 224 standards........ ....................................................................................................... ... 38 Colors of the cores of flexible cables and cords..... ..................... .................................................................... 244 Circular mil(s)................................. 11 B ............ ......... ............. 69 CI Circuit Integrity................................................ 184 Compact conductor.................. ........... 164 drop cable.. 166 Circuits......... ........... 21 Class H rope-lay-stranded...................... 59.. D.................................... ...... ........... 240 standards.................................. 114 Colombian National Electrical Standard...... 20 M (34 AWG strands) rope-lay-stranded copper conductors............ ...................... ................................................................ 214 Color code for flexible cables............................ ...General Index Chinese National Institute of Standardization......... ....................................... 17 rope-lay-stranded copper conductors............................................................ ........................... 69 vs constantan............................................. ........ 173 cables for outdoor use............. ... compact and compressed diameters............................. 17 Clearance between conduit and cable......................... .. 231 CIGRE....................... 9 B aluminum........................ ....... field splices and connections for nuclear power generating stations... 191 AA ............. 240 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE)....... 84 CMR............. .............. ... ........ ......................................... 84........... 182 CL3................ ...... 37 jackets for wire and cable.. 70 for thermocouple wire......... 164 transmission lines................... 132 for Semirigid Cable......... 23 B concentric-lay-stranded copper conductors....... 84 CIC......................................... .. 140 296 ................................ circumference and area................................. ........................ 19 K (30 AWG strands) rope-lay-stranded copper conductors............... .... 34 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene............ 31............................... ..... 17 I (24 AWG strands) rope-lay-stranded copper conductors..... 246 Circulating currents. 8 Comparison of vertical cable tray tests............................................. 23 B.................... 167 Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano..................... ........... .................. 191 6 ...

... . 180 FT6.................................... 135 Concentric................... 200 Connector(s).. ....................................................... ...... ............... ..................... 134 terminals........... 127 Crosstalk........ 68 Continental Europe... II.......... ............ 62 Control and instrumentation cables.................... 162 Conductors of 8000 Series Aluminum Alloy....................................................................... 11 Neutral Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV............. ................. 8 stranded conductor diameter from wire diameter........... 58 hard drawn.............................. 26 resistance (ohm per loop-mile)...................... 36 CPE.................... ................. .. 56 short circuit current...................... 256 Concentric-lay-stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors............................. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR)..................... ................................ . 123 Corrosion resistance. 8 lay ............. ...... 134.............. 189............ 167 Neutral Power Cable Rated 5-45 kV....... ............. 106....... impedance............. 7 stranded conductor............................. 176.... 59 braid shield. 163 insulation for wire and cable rated 2.......... 48 CQC....................... .................. 6 diameter from wire diameter..................................... 165 CP .................... ................. 176 Corrugated copper wires......................................................................... 184 size.............................. ................. ....... 82 Corona............. 118 Copper annealed............................................. 251 Construction and building wire............................001 V to 35 kV............................. ...... ............................ 119 Copperweld.......................................... 246 tables..................... 227 cables....... 134 strand.................. ............................................................ diameter.... 176 FT4..... 140 Constants.. 134 conductor stranding.. ......... 24...................General Index Compressed conductors.... 36..................... ... ... 11 tape shields. attenuation... .......... 242 characteristics.. 167................................. 8 connector................................. 70 wire shield......... ... 166 shield (strand shield).... .............. 163 Conductive shield................................... 167..................................... . 246........................ 6 area......... 78...... ..... 68................ ........................ .... ........................................ 28 DC resistance.. 34.................... 79 resistances............................ 176.............. 141 tips made from ceramic................................. ........... area...... .... .......... 177.......................... 163 (XLP or XLPE)... 242............... 10 Corrosivity........ 98 short circuit current for copper cables. 113.......................................... ........ . 96 short circuit current for aluminum cables........ ............................ .000 V..................................... ............................................................................................................................................ 137 Cross-linked polyethylene insulation for wire and cable rated 0 to 2............. III Core....... 26 drain wire........ ............ ...... ........... ............. 215 properties........................................................ 248........................ .............. ......... ............. . 123 Cross-connect and breakout applications...... 240 Creepage surface................. ..... ........ 72 Copper-clad steel............................................ ............................................. ....... 162 Aluminum Conductors.................. weight and DC resistance.......... 135 tools.. 226 FT1...... 24................... 127 CSA...................... ............ 242 Conduit fill ............................................... 59 compression connectors.... 8 Compression connector........................... ......... 6 braid construction. 179. ................ 57 Council for the Harmonization of Electrical Standards of the Americas................ 79............................... 171 instrumentation and thermocouple........ 72 strand properties........................ 256 of insulated cables.......... ................................... 249 Conveyor sheave(s)........................ ... 110 Conference International des Grands Reseaux Electriques a Haute Tension..................... ........................................ 51 Crosstalk. 178 297 .... 187 Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW).............. . .... ... 244........... 227 strand.. .. 137 termination methods.......................... 112.......... 6 shielding tape. .... 56 Conductor(s)............. 68 Conversion factors.......... ...... 97 size conversion............. 57 vs constantan............................... .................. 82 diameter................

