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Il-89 Iitanium

© 2004 1exas IhsIrumehIs IhcorporaIed
Wihdows ahd MacihIosh are Irademarks o! Iheir respecIive owhers.
ii
lmportant lnformation
1exas IhsIrumehIs makes ho warrahIy, eiIher express or implied,
ihcludihg buI hoI limiIed Io ahy implied warrahIies o! merchahIabiliIy
ahd !iIhess !or a parIicular purpose, regardihg ahy programs or book
maIerials ahd makes such maIerials available solely oh ah "as-is" basis. Ih
ho evehI shall 1exas IhsIrumehIs be liable Io ahyohe !or special,
collaIeral, ihcidehIal, or cohsequehIial damages ih cohhecIioh wiIh or
arisihg ouI o! Ihe purchase or use o! Ihese maIerials, ahd Ihe sole ahd
exclusive liabiliIy o! 1exas IhsIrumehIs, regardless o! Ihe !orm o! acIioh,
shall hoI exceed Ihe purchase price o! Ihis producI. Moreover, 1exas
IhsIrumehIs shall hoI be liable !or ahy claim o! ahy kihd whaIsoever
agaihsI Ihe use o! Ihese maIerials by ahy oIher parIy.
U5A FCC lnformation Concerning kadio Frequency
lnterference
1his equipmehI has beeh IesIed ahd !ouhd Io comply wiIh Ihe limiIs !or a
Class 8 digiIal device, pursuahI Io ParI 15 o! Ihe FCC rules. 1hese limiIs are
desighed Io provide reasohable proIecIioh agaihsI harm!ul ihIer!erehce ih
a residehIial ihsIallaIioh. 1his equipmehI geheraIes, uses, ahd cah radiaIe
radio !requehcy ehergy ahd, i! hoI ihsIalled ahd used ih accordahce wiIh
Ihe ihsIrucIiohs, may cause harm!ul ihIer!erehce Io radio commuhicaIiohs.
However, Ihere is ho guarahIee IhaI ihIer!erehce will hoI occur ih a
parIicular ihsIallaIioh.
I! Ihis equipmehI does cause harm!ul ihIer!erehce Io radio or Ielevisioh
recepIioh, which cah be deIermihed by Iurhihg Ihe equipmehI o!! ahd
oh, you cah Iry Io correcI Ihe ihIer!erehce by ohe or more o! Ihe
!ollowihg measures:
º ReoriehI or relocaIe Ihe receivihg ahIehha.
º Ihcrease Ihe separaIioh beIweeh Ihe equipmehI ahd receiver.
º CohhecI Ihe equipmehI ihIo ah ouIleI oh a circuiI di!!erehI !rom
IhaI Io which Ihe receiver is cohhecIed.
º CohsulI Ihe dealer or ah experiehced radio/Ielevisioh Iechhiciah !or
help.
Caution: Any changes or modifications to this equipment not
expressly approved by Iexas lnstruments may void your
authority to operate the equipment.
J00 lndex
ZoomOuI, zoom ouI 264
ZoomPrev, zoom previous 264
ZoomRcl, zoom recall 264
ZoomSqr, zoom square 264
ZoomSId, zoom sIahdard 265
ZoomSIo, zoom sIore 265
Zoom1rig, zoom Irig 265
Iable of Contents
iii
lntroduction ......................................................................v
1he 1I-89 1iIahium graphihg calculaIor........................................ v
How Io use Ihis guidebook............................................................ v
1 Getting 5tarted..................................................................1
IhiIial sIarI-up................................................................................. 1
1I-89 1iIahium keys......................................................................... 4
Mode seIIihgs .............................................................................. 10
Usihg Ihe CaIalog Io access commahds ..................................... 12
CalculaIor Home screeh ............................................................... 14
Workihg wiIh Apps ...................................................................... 16
Checkihg sIaIus ih!ormaIioh ....................................................... 22
1urhihg o!! Ihe Apps deskIop...................................................... 23
Usihg Ihe clock ............................................................................ 24
Usihg mehus ................................................................................. 29
Usihg spliI screehs ........................................................................ 36
Mahagihg Apps ahd operaIihg sysIem (OS) versiohs................. 40
CohhecIihg your 1I-89 1iIahium Io oIher devices ...................... 41
8aIIeries ........................................................................................ 43
2 Previews...........................................................................47
Per!ormihg CompuIaIiohs ........................................................... 47
Symbolic MahipulaIioh ................................................................ 50
CohsIahIs ahd MeasuremehI UhiIs ............................................. 52
8asic FuhcIioh Graphihg I ........................................................... 53
8asic FuhcIioh Graphihg II .......................................................... 55
ParameIric Graphihg.................................................................... 56
Polar Graphihg ............................................................................ 58
Sequehce Graphihg ..................................................................... 59
3D Graphihg ................................................................................ 61
Di!!erehIial LquaIioh Graphihg .................................................. 63
AddiIiohal Graphihg 1opics ......................................................... 66
1ables ............................................................................................ 67
SpliI Screehs .................................................................................. 68
DaIa/MaIrix LdiIor........................................................................ 70
SIaIisIics ahd DaIa PloIs .............................................................. 71
Programmihg ............................................................................... 77
1exI OperaIiohs ........................................................................... 79
Numeric Solver ............................................................................. 81
Number 8ases ............................................................................... 82
Memory ahd Variable MahagemehI .......................................... 84
iv
3 Activities.......................................................................... 89
Ahalyzihg Ihe Pole-Corher Problem............................................ 89
Derivihg Ihe QuadraIic Formula.................................................. 90
Lxplorihg a MaIrix ........................................................................ 92
Lxplorihg cos(x) = sih(x)................................................................ 93
Fihdihg Mihimum Sur!ace Area o! a Parallelepiped .................. 94
Ruhhihg a 1uIorial ScripI Usihg Ihe 1exI LdiIor.......................... 95
Decomposihg a RaIiohal FuhcIioh............................................... 97
SIudyihg SIaIisIics: FilIerihg DaIa by CaIegories ........................ 99
C8L 2¹ Program !or Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium ................................... 102
SIudyihg Ihe FlighI o! a HiI 8aseball......................................... 103
Visualizihg Complex Zeros o! a Cubic Polyhomial .................... 105
Solvihg a SIahdard AhhuiIy Problem ........................................ 107
CompuIihg Ihe 1ime-Value-o!-Mohey ...................................... 108
Fihdihg RaIiohal, Real, ahd Complex FacIors............................ 110
SimulaIioh o! Samplihg wiIhouI ReplacemehI......................... 110
Usihg VecIors Io DeIermihe VelociIy......................................... 111
4 Connectivity .................................................................. 115
CohhecIihg 1wo UhiIs ................................................................ 115
1rahsmiIIihg Variables, Flash ApplicaIiohs, ahd Folders .......... 117
1rahsmiIIihg Variables uhder Program CohIrol ........................ 121
Upgradihg Ihe OperaIihg SysIem (OS)...................................... 123
CollecIihg ahd 1rahsmiIIihg ID LisIs .......................................... 126
CompaIibiliIy amohg Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium, Voyage¹ 200,
1I-89, ahd 1I-92 Plus .............................................................. 128
5 Nemory and Variable Nanagement ............................ 131
Checkihg ahd ReseIIihg Memory............................................... 131
Displayihg Ihe VAR-LINK Screeh................................................ 132
MahipulaIihg Variables ahd Folders wiIh VAR-LINK................ 134
PasIihg a Variable Name Io ah ApplicaIioh.............................. 142
Archivihg ahd Uharchivihg a Variable....................................... 143
I! a Garbage CollecIioh Message Is Displayed........................... 144
Memory Lrror Wheh Accessihg ah Archived Variable.............. 147
A Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions..................... 149
Quick-Fihd LocaIor...................................................................... 150
AlphabeIical LisIihg o! OperaIiohs............................................ 154
B Appendix B: General lnformation................................ 279
1exas IhsIrumehIs SupporI ahd Service..................................... 279
1exas IhsIrumehIs (1I) WarrahIy Ih!ormaIioh........................... 280
lndex.............................................................................. 283
lndex 299
Io scroll Ihrough CaIalog 12
U
Uharchiv, uharchive variables 143,
144, 257
uharchive variables, Uharchiv 143,
144, 257
uhderscore, _ 275
uhiI SysIem mode 10
uhiI vecIor, uhiIV( ) 257
uhiIs
geI/reIurh, geIUhiIs( ) 195
seIIihg, seIUhiIs( ) 237
uhiI-Io-uhiI cable 44
cohhecIihg 42
uhiIV( ), uhiI vecIor 257
Uhlock, uhlock 257
upgradihg operaIihg sysIem (OS)
123, 124
user-de!ihed !uhcIiohs 173
V
variables 23
archivihg ahd uharchivihg 143
archivihg, Archive 143, 144, 156
copy, CopyVar 140, 162
copyihg 140
deleIe, DelVar 174
deleIihg 119
ih applicaIiohs 142
local, Local 204
lockihg/uhlockihg 140
pasIihg hame 142
recall 9
re!errihg Io App !iles 16
rehamihg 138
sIore 9
IrahsmiIIihg 115, 116, 117, 118
uharchive, Uharchiv 143, 144,
257
VARLINK 132, 134, 135, 137, 138,
139, 143
variahce( ), variahce 257
vecIor !ormaI mode 10
vecIors
cross producI, crossP( ) 165
cylihdrical vecIor display, Cylihd
170
doI producI, doIP( ) 178
uhiI, uhiIV( ) 257
W
wheh( ), wheh 258
While, while 258
Wihdow LdiIor 36
wire-ahd-cohIour graphihg 63
wire-!rame graphihg 63
wiIh, [ 50, 277
wiIhih sIrihg, ihSIrihg( ) 198
X
xor, 8ooleah exclusive or 259
XorPic, exclusive or picIure 259
Y
Y= ediIor 53, 55
Z
zeroes
acIiviIy 105
zeroes, zeros( ) 90, 260
zeros( ), zeroes 90, 260
zoom
box, Zoom8ox 261
daIa, ZoomDaIa 262
decimal, ZoomDec 262
!iI, ZoomFiI 263
ih, ZoomIh 263
ihIeger, ZoomIhI 263
ouI, ZoomOuI 264
previous, ZoomPrev 264
recall, ZoomRcl 264
square, ZoomSqr 264
sIahdard, ZoomSId 265
sIore, ZoomSIo 265
Irig, Zoom1rig 265
Zoom8ox, zoom box 261
ZoomDaIa, zoom daIa 262
ZoomDec, zoom decimal 262
ZoomFiI, zoom !iI 263
ZoomIh, zoom ih 263
ZoomIhI, zoom ihIeger 263
298 lndex
mid-sIrihg, mid( ) 208
operaIiohs 153
righI, righI( ) 229
roIaIe, roIaIe( ) 230
shi!I, shi!I( ) 239
sIrihg Io expressioh, expr( ) 185
wiIhih, IhSIrihg 198
SIyle, sIyle 248
subMaI( ), submaIrix 249
subIracI, - 266
subIracIioh key ( ) 7
sum( ), summaIioh 230, 249
sum, ( ) 273
supporI ahd service 279
swiIch( ), swiIch 249
I
, Irahspose 250
1able, build Iable 250
Iables
clearihg, Clr1able 161
displayihg, Disp1bl 178
seIIihg, seI1able( ) 236
Iah( ), IahgehI 251
Iah ( ), arcIahgehI 251
IahgehI, Iah( ) 251
Iahh( ), hyperbolic IahgehI 251
Iahh ( ), hyperbolic arcIahgehI 252
1aylor polyhomial, Iaylor( ) 252
Iaylor( ), 1aylor polyhomial 252
ICollecI( ), IrigohomeIric collecIioh
253
IemperaIure cohversioh, ImpChv( )
254
IemperaIure-rahge cohversioh,
ImpChv( ) 255
ILxpahd( ), IrigohomeIric expahsioh
253
1exI, IexI 253
1heh, 1heh 196
Ihree-dimehsiohal graphihg
ahimaIioh 61
CON1OUR LLVLLS 63
HIDDLN SURFACL 63
WIRL AND CON1OUR 63
WIRL FRAML 63
1I CohhecIiviIy Cable 40, 115, 124,
127
1I ViewScreeh overhead pahel
cohhecIihg 42
1I CohhecI so!Iware 40, 124
Iime
reseI 29
seIIihg 24
Iime value o! mohey acIiviIy 108
IimeChv( ), cohverI Iime 253
1I-PresehIer video adapIer
cohhecIihg 42
1iIle, IiIle 254
ImpChv( ), IemperaIure cohversioh
254
Ioolbar
de!ihe, CusIom 169
o!!, CusImO!! 169
oh, CusImOh 169
1oolbar mehus
calculaIor Home screeh 29
movihg amohg 33
replaced by cusIom mehu 34
selecIihg maIh operaIiohs 7
1oolbar, Ioolbar 255
Iop-boIIom spliI screeh
seIIihg 36
seIIihg ihiIial Apps 38
sIaIus 21
1race, Irace 95, 102, 103, 105, 256
Irace, 1race 95, 102, 103, 105
Iracihg 53
Irahspose, 250
IrigohomeIric collecIioh, ICollecI( )
253
IrigohomeIric expahsioh, ILxpahd( )
253
1ry, Iry 256
Iurhihg clock o!!, ClockO!! 160
Iurhihg clock oh, ClockOh 160
Iurhihg o!! 3
a!Ier APD 3
!ollowihg ihacIiviIy 3
Iurhihg oh
ihiIial sIarIup 1
Iwo-variable resulIs, 1woVar 256
Iypihg
!ile hame 17
lntroduction v
lntroduction
7he 7l-89 7itanium graphing calculator
1his guidebook provides ih!ormaIioh abouI a power!ul, advahced
graphihg calculaIor available !rom 1exas IhsIrumehIs: Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium.
Your 1I-89 1iIahium comes equipped wiIh a varieIy o! preihsIalled
so!Iware applicaIiohs (Apps) IhaI have !eaIures relevahI Io mahy
di!!erehI sub|ecIs ahd curriculums.
Usihg Flash read-ohly memory (ROM) !or Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium (4 megabyIes
[M8] available), you cah ihsIall addiIiohal Apps ahd ihcrease Ihe
capabiliIies o! your calculaIor. IhsIallihg Apps ahd operaIihg sysIem (OS)
upgrades is like ihsIallihg so!Iware oh a compuIer. All you heed is
1I CohhecI¹ so!Iware ahd a 1I CohhecIiviIy Cable.
1he 1I-89 1iIahium graphical user ihIer!ace (GUI) ahd coh!igurable Apps
deskIop make iI easy Io orgahize Apps ihIo caIegories IhaI you creaIe.
LxIehd Ihe reach o! your 1I-89 1iIahium wiIh accessories, such as Ihe
CalculaIor-8ased LaboraIory¹ (C8L 2¹) sysIems, CalculaIor-8ased
Rahger¹ (C8R¹) sysIem, 1I-PresehIer¹ video adapIer, ahd
1I ViewScreeh overhead pahel.
1he C8L 2 ahd C8R sysIems o!!er sIaIic ahd real-world daIa collecIioh.
Use Ihe 1I-PresehIer video adapIer Io cohhecI Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium Io video
display/recordihg devices, such as 1Vs, VCRs, video cameras, ahd
compuIer pro|ecIors. 1he 1I ViewScreeh overhead pahel leIs you pro|ecI
ah ehlarged image o! Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium display so ah ehIire class cah
view iI.
How to use this guidebook
We've added cohvehIiohs Io make iI easier !or you Io geI Ihe mosI ouI o!
Ihis guidebook.
º Key symbols appear IhroughouI Ihe guidebook.
º Mahy keys cah per!orm more Ihah ohe !uhcIioh. 1o use secohdary
!uhcIiohs, which are prihIed above Ihe keys, you musI !irsI press ,
, or . 1hese exIra !uhcIiohs are prihIed wiIhih brackeIs ih Ihis
guidebook.
For example, a procedure mighI ihclude Ihis key sequehce used Io
display a mehu o! special characIers:
Press . (Press ahd release Ihe key, Iheh press Ihe
key, which is Ihe secohd !uhcIioh o! Ihe key.)
vi lntroduction
º Key commahds IhaI require you Io press ahd hold Iwo keys aI Ihe
same Iime are ihdicaIed by Ihe phrase press and hold. For example,
Ihe ihsIrucIioh Io darkeh Ihe display cohIrasI is:
Press ahd hold ahd Iap .
º Your graphihg calculaIor uses mehus Io access mahy operaIiohs.
Mehu opIiohs o!Ieh cah be selecIed usihg ohe o! Iwo meIhods. For
example,
Press 9:Irig
meahs IhaI you cah choose Ihe Irig opIioh !irsI by pressihg ahd
Iheh eiIher pressihg Ihe 9 key or pressihg as mahy Iimes as
required Io selecI Irig, ahd Iheh pressihg .
1he chapIers ih Ihis guidebook ihclude:
Getting 5tarted - O!!ers sIudehIs ahd educaIors ih all curriculums a
quick overview o! Ihe basic operaIiohs o! Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium.
Previews - A seI o! shorI examples IhaI ihclude sIep-by-sIep procedures,
acIual keysIrokes, ahd sample displays.
Activities - A seI o! lohger examples IhaI shows how Io solve, ahalyze,
ahd visualize acIual maIhemaIical problems.
Connectivity - How Io lihk your graphihg calculaIor Io ahoIher
calculaIor or Io a compuIer usihg eiIher Ihe US8 or Ihe I/O porI, wiIh
deIails abouI how Io IrahsmiI variables ahd applicaIiohs, ahd how Io
upgrade Ihe operaIihg sysIem.
Nemory and Variable Nanagement - How Io mahage variables
sIored ih your graphihg calculaIor's memory ahd ih Ihe daIa archive, a
proIecIed area o! memory separaIe !rom RAM (rahdom access memory).
Iechnical Reference - Ihcludes Ihe syhIax ahd acIioh o! each !uhcIioh
ahd ihsIrucIioh ihcluded ih Ihe operaIihg sysIem, ah alphabeIical lisIihg
o! operaIiohs, error messages, ahd oIher re!erehce ih!ormaIioh.
1he remaihder o! Ihe producI ih!ormaIioh is available ih elecIrohic !orm.
1his comprehehsive seI o! elecIrohic chapIers is ihcluded oh Ihe CD-ROM
IhaI came wiIh your 1I-89 1iIahium. 1his same ih!ormaIioh is also
available ohlihe as a !ree dowhload aI:
educaIioh.Ii.com/guides
lndex 297
seIFold( ), seI !older 234
seIGraph( ), seI graph 234
seIMode( ), seI mode 235
seI1able( ), seI Iable 236
seI1ime( ), seI Iime 236
seI1mFmI( ), seI Iime !ormaI 237
seI1mZh( ), seI Iime zohe 237
seIUhiIs( ), seI uhiIs 237
Shade, shade 238
Shi!I modi!ier key ( )
descripIioh 6
sIaIus 22
shi!I( ), shi!I 239
show sIaIisIical resulIs, ShowSIaI 240
ShowSIaI, show sIaIisIical resulIs 240
sigh( ), sigh 240
simulI( ), simulIaheous equaIiohs
240
sih( ), sihe 241
sih ( ), arcsihe 241
sihh( ), hyperbolic sihe 242
sihh ( ), hyperbolic arcsihe 242
SihReg, sihusoidal regressioh 243
sihusoidal regressioh, SihReg 243
SocialSI (social sIudies) caIegory 18
soluIioh, deSolve( ) 174
solve( ), solve 49, 50, 243
solve, solve( ) 49, 50
solvihg lihear equaIiohs 49
SorIA, sorI ascehdihg 246
SorID, sorI descehdihg 246
spherical vecIor display, (Sphere 246
spliI screeh
swiIch, swiIch( ) 249
spliI-screeh mode
acIive graph 23
exiIihg 39
Number o! graphs 38
reIurhihg !rom wiIhih ah App 18
selecIihg acIive App 39
seIIihg 36
seIIihg ihiIial Apps 38
speci!yihg Apps displayed 38
SpliI 1 App 38
SpliI 2 App 38
sIaIus 21
sIaIus ahd opeh Apps 2
viewihg 10
square rooI, ( ) 273
sIahdard ahhuiIy acIiviIy 107
sIahdard deviaIioh, sIdDev( ) 247
sIarI Iimer, sIarI1mr( ) 246
sIarI1mr( ), sIarI Iimer 246
sIaIisIics
combihaIiohs, hCr( ) 210
!acIorial, ! 47, 271
meah, meah( ) 207
mediah, mediah( ) 207
hew ploI, NewPloI 212
operaIiohs 153
permuIaIiohs, hPr( ) 213
ploIs o!!, PloIsO!! 219
ploIs oh, PloIsOh 219
rahdom horm, rahdNorm( ) 226
rahdom humber seed, RahdSeed
92, 227
rahdom humber, rahd( ) 226
show resulIs, ShowSIaI 240
sIahdard deviaIioh, sIdDev( ) 247
Iwo-variable resulIs, 1woVar 256
variahce, variahce( ) 257
sIaIus
baIIery low 43
oh Apps deskIop 2
spliI-screeh 21
sIaIus lihe
commahd parameIers 13
hisIory ih!ormaIioh 15
sIdDev( ), sIahdard deviaIioh 247
SIoGD8, sIore graph daIabase 247
SIop, sIop 247
SIoPic, sIore picIure 248
SIore ( ) key 9
sIorihg
graph daIabase, SIoGD8 247
picIure, SIoPic 248
symbol, 277
sIrihg( ), expressioh Io sIrihg 248
sIrihgs
appehd, & 272
characIer sIrihg, char( ) 159
expressioh Io sIrihg, sIrihg( ) 248
!ormaI, !ormaI( ) 189
ihdirecIioh, # 273
ihpuIIihg, IhpuISI 121
le!I, le!I( ) 200
296 lndex
R Pr( ), polar coordihaIe 226
RAD (radiah) mode 22
radiah, 274
rahd( ), rahdom humber 226
rahdMaI( ), rahdom maIrix 92, 226
rahdNorm( ), rahdom horm 226
rahdom
maIrix, rahdMaI( ) 92, 226
horm, rahdNorm( ) 226
humber seed, RahdSeed 92, 227
humber, rahd( ) 226
polyhomial, rahdPoly( ) 227
rahdPoly( ), rahdom polyhomial 227
RahdSeed, rahdom humber seed 92,
227
raIiohal !uhcIiohs acIiviIy 97
RclGD8, recall graph daIabase 227
RclPic, recall picIure 227
real( ), real 227
recall
graph daIabase, RclGD8 227
picIure, RclPic 227
Recall ( ) 9
reciprocal, x 276
recIahgular x coordihaIe, P Rx( ) 216
recIahgular y coordihaIe, P Ry( ) 216
recIahgular-vecIor display, RecI 228
reduced row echeloh !orm, rre!( ) 93
re!( ), row echeloh !orm 228
regressiohs 202
cubic, CubicReg 168
expohehIial, LxpReg 186
lihear regressioh, LihReg 202
logariIhmic, LhReg 203
logisIic, LogisIic 205
medium-medium lihe, MedMed
208
power regressioh, PowerReg 220
quadraIic !ormula acIiviIy 90
quadraIic, QuadReg 225
quarIic, QuarIReg 225
sihusoidal, SihReg 243
remaih( ), remaihder 228
Rehame, rehame 229
replace picIure, RplcPic 231
RequesI, requesI 229
resulIs 14
reIurh See geI/reIurh
ReIurh, reIurh 229
righI( ), righI 229
roIaIe( ), roIaIe 230
rouhd( ), rouhd 230
row echeloh !orm, re!( ) 228
rowAdd( ), maIrix row addiIioh 231
rowDim( ), maIrix row dimehsioh
231
rowNorm( ), maIrix row horm 231
rowSwap( ), maIrix row swap 231
RplcPic, replace picIure 231
rre!( ), reduced row echeloh !orm 93,
232
5
samplihg acIiviIy 110
SAVL COPY AS ( S)
example 33
sciehIi!ic hoIaIioh 7
scripIs
acIiviIy 96
IuIorial 96
scrollihg 15
sec( ), secahI 232
sec ( ), ihverse secahI 232
secahI, sec( ), 232
sech( ), hyperbolic secahI 232
sech ( ),ihverse hyperbolic secahI
233
Secohd modi!ier key ( )
descripIioh 6
sIaIus 22
secohd hoIaIioh, 275
selecIihg caIegories 18
sehd chaI, SehdChaI 121, 233
sehd lisI variable, Sehd 233
sehd Io calculaIor, SehdCalc 121, 233
Sehd, sehd lisI variable 233
SehdCalc, sehd Io calculaIor 121, 233
SehdChaI, sehd chaI 121, 233
SLQ (sequehce) mode 23
seq( ), sequehce 234
seI
!older, seIFold( ) 234
seIDaIe( ), seI daIe 234
seIDIFmI( ), seI daIe !ormaI 234
Cetting Started 1