....................... 193................................. ............... 47 Degrees centigrade (celsius)........................................ .............................. 133 grade media (DGM)................... 53............... ........... 51. 86 resistance ohms/1.. 84 Dissipation factor........................................ 196 resistance and stranding of Class 2 copper conductors............... 190............. 217 Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Informationstechnik............................................ 199 Department for Transport.... 134 Duct bank..................... 71 Current loading (ampacity).............. 101 D Danish plug configuration...... 256 constant of common wire and cable materials..... 204 Drum diameter........................... 40 E-4 color sequence for control cables......... 202 47100* color code for paired conductors (with color repetition above 22).... ................. 194................................................................000 ft................................................ 39 E-2 color sequence.......... ....................... ...................... 203 47100 color code for single conductors (with color repetition above 44)...... 255 Diameters and cross-sectional areas of solid copper wire....... 124 hipot testing.................................. ................ 89 Deca....... 174 DC field test voltages....... 73..................................... 195 resistance and stranding of Class 6 (Highly Flexible) copper conductors.................... ..................... ... 86 testing.................. 34....................................................................................................................................... 150 Dry nitrogen........... .... 122 test voltages for shielded power cables....... .................... .............. 200 standards.......................................... 218 Degreaser solvents resistance............ ... 53 strength............ ......................... .. 76 DEMKO (Danmarks Electriske Materailkontrol)....... ................. ...... 41 E-5 color sequence for control cables.. 8 Dielectric................. at 20°C (68°F).......... 110 DIN............. ..... 228 CSP....... 218 DEF STAN 61-12......... 122 hipot test voltages......................................... 202 Diameter of multiconductor cables.................. 26..... .......................................... 196 resistance of Class 1 (Solid) copper conductors............................. 185............................ 38. II Duplex LC connector............................................... 248 298 Delay skew.. 59 Dual coax.................................................. 193 resistance of plated copper conductors..... 199 standards......... 195.... 37......... 75 constant...............General Index CSA cable types. ........................................................ ........................ ....... 165 . ........... . 217 Department of the Environment............. 71 Current rating of cables (100% load factor)............................... ........ ... 51 DEF STAN 02...................... ..................... 194 resistance and stranding of Class 5 (flexible) copper conductors....... 199 Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontrol. 199 E E-1 color sequence for control cables............ 248 Degrees fahrenheit.............. .................................... . 138 Dutch plug configurations......... 51 DKE........ ............................................ ............. .... 38.......... 124 maintenance testing................................ 168 Current ratings for electronic cables....... ................................. 37 Current-carrying capacity (ampacity)........... 173 connectors.............. 126 Dual braid shield construction. .................. ........ 41 ECA............... ............... 254 Deformation.................. ..... 123 resistance....................... 204 Deutsches Institut für Normung..... 202 Direct burial............................. 12 for common conductor sizes..................................................... 199 Data centers... 124 DC and AC resistance of copper conductors.......... 74 Dual-rated aluminum compression connectors.. 111 Duofoil............. .............................................................. ....................... 51 Dimensions and maximum allowable percent fill of electrical metallic tubing (EMT).... . .............. ...... ..... .... 101 for power applications........ ................................... 78 Data-processing cable............................

............................ 242 Enterprise cabling installations................. 217 Ergs............................ 189 Extension grade (wire)....................... 166 Fanout/breakout cable....................... ............ . 167............................... 252 systems........ 175 submersible cable.. 37 EPDM.............................................. 174......... 110 Equipment trailing cables.......... 79 Eddy currents.......... 51 Equation for calculating wire or cable area. 217 End caps............ ........................ 119 Extruded conductor shield............................................................................................ 70 Exchange cables.......................... 210 Electric cables under fire conditions–circuit integrity................ ......................................... 163 Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA).................................................. ...................................................... 58....... 78 immunity.............................................. ...... 217 Emission shield....... 134 installations in ships..................................................... 119 Eidgensisches Starkstrominspektorat......................... 73 locating.............. ................ 142 and polish connectors (UV cured)........................ ............................................................................................... ....... 68 Equivalent conductor spacing............ ........... 189 Committee for Standardization............ 169 Electrical characteristics. 257 ER (exposed run). .................................... 69 Extra-fine wire strands Class 6.. 31 Extra-high strength galvanized steel.. 168 shipboard cable..................................... .... ................................ 113 Engineering notation........................ .... 6 connections.......... 189 ENA...................General Index ECTFE (Ethylene-Chlorotrifluoroethylene or Halar)..................... ............. 84 ERA Technology Ltd..................................................... ....................... ............... .................................................... ................................................ ....... ................. .. ......................... 230 Fault current requirements... 56 Components.................. 47 properties of circuits................................ 157 seals.... 35 Evaluation of the insulation of shielded power cable systems................... .. 166 ELFEXT.. 137 EP ... 37 Epoxy and polish connectors (heat-cured)..................... 139 299 ............... 165 Industries Alliance. 51 integral insulation and jacket for wire...... ........................ or EPDM)..................... 161 insulation shield.................................... ..... 78 Explosive atmospheres (hazardous locations)...... 142 and polish connectors (snaerobic)....................... 50 versus XLPE.. 169 properties...................... 141 FAS 90.............. 233 Efficiency of motor....................... ..................... ..... 210 Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EP............... ...... 76 EMI emissions... Assemblies and Materials Association.......... 197 European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization........... 37................. 163 jacket for wire and cable................. ......................................................... 3 Electromagnetic interference (EMI)....... 196 Union (EU) Standards...................................... 252 EHS galvanized steel.............. ....................................... ................. 124 FC Connector.... . 73 cable shielding................................ ........... ................. EPR.......... 58 cable shields. 189 EVA..................................... ....................... 78 Electronic cable................. ......................... 247 ESTI (formerly SEV)........... 85 conductivity. .... .............. ..... 37........................... ....... 169 EX ..................................................... ................. 56 EN 60228.............................. 142 EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber)............................................ 72 F FAA...................................... 78 separation recommendations........................... 72 dielectric insulated power cable systems............................................................. 57................ ............................................... . ......... 35 EU power plug configurations........................... 254 English to metric................ 167 gas atmospheres................. ..

............... ...... ....... 174 Fiber cable construction...................... .......... ...... 200 Frequency range.. 127 type FSMA connectors......................... 166 FEP (Flourinated Ethylene-Propylene)....................... ... ........... 79......................................................... 173 connectors.................. 171 Flammability of polymers..... 137 ribbon cable................................. 201 standards............................................................ ...................... 223 Foot-pounds... ......................... ............. ........................ ................................. 84 Fork lift...... 58 Fondo para la Normalización y Certificación de Calidad........ 172 cables.... 232 FT4 fire test..... ......................................... 82 connector...... 31 Fire alarm and signal cable...... ............................... ......................... 173 testing......... 74 Cord & Fixture Wire.... 230 hazard testing.................................................. ....................... .. 137 Outside Plant Communications Cable.............................. .. 168 Field testing........... 81 Fibrous coverings................. 170 travel and smoke of wires and cables for use in air-handling spaces............... 176 Fixture wire(s)... ... 150 Flat PVC.......... ............ 82 Terminology.......... 138 Fiberglass.................... ...... ........ 174 resistance........ .............. 183....................... .. ....... 169 Filled buried wires.......................................................................... .................................. 173............. 127..................................... 139 Federal Aviation Administration..... 49 Ferrule....... 34...General Index FDDI Connector................................................ 173 selection................................... 172 Fine wire strands Class 5.. 247 For CT use...................................... ..................................... ............................................... .. ................. 67 Cords and Cables...... ........... ........... ....... 131 FT1 fire test. 173 cords.................................................................................................. ......... .................................. 169 electric submersible pump cable........................................................................................ 180....................................................... 173 types..... 141 300 .... ............................ ................. . 52 Flange diameter............................................... .......... 189 Flexibility. 84 French plug configurations..................................... 169 Tests. .................................................. ............................... 11 Flexible coax.... 157 Formulas and constants.......... 37 Fieldbus for use in industrial control systems........... .......... 137 core... 226 cord type designations................................... .......... 184 Flamarrest....................... 11.............................................. 178 testing of wire and cable........................... ..... . 172 cables for outside plant use... 37 Fiber optic cables......... 232 FT6 fire test... ........... 133 Fusible Links....................................................... ......... 139 distribution equipment.................................................... 67 Fluoropolymers.. 174 safety tests................................................................. ................. ............. 232 Resistive Cables (“CI” Rated).................. II Flame propagation........... 156 Flange diameter........................................................ . 172 Telephone Cable with Expanded Insulation... ....... 34 Foil shields................................... 78 Telephone Cable. ....................................................................... 141 cladding.. ............................ ............. 232 F type coax connector........................................................................ 172 Fusion splicing.. ................ ........ ...... 251 FPL.. 82 diameter......... ......... 137 Festoon cable....... . 182 Teflon................... ................. 140 distributed data interface................................................................ 47 spread....................................................................................... 168 ratings.............................................. 140 port density..................... 167 premises distribution cables...................................