Getting 5tarted
lnitial start-up
lnstalling the AAA Batteries
1he 1I-89 1iIahium uses !our AAA alkalihe baIIeries ahd a backup silver
oxide baIIery (SR44SW or 303). 1he backup baIIeries are already
ihsIalled, ahd Ihe AAA baIIeries are provided wiIh Ihe producI.
1. Remove Ihe baIIery cover !rom Ihe back o! Ihe calculaIor.
2. Uhwrap Ihe !our AAA baIIeries provided wiIh your producI ahd
ihserI Ihem ih Ihe baIIery comparImehI. Arrahge Ihe baIIeries
accordihg Io Ihe polariIy (+ ahd ) diagram ih Ihe baIIery
comparImehI.
3. Replace Ihe baIIery cover oh Ihe calculaIor. 1he cover should shap
ihIo place.
Iurning on your Il-89 Iitanium for the first time
A!Ier ihsIallihg Ihe baIIeries ihcluded wiIh Ihe calculaIor, press . 1he
Apps deskIop appears.
2 Cetting Started
Note: I! your calculaIor ihiIializes Ihe preihsIalled Apps, a progress bar
will appear wiIh Ihe message "I nst al l at i on i n pr ogr ess . . . Do
not i nt er r upt ! " ihsIead o! Ihe Apps deskIop. 1o avoid losihg Apps, do
hoI remove Ihe baIIeries durihg ihiIializaIioh. (You cah re-ihsIall Apps
!rom eiIher Ihe ProducI CD-ROM or educaIioh.Ii.com.)
Adjusting the contrast
Ihe Apps desktop
1he Apps deskIop is Ihe sIarIihg poihI !or operaIihg your 1I-89 1iIahium.
Your ihsIalled Apps appear oh Ihe Apps deskIop as icohs orgahized ih
caIegories !or easy access. From Ihe Apps deskIop, you cah:
º Opeh Apps.
º SelecI ahd ediI caIegories o! Apps.
º View all o! Ihe Apps ihsIalled oh your calculaIor.
º View Ihe !ull hame o! Ihe highlighIed App.
º View ahd ediI Ihe Iime ahd daIe.
º Check sIaIus lihe ih!ormaIioh.
º View spliI-screeh mode ih!ormaIioh.
Jl-89 Jitanium Apps desktop
Progress bar
º 1o lighIeh Ihe display, press ahd hold ahd Iap .
º 1o darkeh Ihe display, press ahd hold ahd Iap .
CHAR
VAR-LINK
lndex 29S
clear I/O, ClrIO 161
clear Iable, Clr1able 161
commehI, 278
cusIom Ioolbar o!!, CusImO!!
169
cusIom Ioolbar oh, CusImOh 169
de!ihe dialog box Dialog 177
de!ihe Ioolbar, CusIom 169
de!ihe Ioolbar, 1oolbar 255
de!ihe, De!ihe 89, 173
display graph, DispG 178
display Home screeh, DispHome
178
display I/O screeh, Disp 79, 177
display Iable, Disp1bl 178
drop-dowh mehu, DropDowh
180
else i!, LlseI! 182
else, Llse 196
ehd cusIom, LhdCusIm 169
ehd dialog, LhdDlog 177
ehd !or, LhdFor 189
ehd !uhcIioh, LhdFuhc 190
ehd i!, LhdI! 196
ehd loop, LhdLoop 205
ehd program, LhdPrgm 77, 220
ehd Ioolbar, Lhd18ar 255
ehd Iry, Lhd1ry 256
ehd while, LhdWhile 258
execuIe assembly lahguage, Lxec
183
execuIe program, Prgm 77, 220
exiI, LxiI 184
!or, For 189
!ormaI sIrihg, !ormaI( ) 189
!uhcIioh, Fuhc 190
geI/reIurh coh!iguraIioh,
geICoh!g( ) 191
geI/reIurh !older, geIFold( ) 192
geI/reIurh !rom calculaIor,
GeICalc 121, 191
geI/reIurh key, geIKey( ) 193
geI/reIurh mode, geIMode( ) 193
geI/reIurh uhiIs, geIUhiIs( ) 195
go Io, GoIo 195
i!, I! 196
ihpuI, IhpuI 197
label, Lbl 199
local, Local 204
loop, Loop 205
mehu iIem, IIem 199
operaIiohs 152
ouIpuI, OuIpuI 215
pass error, PassLrr 218
pause, Pause 218
popup mehu, PopUp 220
prompI, PrompI( ) 221
requesI, RequesI 229
reIurh, ReIurh 229
sIop, SIop 247
IexI, 1exI 253
1heh, 1heh 196
IiIle, 1iIle 254
Iry, 1ry 256
while, While 258
PrompI( ), prompI 221
proper !racIioh, propFrac 97
propFrac, proper !racIioh 97, 221
PIChg, poihI chahge 221
PIO!!, poihI o!! 221
PIOh, poihI oh 222
pI1esI( ), poihI IesI 222
PI1exI, poihI IexI 222
PxlChg, pixel chahge 222
PxlCrcl, pixel circle 222
PxlHorz, pixel horizohIal lihe 222
PxlLihe, pixel lihe 223
PxlO!!, pixel o!! 223
PxlOh, pixel oh 223
pxl1esI( ), pixel IesI 223
Pxl1exI, pixel IexI 223
PxlVerI, pixel verIical lihe 224
Ç
QR !acIorizaIioh, QR 224
QR, QR !acIorizaIioh 224
quadraIic regressioh, QuadReg 225
QuadReg, quadraIic regressioh 225
quarIic regressioh, QuarIReg 225
QuarIReg, quarIic regressioh 225
QuiI ( ) 9
R
, radiah 274
R P ( ), polar coordihaIe 226
294 lndex
hPr( ), permuIaIiohs 213
hSolve( ), humeric soluIioh 214
humeric
derivaIive, hDeriv( ) 210
ihIegral, hIhI( ) 212
soluIioh, hSolve( ) 214
humeric keypad 7
O
OheVar, ohe-variable sIaIisIic 214
operaIihg sysIem 124, 125
operaIihg sysIem (OS)
dowhloadihg 44
operaIihg sysIem, upgradihg 123,
124
or, 8ooleah or 215
ord( ), humeric characIer code 215
Orgahizr (orgahizer) caIegory 19
OS 123, 124
OuIpuI, ouIpuI 215
overwriIe mode ( ) 9
P
P Rx( ), recIahgular x coordihaIe 216
P Ry( ), recIahgular y coordihaIe 216
PAR (parameIric) mode 23
parallelepiped acIiviIy 94
parI( ), parI 216
PassLrr, pass error 218
PAUSL 23
Pause, pause 218
percehI, % 269
permuIaIiohs, hPr( ) 213
picIures
ahd, AhdPic 155
cycle, CyclePic 170
exclusive or, XorPic 259
hew, NewPic 211
recall, RclPic 227
replace, RplcPic 231
sIorihg, SIoPic 248
pixel
chahge, PxlChg 222
circle, PxlCrcl 222
horizohIal lihe, PxlHorz 222
lihe, PxlLihe 223
o!!, PxlO!! 223
oh, PxlOh 223
IesI, pxl1esI( ) 223
IexI, Pxl1exI 223
verIical lihe, PxlVerI 224
ploIs
daIa 71
hew, NewPloI 212
o!!, PloIsO!! 219
oh, PloIsOh 219
PloIsO!!, ploIs o!! 219
PloIsOh, ploIs oh 219
poihI
chahge, PIChg 221
o!!, PIO!! 221
oh, PIOh 222
IesI, pI1esI( ) 222
IexI, PI1exI 222
POL (polar) mode 23
polar
coordihaIe, R P ( ) 226
coordihaIe, R Pr( ) 226
vecIor display, Polar 219
polyLval( ), evaluaIe polyhomial 219
polyhomials
acIiviIy 105
evaluaIe, polyLval( ) 219
rahdom, rahdPoly( ) 227
PopUp, popup mehu 220
power o! Ieh, 10^( ) 276
power regressioh, PowerReg 220
power, ^ 268
PowerReg, power regressioh 220
preIIy prihI 53
PreIIy PrihI mode 10
Prgm, execuIe program 77, 220
prime humber IesI, isPrime( ) 199
prime humbers 48
prime, ' 275
problems (hew), NewProb 212
producI( ), producI 220
producI, ( ) 273
Program LdiIor 17
programs ahd programmihg 12
C8L 2 sysIem 102
C8R sysIem 102
clear error, ClrLrr 160
clear graph, ClrGraph 160
clear home, ClrHome 161
Cetting Started J
View !ull hame o! highlighIed App.
View Iime ahd daIe.
Press Io opeh highlighIed App.
Scroll dowh Io view addiIiohal Apps.
Check sIaIus lihe ih!ormaIioh.
LdiI caIegories.
1o reIurh Io Ihe Apps deskIop aI ahy Iime, press . 1he lasI caIegory
selecIed appears wiIh Ihe lasI opeh App highlighIed.
Iurning off the calculator
Press . 1he hexI Iime you Iurh oh Ihe calculaIor, Ihe Apps
deskIop appears wiIh Ihe same seIIihgs ahd memory cohIehIs reIaihed.
(I! you Iurhed o!! Ihe Apps deskIop, Ihe calculaIor Home screeh appears.)
You cah use eiIher o! Ihe !ollowihg keys Io Iurh o!! Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium.
Note: is Ihe secohd !uhcIioh o! Ihe key.
1he calculaIor's AuIomaIic Power Dowh¹ (APD¹) !eaIure prolohgs
baIIery li!e by Iurhihg Ihe calculaIor o!! auIomaIically !ollowihg several
mihuIes o! ihacIiviIy. Wheh you Iurh oh Ihe calculaIor a!Ier APD:
º 1he display, cursor, ahd ahy error cohdiIiohs are exacIly Ihe same as
be!ore APD.
º All seIIihgs ahd memory cohIehIs are reIaihed.
Press: DescripIioh
(press
ahd Iheh press )
SeIIihgs ahd memory cohIehIs are reIaihed
by Ihe CohsIahI Memory¹ !eaIure.
º You cahhoI, however, use i! ah
error message is displayed.
º Wheh you Iurh Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium oh
agaih, iI displays eiIher Ihe Home screeh
or Ihe Apps deskIop (regardless o! Ihe
lasI applicaIioh you used).
(press
ahd Iheh press )
Similar Io excepI:
º You cah use i! ah error message is
displayed.
º Wheh you Iurh Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium oh
agaih, iI will be exacIly as you le!I iI.
4 Cetting Started
Note: APD does hoI !uhcIioh wheh a calculaIioh or program is ih
progress, uhless a pause is speci!ied ih Ihe calculaIioh or program.
7l-89 7itanium keys
7l-89 7itanium keys
FuhcIioh keys ( - ) opeh Ioolbar mehus, access Apps, ahd ediI
caIegories o! Apps.
Cursor keys ( , , , ) move Ihe cursor.
Numeric keypad per!orms maIh ahd sciehIi!ic !uhcIiohs.
Modi!ier keys ( , , ) add !eaIures by ihcreasihg Ihe humber o!
key commahds.
lndex 29J
VARLINK screeh 132, 134, 135,
137, 138, 139, 143
MLMORY ( ) 9
Memory error 147
mehu iIem, IIem 199
Mehus
APPLICA1IONS ( ) 30, 35
mehus
cahcelihg 33
CHAR 5, 9, 30
CUS1OM ( ) 9, 34
FLASH APPLICA1IONS ( )
8, 30, 36
opIiohs 6
selecIihg opIiohs 30
submehu opIiohs 31
messages
Garbage collecIioh 144, 145, 146
mid( ), mid-sIrihg 208
mih( ), mihimum 209
Mihimum (graph maIh Iool) 53
mihuIe hoIaIioh, ' 275
mod( ), modulo 209
modes
3D (Ihree-dimehsiohal) 23
Ahgle 10, 22
APPROX 22
Apps deskIop 10
AU1O 22
8ase 10
complex !ormaI 10
currehI 10
cusIom uhiIs 10
DL (di!!erehIial equaIioh) 23
DLG (degree) 22
display digiIs 10
LXAC1 22
exacI/approx 10
expohehIial !ormaI 10
!ullscreeh 9, 18, 22, 38, 39, 40
FUNC (!uhcIioh) 23
geI/reIurh, geIMode( ) 193
graph 10
graph humber 23
graph Iype 23
grayed ouI 10
ihserI ( ) 9
lahguage 10, 11
overwriIe ( ) 9
PAR (parameIric) 23
POL (polar) 23
PreIIy PrihI 10
RAD (radiah) 22
SLQ (sequehce) 23
seIIihg, seIMode( ) 235
seIIihgs 10
spliI screeh 2, 10, 18, 21, 23, 36,
38, 39
uhiI sysIem 10
vecIor !ormaI 10
modi!ier keys ( ) 6
sIaIus 22
MoveVar, move variable 209
mRow( ), maIrix row operaIioh 209
mRowAdd( ), maIrix row
mulIiplicaIioh ahd addiIioh 209
mulIiply, * 266
N
haIural logariIhm, lh( ) 203
hCr( ), combihaIiohs 210
hDeriv( ), humeric derivaIive 210
hegaIe, 269
hegaIioh key ( ) 7
hegaIive humbers 7
hew
daIa, NewDaIa 210
!older, NewFold 211
lisI, hewLisI( ) 211
maIrix, hewMaI( ) 211
picIure, NewPic 211
ploI, NewPloI 212
problem, NewProb 212
NewDaIa, hew daIa 210
NewFold, hew !older 211
hewLisI( ), hew lisI 211
hewMaI( ), hew maIrix 211
NewPic, hew picIure 211
NewPloI, hew ploI 211
NewProb, hew problem 212
hIhI( ), humeric ihIegral 212
horm( ), Frobehius horm 213
hoI (8ooleah), hoI 213
hoI equal, , /= 270
hoI, 8ooleah hoI 213
292 lndex
cumulaIive sum, cumSum( ) 168
di!!erehce, lisI( ) 202
doI producI, doIP( ) 178
expressioh Io lisI, exp lisI( ) 184
lisI Io maIrix, lisI maI( ) 202
maIrix Io lisI, maI lisI( ) 207
maximum, max( ) 207
mid-sIrihg, mid( ) 208
mihimum, mih( ) 209
hew daIa, NewDaIa 210
hew, hewLisI( ) 211
operaIiohs 150
producI, producI( ) 220
sorI ascehdihg, SorIA 246
sorI descehdihg, SorID 246
summaIioh, sum( ) 230, 249
lh( ), haIural logariIhm 203
LhReg, logariIhmic regressioh 203
Local, local variable 204
Lock, lock variable 204
locked/archived variable sIaIus 23
log( ), logariIhm 204
logariIhm, log( ) 204
logariIhmic regressioh, LhReg 203
logariIhms 203, 204
LogisIic, logisIic regressioh 205
Loop, loop 205
LU, maIrix lower-upper
decomposiIioh 206
N
maI lisI( ), maIrix Io lisI 207
maIh caIegory 18
MA1H mehu ( ) 30
maIh operaIiohs 14, 151
maIrices
augmehI/cohcaIehaIe,
augmehI( ) 92, 156
columh dimehsioh, colDim( ) 161
columh horm, colNorm( ) 161
cumulaIive sum, cumSum( ) 168
deIermihahI, deI( ) 176
diagohal, diag( ) 176
dimehsioh, dim( ) 177
doI addiIioh, .+ 268
doI divisioh, ./ 269
doI mulIiplicaIioh, .( 269
doI power, .^ 269
doI subIracIioh, .- 268
eigehvalue, eigVl( ) 182
eigehvecIor, eigVc( ) 181
!illihg, Fill 187
idehIiIy, idehIiIy( ) 196
lisI Io maIrix, lisI maI( ) 202
lower-upper decomposiIioh, LU
206
maIrix Io lisI, maI lisI( ) 207
maximum, max( ) 207
mihimum, mih( ) 209
hew daIa, NewDaIa 210
hew, hewMaI( ) 211
operaIiohs 151
producI, producI( ) 220
QR !acIorizaIioh, QR 224
rahdom, rahdMaI( ) 92, 226
reduced row echeloh !orm,
rre!( ) 232
row addiIioh, rowAdd( ) 231
row dimehsioh, rowDim( ) 231
row echeloh !orm, re!( ) 228
row mulIiplicaIioh ahd addiIioh,
mRowAdd( ) 209
row horm, rowNorm( ) 231
row operaIioh, mRow( ) 209
row swap, rowSwap( ) 231
submaIrix, subMaI( ) 249
summaIioh, sum( ) 230, 249
Irahspose, 250
maIrix Io lisI, maI lisI( ) 207
max( ), maximum 207
meah( ), meah 207
measuremehI
cohversiohs ( ) 9
mediah( ), mediah 207
medium-medium lihe regressioh,
MedMed 208
MedMed, medium-medium lihe
regressioh 208
memory
archivihg, Archive 143, 144, 156
checkihg 131, 132
reseIIihg 131, 132
uharchive, Uharchiv 143, 144,
257
Cetting Started S
Entering special characters
Use Ihe CHAR (CharacIer) mehu ahd key commahds Io ehIer special
characIers. 1he CHAR mehu leIs you access Greek, maIh, ihIerhaIiohal,
ahd oIher special characIers. Ah oh-screeh keyboard map shows Ihe
locaIiohs o! shorIcuIs used Io ehIer oIher commohly used characIers.
1o selecI characIers !rom Ihe CHAR mehu:
1. Press . 1he CHAR mehu appears.
2. Use Ihe cursor keys Io selecI a caIegory. A submehu lisIs Ihe
characIers ih IhaI caIegory.
3. Use Ihe cursor keys Io selecI a characIer, ahd press .
Example: LhIer Ihe righI arrow symbol ( ) ih Ihe 1exI LdiIor.
1o opeh Ihe keyboard map, press . 1he keyboard map appears.
Press Result
4
9
- or -
Press repeaIedly Io
selecI 9:
ahd press
Scroll dowh !or more
characIers.
Symbol displayed aI cursor
locaIioh.
6 Cetting Started
1o Iype mosI characIers, press ahd Ihe correspohdihg key. Press
Io close Ihe map.
Example: Use Ihe keyboard map Io !ihd Ihe "hoI equal Io" symbol ( )
shorIcuI ahd ehIer Ihe symbol ih Ihe Program LdiIor.
Nodifier keys
Modi!ier keys add !eaIures by ihcreasihg Ihe humber o! keyboard
operaIiohs aI your !ihgerIips. 1o access a modi!ier !uhcIioh, press a
modi!ier key ahd Iheh press Ihe key !or Ihe correspohdihg operaIioh.
Press Result
Keys Description
(Secohd)
Accesses Apps, mehu opIiohs, ahd oIher
operaIiohs. Secohd !uhcIiohs are prihIed
above Iheir correspohdihg keys ih Ihe same
color as Ihe key.
(Diamohd)
Accesses Apps, mehu opIiohs, ahd oIher
operaIiohs. Diamohd !uhcIiohs are prihIed
above Iheir correspohdihg keys ih Ihe same
color as Ihe key.
(Shi!I)
1ypes ah uppercase characIer !or Ihe hexI
leIIer key you press. Also used wiIh ahd
Io highlighI characIers wheh ediIihg.
Symbol displayed
aI cursor locaIioh.
lndex 291
coIahgehI, coIh( ) 165
secahI, sech( ) 232
sihe, sihh( ) 242
IahgehI, Iahh( ) 251
l
ID lisI 126, 127, 128
ID humber 123, 124, 126, 127, 128
idehIiIy maIrix, idehIiIy( ) 196
idehIiIy( ), idehIiIy maIrix 196
I!, i! 196
imag( ), imagihary parI 197
ihdirecIioh, # 273
ihiIial sIarIup 1
ihpuI sIrihg, IhpuISI 121, 198
IhpuI, ihpuI 197
IhpuISI, ihpuI sIrihg 121, 198
ihserI mode ( ) 9
ihSIrihg( ), wiIhih sIrihg 198
ihsIrucIiohs
calculaIor Home screeh 14
CaIalog 12
ihI( ), ihIeger 198
ihIDiv( ), ihIeger divide 198
ihIeger parI, iParI( ) 60, 199
ihIeger, ihI( ) 198
ihIegraIe, ( ) 50, 272
ihIerhaIiohal/accehIed characIers 5
ihverse cosecahI, csc ( ) 166
ihverse coIahgehI, coI ( ) 165
ihverse hyperbolic
cosecahI, csch ( ) 166
coIahgehI, coIh ( ) 165
secahI, sech ( ) 233
ihverse, x 276
iParI( ), ihIeger parI 199
isClkOh( ), is clock oh 199
isPrime( ), prime IesI 199
IIem, mehu iIem 199
K
key commahds
keyboard map 6
special characIers 5
keyboard
map 5
keys
!uhcIioh 7
modi!ier 6
L
lahguage mode
chahgihg mode seIIihg 11
viewihg 10
Lbl, label 199
lcm, leasI commoh mulIiple 200
leasI commoh mulIiple, lcm 200
le!I( ), le!I 200
le!I-righI spliI screeh
seIIihg 36
seIIihg ihiIial Apps 38
sIaIus 21
less Ihah or equal, , 271
less Ihah, < 270
limiI( ), limiI 200
Lihe, draw lihe 201
lihear regressioh, LihReg 202
LiheHorz, draw horizohIal lihe 201
Lihe1ah, draw IahgehI lihe 201
LiheVerI, draw verIical lihe 202
Lihk Irahsmissioh Iable 129
lihkihg ahd IrahsmiIIihg 233
calculaIor Io calculaIor 115, 116,
117, 121, 122, 123
cahcellihg 118
errors 119, 125, 126
Flash applicaIiohs 117, 120, 121
!olders 117, 118, 119
geI/reIurh C8L/C8R value, GeI
190
program 121
sehd chaI, SehdChaI 121
sehd lisI variable, Sehd 233
sehd Io calculaIor, SehdCalc 121
variables 117, 118
LihReg, lihear regressioh 202
lisI di!!erehce, lisI( ) 202
lisI Io maIrix, lisI maI( ) 202
lisI maI( ), lisI Io maIrix 202
lisIs
augmehI/cohcaIehaIe,
augmehI( ) 156
cross producI, crossP( ) 165
290 lndex
parI, !ParI( ) 190
program !uhcIioh, Fuhc 190
user-de!ihed 173
G
Garbage collecIioh message 144,
145, 146
gcd( ), greaIesI commoh divisor 190
geI Iime zohe, GeI1mZh( ) 194
GeI, geI/reIurh C8L/C8R value 190
geI/reIurh
calculaIor, GeICalc 121, 191
C8L/C8R value, GeI 190
coh!iguraIioh, geICoh!g( ) 191
dehomihaIor, geIDehom( ) 192
!older, geIFold( ) 192
key, geIKey( ) 193
mode, geIMode( ) 193
humber, geINum( ) 193
Iype, geI1ype( ) 194
uhiIs, geIUhiIs( ) 195
GeICalc, geI/reIurh calculaIor 121,
191
geICoh!g( ), geI/reIurh
coh!iguraIioh 191
geIDaIe( ), geI daIe 192
geIDehom( ), geI/reIurh
dehomihaIor 192
geIDIFmI( ), geI daIe !ormaI 192
geIDISIr( ), geI daIe sIrihg 192
geIKey( ), geI/reIurh key 193
geIMode( ), geI/reIurh mode 193
geINum( ), geI/reIurh humber 193
geI1ime( ), geI Iime 193
geI1mFmI( ), geI Iime !ormaI 193
geI1mSIr( ), geI Iime sIrihg 194
geI1mZh( ), geI Iime zohe 194
geI1ype( ), geI/reIurh Iype 194
geIUhiIs( ), geI/reIurh uhiIs 195
GoIo, go Io 195
graph
mode 10, 23
humber mode 23
graph mode sIaIus 23
graph humber mode sIaIus 23
Graph, graph 195
graphihg caIegory 18
graphs
humber o! 38, 39
graphs ahd graphihg
clearihg, ClrGraph 160
coordihaIes 53
!uhcIiohs o!!, FhO!! 188
!uhcIiohs oh, FhOh 188
graph, Graph 195
Mihimum 53
operaIiohs 150
recall graph daIabase, RclGD8
227
seIIihg, seIGraph( ) 234
shadihg, Shade 238
sIore graph daIabase, SIoGD8
247
sIyle, SIyle 248
Irace, 1race 95, 102, 103, 105, 256
Iracihg 53
Y= ediIor 53, 55
greaIer Ihah or equal, , >= 271
greaIer Ihah, > 271
greaIesI commoh divisor, gcd( ) 190
Greek characIers 5
H
Hahd modi!ier key ( )
sIaIus 22
hexadecimal
display, Hex 196
ihdicaIor, 0h 278
hiddeh sur!ace 63
highlighIihg
characIers wheh ediIihg 6
Io view !ull hame o! App 2
HisIory area
sIaIus 23
HisIory ihdicaIor 15
Home icoh 14
Home screeh. See calculaIor home
screeh
hyperbolic
arccosihe cosh ( ) 164
arcsihe, sihh ( ) 242
arcIahgehI, Iahh ( ) 252
cosecahI, csch( ) 166
cosihe, cosh( ) 164
Cetting Started 7
Example: Access Ihe VAR-LINK [All] screeh, where you cah mahage
variables ahd Apps.
Function keys
Use Ihe !uhcIioh keys Io per!orm Ihe !ollowihg operaIiohs:
º Oh Ihe Apps deskIop, opeh Apps ahd selecI or ediI Apps caIegories.
º Oh Ihe calculaIor Home screeh, opeh Ioolbar mehus Io selecI maIh-
relaIed operaIiohs.
º WiIhih Apps, opeh Ioolbar mehus Io selecI App opIiohs.
Numeric keypad
1he humeric keypad leIs you ehIer posiIive ahd hegaIive humbers.
1o ehIer a hegaIive humber, press be!ore Iypihg Ihe humber.
Note: Doh'I coh!use Ihe hegaIioh key ( ) wiIh Ihe subIracIioh key ( ).
1o ehIer a humber ih sciehIi!ic hoIaIioh:
1. 1ype Ihe humbers IhaI precede Ihe expohehI. (1his value cah be ah
expressioh.)
2. Press . 1he expohehI symbol ( ) !ollows Ihe humbers you
ehIered.
3. 1ype Ihe expohehI as ah ihIeger wiIh up Io Ihree digiIs. (As Ihe
!ollowihg example shows, you cah use a hegaIive expohehI.)
(Alpha)
LeIs you Iype alphabeIic characIers wiIhouI a
QWLR1Y keypad. Alpha characIers are
prihIed above Iheir correspohdihg keys ih Ihe
same color as Ihe key.
Press Result
Keys Description
8 Cetting Started
Example: Oh Ihe calculaIor Home screeh, ehIer 0.00685 usihg sciehIi!ic
hoIaIioh.
Other important keys
Press Result
6 8 5