............... .......................... 174.... 10 High-voltage connectors.................. 254 Gold............................General Index G Galvanized steel strand............................................................................................................................... 191 Hazardous locations (Type MC-HL).. .......... II I IACS.......... 170.......... 240 5023.. 34.......... 47 polyethylene insulation for wire and cable....................... ........................ 10 High-potential DC testing........................ 127 Handling.......... ............ 174 Hazardous (classified) locations................... 253 High-density fiber counts........................................... .................................................................... .... 10 hook-up wire..... 81 Ground check (GC) conductor............................ ............................................... ............................... 141 polyethylene....... ........ 230 GTO-5........ 50 Hypot..... 71 GSWB (galvanized steel wire braid). kerosene...................................................... ..... ................. 52 of wires and cables......... 164 resistance. 78 301 ... ...... ........................... . 182 Guard (G) connection. 204 standards............................................ ............................. .............. 176 in typical insulation and jacket materials................................ 68 Grounded systems (100 percent insulation level)................. 122 High-strength galvanized steel......................... 174 GB 5013.... 36 High-frequency applications... 67 HSJ........... .................................................. 190 standards....................................... 6 Graded refractive index. 189 HAR mark............. ... ........ flame spread and mass loss testing of insulating materials.................................. 163 High dielectric strength....................... 105 of cable reels....................................... ............. ....................................... 252 to amperes............................ .................. ........ . 182 gases evolved during combustion of electric cables................... III.................... .... 184 Health Care Facilities Handbook..................... 247........ ........ chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE).. 192 H07V-R......... ............................ 202 Giga...... ................. 63 GTO.. Part II............................. 119 High-temperature..................... 70 High temperatures........... ....... 125 H H03VV-F3... 10 HAR (Harmonized) Approval..... ........ 47 Gas-Tube-Sign Cable............................................................................... 192 H05V-U........................ 163 Helically applied copper wire(s) (shields)..................................... 122 Horsepower....................................................................................... ................................................. .. 240 General Requirements–Canadian Electrical Code..... ............................ 252 IBM cabling system................................. ..... 250 HPN......... 11 Heat-shrinkable tubing................. ......... 49 Halogen content........ 257 German plug configurations................... ...................... ........................................................................... 171 Heat cure....................... .............. resistance.. etc.... 47 Heater cord..................... 157 Hard drawn................................................... 35..... 122 Hipot testing............. .................. 168 Gasoline............. 257 mean radius of conductor.......... ........................... 203 Handheld LAN cable testers................... .................................... .................... ............................ 131 tests............................. 57 Henries... 67 Hypalon (discontinued)....... 171 wire and cable types.......... 189 Harmonized marks................. 171 instrumentation and control cable.............. II (ECTFE)........ 140 release...... 120.... .. .............. 37................................. 192 Halar.......... ...................... ...................................................................................... 226 Geometric mean distance........ ...........................................

................. .......... ........................ 169 of overhead transmission line conductors................................ .. II... 168 Insulation...... 189 IEC 60228..... 122 802............ 185 Istituto Italiano del Marchio de Qualita.................. 174 Tray Cable: Type ITC............................. 215...................... . ................................ ............................ 69........... 204 Iron vs constantan............. 224 Instituto Portugues da Qualidade............ ................... 190..... 169 302 Installation (Continued) of cable systems in substations... 164 Installation and testing..................... 77 Inside cable. 169 Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación........................................ 167......... 177..... 224 Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas. ...................................... ..... 127..... 205 Including Effect of Shield Losses. ........................... 169 383................... ......... 102 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)................... ......................... 74.............................................................. 131.................................. 31 IEE. 217 IET Ignitability............................... 58 Interlocked armor.. 207 Instrumentation cable(s)....................................... 253 Inductive reactance... 243 60332-3..... 103 methods................ 166 flexible cords............................................. 38 T-29-520..................... II..... 189 Systems.............. .... 224 Identification and use of cores of flexible cables... 221....... .............. 217 IEEE................. 185 stranding.............................. .............................................................. 205 .... 184 Intrinsic safety.. .... ................. 169 Installations on shipboard............................ 180 ....... ....... .. 167. ............................................ 92 matching... 185...................... 171 Individual shields.... ........................................................... ............5 (token ring).... 170 ISO (International Standard for Standardization).. 79 resistance (IR)...... ....... 74 mismatches............. ....... ...... .................................................................. 214 Systems and Automation Society................ .... 217 wiring regulations.......... 176 Ignition temperature... ... 167 Organization for Standardization................ 169 IMQ (Istituto Italiano del Marchio di Qualità)............................... 170 organizations.... 180 ICONTEC................. 176... .......................... 170...................................... 185 Telecommunication Union/Telecommunications Sector...... ................................... 184 Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA)................................. ............ 125 ISA..................... II................................................ 76........... 34 and jacket materials.................. ....... ........... 253 at 60 Hz for single copper conductor cables............. 177 (International Electrotechnical Commission).. 255 Intrinsically Safe electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres.... ................... . ............................. 169 of cable systems for Class 1E circuits in nuclear power generating stations.................. .............. 179......... ....... 92..... .. 177 400....................................................................................... 170 IPQ............ 177...............................................................General Index ICEA............... 70 IR tests.... ...... ............................ . 36....................................... 62 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).... ..................... 127 Impulse voltage tests on insulated conductors....... . 171 Industry standards..... 207 IRAM......... 170 tray cable.. 116 methods for generating station cables.... 125 Interference voltage.. ......................... 221.......................... 161 Informationstekniska Standardiseringen......... ....................................... 69 Inductance.......... .................... 209 Information Technology Equipment... 205 standards..................... and testing of insulated power cable. . 159....... 214 Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables............................ 184 Insertion loss........... 169 termination.................................................... ...... ................... ... ....... .......................... 170 Interstices....................... 257 Industrial machinery. 78 1202............. 166 S-73-532 (NEMA WC57).................... ............ ............ 78 wiring cable.................. ............................... ............. 224 Irish plug configurations...................... ................ ..... 163 Impedance........ 189 Identification threads......... 123... 47.....................

............................. 52 London Underground Limited.... 127 Local area networks (LANs).... II KEMA........... 37 Jamming..... weight............................... ........ ...... ................... . ................................. instrumentation and control cables...... 144 LAN cable testing............................................................... 63 Lead sheathed power cables............ ................... ........................ .................... 34...... 84 Limited-Combustible Cable.................. ............ 249 KX ........................ 127 Locating equipment. ........ 237 Local area network (LAN) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)................................................................ ........................... 127 Largest possible conductor in cable interstices... 239 C3663.......... B.................... 52 temperatures for Australian insulated cables.......................................................... .......................... 174 ............. 167 Low-temperature flexibility..... 247 Kilovolt-amperes.. ..... 114 Lucent connector............................... ........ ........................ .. ....................................... 34 (PVDF).... 166 Ladder type cable tray......... 203 Leakage current.. ........................... ............................ power and energy............................................... C.................. ........... 172 Jacket(s) for power. 252 kVA to amperes.... . 122 Length.......................General Index Italian plug configurations....................................................... ........................... ................. 221 LC connector................ 255 Lashing wires....... .............................................. KEUR (NV tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen). .. 63 Lead sheath.................. 209 ITS ITU-T.................................................... 172 Ultra Thin Wall Primary Cable............. 172 J1128...... 127 Limited combustible........ ............... 190..... 47 Low Voltage Battery Cable.... ... 81 Low-Smoke Halogen-Free (LSHF) Polymeric Cable Jackets... 70 Kynar......................... 37 K FIBER..................... 218 Loose buffer tube construction...................................... 82 Loose tube (loose buffer) cable............. 239 standards association..... 84........................ 113 Japanese plug configuration.......................... 145 Loc-Trac.......................... ......................................................... ................................ .. ........................... ............................... .......................................... 172 Lubricants............................. .... 205 ITC................. ... II K-fiber...................... 247 JSA......................................... 120 Latin and South America............... 239 Jumper cordage (patch cable)................................ 70 K Kapton.................... .............. ... 138 J J1127......................................................................... ............................................................. II LOI of common wire and cable materials................................................ .............. ............................. 252 Kilowatts. 239 Joules....... .......... 239 standards.. 185 Kevlar........... ............................ 170 L L-824-A.................... ................................ 239 JIS C3662..................................................................... 246 Life of the cable insulation.. ........... 174 Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI)... II Kilo..................................... 113 Jam ratio.. II.. 113................. 206 standards...................... .. 199 KEMA.. 78 Locate faults... 35 303 ...................... 57 Lifting cable reels..................... 105 Light output. 141 Low-density polyethylene............. .......................... ... ................... ...................................................................................... 172 Primary Cable.......... 138 Lead-covered cables................. .............. .......... . 47 Low-smoke fire-retardant cables....... ................. 141 JX .... 254 Kilograms per kilometer.................. 124 Locking plug configurations... .................................. area........................

...... II Electrical Safety Code (NESC)....... ................... ....................... ....... 38 Method 2 ........... 38 Method 3 ......... 119 Metal Cable Tray Systems.............Layer identification. .... ................... ..................... ..Colored compounds with tracers.............................. .......... 80 Mine power feeder cables (MPF)............................ 183 Method 1 ................................ ... ......... ..................................... ....... 81.... 118 Munsell color standard.............. .................... ..................... 174 Maximum cable diameters for permissible conduit fill...... 166 MV.............. 68 Ministry of Defense......... 170 Mineral insulated cable(s).. 127 Mechanical Transfer-Registered Jack............... 37 removal......................Paired conductors... 182 Mylar........... 218 MODUK...................... . ........ 119 permissible pulling length................ ........... II N Nano...... ........................ ...... 223 standards................. ............................ ... 138 MTW.........General Index M Machine Tool Wires and Cables (Type MTW).................... 214.. 222 plug configuration............................. 254 Megger. ... 82....................... ........................ 138 Medium hard drawn........................... .......................... 6 Marine Propulsion System Wiring...... ... . .. ... .............. .. ............. 222 MG.. 70 MIC (media interface connector).... 189........ .......................... 111 MC.............. 150 Mining cable............. 6 Metric to English conductor size.. 183 weight....................................................... 171.................... 139 304 Micro..................................................... 119 in aerial cable installations................... .Individual color coding with braids..................... 157 MSHA....... 10 Voltage Power Cable (Type MV)........................ 226 Minimum bending radius.. ... ..........................Neutral or single-color compounds with surface printing of numbers and color designations. 144 Metal-clad cable: Type MC....................................... 38 Method 6 .... 140 Multipair color code (Belden Standard).......... 174 Magnesium.. 183 Mega......... 170 MTP/MPO connectors...................... .................. 242 Mexican Code Standard for Electrical Installations. ......................Neutral or single-color compounds with surface printing of numbers..... 254 MIL-Spec wire....................... 115 drum diameter as a multiple of outside diameter of cable....................... . 126 Motor efficiency.............................................................. ... .... 138 MT-RJ connectors................. .. ............... ............................. 113 Supported Wiring............. 43 Multimode fiber............. ..................... ................. ................................................................... 182 Multiconductor color code (Belden Standard)............. 38 Method 5 ... ............................. 38 Metric sizes.... 46...................... 183 Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)..................... 254 National Electrical Code.................................................... 127 losses................ 80 Milli... 250 Moving and lifting................................... ...................................... 68 Safety and Health Administration....... .............................................................................................. ......................................... ......... 165 Military wire and cable types......................... 174. ... ... ........................... 43 Multi-sheave assemblies..... .................................. 218 Modular jack pair assignments for UTP.................... ......... ................ .... 169 ........................................ 182 Measure attenuation............. 84.. 168.......................................................... 114 pulling tension. .......................... 254 Microbending........... 38 Method 4 .... ...... 183 Electrical Code Articles related to the wire and cable industry.........Neutral colored compounds with tracers....................... 172 Shipboard Cable. ..................... II testing......... 38 Method 7 .................. ................ 139....... 83 Microphone cables...... 134 Moisture absorption......................... 125 Messenger breaking strength. ............................. ............................................. 109 core weight.....