3
Key Command Description
Displays Ihe Y= LdiIor.
Displays Ihe Wihdow LdiIor.
Displays Ihe Graph screeh.
SeIs parameIers !or Ihe 1able
screeh.
Displays Ihe 1able screeh.
1hese keys leI you ediI ehIered
ih!ormaIioh by per!ormihg a cuI,
copy, or pasIe operaIioh.
Displays Ihe Apps deskIop.
WiIh Ihe Apps deskIop o!!,
displays Ihe FLASH
APPLICA1IONS mehu.
SwiIches beIweeh Ihe lasI Iwo
choseh Apps.
lndex 289
raIiohal !acIors 110
real !acIors 110
reducihg expressiohs 48
samplihg 110
sequehce graphihg 59
solvihg lihear equaIiohs 49
spliI screeh 68, 104
sIahdard ahhuiIy 107
sIaIisIics 71
symbolic mahipulaIioh 50
Iables 67
IexI operaIiohs 79
Iime value o! mohey 108
Irees ahd !oresI 59
IuIorial scripI wiIh Ihe IexI
ediIor 95
variable mahagemehI 84
exclusive or (8ooleah), xor 259
exclusive or picIure, XorPic 259
Lxec, execuIe assembly lahguage
183
execuIe assembly lahguage, Lxec
183
execuIe program, Prgm 77, 220
LxiI, exiI 184
exp lisI( ), expressioh Io lisI 184
expahd( ), expahd 48, 91, 105, 184
expahd, expahd( ) 48, 91, 105
expohehI key ( ) 7
expohehI, 7, 181
expohehIial FormaI mode 10
expohehIial regessioh, LxpReg 186
expr( ), sIrihg Io expressioh 185
LxpReg, expohehIial regessioh 186
expressiohs 14
expahdihg 48
expressioh Io lisI, exp(lisI( ) 184
reducihg 48
sIrihg Io expressioh, expr( ) 185
F
!acIor( ), !acIor 48, 91, 110, 186
!acIor, !acIor( ) 48, 91, 110
!acIorial, ! 47, 271
!acIorihg
acIiviIy 110
FCC sIaIemehI ii
Fill, maIrix !ill 187
Flash applicaIiohs 131, 132, 134
deleIihg 119
FLASH APPLICA1IONS ( )
accessihg Apps hoI lisIed 36
descripIioh 30
key commahd 8
Flash, upgradihg operaIihg sysIem
123, 124
!loor( ), !loor 94, 187
!loor, !loor( ) 94
!Max( ), !uhcIioh maximum 188
!Mih( ), !uhcIioh mihimum 188
FhO!!, !uhcIioh o!! 188
FhOh, !uhcIioh oh 188
!olders
deleIe, DelFold 174
geI/reIurh, geIFold( ) 192
lockihg/uhlockihg 140
hew, NewFold 211
pasIihg hame 142
rehamihg 138, 140
seIIihg, seIFold( ) 234
IrahsmiIIihg 117, 118
VARLINK 134, 135, 137, 138, 139
For, !or 189
!or, For 189
!ormaI( ), !ormaI sIrihg 189
FORMA1S dialog box 63
!parI( ), !uhcIioh parI 190
!racIiohs 97, 221
Frobehius horm, horm( ) 213
!ull-screeh mode
9
Apps deskIop 22
chahgihg !rom spliI-screeh 40
displayihg Apps ih 39
FUNC (!uhcIioh) mode 23
Fuhc, program !uhcIioh 190
!uhcIioh keys ( - )
movihg amohg Ioolbar mehus 33
selecIihg caIegories 16, 18
selecIihg mehus 29
!uhcIiohs 12
maximum, !Max( ) 188
mihimum, !Mih( ) 188
o!!, FhO!! 188
oh, FhOh 188
288 lndex
E
, expohehI 7, 181
e^( ), eIo a power 181
eigVc( ), eigehvecIor 181
eigVl( ), eigehvalue 182
Llse, else 196
LlseI!, else i! 182
ehd
cusIom, LhdCusIm 169
dialog, LhdDlog 177
!or, LhdFor 189
!uhcIioh, LhdFuhc 190
i!, LhdI! 196
loop, LhdLoop 205
program, LhdPrgm 77, 220
Ioolbar, Lhd18ar 255
Iry, Lhd1ry 256
while, LhdWhile 258
LhdCusIm, ehd cusIom 169
LhdDlog, ehd dialog 177
LhdFor, ehd !or 189
LhdFuhc, ehd !uhcIioh 190
LhdI!, ehd i! 196
LhdLoop, ehd loop 205
LhdPrgm, ehd program 77, 220
Lhd18ar, ehd Ioolbar 255
Lhd1ry, ehd Iry 256
LhdWhile, ehd while 258
Lhglish caIegory 18
ehIry lihe
clearihg Ihe hisIory area 16
cursor resIs oh 15
ihserIihg commahds 13
recallihg 15
ehIry( ), ehIry 183
ehIry/ahswer pairs 16
sIaIus 23
equal, = 270
error cohdiIiohs a!Ier APD 3
errors ahd IroubleshooIihg
clear error, ClrLrr 160
Memory error 147
pass error, PassLrr 218
Irahsmissioh 119, 126
evaluaIe polyhomial, polyLval( ) 219
LXAC1 mode sIaIus 22
exacI( ), exacI 183
exacI/approx mode 10
example
chahgihg mode seIIihgs 11
ediIihg caIegories 20
resIorihg Ihe de!aulI cusIom
mehu 34
selecIihg mehu opIiohs 31
Iurhihg o!! Ihe clock 28
Iurhihg oh/o!! Ihe cusIom mehu
34
usihg dialog boxes 33
usihg Ihe CHAR mehu 5
usihg Ihe keyboard map 6
examples, previews, acIiviIies
3D graphihg 61, 94
addiIiohal graphihg Iopics 66
baseball 103
C8L 2 program 102
complex !acIors 110
complex humbers 47
complex zeroes 105
cohsIahIs ahd measuremehI
uhiIs 52
cos(x)=sih(x) acIiviIy 93
cubic polyhomial 105
daIa !ilIerihg 99
daIa/maIrix ediIor 70
decomposihg a raIiohal !uhcIioh
97
derivaIives 50
di!!erehIial equaIiohs 63
expahdihg expressiohs 48
!acIorial 47
!uhcIioh graphihg 53, 55
graphihg !uhcIiohs 53
ihIegrals 50
memory mahagemehI 84
humber bases 82
humeric solver 81
parameIric graphihg 56, 104
paIh o! a ball 56
polar rose 58
pole-corher problem 89
populaIioh 71
prime !acIors 47
programmihg 77, 79
PyIhagoreah Iheorem 89
quadraIic !ormula 90
Cetting Started 9
1urhs Ihe cusIom mehu oh ahd
o!!.
CohverIs measuremehI uhiIs.
DesighaIes a measuremehI uhiI.
DeleIes Ihe characIer Io Ihe le!I
o! Ihe cursor (backspace).
DeleIes Ihe characIer Io Ihe
righI o! Ihe cursor.
SwiIches beIweeh ihserI ahd
overwriIe modes.
Displays Ihe MLMORY screeh.
Displays a lisI o! commahds.
Recalls Ihe cohIehIs o! a
variable.
SIores a value Io a variable.
Displays Ihe CHAR mehu, which
leIs you selecI Greek leIIers,
ihIerhaIiohal accehIed
characIers, ahd oIher special
characIers..
º Ih !ull-screeh mode, displays
Ihe Apps deskIop.
º Ih spliI-screeh mode,
displays Ihe !ull-screeh view
o! Ihe acIive App.
º WiIh Ihe Apps deskIop o!!,
displays Ihe calculaIor Home
screeh.
Key Command Description
10 Cetting Started
Mode settings
Modes cohIrol how Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium displays ahd ihIerpreIs
ih!ormaIioh. All humbers, ihcludihg elemehIs o! maIrices ahd lisIs, are
displayed accordihg Io Ihe currehI mode seIIihgs. Wheh Ihe 1I-89
1iIahium is Iurhed o!!, Ihe CohsIahI Memory¹ !eaIure reIaihs all o! Ihe
mode seIIihgs you have selecIed.
1o view Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium mode seIIihgs:
1. Press . Page 1 o! Ihe MODL dialog box appears.
2. Press or Io display Ihe modes lisIed oh Page 2 or Page 3.
Note: Modes IhaI are grayed ouI are available ohly i! oIher required
mode seIIihgs are selecIed. For example, Ihe CusIom UhiIs mode lisIed
oh Page 3 is available ohly i! Ihe UhiI SysIem mode is seI Io CUS1OM.
Viewing mode settings
Press Result
lndex 287
daIa !ilIerihg 99
daIa ploIs 71
DaIa/MaIrix LdiIor
shi!I, shi!I( ) 239
daIe
reseI 29
seIIihg 24
dayO!Wk( ), day o! week 172
DL (di!!erehIial equaIioh) mode 23
decimal
ahgle display, DD 172
ihIeger display, Dec 173
de!ihe Ioolbar, 1oolbar 255
De!ihe, de!ihe 89, 173
de!ihe, De!ihe 89, 173
DLG (degree) mode 22
degree hoIaIioh, 104, 274, 275
degree/mihuIe/secohd display, DMS
178
deleIe characIer ( / ) 9
deleIihg
!older, DelFold 174
variable, DelVar 174
deleIihg variables 87
DelFold, deleIe !older 174
DelVar, deleIe variable 174
dehomihaIor 161
derivaIives 50
!irsI derivaIive, d ( ) 172
!irsI derivaIive, d( ) 50
humeric derivaIive, hDeriv( ) 210
deSolve( ), soluIioh 174
deI( ), maIrix deIermihahI 176
diag( ), maIrix diagohal 176
dialog box
CLOCK 24
ediI caIegories 19
mehu ihdicaIor 32
MODL 10
Io opeh Apps 16
dialog box, de!ihe, Dialog 177
Dialog, de!ihe dialog box 177
Diamohd modi!ier key ( )
descripIioh 6
sIaIus 22
dim( ), dimehsioh 177
Disp, display I/O screeh 79, 177
DispG, display graph 178
DispHome, display Home screeh 178
display
graph, DispG 178
Home screeh, DispHome 178
I/O screeh, Disp 79, 177
Iable, Disp1bl 178
display as
bihary, 8ih 157
cylihdrical vecIor, Cylihd 170
decimal ahgle, DD 172
decimal ihIeger, Dec 173
degree/mihuIe/secohd, DMS
178
hexadecimal, Hex 196
polar vecIor, Polar 219
recIahgular vecIor, RecI 228
spherical vecIor, Sphere 246
display digiIs mode 10
Disp1bl, display Iable 178
divide, / 267
doI
addiIioh, .+ 268
divisioh, ./ 269
mulIiplicaIioh, .* 269
power, .^ 269
subIracIioh, .- 268
doIP( ), doI producI 178
DrawFuhc, draw !uhcIioh 179
drawihgs ahd drawihg
circle, Circle 159
clearihg, ClrDraw 160
cohIour, DrwCIour 180
!uhcIioh, DrawFuhc 179
horizohIal lihe, LiheHorz 201
ihverse, DrawIhv 179
lihe, Lihe 201
parameIric, DrawParm 179
polar, DrawPol 179
slope, DrawSlp 180
IahgehI lihe, Lihe1ah 201
verIical lihe, LiheVerI 202
DrawIhv, draw ihverse 179
DrawParm, draw parameIric 179
DrawPol, draw polar 179
DrawSlp, draw slope 180
DropDowh, drop-dowh mehu 180
DrwCIour, draw cohIour 180
286 lndex
Clock
dialog box 24
operaIioh 24
Iurhihg o!! 28
Iurhihg oh 29
ClockO!!, Iurhihg clock o!! 160
ClockOh, Iurhihg clock oh 160
ClrDraw, clear drawihg 160
ClrLrr, clear error 160
ClrGraph, clear graph 160
ClrHome, clear home 16, 161
ClrIO, clear
I/O 161
ClrIO, clear I/O 161
colDim( ), maIrix columh dimehsioh
161
colNorm( ), maIrix columh horm 161
combihaIiohs, hCr( ) 210
comDehom( ), commoh
dehomihaIor 161
commahd scripIs
acIiviIy 96
commahds
Flash Apps 12
Key v, 5, 6
commehI, 278
complex
!acIor, cFacIor( ) 110, 158
humbers 47, 48
solve, cSolve( ) 166
zeros, cZeros( ) 170
complex !ormaI mode 10
coh|( ), complex coh|ugaIe 162
cohhecIihg
1I ViewScreeh overhead pahel 42
1I-PresehIer video adapIer 42
CohsIahI Memory !eaIure 10
cohIacI ih!ormaIioh 279
cohIour-level graphihg 63
cohIrasI
ad|usIihg 1, 43
ihiIial sIarIup 1
cohverI measuremehIs 9
cohverI Iime, IimeChv( ) 253
cohverI, 276
copy variable, CopyVar 140
CopyVar, copy variable 140, 162
cos( ), cosihe 163
cos ( ), arccosihe 163
cosh( ), hyperbolic cosihe 164
cosh ( ), hyperbolic arccosihe 164
coI( ), coIahgehI 164
coI ( ), ihverse coIahgehI 165
coIh( ), hyperbolic coIahgehI 165
coIh ( ), ihverse hyperbolic
coIahgehI 165
crossP( ), cross producI 165
csc( ), cosecahI 165
csc ( ), ihverse cosecahI 166
csch( ), hyperbolic cosecahI 166
csch ( ),ihverse hyperbolic cosecahI
166
cSolve( ), complex solve 166
CubicReg, cubic regressioh 168
cumSum( ), cumulaIive sum 168
CurrehI !older sIaIus 22
CurrehI mode 10
cursor
deleIihg characIers 9
ih Ihe hisIory area 15
locaIioh !ollowihg APD 3
SelecIihg a commahd 13
Viewihg ehIries 15
cursor keys ( )
ehIerihg commahds 13
opehihg Apps 16
selecIihg ehIry/ahswer pairs 15
usihg Ihe CHAR mehu 5
CusImO!!, cusIom Ioolbar o!! 169
CusImOh, cusIom Ioolbar oh 169
CUS1OM ( ) mehu 34
descripIoh 34
key commahd 9
cusIom Ioolbar See Ioolbar
CusIom, de!ihe Ioolbar 169
cusIomer supporI ahd service 279
cycle picIure, CyclePic 170
Cycle, cycle 169
CyclePic, cycle picIure 170
cylihdrical vecIor display, Cylihd 170
cZeros( ), complex zeros 170
D
d( ), !irsI derivaIive 50, 172
daIa (hew), NewDaIa 210
Cetting Started 11
Changing mode settings
Example: Chahge Ihe Lahguage mode seIIihg Io Spahish (Lspañol).
Press Result
Scroll dowh Io Ihe Lahguage
!ield.
Press
ahd Iheh press uhIil
3:Español is highlighIed.
Note: Your mehu lisI mighI
vary, depehdihg oh Ihe
lahguages ihsIalled.
12 Cetting Started
1o reIurh Ihe Lahguage mode seIIihg Io Lhglish, repeaI Ihe sIeps,
selecIihg 1:English ih Ihe Lahguage !ield.
Using the Catalog to access commands
Use Ihe CaIalog Io access a lisI o! 1I-89 1iIahium commahds, ihcludihg
!uhcIiohs, ihsIrucIiohs, ahd user-de!ihed programs. Commahds are lisIed
alphabeIically. Commahds hoI begihhihg wiIh a leIIer are !ouhd aI Ihe
ehd o! Ihe lisI (&, /, +, -, eIc.).
1he CaIalog Help App ihcludes deIails abouI each commahd.
OpIiohs hoI currehIly valid are grayed ouI. For example, Ihe Flash Apps
( ) mehu opIioh is grayed ouI i! ho Flash applicaIiohs are ihsIalled oh
your 1I-89 1iIahium, Ihe User-De!ihed ( ) mehu opIioh is grayed ouI i!
you have hoI creaIed a !uhcIioh or program.
Note: 1ypihg a leIIer Iakes you Io Ihe !irsI commahd ih Ihe lisI sIarIihg
wiIh Ihe same leIIer.
Note: 1he previous opeh App
appears (ih Ihis example, Ihe
calculaIor Home screeh).
Press Result
(displays 8uilI-ih commahds)
(displays Flash Apps
commahds, i! ahy)
Press Result
lndex 28S
B
backspace ( ) 9
8ase mode 10
baIIeries
precauIiohs 44
prolohgihg li!e 3
replacihg 1, 43
bihary
display, 8ih 157
ihdicaIor, 0b 278
8ldDaIa, build daIa 158
8ooleah
ahd, ahd 154
exclusive or, xor 259
hoI, hoI 213
build
daIa, 8ldDaIa 158
Iable, 1able 250
8USY 23
8usy/Pause sIaIus 23
C
cables 40, 42, 115, 124, 127
calculaIor Home screeh
9
chahgihg ehIry/ahswer pairs 16
cusIom mehu 34
ehIerihg commahds 13
!uhcIioh keys 7
key commahd 9
Ioolbar mehus 29
Iurhihg o!! Ihe calculaIor 3
calculaIor so!Iware applicaIiohs
(Apps) 3
icohs 2
preihsIalled v
CalculaIor-8ased LaboraIory sysIem
cohhecIihg 42
CalculaIor-8ased Rahger sysIem
cohhecIihg 42
calculus operaIiohs 150
CaIalog ( )
commahds 13
descripIioh 12
exiIihg 14
key commahd 9
caIegories
All 18
Apps deskIop 19
cusIomizihg 19
Lhglish 18
example o! ediIihg 20
Graphihg 18
MaIh 18
Orgahizr (orgahizer) 19
Sciehce 19
selecIihg 18
selecIihg empIy 19
SocialSI (social sIudies) 18
C8L
geI/reIurh, GeI 190
sehd lisI variable, Sehd 233
C8L 2 sysIem
acIiviIy 102
cohhecIihg 42
programs 102
C8R
geI/reIurh, GeI 190
sehd lisI variable, Sehd 233
C8R sysIem
cohhecIihg 42
programs 102
ceilihg( ), ceilihg 158
ceilihg, ceilihg( ) 94
cerIi!icaIe 119, 123, 124, 125, 126,
127
cFacIor( ), complex !acIor 110, 158
CHAR mehu ( )
descripIioh 30
ehIerihg special characIers 5
key commahd 9
char( ), characIer sIrihg 159
characIers
deleIihg 9
Greek 5, 9, 30
ihIerhaIiohal/accehIed 5, 9, 30
maIh 5, 9, 30
puhcIuaIioh 30
special 5, 9, 30
uppercase 6
check1mr( ), check Iimer 159
circle
graphihg 53, 55
Circle, draw circle 159
284 lndex
sIaIus 22
(diamohd modi!ier key)
descripIioh 6
sIaIus 22
S (SAVL COPY AS)
example 33
(sIore) key 9
(cursor keys)
ehIerihg commahds 13
opehihg Apps 16
selecIihg ehIry/ahswer pairs 15
usihg Ihe CHAR mehu 5
( ), producI 273
, radiah 274
, Irahspose 250
x , reciprocal 276
Numerics
0b, bihary ihdicaIor 278
0h, hexadecimal ihdicaIor 278
10^( ), power o! Ieh 276
3D (Ihree-dimehsiohal) mode 23
3D graphihg
ahimaIioh 61
CON1OUR LLVLLS 63
HIDDLN SURFACL 63
WIRL AND CON1OUR 63
WIRL FRAML 63
A
A8OU1 screeh 40
abs( ), absoluIe value 106, 154
absoluIe value, abs( ) 106
accehI marks
CHAR mehu 9
add, + 265
algebra operaIiohs 150
All caIegory 18
ahd (8ooleah), ahd 154
AhdPic, ahd picIure 155
ahgle mode 10
sIaIus 22
ahgle( ), ahgle 155
ahgle, 274
ahs( ), lasI ahswer 156
APD (AuIomaIic Power Dowh)
!eaIure
durihg calculaIioh or program 4
Iurhihg oh a!Ier 3
appehd, & 272
APPLICA1IONS mehu ( ) 30, 35
approx( ), approximaIe 156
Apps (calculaIor so!Iware
applicaIiohs)
deleIihg 41
icoh highlighIed, lasI opeh 3
icohs 2
hames 16
opehihg 16, 35
preihsIalled v
shorIcuIs 19
swiIchihg 39
Apps deskIop
calculaIor Home screeh ahd 14
caIegories 16, 19
clock 24
daIe ahd Iime 25
ihiIial sIarIup 1, 2
mode 10, 23
parIs o! 3
spliI-screeh sIaIus 22
Iurhihg o!! 23
Iurhihg o!! Ihe calculaIor 3
arccosihe, cos ( ) 163
archive variables, Archive 143, 144
Archive, archive variables 143, 156
archivihg variables 86
arcLeh( ), arc lehgIh 156
arcsihe, sih ( ) 241
arcIahgehI, Iah ( ), arcIahgehI 251
assembly lahguage 183
augmehI( ), augmehI/cohcaIehaIe
92, 156
augmehI/cohcaIehaIe, augmehI( )
92
AU1O mode sIaIus 22
AuIomaIic Power Dowh (APD)
!eaIure
durihg calculaIioh or program 4
ih OS dowhload mode 44
Iurhihg oh a!Ier 3
auIo-pasIe 15
avgRC( ), average raIe o! chahge 157
Cetting Started 1J
SelecI commahds !rom Ihe CaIalog ahd ihserI Ihem ohIo Ihe calculaIor
Home screeh ehIry lihe or pasIe Ihem Io oIher Apps, such as Ihe
Y= LdiIor, 1exI LdiIor, or CellSheeI Apps.
Example: IhserI Ihe comDenom( commahd oh Ihe calculaIor Home
screeh ehIry lihe.
Note: 8e!ore selecIihg a commahd, posiIioh Ihe cursor where you wahI
Ihe commahd Io appear.
Pressihg advahces Ihe CaIalog lisI ohe page aI a Iime.
1he sIaIus lihe displays ahy required ahd opIiohal parameIers !or Ihe
selecIed commahd. OpIiohal parameIers appear ih square brackeIs.
Note: Pressihg also displays Ihe parameIers !or Ihe selecIed
commahd.
(displays User-De!ihed
commahds, i! ahy)
Press Result
C
1heh press uhIil Ihe poihIer
is aI Ihe comDenom( !uhcIioh.
Press Result
14 Cetting Started
1o exiI Ihe CaIalog wiIhouI selecIihg a commahd, press .
Calculator Home screen
1he calculaIor Home screeh is Ihe sIarIihg poihI !or maIh operaIiohs,
ihcludihg execuIihg ihsIrucIiohs, evaluaIihg expressiohs, ahd viewihg
resulIs.
1o display Ihe calculaIor Home screeh, press .
You cah also display Ihe calculaIor Home screeh !rom Ihe Apps deskIop
by highlighIihg Ihe Home icoh ahd pressihg .
HisIory area lisIs Ihe ehIry/ahswer pairs ehIered.
1abs display mehus !or selecIihg lisIs o! operaIiohs. Press , , ahd
so oh Io display mehus.
ResulI o! lasI ehIry is displayed here. (NoIe IhaI resulIs are hoI
displayed oh Ihe ehIry lihe.)
SIaIus lihe shows Ihe currehI sIaIe o! Ihe calculaIor.
LhIry lihe displays your currehI ehIry.
SelecIed
commahd
Commahd
parameIers
8rackeIs [ ] ihdicaIe opIiohal parameIers
lndex
lndex 28J
5ymbols
!, !acIorial 47, 271
, sIore 277
", secohd hoIaIioh 275
, /=, hoI equal 270
#, ihdirecIioh 273
( ), square rooI 273
%, percehI 269
&, appehd 272
', mihuIe hoIaIioh 275
', prime 275
( ), sum 273
( ), ihIegraIe 50, 272
*, mulIiply 266
+, add 265
- (!uhcIioh keys)
movihg amohg Ioolbar mehus 33
selecIihg caIegories 16, 18
selecIihg mehus 29
uses 7
, degree hoIaIioh 104, 274, 275
-, hegaIe 269
-, subIracI 266
, ahgle 274
.*, doI mulIiplicaIioh 269
.+, doI addiIioh 268
.-, doI subIracIioh 268
./, doI divisioh 269
.^, doI power 269
/, divide 267
<, less Ihah 270
=, equal 270
>, greaIer Ihah 271
(hegaIioh key) 7
lisI( ), lisI di!!erehce 202
ImpChv( ), IemperaIure-rahge
cohversioh 255
^, power 268
_, uhderscore 275
, <=, less Ihah or equal 271
(subIracIioh key) 7
, >=, greaIer Ihah or equal 271
, commehI 278
[, wiIh 50, 277
/ (deleIe characIer) 9
(hahd modi!ier key)
sIaIus 22
(secohd modi!ier key)
descripIioh 6
sIaIus 22
(MLMORY) 9
(expohehI key) 7
(measuremehI cohversiohs) 9
(recall) 9
(CaIalog)
commahds 13
descripIioh 12
exiIihg 14
key commahd 9
(CusIom)
descripIioh 34
example 34
key commahd 9
(CharacIer)
descripIioh 30
ehIerihg special characIers 5
key commahd 9
selecIihg characIers 5
calculaIor Home screeh 14
ehIerihg commahds 13
exiIihg Ihe spliI-screeh mode 40
key commahd 9
Iurhihg o!! Ihe calculaIor 3
, cohverI 276
8ih, display as bihary 157
Cylihd, display as cylihdrical vecIor
170
DD, display as decimal ahgle 172
Dec, display as decimal ihIeger 173
DMS, display as degree/mihuIe/
secohd 178
Hex, display as hexadecimal 196
Polar, display as polar vecIor 219
RecI, display as recIahgular vecIor
228
Sphere, display as spherical vecIor
246
(shi!I modi!ier key)
descripIioh 6
282
All Other Customers
For information about the length and terms of the warranty, refer to
your package and/or to the warranty statement enclosed with this
product, or contact your local Texas Instruments retailer/distributor.
Cetting Started 1S
Your lasI ehIry is displayed here.
1o reIurh Io Ihe Apps deskIop !rom Ihe calculaIor Home screeh, press
.
About the history area
1he hisIory area displays up Io eighI ehIry/ahswer pairs, depehdihg oh
Ihe complexiIy ahd heighI o! Ihe expressiohs. Wheh Ihe display is !illed,
ih!ormaIioh scrolls o!! Ihe Iop o! Ihe screeh. Use Ihe hisIory area Io:
º Review previous ehIries ahd ahswers. Use Ihe cursor keys Io view
ehIries ahd ahswers IhaI have scrolled o!! Ihe screeh.
º Recall or auIo-pasIe a previous ehIry or ahswer ohIo Ihe ehIry lihe Io
reuse or ediI. (For more ih!ormaIioh, see Ihe elecIrohic Cperating
the Calculator chapIer.)
1he cursor, which hormally resIs oh Ihe ehIry lihe, cah be moved ihIo Ihe
hisIory area. 1he !ollowihg Iable shows you how Io move Ihe cursor
arouhd ih Ihe hisIory area.
lnterpreting history information on the status line
Use Ihe hisIory ihdicaIor oh Ihe sIaIus lihe !or ih!ormaIioh abouI Ihe
ehIry/ahswer pairs. For example:
I! Ihe cursor is oh Ihe ehIry lihe:
Io Do this
View ehIries/ahswers
scrolled o!! Ihe screeh
From Ihe ehIry lihe, press Io highlighI Ihe
lasI ahswer.
CohIihue usihg Io move Ihe cursor !rom
ahswer Io ehIry Ihrough Ihe hisIory area.
Go Io Ihe oldesI or
hewesI ehIry/ahswer
pair
I! Ihe cursor is ih Ihe hisIory area, press
or .
View ah ehIry or ahswer
Ioo lohg !or ohe lihe (
is displayed aI Ihe ehd
o! Ihe lihe)
Move Ihe cursor Io Ihe ehIry or ahswer. Use
or Io scroll le!I or righI ahd or
Io go Io Ihe begihhihg or ehd.
ReIurh cursor Io Ihe
ehIry lihe
Press , or press uhIil Ihe cursor is back
oh Ihe ehIry lihe.
1oIal humber o! pairs
currehIly saved
________
8/30
_______ Maximum humber o!
pairs IhaI cah be saved
16 Cetting Started
I! Ihe cursor is ih Ihe hisIory area:
Nodifying the history area
1o chahge Ihe humber o! pairs IhaI cah be saved:
1. From Ihe calculaIor Home screeh, press ahd selecI 9:Format.
2. Press ahd use or Io highlighI Ihe hew humber.
3. Press .
1o clear Ihe hisIory area ahd deleIe all saved pairs:
º From Ihe calculaIor Home screeh, press ahd selecI 8:Clear Home.
- or -
º LhIer ClrHome oh Ihe calculaIor Home screeh ehIry lihe.
1o deleIe ah ehIry/ahswer pair, move Ihe cursor Io eiIher Ihe ehIry or
ahswer, ahd press or .
Working with Apps
1he 1I-89 1iIahium orgahizes Apps by caIegory oh Ihe Apps deskIop. 1o
selecI a caIegory, press a !uhcIioh key ( Ihrough ). 1he App
icohs !or Ihe selecIed caIegory appear oh Ihe Apps deskIop.
Note: I! Ihe hame uhder ah Apps deskIop icoh is IruhcaIed, use Ihe
cursor keys Io highlighI Ihe icoh. Now view Ihe !ull hame aI Ihe Iop o!
Ihe Apps deskIop.
Opening Apps
Use Ihe cursor keys Io highlighI Ihe Apps icoh oh Ihe Apps deskIop ahd
press . 1he App eiIher opehs direcIly or displays a dialog box. 1he
mosI commoh dialog box lisIs Ihese opIiohs !or Ihe App:
Note: 1he 1I-89 1iIahium uses Ihe geheral Ierm variable Io re!er Io Ihe
App daIa !iles IhaI you creaIe.
Pair humber o! Ihe
highlighIed
ehIry/ahswer
_______
8/30
_______ 1oIal humber o! pairs
currehIly saved
Option Description
CurrehI ReIurhs Ihe screeh displayed wheh you lasI
viewed Ihe App. I! ho currehI App variable exisIs,
Ihe New dialog box appears.
Opeh LeIs you opeh ah exisIihg !ile.
Appendix 8: Ceneral lnformation 281
Australia & New Zealand Customers only
One-Year Limited Warranty for Commercial Electronic Product
This Texas Instruments electronic product warranty extends only to
the original purchaser and user of the product.
Warranty Duration. This Texas Instruments electronic product is
warranted to the original purchaser for a period of one (1) year from
the original purchase date.
Warranty Coverage. This Texas Instruments electronic product is
warranted against defective materials and construction. This war-
ranty is void if the product has been damaged by accident or unrea-
sonable use, neglect, improper service, or other causes not arising
out of defects in materials or construction.
Warranty Disclaimers. Any implied warranties arising out of
this sale, including but not limited to the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are limited
in duration to the above one-year period. Texas Instruments
shall not be liable for loss of use of the product or other inci-
dental or consequential costs, expenses, or damages incurred
by the consumer or any other user.
Except as expressly provided in the One-Year Limited Warranty
for this product, Texas Instruments does not promise that facil-
ities for the repair of this product or parts for the repair of this
product will be available.
Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied
warranties or consequential damages, so the above limitations or
exclusions may not apply to you.
Legal Remedies. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and
you may also have other rights that vary from jurisdiction to jurisdic-
tion.
Warranty Performance. During the above one (1) year warranty
period, your defective product will be either repaired or replaced with
a new or reconditioned model of an equivalent quality (at TI’s option)
when the product is returned to the original point of purchase. The
repaired or replacement unit will continue for the warranty of the
original unit or six (6) months, whichever is longer. Other than your
cost to return the product, no charge will be made for such repair
and/or replacement. TI strongly recommends that you insure the
product for value if you mail it.
Software. Software is licensed, not sold. TI and its licensors do not
warrant that the software will be free from errors or meet your spe-
cific requirements. All software is provided “AS IS.”
Copyright. The software and any documentation supplied with this
product are protected by copyright.
280 Appendix 8: Ceneral lnformation
7exas lnstruments (7l) Warranty lnformation
Customers in the U.5. and Canada Only
One-Year Limited Warranty for Commercial Electronic Product
This Texas Instruments (“TI”) electronic product warranty extends only to the
original purchaser and user of the product.
Warranty Duration. This TI electronic product is warranted to the original pur-
chaser for a period of one (1) year fromthe original purchase date.
Warranty Coverage. This TI electronic product is warranted against defec-
tive materials and construction. THIS WARRANTY IS VOID IF THE PRODUCT
HAS BEEN DAMAGED BY ACCIDENT OR UNREASONABLE USE, NEGLECT,
IMPROPER SERVICE, OR OTHER CAUSES NOT ARISING OUT OF DEFECTS
IN MATERIALS OR CONSTRUCTION.
Warranty Disclaimers. ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARISING OUT OF THIS
SALE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE
LIMITED IN DURATION TO THE ABOVE ONE-YEAR PERIOD. TEXAS
INSTRUMENTS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR LOSS OF USE OF THE PROD-
UCT OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL COSTS, EXPENSES,
OR DAMAGES INCURRED BY THE CONSUMER OR ANY OTHER USER.
Some states/provinces do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied war-
ranties or consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions
may not apply to you.
Legal Remedies. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may
also have other rights that vary from state to state or province to province.
Warranty Performance. During the above one (1) year warranty period, your
defective product will be either repaired or replaced with a reconditioned
model of an equivalent quality (at TI’s option) when the product is returned,
postage prepaid, to Texas Instruments Service Facility. The warranty of the
repaired or replacement unit will continue for the warranty of the original unit
or six (6) months, whichever is longer. Other than the postage requirement,
no charge will be made for such repair and/or replacement. TI strongly rec-
ommends that you insure the product for value prior to mailing.
Software. Software is licensed, not sold. TI and its licensors do not warrant
that the software will be free from errors or meet your specific requirements.
All software is provided “AS IS.”
Copyright. The software and any documentation supplied with this product
are protected by copyright.
Cetting Started 17
SelecI ah opIioh, ehIer ahy required ih!ormaIioh, ahd press . 1he
App appears.
Example: CreaIe a hew program usihg Ihe Program LdiIor.
New CreaIes a hew !ile wiIh Ihe hame Iyped ih Ihe
!ield.
Press Result
Use cursor keys Io highlighI
3
p r o g r a m 1
Option Description
18 Cetting Started
1he hewly creaIed program variable, program1, is saved Io Ihe Maih
!older.
Returning to the Apps desktop from within an App
Press . 1he icohs !or Ihe lasI Apps caIegory selecIed appear oh Ihe
Apps deskIop wiIh Ihe icoh !or Ihe lasI App opehed highlighIed.
You cah also reIurh Io Ihe Apps deskIop by pressihg ih !ull-
screeh mode. Ih spliI-screeh mode, press Iwice.
1o reIurh Io Ihe lasI opeh App !rom Ihe Apps deskIop, press .
5electing an Apps category
Oh Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium, Ihe Apps caIegory hames appear ohly ih Ihe F1
Mehu. 1o selecI ah Apps caIegory, press 2:5elect Category ahd use
Ihe cursor keys Io highlighI ah Apps caIegory, ahd Iheh press Io
selecI Ihe highlighIed caIegory. You cah also use Ihe !uhcIioh key
shorIcuIs Io selecI a caIegory !rom Ihe keypad (use Ihe key i!
hecessary). 1he App icohs !or Ihe selecIed caIegory appear oh Ihe Apps
deskIop.
1he App icohs !or Ihe selecIed caIegory appear oh Ihe Apps deskIop.
Key Description
All Icohs !or all ihsIalled Apps displayed. NoI
cusIomizable.
Lhglish CusIomizable caIegory. Lhglish is Ihe de!aulI.
SocialSI CusIomizable caIegory. SocialSI (social
sIudies) is Ihe de!aulI.
MaIh CusIomizable caIegory. MaIh is Ihe de!aulI.
Graphihg CusIomizable caIegory. Graphihg is Ihe
de!aulI.
Press Result
Appendix 8: Ceneral lnformation 279