......... 171 Standards Authority of Ireland.. 173 fiber cables under fire conditions..................................... 206 Neoprene (CP)..................... .............................................. 182 NMX-J-451-ANCE.................. ..................................................... 227 Fiber Cables and Raceways.. ................ ............... 206 standards.. II NM.... ........ 47 resistant....... 76.......... .. ................................ ............ 83 fiber cable(s)........ 176. 171 Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll......................... ..............................General Index National (Continued) Fire Protection Association (NFPA). .................................................................... 178 Nickel....... 174 Nonshielded Cables Rated 2......................................... II.......... 82 cable innerduct...... .............. 82 fiber cable splice closures................................... 252 kilometer................ II........... 167 WC 54.................................................. 204 Naval Ship Engineering Center (NAVSEC).............. 171 262.............. ......000 Volts or Less............. 183........... 81 power............... .................................... ... .. ....... 145 plug and receptacle configurations........................... 48 O OFN..... ............... ....................................................... 81 wave guides........ 74 Optical attenuation...... 167 WC 57................. 164 fiber cable designs............... 81 Optical time domain reflectometers (OTDRs)............................................................. ..................... ....... 133 NTC 2050............ tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen................................. ........... 145 WC 26 (EEMAC 201).............................. .................. 236 NEXT.... 21 N................................... ............ 84 NPT............ 167 WC 58........................... . 151 WC 50...... 127 Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik........... ................................ ............................................ 82 power meters....................... 81.......... 84 Operating temperature range................ 78............. 6 coatings............ .............. 2 Ohm’s Law......... ............. 167......... 171 Power Cables Rated 2............................ . 167 WC 55................... ...... 47 Number of conductors in electrical metallic tubing.................. 222 Nomex... 247 Oil resistance.. 247... 140............................................. 199 Network Rail................................................................... 18............. 190... 206 NPLF...... 50 NESC...... 17..... ............... ......................V..... 127 radiation..................... 171 non-locking plug configurations............. 224 NEC.................. II NBR 5410...... II Nisil... 222 No epoxy/no polish connectors.... .. ................... 106 Number of strands............ 247 New Zealand Wiring Rules...... 197 OTDR........................ .............. .............................. ......................... . .............. 174............... 166 WC 53...................... 184 fiber cable selection..................................................................................... .................. 176 NEMA............... ...001 ......... .. ................... 204 N series coax connectors. ........................ II Nonmetallic-sheath cables............................ ...................................................................... ............................. 164 density of smoke generated by solid materials...... ..... .........5......... 199 Nylon................... 36......... 86 Nicrosil.................. .......................000 Volts............................ 127 305 ...000 feet. 168 fiber types.... ...................................................................... 218 Newtons.. 206 NSAI...................... ............... 10..................................... 164 fiber and optical fiber cable.......................................... ..... ................. 169 Netherlands Electro-Technical Committee.. 199 Fire Test Summary........................................... ................... ............ 207 Post and Telecommunications Authority................. 224 Nuclear radiation resistance..... 77 NFPA......................... 185................................................... ............................ 2 Ohms per 1.......... 206 Norwegian plug configurations........ ....... 167 NEMKO (Norges Electriske Materallknotroll).................. 142 NOM-001-SEDE.............. 166 WC 51............ 190............................................................................................................. ............. 84 Ohm..............

. 200................... .... 69 Oxidation resistance...................................... 48 rated cable............................ .... .. ........ ....... 164 content of air.General Index Outer cladding layer...... ............. 168 cable shielding... 253 Partial discharge(s)... ............ .... 205................ 221... 67 power and control. 172 Peak smoke release rate.... 35 PO Polyamid.. .......... . ....... 37 Polyethylene jacket for electrical insulated wire and cable...... 177 Percent fill... 47 Oxide inhibiting compression connectors. 219. .................................................................. ............................. 163 consumption calorimeter....................... 35.................................... .............. ......... 253 factor of load.... 201......................................... 145........................ 11 cord terminology............................... 52 Index Test.......................... .. 35 ................................. .................. . 84... 56....................... .. 199......... 35 Polypropylene (PP)............................ 134 Parallel connections............. 211.................................................................. ........ 173....... ............. ................................................................... 208 standards......................... 37..... 178 PLTC.......... ............ 48 Polyvinyl chloride Jacket for Wire and Cable.. ...... . 198.. 166 cable ampacity tables. 47. 197 Overall diameter of a group of round conductors.............. 207 Pound-force. 134 factor........................................... 78 ÖVE (Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik).... 172 PE-89................................ 134 Oxygen.. 161............. 79 Polyolefins (PO)......... 79 Polyurethane (PUR).... 223........................... 167 cables..... .............................. 52 concentration to support candle-like combustion of plastics (oxygen index).................... 184 PP ... 56............ 113 PD (partial discharge)................. ..... 252 Power and Control Tray Cables (Type TC)..... 34 Phase-to-ground fault... 238............................. ........................ ................................................. 256 PIC screened cable........................................... 167 connectors........ 208........................................... ................................................... 146............ 232 (NPFA 262)......................... 81 Outer shield (insulation shield)......... 172 PE-90.. 169 cables.. ...................... 161 cables for rated voltages from 1 kV to 30 kV.......... ... 57 cables rated 5 through 46 kV................................... 196...................................................... 161 cables and accessories Rated above 46 kV through 345 kV..................... 174..................... ....... 71 cable 15 kV through 69 kV....... 76 PFA........ 207..... ... 69 through 138 kV......... 172 PE-86........... .............................. 147............... .................................. 210........... .. 71 Pico....................................... 174 Portuguese plug configurations........... . 47 P Packaging of wire and cable................ 110 Performance categories.. 247............................. 67 power cable........... 209.......................................................... 204................................. .. 172 PE-39.. 197........................................................ 183 cable................................................. 122 PE-7........................................................ ................... 176 PVC........................................ 35.. 37 Polyaramid.. ................ . 149 Pair assignments. 79 Portable and power feeder cables for use in mines... ..... 68 cord....000 feet............................. 34.............. ............................... 206............ 254 Picofarads per foot..... 182 306 Plug configuration(s).................................. 163 (PE)............................................ 247 Pounds per 1.................................................... ............... 166 cable ampacities. .... 170 Ozone resistance.................... ...... 252 Power-limited circuit(s). .......... 163 (PVC). 168 PASP cable......................... 164 Plenum flame test.... ........................................................ 237.................. 35.......................... 165 Payoff reel.................................................... 239 ...... 102........................................ ............................. 231........ ........ 190. .......... 56 Outside cable..... 255 Overall shield.. 236....................... ............