Appendix B:
General lnformation
7exas lnstruments 5upport and 5ervice
For general information
For technical support
For product (hardware) service
Customers in the U.5., Canada, Nexico, Puerto Rico and Virgin
lslands: Always cohIacI 1exas IhsIrumehIs CusIomer SupporI be!ore
reIurhihg a producI !or service.
All other customers: Re!er Io Ihe lea!leI ehclosed wiIh Ihis producI
(hardware) or cohIacI your local 1exas IhsIrumehIs
reIailer/disIribuIor.
Home Page: educaIioh.Ii.com
KnowledgeBase
and e-mail
inquires:
educaIioh.Ii.com/supporI
Phone: (800) 1I-CARLS, (800) 842-2737
For U.S., Cahada, Mexico, PuerIo Rico, ahd
Virgih Islahds ohly
lnternational
information:
educaIioh.Ii.com/ihIerhaIiohal
KnowledgeBase
and support by
e-mail:
educaIioh.Ii.com/supporI
Phone
(not toll-free): (972) 917-8324
278 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
¦ (couueul) Program Editor/Control menu or
@ ¥ d key
H 2 X key
¦ { ]
¦ processes as a couueul liue, which cau be
used lo auuolale prograu iuslruclious.
¦ cau be al lhe begiuuiug or auywhere iu lhe
liue. Everylhiug lo lhe righl oí ¦ , lo lhe eud oí
lhe liue, is lhe couueul.
Prograu segueul.
©
:¦ üel 10 po1nls 1¡on lle ü¡apl
sc¡een
:!o¡ 1,1,10 ¦ Tl1s !oops 10
l1nes
©
0b, 0h @ µ j [8] keys H µ 8 keys
@ µ j [H] keys H µ H keys
0b
0h
0euoles a biuary or hexadeciual uuuber,
respeclively. Jo euler a biuary or hex uuuber,
you uusl euler lhe 0b or 0h preíix regardless
oí lhe 8ase uode. wilhoul a preíix, a uuuber
is lrealed as deciual (base 10).
Resulls are displayed accordiug lo lhe 8ase
uode.
|u 0ec base uode.
0b10+0l!+10 ¸ Z7
|u Biu base uode.
0b10+0l!+10 ¸ 0b11011
|u hex base uode.
0b10+0l!+10 ¸ 0l1ß
Cetting Started 19
Example: SelecI Ihe All caIegory.
I! you selecI ah Apps caIegory cohIaihihg ho Apps, a message appears Io
coh!irm IhaI Ihe caIegory is empIy ahd poihI you Io Ihe
1:Edit Categories mehu, where you cah add App shorIcuIs Io Ihe
caIegory. (See "CusIomizihg Ihe Apps caIegories" oh page 19.)
Press or Io clear Ihe message ahd reIurh Io Ihe Apps deskIop.
Customizing the Apps categories
1he 1I-89 1iIahium orgahizes your Apps ihIo seveh caIegories, six o!
which you cah cusIomize Io !iI your ihdividual heeds. (1he All caIegory
cohIaihs every ihsIalled App ahd cahhoI be ediIed.)
1o cusIomize Ihe Ihrough Apps caIegories:
1. SelecI 1:Edit Categories. A submehu displays Ihe six
cusIomizable Apps caIegory hames. (1he All caIegory is hoI lisIed.)
2. HighlighI ah Apps caIegory ahd press . 1he LdiI CaIegories
dialog box appears wiIh a lisI o! ihsIalled Apps ahd a IexI box wiIh
Ihe caIegory hame highlighIed.
3. 1o chahge Ihe Apps caIegory hame, Iype Ihe desired hame.
Note: LhIer a hame o! up Io eighI characIers, ihcludihg leIIers wiIh
or wiIhouI capiIalizaIioh, humbers, puhcIuaIioh, ahd accehIed
characIers.
4. 1o add or remove ah App shorIcuI !rom Ihe caIegory, press as
required Io highlighI Ihe box hexI Io Ihe App, Iheh press Io add or
remove Ihe check mark ( ).
Sciehce CusIomizable caIegory. Sciehce is Ihe de!aulI.
Orgahizr CusIomizable caIegory. Orgahizr (orgahizer)
is Ihe de!aulI.
Press Result
Key Description
20 Cetting Started
5. 1o save Ihe chahges ahd reIurh Io Ihe Apps deskIop, press .
Example: Replace Ihe Social SIudies caIegory wiIh Ihe 8usihess caIegory
ahd add Ihe CellSheeI ahd Fihahce App shorIcuIs.
Press Result
2
- or -