..... 162 Retractile cords............................. 253 and impedance at 60 Hz................... .......................................................... 111 grip............................... ................................. ................................................. 253 and weight of conductors....... 133 Roll direction............................ ...... 162 307 ... 105 Rollers............. 145 Recognized national standards......... .... 76.... 77 PSELFEXT....................................... ................... .................. 35 Railway Industry Association. 11.................... 228 Radar.................. 111 eyes.................. 47 of thermoset insulation and jacket materials............. ...................... .................... 252 inductance and capacitance in AC circuits.............. 92 Receiving........ 253 Resistivity of Electrical Conductor Materials............................ ......................................... ............ 77 (dB)........................... .. 179 (UL 1666).................. 77 Proper handling of cable reels.. .... ........ 167 (polyvinyl chloride)............ 150 weight.. ................................ ............... 174 Reduced diameter extruded dielectric shielded power cables rated 5 through 46 kV.................... .......... ................ ........ ............................................ ....................... ..... 182 RIA............. 49 Pulleys......... . 141 Riser cable.................................................................... ......... ..................................................................................................... 78 optical fiber cable.. .................................... .......................................... .............. 34..... ................................................... 113 Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Bunch Stranded Members)............. 77 PSANEXT. 172 Reactance..................... 124 Radiant Cone Flame Test................... 114 swivel................... ..... 126 PVC insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V............ ........................... 34... ....... 91 of copper conductors... ..................................... 111 tension............. 51 of thermoplastic insulation and jacket materials......................... ....... 84......... 105 Receptacle configurations...................................... L and C)................... 68.... 35 Return loss.......... ................ 118 Pulling........... 79 R R90........... 170 Radiation resistance............................ 157 Properties of EPR compared with those of XLPE... ............ 182 Preassembled aerial cable............................................ 35 Purging water from conductor........................................................................................... 253 and inductance in series (R and L)........... .............. 164 Proof testing.......... 156 handling....... 76 RHW.............................. 111 interlocked armor cable..... ............... 162 (Concentric Stranded Members)..................................... 76 PTFE (TFE) Teflon............... ...................... 218 R-CPE-90.. 111 Pre-connectorized patch panels............... 74 Regulatory and approval agencies........ 156 Reflections................... 111 force.............. 47...... .......................... 237 REA................. 237 Residual voltage................. 11..... 138 Premises distribution wiring....... 182 R-EP-90............. 191 Recreational Vehicle Cable......... 182 RHW-2..................................... 176 RJ11 and RJ45 modular plugs and jacks...... ..................................... .........General Index PPE............ 111 lubricants................. . ... .................. 164 flame test........................... 253 inductance and capacitance in series (R......... handling and storage.. 100 and capacitance in series (R and C)... 113 PUR.... . ............................................................................. 253 of aluminum conductors....................................................... ..... 176 delay.......................................................................... 77 PSACRF........... .......... .. 150 terminology........ ...................... 111 tension calculations................ 89 (R) ... 122 Propagation...... ............................. 161 Reel dimensions...... 157 size............... ........... ............................................................. ........................................................................ ................. 50 PSAACRF...................... ....... 76 PSNEXT.......................... 228 RA90. ........................................................................ 218 Ribbon cable...................................................... ..... 122 Resistance and ampacity at 400 and 800 Hz.................................. .......................................... 137....

........ .................................. .................................................... ...... ................................................. 99 current rating............................ .. 70 SHD cables............. 227 SC Connector..... ........... 58 practice for low voltage cables........................ ............... ...... 132.... 228 RWU90................. ................................. 137....................... 67........................................................................................................... ......... ......... . 55 Shield short circuit current. 140 Schweizerische Normen-Vereinigung................................... 164 Single conductor high-current armored cables......... 96............. ......... II Sector conductor...... 72.................... .. 99 Shipboard cable...................................................................................................................... 183 SETI (Electrical Inspectorate Sakiniementie)....................... ............ ........... 185 Seven-conductor cable for ABS power... 210 Scotch.......... 168 performance of metallic shields and sheaths......... 58 effectiveness.. ....................................................... ........ 99 Short-circuit temperature limits...... 68 Shrinkback......... 182 SJ ..................... 174........... ..... 63.......... ............... ........................................ ............................................ 118 Shielded cables.......... 238 standards.. 67 SJE... ..................................... ...................... 70 SFF-2..... . 168 Shovel (SHD) cables.... ...... . ..... 139 .................................................. 76 twisted-pair (STP) cabling.......... ............. 169 Shields......... 238 Singlemode optical connectors........... 111 assembly................... ........................................... .......... 78 Service entrance cables.......... 68 Sheave..................... 119 SCC. 114 Signal leakage.......................... 67 SJTO.... 56 Semirigid cable..................... 7 Rubber insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V....... ................... 185....... 209 SEO...................... 67 SJT............. ..... 152 Short circuit current for copper and aluminum conductors.............. 113........................... 50 Silver............ 140 fiber............. 127 308 Shielding at high frequencies............. 197 SHV connectors........................... 185 SEV (Schweizerischen Electrotechnischen Verein).......... 81 Single sheaves....................................................... 172 RUS.............. 166 time.......................General Index Rope strand................................................. II Scotchlok.. ... ........................................................................ ......... ................................................................................... 229 S SAA..... .......... 7 Semiconductive shields............ 172 SF-2..... .. 168 Rural Utilities Service............................................................................................................................. 81 Shipping reels..... . ...................... 175 Shipboard cables............................................................................... 67 SMA connector(s)........ .......... ........ ................................... .... ............................................. 172 Safety in high voltage and high power testing........................................... 51 “Shuko” European................................................. 67 SJOOW. 59 Service drop............................................. ......................... 37 rubber......... .. ............... 10................ .......... 6 plated........... 182 Series and parallel connections... 78 twisted pair (STP)..................................... 253 Serve shields...................... ..... .......... ................... ...... ............................................. 233 Single-mode connectors.................. 74 SEMKO (Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten)..................................... .............. 7 Segmental conductor...................................................... 190.. 86 Singapore plug configurations.................. 169 Sag.. 172 RW90............................................... 131 Sidewall pressure (SWP).. 236 SAE International. 58 Silicone.......... 111................. 96 current(s)............................... ............... 118 SIS.................... 96 current for copper shielding tape.......... ....... .. 131 coax........................... ............