B u s i n e s s
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 277
j ("wilh") @ Í key H 2 Í key
j |
¦ | ¦
Jhe "wilh" ([) syubol serves as a biuary operalor.
Jhe operaud lo lhe leíl oí [ is au expressiou. Jhe
operaud lo lhe righl oí [ speciíies oue or uore
relalious lhal are iuleuded lo aííecl lhe
siupliíicaliou oí lhe expressiou. Mulliple relalious
aíler [ uusl be joiued by a logical "aud".
Jhe "wilh" operalor provides lhree basic lypes oí
íuuclioualily. subslilulious, iulerval couslraiuls,
aud exclusious.
x+1| x~3 ¸ 4
x+y| x~s1n1y; ¸ s1n1y; + y
x+y| s1n1y;~x ¸ x + y
Subslilulious are iu lhe íoru oí au equalily, such
as x=3 or y=sih(x). Jo be uosl eííeclive, lhe leíl
side should be a siuple variable. [
= will subslilule íor every
occurreuce oí iu .
x^3ì Zx+7! 11x; ¸ Lone
11x;| x~‡13; ¸ ‡3 + 7
1s1n1x;;^Z+Zs1n1x;ì 6| s1n1x;~d
¸
dñ+Zdì 6
|ulerval couslraiuls lake lhe íoru oí oue or uore
iuequalilies joiued by logical "aud" operalors.
|ulerval couslraiuls also peruil siupliíicaliou lhal
olherwise uighl be iuvalid or uol coupulable.
so!ve1x^Zì 1~0,x;|x`0 and x´Z
¸
x ~ 1
‡1x;ù‡111x;|x`0 ¸ 1
‡1x;ù‡111x; ¸
1
x
ø x
Exclusious use lhe "uol equals" (/= or ƒ)
relalioual operalor lo exclude a speciíic value
írou cousideraliou. Jhey are used priuarily lo
exclude au exacl soluliou wheu usiug c5olve(),
cZeros(), fNax(), fNin(), solve(), zeros(), elc.
so!ve1x^Zì 1~0,x;| xƒ1 ¸ x ~ ë1
! (slore) § key
!
!
!
!
!
!
|í variable does uol exisl, creales aud
iuilializes il lo , , or .
|í already exisls aud ií il is uol locked or
prolecled, replaces ils couleuls wilh ,
, or .
Kint: |í you plau lo do syubolic coupulalious
usiug uudeíiued variables, avoid sloriug auylhiug
iulo couuouly used, oue·leller variables such as
a, b, c, x, y, z, elc.
p14! nyva¡ ¸
p
4
Zcos1x;! \11x; ¸ Lone
|1,Z,3,4|! ¡sl5 ¸ |1 Z 3 4|
j1,Z,3,4,5,6¸! lalü ¸ j
1 Z 3
4 5 6
¸
"he!!o"! sl¡1 ¸ "he!!o"
276 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
4(couverl) 2 key
4_
Couverls au expressiou írou oue uuil lo auolher.
Jhe uuils uusl be iu lhe saue calegory.
Jhe _ uuderscore characler desiguales lhe uuils.
|or a lisl oí valid pre·deíiued uuils, reíer lo lhe
uodule aboul couslauls aud ueasureueul uuils.
You cau press.
@ 2 9
H ¥ À lo selecl uuils írou a ueuu, or
you cau lype lhe uuil uaues direclly.
Jo gel lhe _ uuderscore wheu lypiug uuils
direclly, press.
@ ¥
H 2
Ncte: Jhe 4couversiou operalor does uol haudle
leuperalure uuils. use tmpCnv() aud
@tmpCnv() iuslead.
3_n 4_1l ¸ 9.ß4Z.ø_1l
10^() CAIALOG
10^ ( )
10^ ( )
Relurus 10 raised lo lhe power oí lhe arguueul.
|or a lisl, relurus 10 raised lo lhe power oí lhe
eleueuls iu .
10^11.5; ¸ 31.6ZZ...
10^|0,ëZ,Z,a| ¸
|1
1
100
100 10
a
|
10^( )
Relurus 10 raised lo lhe power oí .
Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug 10 raised lo
lhe power oí each eleueul. |or iuíorualiou aboul
lhe calculaliou uelhod, reíer lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
10^1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,LZ,1¸; ¸
1.143.£7 ß.171.£6 6.675.£6
9.956.£6 7.115.£6 5.ß13.£6
7.65Z.£6 5.469.£6 4.46ß.£6
xê CAIALOG (^-1)


Relurus lhe reciprocal oí lhe arguueul.
|or a lisl, relurus lhe reciprocals oí lhe eleueuls
iu .
3.1^ë1 ¸ .3ZZ5ß1
|a,4,ë.1,xì Z|^ë1 ¸
|
1
a

1
4
ë10.
1
xì Z
|

Relurus lhe iuverse oí .
uusl be a uou·siugular square
ualrix.
j1,Z,3,4¸^ë1 ¸
j1,Z,a,4¸^ë1 ¸
Cetting Started 21
Open Apps and split-screen status
Your 1I-89 1iIahium leIs you spliI Ihe screeh Io view Iwo Apps
simulIaheously. For example, view Ihe Y= LdiIor ahd Graph screehs
simulIaheously Io see Ihe lisI o! !uhcIiohs ahd how Ihey are graphed.
SelecI Ihe SpliI Screeh mode !rom Page 2 o! Ihe MODL screeh. 1he 1I-89
1iIahium displays Ihe selecIed Apps ih Ihe spliI-screeh view as showh.
SpliI Ihe screeh horizohIally (Iop-boIIom) or verIically (le!I-righI).
Press Result
1op-boIIom spliI screeh
22 Cetting Started
1o reIurh Io Ihe Apps deskIop, press . 1he spliI-screeh sIaIus
appears aI Ihe Iop o! Ihe Apps deskIop wiIh Ihe hames o! Ihe opeh Apps
ahd Ihe porIiohs o! Ihe screeh ih which each is displayed. 1he
highlighIed humeral ihdicaIes Ihe spliI-screeh porIioh where Ihe hexI
App you opeh will appear.
Note: 1he Apps deskIop always appears ih Ihe !ull-screeh view.
More ih!ormaIioh is available abouI usihg spliI screehs. (For more
ih!ormaIioh, see Ihe elecIrohic Split Screens chapIer.)
Checking status information
Look Io Ihe sIaIus lihe, locaIed aI Ihe boIIom o! Ihe screeh, !or
ih!ormaIioh abouI Ihe currehI sIaIe o! your 1I-89 1iIahium.
lndicator Neaning
CurrehI !older Name o! Ihe selecIed !older (MAIN is Ihe
de!aulI !older.)
Modi!ier key SelecIed modi!ier key ( , , ), i! ahy.
Ahgle mode SelecIed uhiIs ih which ahgle values are
displayed ahd ihIerpreIed (RAD, DLG)
LxacI/Approx
mode
Mode ih which ahswers are calculaIed ahd
displayed (AU1O, LXAC1, APPROX)
SpliI-screeh sIaIus (highlighI
ihdicaIes Ihe porIioh where Ihe
hexI App selecIed will opeh.)
Names o! opeh Apps
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 27S
¡, ', " __ key (¡), 2 È key ('), 2 É key (")
¡ ' "
^ posilive or uegalive uuuber
^ uou·uegalive uuuber
^ uou·uegalive uuuber
Relurus +( /60)+( /3600).
Jhis base·60 eulry íorual lels you.
 Euler au augle iu degrees/uiuules/secouds
wilhoul regard lo lhe curreul augle uode.
 Euler liue as hours/uiuules/secouds.
|u 0egree augle uode.
Z5°13`17.5" ¸ Z5.ZZ1...
Z5°30` ¸ 511Z
' (priue) 2 È key
'
''
Eulers a priue syubol iu a diííereulial equaliou.
^ siugle priue syubol deuoles a 1sl·order
diííereulial equaliou, lwo priue syubols deuole a
2ud·order, elc.
deSo!ve1y``~y^1ë11Z; and
y10;~0 and y`10;~0,l,y; ¸
Zøy
314
3
~l
_ (uuderscore) @ ¥ key H 2 key
_
0esiguales lhe uuils íor au . ^ll uuil
uaues uusl begiu wilh au uuderscore.
You cau use pre·deíiued uuils or creale your
owu uuils. |or a lisl oí pre·deíiued uuils, reíer
lo lhe uodule aboul couslauls aud
ueasureueul uuils. You cau press.
@ 2 9
H ¥ À
lo selecl uuils írou a ueuu, or you cau lype
lhe uuil uaues direclly.
3_n 4_1l ¸ 9.ß4Z.ø_1l
Ncte: Jo lype 4, press 2 .
_
wheu has uo value, il is lrealed as
lhough il represeuls a couplex uuuber. By
deíaull, wilhoul lhe _, lhe variable is lrealed
as real.
|í has a value, lhe _ is iguored aud
relaius ils origiual dala lype.
Ncte: You cau slore a couplex uuuber lo a
variable wilhoul usiug _. however, íor besl
resulls iu calculalious such as c5olve() aud
cZeros(), lhe _ is recouueuded.
^ssuuiug z is uudeíiued.
¡ea!1z; ¸ z
¡ea!1z_; ¸ ¡ea!1z_;
1naç1z; ¸ 0
1naç1z_; ¸ 1naç1z_;
274 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
ô(radiau) NAIH/Angle menu
ô
ô
ô
|u 0egree augle uode, uulliplies by
180/p. |u Radiau augle uode, relurus
uuchauged.
Jhis íuucliou gives you a way lo use a radiau
augle while iu 0egree uode. (|u 0egree augle
uode, sin(), cos(), tan(), aud polar·lo·
reclaugular couversious expecl lhe augle
arguueul lo be iu degrees.)
Kint: use ôií you waul lo íorce radiaus iu a
íuucliou or prograu deíiuiliou regardless oí lhe
uode lhal prevails wheu lhe íuucliou or prograu
is used.
|u 0egree or Radiau augle uode.
cos11p14;ô; ¸
‡Z
Z
cos1|0ô,1p11Z;ô,ëpô|; ¸
|1
1 3+1;ø Z
4
ë1|
¡ (degree) __ key
¡
¡
¡
|u Radiau augle uode, uulliplies by
p/180. |u 0egree augle uode, relurus
uuchauged.
Jhis íuucliou gives you a way lo use a degree
augle while iu Radiau uode. (|u Radiau augle
uode, sin(), cos(), tan(), aud polar·lo·
reclaugular couversious expecl lhe augle
arguueul lo be iu radiaus.)
|u Radiau augle uode.
cos145¡; ¸
‡Z
Z
cos1|0,p14,90¡,30.1Z¡|; ¥ ¸
|1 .707... 0 .ß64...|
(augle) _¸ key
[ q_ ] (polar iupul)
[ q_ ]
(cyliudrical iupul)
[ q_ ]
(spherical iupul)
Relurus coordiuales as a veclor depeudiug ou lhe
VecIor FormaI uode selliug. reclaugular,
cyliudrical, or spherical.
j5, 60¡, 45¡¸ ¸
|u Radiau uode aud veclor íorual sel lo.
( ) (polar iupul)
Eulers a couplex value iu (r q) polar íoru. Jhe
is iulerpreled accordiug lo lhe curreul ^ugle
uode selliug.
|u Radiau augle uode aud Reclaugular
couplex íorual uode.
5+3 ì 110 p14; ¸
5ì 5ø Z+13ì 5ø Z;ø
¥ ¸ ëZ.071.ì 4.071.ø
rectangular
cylindrical
spherical
Cetting Started 2J
7urning off the Apps desktop
You cah Iurh o!! Ihe Apps deskIop !rom Ihe MODL dialog box. I! you do,
opeh Apps !rom Ihe APPLICA1IONS mehu. 1o opeh Ihe APPLICA1IONS
mehu, press .
Example: 1urh o!! Ihe Apps deskIop.
Graph humber AcIive o! Iwo ihdepehdehI graphs ih spliI-
screeh mode (GR#1, GR#2)
Graph mode SelecIed Iype o! graph IhaI cah be ploIIed
(FUNC, PAR, POL, SLQ, 3D, DL)
LhIry/Ahswer pairs 22/30-Number o! ehIry/ahswer pairs (de!aulI
is 30, maximum is 99) ih Ihe hisIory area o!
Ihe calculaIor Home screeh.
Replace baIIeries Displayed wheh baIIeries are low (8A11). I!
8A11 is highlighIed wiIh a black
backgrouhd, chahge Ihe baIIeries as sooh as
possible ( ).
8usy/Pause,
Locked/Archived
variable
8USY-CalculaIioh or graph is ih progress
PAUSL-You paused a graph or program
-Variable opehed ih Ihe currehI ediIor is
locked or archived ahd cahhoI be modi!ied
Press Result
lndicator Neaning
24 Cetting Started
1o Iurh oh Ihe Apps deskIop, repeaI Ihe procedure, selecIihg ON ih Ihe
Apps DeskIop mode !ield. 1o reIurh Io Ihe Apps deskIop !rom Ihe
calculaIor Home screeh, press .
Using the clock
Use Ihe CLOCK dialog box Io seI Ihe Iime ahd daIe, selecI Ihe clock
display !ormaI, ahd Iurh Ihe clock o!! ahd oh.
1he clock is Iurhed oh by de!aulI. I! you Iurh o!! Ihe clock, all Clock
dialog box opIiohs excepI Clock ON/OFF are grayed ouI.
Displaying the CLOCK dialog box
1. Use Ihe cursor keys Io highlighI Ihe Clock icoh oh Ihe Apps deskIop.
2. Press . 1he CLOCK dialog box appears wiIh Ihe 1ime FormaI
!ield highlighIed.
Note: 8ecause Ihe CLOCK dialog box displays Ihe seIIihgs currehI aI Ihe
Iime you opeh Ihe dialog box, you mighI heed Io updaIe Ihe Iime be!ore
exiIihg.
Note: 1he previous opeh App
appears (ih Ihis example, Ihe
calculaIor Home screeh).
Press Result
ihdicaIes you cah
scroll dowh !or more
opIiohs)
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 27J
‡() (square rool) 2 ] key
‡ ( )
‡ ( )
Relurus lhe square rool oí lhe arguueul.
|or a lisl, relurus lhe square rools oí all lhe
eleueuls iu
‡14; ¸ Z
‡1|9,a,4|; ¸ |3 ‡a Z|
() (producl) NAIH/Calculus menu
( , , , )
Evaluales íor each value oí írou
lo , aud relurus lhe producl oí lhe resulls.
111n,n,1,5; ¸
1
1Z0
1k^Z,k,1,n; ¸ 1n!;ñ
1|11n,n,Z|,n,1,5; ¸
|
1
1Z0
1Z0 3Z|
( , , , ì 1) 1 1k,k,4,3; ¸ 1
( , , , ) 1 (
+1, ì 1) ií < ì 1
111k,k,4,1; ¸ 6
111k,k,4,1;ù 111k,k,Z,4; ¸
114
G() (suu) NAIH/Calculus menu
G( , , , )
Evaluales íor each value oí írou
lo , aud relurus lhe suu oí lhe resulls.
G111n,n,1,5; ¸
137
60
G1k^Z,k,1,n; ¸
nø1n+1;ø1Zøn+1;
6
G111n^Z,n,1,ˆ; ¸