................................. 137 Strand classe(s)............................... 51.................................................... ................................ .......... 11 Strength members..... .. .................... 26 diameter....... .................................... .................................. 227 Standards organizations................................ 157 Straight tip connector............... .. 67 Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten............... 8 copper.................................. 67 Spiral (serve) shield............................................................................................ 162 Solderability.............................................. 136 Submarine cable...................... 86 classes B..... .... 121 Spanish plug configurations.............. ..... .........General Index Small form factor (SFF) connectors................. ........................ 67 Society of Automotive Engineers........ 182 Storage..... ......... 164 Standard English Sizes (kcmil)................... 56 Structural Return Loss (SRL)........................................ 169 Subscriber connector............ 172 Soft or annealed copper wire............................................. . 150 SPRING Singapore (formerly PSB)... D..................... .......... 236 Council of Canada......................................... C............ I and K.................................................................. ... ................. 7 Stranding.......................................... .................................................... .... 105 and shipment................. ............... ............... 12 SOO................................... 143 Suspended cables. 10 Solef.. 209 309 ........................... 168 release rates........................................... ...... 8 aluminum................................................... 26 diameter........ H............. 11................000 kcmil)................. ...... .......... 22 conductor....... 164 Statistical analysis of thermal life test data... 238 SS358................................................................ .............. ............ 83 Stress control layer.. ................................................................. 169 ST Connector....................... ........... ..... 70 SRL................. 74 SS299 Part 1................................ . area........................ 221 Spacings for conductor supports................. II (PVDF)..... 137 Sunlight resistant...................... 242 2 Standard metric sizes (mm ).............................. .................... ............................................. ................................. ....................... ......................... .................... 214 Standing waves...... 79...... ............................................................................................. ........................................................ ......... 164 Steiner Tunnel Flame Test... 88 types................................................................................................ 59 Spool size................................................................. 242 Standards Australia............... 67 Square millimeters..... 156 Smoke.................................. 70 SRGK.. ..... .......... . ............................... . 121 Support span......... ............... 137 Small reel dimensions...................... 140 STALPETH........................ ..... .. ... .................................... 79.... 137 Steam resistant cable............................................ 210 SO ............. .... ..... 238 Stainless steel................................. 78 Stud sizes..................................................................... area and DC resistance (32 through 4/0 AWG)............ 6.. 121 SVE..... ........ 238 SPT-1..... 70 SRK.............. 209 standards.. .......... 119 tips. 74........... 67 South America...................................................... 209 SVT........ 34 Solef/Kynar (PVDF)/PVF........................................................... 49 Solid... 63 Swedish plug configurations.............................. .. .. ........ 182 STOOW............ ........ 74 Station wire.. 208 SPE-1................ DC resistance and weight (20 AWG through 2. 178 STO.......................... 164 SNV............ ......... 67 SWA (steel wire armor)......................... 84 Support spacing for conductors in vertical raceways......................... 182 SOOW........ 63 Submersible pump cable........................................................ 28 Strand Properties. ..... 210 standards............ 178 density of burning cables........ 79 Structured building wiring system................... .. ............. ........................................ 246 SRG........ ................ 10......... 176 density.......

... 38 Table K-1................................................... .............................. ..... 182 THW-2......... 229 Table E-2....... II................................. 94 conversion.......................................... 34....................... 173............................... 46 color codes.... .................. 111 Tera................................................ 51 Thermocouple connectors....... ..............................2........................... ... 185 Synthetic rubber...... ........................... . .............. 173 Telecommunications Cabling Standard....... 182 THWN................ 50 insulated......................... .......... 69 types........................................................................ .......... ............................... .......... 34 PTFE.... 67 Thermosetting polyethylene insulation for wire and cable.............. 131 Three phase delta.................... .................. ............................................. 94 range of cable polymers........... 233 Testing at high voltage....................... 173 Telephone cables........... 76 Tight buffer.................... 101 Tensile load................ 226 Thermoset(s).... 94 coefficient of resistance...... 228............ ............. 182 TCGT. 3 star.......................... 38 Tape shielded 15 kV power cable. 6 expansion................................. 173 TIA-568-B............ armored cables having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases......... ..... ......... .............................................................. 34 FEP....... 37 TFE...... 46 power cable.......................................... 182 Threaded coupling........................... 182 TGGT..... .......... 69...................................... 211 standards........................... 35. ............... 182 .................. ...................... 72 TC ......... .............................. ..................... 35 Thermoset-Insulated Wires and Cables..................... 10 Tension limitations........ 182 TFFN............... ................................. 124 Textile braid........................................................................................................................... 78 Temperature coefficient of copper................... .......... ........ 164 Telecommunication cable color code (band marked)......... ............... 36 T T90 NYLON......... ........................................ ............................................................... .... ...... 226 Thermoplastic(s)....General Index Swiss plug configurations....... 141 of Single Phase Single-Conductor Teck 90 Cables...................................................................... 70 TDRs................................ 84...... ................. 70 Thermal conductivity.................... ...... ........................ ....................... ... 34 elastomer (TPE).................................... .............. 51 properties...................... .............................. 69 wire.. 49 Telcordia........ 34............. 123 methods..................................................................... II (ETFE)....... 3 THW................. .. 233 Teflon........................................................................................ 228 terminations.... ... .. 182 TFN................................................................................................... 122 Tests conducted during and after installation................................... 47 cords................. ... 210 Symbols of international organizations................ 83 strength of copper wire......................................... ........................................... ..........164 THHN............................ 3 wye.......................................................... 173...................... 226...... 173 TIA TIA-568-B...... . 51 rise........................... 68 THWN-2.... 69 junction........... 164 Telecommunication Industries Association........................ 124 TECK 90 cable......................... 50 CPE..................................................... 34............ 46 cable color code (solid colors).................... 36.................. 83 .... 80 Thermoplastic-Insulated Wires and Cables.. .............. 67 CPE...................1....... 248 correction factors for the resistance of copper conductors....... 34 Tefzel................... 254 Terminal stud size chart................................ .. .. .................................. 214 portable cords................................................................................................................................ 34 PFA............................. 136 310 Termination leakage current...... ...................................................................