6
G( , , , ì 1) 0 G1k,k,4,3; ¸ 0
G( , , , ) ëG(
+1, ì 1) ií < ì 1
G1k,k,4,1; ¸ ë5
G1k,k,4,1;+G1k,k,Z,4; ¸ 4
# (iudirecliou) CAIALOG
#
Reíers lo lhe variable whose uaue is
. Jhis lels you creale aud uodiíy
variables írou a prograu usiug slriugs.
Prograu segueul.
©
:Requesl "£nle¡ \ou¡
lane",sl¡1
:lew!o!d ]sl¡1
©
©
:!o¡ 1,1,5,1
: C!¡ü¡apl
: ü¡apl 1ùx
: SloP1c ]1"p1c" ¿ sl¡1nç11;;
:£nd!o¡
©
272 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
& (appeud) @ ¥ p key H 2 H key
&
Relurus a lexl slriug lhal is appeuded lo
.
"he!!o " ¿ "l1ck" ¸
"he!!o l1ck"
‰ () (iulegrale) 2 < key
‰( , [, ] [, ])
‰( [, ])
‰( [, ])
Relurus lhe iulegral oí wilh respecl lo
lhe variable írou lo .
‰1x^Z,x,a,b; ¸

3
·

3
Relurus au auli·derivalive ií aud are
ouilled. ^ syubolic couslaul oí iulegraliou such
as C is ouilled.
however, is added as a couslaul oí
iulegraliou ií ouly is ouilled.
‰1x^Z,x; ¸

3
‰1aùx^Z,x,c; ¸
aøxò
3
+ c
Equally valid auli·derivalives uighl diííer by a
uuueric couslaul. Such a couslaul uighl be
disguised-parlicularly wheu au auli·derivalive
coulaius logarilhus or iuverse lrigououelric
íuuclious. Moreover, piecewise couslaul
expressious are soueliues added lo uake au
auli·derivalive valid over a larger iulerval lhau
lhe usual íoruula.
‰1111Zì cos1x;;,x;! lnp1x; ¸
C!¡ü¡apl:ü¡apl lnp1x;:ü¡apl
111Zì cos1x;;:ü¡apl ‡13;
1Zlanê1‡13;1lan1x1Z;;;13;
¸
‰() relurus ilselí íor pieces oí lhal il
cauuol deleruiue as au explicil íiuile
coubiualiou oí ils buill·iu íuuclious aud
operalors.
wheu aud are bolh preseul, au
alleupl is uade lo locale auy discouliuuilies or
discouliuuous derivalives iu lhe iulerval
aud lo subdivide lhe iulerval al lhose
places.
‰1bù ^1ëx^Z;+a11x^Z+a^Z;,x;
¸
|or lhe AU1O selliug oí lhe LxacI/Approx uode,
uuuerical iulegraliou is used where applicable
wheu au auli·derivalive or a liuil cauuol be
deleruiued.
|or lhe APPROX selliug, uuuerical iulegraliou is
lried íirsl, ií applicable. ^uli·derivalives are
soughl ouly where such uuuerical iulegraliou is
iuapplicable or íails.
‰1 ^1ëx^Z;,x,ë1,1;¥ ¸ 1.493...
‰() cau be uesled lo do uulliple iulegrals.
|ulegraliou liuils cau depeud ou iulegraliou
variables oulside lheu.
Ncte: See also nlnt().
‰1‰1!n1x+y;,y,0,x;,x,0,a; ¸
Cetting Started 2S
5etting the time
1. Press Io opeh Ihe lisI o! Iime !ormaIs.
2. Press or Io highlighI ah opIioh, Iheh press . 1he selecIed
!ormaI appears ih Ihe 1ime FormaI !ield.
3. Press Io highlighI Ihe Hour !ield.
4. 1ype Ihe hour, Iheh press Io highlighI Ihe MihuIe !ield.
5. 1ype Ihe mihuIe(s).
6. I! Ihe Iime !ormaI is 24 hours, proceed Io sIep 9.
- or -
I! Ihe Iime !ormaI is 12 hours, press Io highlighI Ihe AM/PM !ield.
7. Press Io opeh Ihe lisI o! AM/PM opIiohs.
8. Press or Io highlighI ah AM/PM opIioh, Iheh press . 1he
selecIed AM/PM opIioh appears.
9. SeI Ihe daIe (!or procedures, see Setting the date).
- or -
1o save your seIIihgs ahd exiI, press . 1he Iime is updaIed ih Ihe
Iop righI corher o! Ihe Apps deskIop.
5etting the date
1. Press or as required Io highlighI Ihe DaIe FormaI !ield.
2. Press Io opeh Ihe lisI o! daIe !ormaIs.
3. Press or Io highlighI ah opIioh, Iheh press . 1he selecIed
!ormaI appears ih Ihe DaIe FormaI !ield.
4. Press Io highlighI Ihe Year !ield.
5. 1ype Ihe year, Iheh press Io highlighI Ihe MohIh !ield.
6. Press Io opeh Ihe lisI o! mohIhs.
7. Press or Io highlighI ah opIioh, Iheh press . 1he selecIed
mohIh appears ih Ihe MohIh !ield.
8. Press Io highlighI Ihe Day !ield.
9. 1ype Ihe day, Iheh press Io save your seIIihgs ahd exiI.
1he daIe is updaIed ih Ihe Iop righI corher o! Ihe Apps deskIop.
26 Cetting Started
Example: SeI Ihe Iime ahd daIe Io 19/10/02 (OcIober 19, 2002) aI
1:30 p.m.
Press Result
Use cursor keys Io highlighI
1
3 0
1ime ahd daIe
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 271
¹ µ key



Relurus Irue ií is deleruiued lo be
less lhau or equal lo .
Relurus !alse ií is deleruiued lo be
grealer lhau .
^uylhiug else relurus a siupliíied íoru oí lhe
equaliou.
|or lisls aud ualrices, relurus couparisous
eleueul by eleueul.
See "=" (equal) exauple.
> 2 Ã key
>
>
>
Relurus Irue ií is deleruiued lo be
grealer lhau .
Relurus !alse ií is deleruiued lo be
less lhau or equal lo .
^uylhiug else relurus a siupliíied íoru oí lhe
equaliou.
|or lisls aud ualrices, relurus couparisous
eleueul by eleueul.
See "=" (equal) exauple.
¹ ¶ key



Relurus Irue ií is deleruiued lo be
grealer lhau or equal lo .
Relurus !alse ií is deleruiued lo be
less lhau .
^uylhiug else relurus a siupliíied íoru oí lhe
equaliou.
|or lisls aud ualrices, relurus couparisous
eleueul by eleueul.
See "=" (equal) exauple.
! (íaclorial) @ ¥ e key H 2 W key
!
!
!
Relurus lhe íaclorial oí lhe arguueul.
|or a lisl or ualrix, relurus a lisl or ualrix oí
íaclorials oí lhe eleueuls.
Jhe J|-89 coupules a uuueric value íor ouly uou·
uegalive whole·uuuber values.
5! ¸ 1Z0
|5,4,3|! ¸ |1Z0 Z4 6|
j1,Z,3,4¸! ¸ j
1 Z
6 Z4
¸
270 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
= (equal) Á key
=
=
=
Relurus lrue ií is deleruiued lo be
equal lo .
Relurus íalse ií is deleruiued lo uol be
equal lo .
^uylhiug else relurus a siupliíied íoru oí lhe
equaliou.
|or lisls aud ualrices, relurus couparisous
eleueul by eleueul.
Exauple íuucliou lisliug usiug ualh lesl
syubols. =, ƒ, <, , >, ‚
:ç1x;
:!unc
:11 x ë5 Tlen
: Relu¡n 5
: £!se11 x`ë5 and x´0 Tlen
: Relu¡n ëx
: £!se11 x‚0 and xƒ10 Tlen
: Relu¡n x
: £!se11 x~10 Tlen
: Relu¡n 3
:£nd11
:£nd!unc
ü¡apl ç1x; ¸
¥ Á key



Relurus Irue ií is deleruiued lo be uol
equal lo .
Relurus !alse ií is deleruiued lo be
equal lo .
^uylhiug else relurus a siupliíied íoru oí lhe
equaliou.
|or lisls aud ualrices, relurus couparisous
eleueul by eleueul.
See "=" (equal) exauple.
< 2 Â key
<
<
<
Relurus Irue ií is deleruiued lo be
less lhau .
Relurus !alse ií is deleruiued lo be
grealer lhau or equal lo .
^uylhiug else relurus a siupliíied íoru oí lhe
equaliou.
|or lisls aud ualrices, relurus couparisous
eleueul by eleueul.
See "=" (equal) exauple.
Cetting Started 27
2 0 0 2
Press Result
28 Cetting Started
Iurning off the clock
From Ihe Apps deskIop, opeh Ihe CLOCK dialog box ahd selecI OFF ih Ihe
Clock !ield.
Example: 1urh o!! Ihe clock.
Scroll dowh Io OcIober
ahd press
1 9
Press Result
Use cursor keys Io highlighI
Press Result
Revised Iime ahd daIe
Clock oh
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 269
.ù(dol uull.) ¶ p keys
.
.
. ù relurus a ualrix lhal is lhe
producl oí each pair oí correspoudiug eleueuls iu
aud .
. ù relurus a ualrix coulaiuiug
lhe producls oí aud each eleueul iu
.
ja,Z,b,3¸.ùjc,4,5,d¸ ¸
x.ùja,b,c,d¸ ¸
. / (dol divide) ¶ e keys
.
.
. / relurus a ualrix lhal is lhe
quolieul oí each pair oí correspoudiug eleueuls
iu aud .
. / relurus a ualrix lhal is lhe
quolieul oí aud each eleueul iu
ja,Z,b,3¸.1jc,4,5,d¸ ¸
x.1jc,4,5,d¸ ¸
.^ (dol power) ¶ Z keys
^
. ^
.^ relurus a ualrix where each
eleueul iu is lhe expoueul íor lhe
correspoudiug eleueul iu .
. ^ relurus a ualrix where each
eleueul iu is lhe expoueul íor .
ja,Z,b,3¸.^jc,4,5,d¸ ¸
x.^jc,4,5,d¸ ¸
ë(uegale) · key and NAIH/Base menu
ë
ë
ë
Relurus lhe uegaliou oí lhe arguueul.
|or a lisl or ualrix, relurus all lhe eleueuls
uegaled.
|í is a biuary or hexadeciual iuleger,
lhe uegaliou gives lhe lwo's coupleueul.
ëZ.43 ¸ ëZ.43
ë|ë1,0.4,1.Zí 19| ¸
|1 ë.4 ë1.Zí 19|
ëaùëb ¸ aøb
|u Biu base uode.
0b100101 4dec ¸ 37
ë0b100101 ¸
0b11111111111111111111111111011011
ans11; 4dec ¸ ë37
Ncte: Jo lype 4, press 2 .
% (perceul) CHAR/Punctuation menu
%
%
%
Relurus
100
.
|or a lisl or ualrix, relurus a lisl or ualrix wilh
each eleueul divided by 100.
13° ¥ ¸ .13
|1, 10, 100|° ¥ ¸
|.01 .1 1.|
Important: Zero, not the letter O.
268 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
^
(power) Z key
^
^
Relurus lhe íirsl arguueul raised lo lhe power oí
lhe secoud arguueul.
|or a lisl, relurus lhe eleueuls iu raised lo
lhe power oí lhe correspoudiug eleueuls iu .
|u lhe real douaiu, íraclioual powers lhal have
reduced expoueuls wilh odd deuouiualors use
lhe real brauch versus lhe priucipal brauch íor
couplex uode.
4^Z ¸ 16
|a,Z,c|^|1,b,3| ¸ |a Zb cò|
^
Relurus raised lo lhe power oí lhe
eleueuls iu .
p^|a,Z,ë3| ¸ |pa pñ
1

|
^
Relurus lhe eleueuls iu raised lo lhe power
oí .
|1,Z,3,4|^ëZ ¸
|1 114 119 1116|
^
Relurus raised lo lhe power.
uusl be a square ualrix.
|í = ë1, coupules lhe iuverse ualrix.
|í < ë1, coupules lhe iuverse ualrix lo au
appropriale posilive power.
j1,Z,3,4¸^Z ¸
j1,Z,3,4¸^ë1 ¸
j1,Z,3,4¸^ëZ ¸
.+ (dol add) ¶ « keys
.+
.+
.+ relurus a ualrix lhal is lhe suu
oí each pair oí correspoudiug eleueuls iu
aud .
.+ relurus a ualrix lhal is lhe
suu oí aud each eleueul iu
ja,Z,b,3¸.+jc,4,5,d¸ ¸
x.+jc,4,5,d¸ ¸
.. (dol subl.) ¶ | keys
.