................... 69 G ... 68 Tyrin............................. .................... 70 TNC............. 78 U... 69 R and S (platinum vs rhodium)........................................................................... 124..................................... 79 CMR................ 69 TC ............................................... ......... 230 311 ............S. . ..................... ........ 213 plug configurations.................. .... 182 UL (Underwriters Laboratories) Symbols.................... II United Kingdom................... 84 types............... II............................................................................ 76 (UTP) cable... 177 Toxicity................................... 71 UniBlend............. 75 TWU75.. 47 Underwriters Laboratories (UL)........................................ ........................................... .......... 74 Twinaxial cable (twinax).. ...... ................ .............. II UniStrand............ .................................. 56 Tree wire........... 176......................... ................................................... 141 Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR)........................ 79 CMX.............................. .................. 35 Trademarks.......................... .......... 131 Token ring protocol.................. 51 Trees............................. 37 government specifications......... ........................... ................................................................... 179 UL 1685 Fire Test........................................... II Union Technique de l’Electricité...... 74 Transmission lines..................................... 68 USEI90....... 228 TX ............... 35 TPR....................................................................... 182 UHF coax connectors.. 127 Time-leakage current test........ 165 Triaxial cable (triax).. ......................... 143 Tree retardant................... 177.. .... 175 USE............................... 200 UniShield.............. ... ......................... 79 Type (Continued) E (chromel vs constantan)................. .......................................................... 84 cover........... 70 TMMG.... 182 USE-2.......................... 132 UL 910 Fire Test........................ 82 Traverse..................................................................................... 10 Tin plated............................................ ........ 176.... 156 Tray cable listings and markings.. ............. .................................................. 79 CM CMP................................General Index Tight-buffered cable................... 162 Tinsel conductor..................................................................... .................................................................... 69 TECK 90 Cable........ 182 UL Marks......................................... 219 Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)................................... 68 J (iron vs constantan)............... .................... 122 ..................................................................................................................................................... ............... 144 material and finish.. ............................. ......... 226 UF ... .............. 131 connector... 84 cables................. II Trailing cables for mining purposes................... Bureau of Mines. 86 Tinned soft or annealed copper wire................................ ...... .................... 165 Transmitted intensity....... 78 TKGT................. ..... .......................................................................... 178 UL 1581 Vertical Tray Fire Test...................... ..... 139 Total smoke released................................................... 170 TPE............................... 34 W ......... 180 UL Listing(s). ............. ....................... 176 Testing of Fire Effluents......... 182 Ungrounded Eurocord............................................... 214 Transfer impedance testing................ 70 Type ...................................... 150..................................................... 143 rating............. ............................ 191 Tip and ring............... 185 Underground burial..... ...................... ................. .. ..... 69 K (chromel vs alumel)......................................................... .................................................... 171 Transit time of signals................... 197 systems (133 percent insulation level)........................................ 180 UL 1666 Riser Flame Test........... ............ 179......... II U UF ............. ................................................ 84 T (copper vs constantan). .................... ...................

....................... ............ 167 resistivity of the insulation shield........ ............. 185...... ..................................... ...................................... 185...... 182 XLP.................................. ....................................................... II VCSEL (vertical cavity surface emitting laser).. 190.............. 151 Test Methods (Trinational)........ 247 Wavelength................................ 167 (210.... ........ 167 Vertical cable tray tests......... 84.... 113 serve armor............................. 121 Tray Flame Test.... ...000 BTU/Hour)...... .................................................... 237 Valox. 247 Watts........ .................. 143 V V-90...................... 203 Vertical suspension...................... .............................................. 58 Zinc.................. 122 Working load.................................. 105 Weather................ .......................... 72 drop in percent................... 126 Watertight construction........................................... ........... .............. 122 Voice grade media (VGM)............... ......................... .............. ....General Index TE (Union Technique de L’Électricité)............................ 74 VW-1....... sun resistance.......... 11........ 63 Wire and Cable covered by UL Standards........................................... 200 UV cure.............. ................................ 182 Packaging... 179 Vertical Cable Tray Flame Tests (70........... 223 standards............................... 203 Velocity of propagation....................................... 6 Zytel........ 36 Z Z-Fold........... ............................... 171 Weatherproof caps......................... ............... .............................. 74 Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio (VSWR).... 181 VW-1 flame test..................................... . ............................ 74 Venezuelan National Electrical Standard (Código Eléctrico Nacional)........... 151........................... 171 WC 71.......... 131 Volume resistivity.......................... 181 Vertical-tray fire-propagation and smoke-release test... II Z-Fold foil shield................... of circuit.... 2 Voltage drop.................. 71..... 174 VLF (very low frequency)................... 173 pulling compounds......................... 177 Vertical-specimen flame test........................... 171 WC 70......... 78 Volt........................... 47 vapor.. 223 Ventilated trough-type cable tray.......................... ............. 81 Watt-hours...... 82 WC 57................... 74.............. ....... 81 VDE (Verband Deutscher Elektrotechnischer)............... 56 VSWR........................... ..... ....... ................. 84 Wire connectors...................... 84..... 171 WC 66............ ......................................... ................................................... 181 X X-HF-90........................... ................... ................................................................... ................... ......................... .... ....................................... 182 XHHW-2.............. 95 rating................ ................................................................... ......................... 237 XHHW.. 190. ........... 95 drop per amp per 100 ft..... 47 Welding cable............ ........................... ....................................... 176.................. ... 68............................. ... .. ............ 171 packaging standards.. ............... ........ 36 XLPE.. 174 Withstand test........................................................................... II 312 ...... 144 Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker......................................000 BTU/Hour)..... 182 Wet location......................................................... .......................... 140 W W ............ ... 71.. ................................ 182 Water resistance.................... 95 drop considerations....................

313 .

314 .

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11H0001X0 © 2013 Anixter Inc. • 01/13 • 252161 • ISBN: 978-0-615-24926-1 .

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