.ì relurus a ualrix lhal is lhe
diííereuce belweeu each pair oí correspoudiug
eleueuls iu aud .
.ì relurus a ualrix lhal is lhe
diííereuce oí aud each eleueul iu
ja,Z,b,3¸.ì jc,4,d,5¸ ¸
x.ì jc,4,d,5¸ ¸
Cetting Started 29
1o Iurh oh Ihe clock, repeaI Ihe procedure, selecIihg ON ih Ihe Clock
!ield. Remember Io reseI Ihe Iime ahd daIe.
Using menus
1o selecI mosI 1I-89 1iIahium mehus, press Ihe !uhcIioh keys
correspohdihg Io Ihe Ioolbars aI Ihe Iop o! Ihe calculaIor Home screeh
ahd mosI App screehs. SelecI oIher mehus usihg key commahds.
Ioolbar menus
1he sIarIihg poihI !or 1I-89 1iIahium maIh operaIiohs, Ihe calculaIor
Home screeh displays Ioolbar mehus IhaI leI you choose maIh-relaIed
opIiohs.
1oolbar mehus also appear aI Ihe Iop o! mosI App screehs. 1hese mehus
lisI commoh !uhcIiohs o! Ihe acIive App.
Scroll dowh Io Ihe Clock !ield.
Press Result
Clock o!!
J0 Cetting Started
Other menus
Use key commahds Io selecI Ihe !ollowihg mehus. 1hese mehus cohIaih
Ihe same opIiohs regardless o! Ihe screeh displayed or Ihe acIive App.
5electing menu options
º Press Ihe humber or leIIer Io Ihe le!I o! Ihe opIioh you wahI Io
selecI.
- or -
º Press or Io selecI Ihe opIioh, ahd press .
Note: I! Ihe !irsI mehu opIioh is selecIed, press Io selecI Ihe lasI
opIioh oh Ihe mehu. I! Ihe lasI mehu opIioh is selecIed, press Io selecI
Ihe !irsI opIioh oh Ihe mehu.
Press Io display
CHAR mehu. LisIs characIers hoI available oh Ihe
keyboard, characIers are orgahized by caIegory
(Greek, maIh, puhcIuaIioh, special, ahd
ihIerhaIiohal).
MA1H mehu. LisIs maIh operaIiohs by caIegory.
APPLICA1IONS mehu. LisIs Ihe ihsIalled Apps.
(Mehu is available ohly wheh Ihe Apps deskIop is
Iurhed o!!, Apps are hormally accessed !rom Ihe
Apps deskIop.)
FLASH APPLICA1IONS mehu. LisIs Ihe ihsIalled
Flash Apps. (Mehu is available ohly wheh Apps
deskIop is Iurhed o!!, Flash Apps are hormally
accessed !rom Ihe Apps deskIop.)
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 267
ù
Relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe producls oí lhe
correspoudiug eleueuls iu aud .
0iueusious oí lhe lisls uusl be equal.
|1.0,Z,3|ù|4,5,6| ¸ |4. 10 1ß|
|Zàa,3àZ|ù|añ,bà3| ¸ |Zøa
b
Z
|
ù
Relurus lhe ualrix producl oí aud .
Jhe uuuber oí rows iu uusl equal lhe
uuuber oí coluuus iu .
j1,Z,3,4,5,6¸ùja,d,b,e,c,1¸
¸
ù
ù
Relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe producls oí
aud each eleueul iu .
pù|4,5,6| ¸ |4øp 5øp 6øp|
ù
ù
Relurus a ualrix coulaiuiug lhe producls oí
aud each eleueul iu .
Ncte: use .ù(dol uulliply) lo uulliply au
expressiou by each eleueul.
j1,Z,3,4¸ù.01 ¸ j
.01 .0Z
.03 .04
¸
l ù1denl1ly13; ¸
l 0 0
0 l 0
0 0 l
à
(divide) e key
à
Relurus lhe quolieul oí divided by
.
Z13.45 ¸ .57971
x^31x ¸ x
Z
à
Relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe quolieuls oí
divided by
0iueusious oí lhe lisls uusl be equal.
|1.0,Z,3|1|4,5,6| ¸
|.Z5 Z15 11Z|
à
à
Relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe quolieuls oí
divided by or divided by
a1|3,a,‡1a;| ¸
a
3
1 ‡a
|a,b,c|11aùbùc; ¸
|
1
bøc

1
aøc

1
aøb
|
à
Relurus a ualrix coulaiuiug lhe quolieuls oí
à
Ncte: use . / (dol divide) lo divide au expressiou
by each eleueul.
ja,b,c¸11aùbùc; ¸
j
1
bøc

1
aøc

1
aøb
¸
266 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
+
+
Relurus a lisl (or ualrix) coulaiuiug lhe suus oí
correspoudiug eleueuls iu aud (or
aud ).
0iueusious oí lhe arguueuls uusl be equal.
|ZZ,p,p1Z|! ¡1 ¸ |ZZ p p1Z|
|10,5,p1Z|! ¡Z ¸ |10 5 p1Z|
¡1+¡Z ¸ |3Z p+5 p|
ans11;+|p,ë5,ëp| ¸
|p+3Z p 0|
ja,b,c,d¸+j1,0,0,1¸ ¸
{ ¸
a+1 b
c d+1
+
+
Relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe suus oí
aud each eleueul iu .
15+|10,15,Z0| ¸ |Z5 30 35|
|10,15,Z0|+15 ¸ |Z5 30 35|
+
+
Relurus a ualrix wilh added lo each
eleueul ou lhe diagoual oí . uusl
be square.
Ncte: use .+ (dol plus) lo add au expressiou lo
each eleueul.
Z0+j1,Z,3,4¸ ¸
j
Z1 Z
3 Z4
¸
ì (sublracl) | key
-
Relurus uiuus .
6ì Z ¸ 4
pì pà6 ¸
5øp
6
-
-
Sublracls each eleueul iu (or ) írou
lhe correspoudiug eleueul iu (or ),
aud relurus lhe resulls.
0iueusious oí lhe arguueuls uusl be equal.
|ZZ,p,pàZ|ì |10,5,pàZ| ¸
|1Z pì 5 0|
j3,4¸ì j1,Z¸ ¸ jZ Z¸
-
-
Sublracls each eleueul írou or
sublracls írou each eleueul, aud
relurus a lisl oí lhe resulls.
15ì |10,15,Z0| ¸ |5 0 ·5|
|10,15,Z0|ì 15 ¸ |·5 0 5|
-
-
relurus a ualrix oí
liues lhe ideulily ualrix uiuus .
uusl be square.
ì relurus a ualrix oí
liues lhe ideulily ualrix sublracled írou .
uusl be square.
Ncte: use .. (dol uiuus) lo sublracl au
expressiou írou each eleueul.
Z0ì j1,Z,3,4¸ ¸
j
19 ëZ
ë3 16
¸
ù(uulliply) p key
ù
Relurus lhe producl oí aud .
Zù3.45 ¸ 6.9
xùyùx ¸ X
Z
øy
Cetting Started J1
Example: SelecI factor( !rom Ihe Algebra mehu oh Ihe calculaIor
Home screeh.
5electing submenu options
A small arrow symbol ( ) Io Ihe righI o! a mehu opIioh ihdicaIes IhaI
selecIihg Ihe opIioh will opeh a submehu.
Press Result
Press:
- or -
From Ihe Apps deskIop, use Ihe
cursor keys Io highlighI
ahd press
2
- or -
ihdicaIes Algebra
mehu will opeh
wheh you press .
poihIs Io addiIiohal
opIiohs.
J2 Cetting Started
Example: SelecI ord( !rom Ihe MA1H mehu oh Ihe calculaIor Home
screeh.
Using dialog boxes
Ah ellipsis (.) aI Ihe ehd o! a mehu opIioh ihdicaIes IhaI choosihg Ihe
opIioh will opeh a dialog box. SelecI Ihe opIioh ahd press .
Press Result
C
- or -
B
- or -
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 26S
Zoom5td CAIALOG
Zoom5td
Sels lhe wiudow variables lo lhe íollowiug
slaudard values, aud lheu updales lhe viewiug
wiudow.
|uucliou graphiug.
x: [ë10, 10, 1], y: [ë10, 10, 1] aud xres=2
Parauelric graphiug.
I: [0, 2p, p/24], x: [ë10, 10, 1], y:[ë10, 10, 1]
Polar graphiug.
q: [0, 2p, p/24], x: [ë10, 10, 1], y: [ë10, 10, 1]
Sequeuce graphiug.
hmih=1, hmax=10, ploISIrI=1, ploISIep=1,
x: [ë10, 10, 1], y: [ë10, 10, 1]
30 graphiug.
eyeq°=20, eyef °=70, eye °=0
x: [ë10, 10, 14], y: [ë10, 10, 14],
z: [ë10, 10], hcohIour=5
0iííereulial equalious graphiug.
I: [0, 10, .1, 0], x: [ë1, 10, 1], y: [ë10, 10, 1],
hcurves=0, LsIep=1, di!Iol=.001, !ldres=14,
dIime=0
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
1.Z5xùcos1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
ZoonSld ¸
Zoom5to CAIALOG
Zoom5to
Slores lhe curreul wiudow selliugs iu lhe Zoom
ueuory. You cau use ZoomRcl lo reslore lhe
selliugs.
ZoomIrig CAIALOG
ZoomIrig
0isplays lhe Craph screeu, sels @x lo p/24, aud
xscl lo p/2, ceulers lhe origiu, sels lhe y selliugs
lo [ë4, 4, .5], aud updales lhe viewiug wiudow.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
1.Z5xùcos1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
ZoonSld ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
ZoonT¡1ç ¸
+ (add) « key
+
Relurus lhe suu oí aud .
56 ¸ 56
ans11;+4 ¸ 60
ans11;+4 ¸ 64
ans11;+4 ¸ 6ß
ans11;+4 ¸ 7Z
264 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
ZoomOut CAIALOG
ZoomOut
0isplays lhe Craph screeu, lels you sel a ceuler
poiul íor a zoou oul, aud updales lhe viewiug
wiudow.
Jhe uaguilude oí lhe zoou is depeudeul ou lhe
Zoom íaclors xFacI aud yFacI. |u 30 Craph uode,
lhe uaguilude is depeudeul ou xFacI, yFacI, aud
zFacI.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
1.Z5xùcos1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
ZoonSld:Zoon0ul ¸
¸
ZoomPrev CAIALOG
ZoomPrev
0isplays lhe Craph screeu, aud updales lhe
viewiug wiudow wilh lhe selliugs iu use beíore
lhe lasl zoou.
ZoomRcl CAIALOG
ZoomRcl
0isplays lhe Craph screeu, aud updales lhe
viewiug wiudow usiug lhe selliugs slored wilh
lhe Zoom5to iuslrucliou.
Zoom5qr CAIALOG
Zoom5qr
0isplays lhe Craph screeu, adjusls lhe x or y
wiudow selliugs so lhal each pixel represeuls au
equal widlh aud heighl iu lhe coordiuale sysleu,
aud updales lhe viewiug wiudow.
|u 3D Graph uode, Zoom5qr leuglheus lhe
shorlesl lwo axes lo be lhe saue as lhe lougesl
axis.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
1.Z5xùcos1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
ZoonSld ¸
"
ZoonSq¡ ¸
Cetting Started JJ
Example: Opeh Ihe 5AVE COPY A5 dialog box !rom Ihe Wihdow
LdiIor.
Note: Pressihg Ihe S key shorIcuI also opehs Ihe SAVL COPY AS dialog
box ih mosI Apps.
Canceling a menu
1o cahcel a mehu wiIhouI makihg a selecIioh, press .
Noving among toolbar menus
1o move amohg Ihe Ioolbar mehus wiIhouI selecIihg a mehu opIioh:
º Press Ihe !uhcIioh key ( Ihrough ) o! a Ioolbar mehu.
º Press a !uhcIioh key, Iheh press or Io move !rom ohe Ioolbar
mehu Io Ihe hexI. Press !rom Ihe lasI mehu Io move Io Ihe !irsI
mehu, ahd vice versa.
Press Result
Use Ihe cursor keys Io
highlighI
ahd press
2
- or -
Press Io display a
lisI o! !olders.
1ype Ihe hame o!
Ihe variable.
Press Iwice Io save ahd Iheh
close Ihe dialog box.
J4 Cetting Started
Note: I! you press wheh a mehu opIioh wiIh a submehu is selecIed,
Ihe submehu will appear ihsIead o! Ihe hexI Ioolbar mehu. Press agaih
Io move Io Ihe hexI mehu.
More ih!ormaIioh is available abouI mehus. (See Ihe elecIrohic
Cperating the Calculator chapIer.)
Custom menu
1he cusIom mehu provides quick access Io your mosI commohly used
opIiohs. Use Ihe de!aulI cusIom mehu or creaIe your owh usihg Ihe
Program LdiIor. You cah ihclude ahy available 1I-89 1iIahium commahd
or characIer.
1he cusIom mehu replaces Ihe sIahdard Ioolbar mehu oh Ihe calculaIor
Home screeh. (For deIails oh creaIihg a cusIom mehu, see Ihe elecIrohic
Programming chapIer.) More ih!ormaIioh is available abouI cusIom
mehus. (See Ihe elecIrohic Cperating the Calculator chapIer.)
Example: 1urh oh ahd Iurh o!! Ihe cusIom mehu !rom Ihe calculaIor
Home screeh.
Example: ResIore Ihe de!aulI cusIom mehu.
Press Result
De!aulI cusIom mehu
Normal Ioolbar mehu
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 26J
ZoomFit CAIALOG
ZoomFit
0isplays lhe Craph screeu, aud calculales lhe
uecessary wiudow diueusious íor lhe depeudeul
variables lo view all lhe piclure íor lhe curreul
iudepeudeul variable selliugs.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
1.Z5xùcos1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
ZoonSld ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
Zoon!1l ¸
Zoomln CAIALOG
Zoomln
0isplays lhe Craph screeu, lels you sel a ceuler
poiul íor a zoou iu, aud updales lhe viewiug
wiudow.
Jhe uaguilude oí lhe zoou is depeudeul ou lhe
Zoom íaclors xFacI aud yFacI. |u 30 Craph uode,
lhe uaguilude is depeudeul ou xFacI, yFacI, aud
zFacI.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
1.Z5xùcos1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
ZoonSld:Zoon1n ¸
¸
Zoomlnt CAIALOG
Zoomlnt
0isplays lhe Craph screeu, lels you sel a ceuler
poiul íor lhe zoou, aud adjusls lhe wiudow
selliugs so lhal each pixel is au iuleger iu all
direclious.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
1.Z5xùcos1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
ZoonSld:Zoon1nl ¸
¸
262 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
ZoomData CAIALOG
ZoomData
^djusls lhe wiudow selliugs based ou lhe
curreully deíiued plols (aud dala) so lhal all
slalislical dala poiuls will be saupled, aud
displays lhe Craph screeu.
Ncte: 0oes uol adjusl ymih aud ymax íor
hislograus.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
|1,Z,3,4|! ¡1 ¸ |1 Z 3 4|
|Z,3,4,5|! ¡Z ¸ |Z 3 4 5|
newP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
ZoonSld ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
ZoonLala ¸
ZoomDec CAIALOG
ZoomDec
^djusls lhe viewiug wiudow so lhal @x aud
@y = 0.1 aud displays lhe Craph screeu wilh lhe
origiu ceulered ou lhe screeu.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
1.Z5xùcos1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
ZoonSld ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
ZoonLec ¸
Cetting Started JS
Note: ResIorihg Ihe de!aulI cusIom mehu erases Ihe previous cusIom
mehu. I! you creaIed Ihe previous cusIom mehu wiIh a program, you cah
ruh Ihe program agaih Io reuse Ihe mehu.
Opening Apps with the Apps desktop turned off
I! you Iurh o!! Ihe Apps deskIop, use Ihe APPLICA1IONS mehu Io opeh
Apps. 1o opeh Ihe APPLICA1IONS mehu wiIh Ihe Apps deskIop o!!, press
.
Note: I! you press wiIh Ihe Apps deskIop Iurhed oh, Ihe Apps
deskIop will appear ihsIead o! Ihe APPLICA1IONS mehu.
Press Result
(Io Iurh o!! Ihe cusIom mehu
ahd Iurh oh Ihe sIahdard
Ioolbar mehu)

3
- or -
J6 Cetting Started
Example: WiIh Ihe Apps deskIop Iurhed o!!, opeh Ihe Wihdow LdiIor
!rom Ihe APPLICA1IONS mehu.
1o access Apps hoI lisIed oh Ihe APPLICA1IONS mehu, selecI 1:FlashApps.
Using split screens
1he 1I-89 1iIahium leIs you spliI Ihe screeh Io show Iwo Apps aI Ihe same
Iime. For example, display boIh Ihe Y= LdiIor ahd Graph screehs Io
compare Ihe lisI o! !uhcIiohs ahd how Ihey are graphed.
5etting split-screen mode
You cah spliI Ihe screeh eiIher Iop Io boIIom or le!I Io righI !rom Ihe
MODL dialog box. 1he spliI-screeh seIIihg sIays ih e!!ecI uhIil you chahge
iI.
1. Press Io display Ihe MODL dialog box.
2. Press Io display Ihe SpliI Screeh mode seIIihg.
3. Press Io opeh Ihe SpliI Screeh mode mehu.
4. Press as required Io highlighI eiIher 1OP-8O11OM or LLF1-RIGH1.
5. Press . 1he SpliI Screeh mode seIIihg displays Ihe opIioh you
selecIed.
Press Result
3
- or -
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 261
You cau also (or iuslead) iuclude uukuowus lhal
do uol appear iu lhe expressious. |or exauple,
you cau iuclude z as au uukuowu lo exleud lhe
previous exauple lo lwo parallel iulersecliug
cyliuders oí radius r. Jhe cyliuder zeros illuslrale
how íauilies oí zeros uighl coulaiu arbilrary
couslauls iu lhe íoru © , where is au iuleger
suííix írou 1 lhrough 2SS. Jhe suííix resels lo 1
wheu you use ClrHome or _8:Clear Home.
ze¡os1|x^Z+y^Zì ¡^Z,
1xì ¡;^Z+y^Zì ¡^Z|,|x,y,z|;
¸
¡
Z

3ø¡
Z
91
¡
Z

ë 3ø¡
Z
91
|or polyuouial sysleus, coupulaliou liue or
ueuory exhausliou uay depeud slrougly ou lhe
order iu which you lisl uukuowus. |í your iuilial
choice exhausls ueuory or your palieuce, lry
rearraugiug lhe variables iu lhe expressious
aud/or lisl.
|í you do uol iuclude auy guesses aud ií auy
expressiou is uou·polyuouial iu auy variable bul
all expressious are liuear iu lhe uukuowus,
zeros() uses Caussiau eliuiualiou lo alleupl lo
deleruiue all real zeros.
ze¡os1|x+ ^1z;ùyì 1,xì yì s1n1z;
|,|x,y|; ¸

z
øs1n1z;+1

z
+1

ë1s1n1z;ì 1;

z
+1
|í a sysleu is ueilher polyuouial iu all oí ils
variables uor liuear iu ils uukuowus, zeros()
deleruiues al uosl oue zero usiug au
approxiuale ileralive uelhod. Jo do so, lhe
uuuber oí uukuowus uusl equal lhe uuuber oí
expressious, aud all olher variables iu lhe
expressious uusl siupliíy lo uuubers.
Each uukuowu slarls al ils guessed value ií lhere
is oue, olherwise, il slarls al 0.0.
ze¡os1| ^1z;ùyì 1,ëyì s1n1z;|,
|y,z|; ¸
j ¸ .041. 3.1ß3.
use guesses lo seek addilioual zeros oue by oue.
|or couvergeuce, a guess uay have lo be ralher
close lo a zero.
ze¡os1| ^1z;ùyì 1,ëyì s1n1z;|,
|y,z~Zp|; ¸
j ¸ .001. 6.Zß1.
ZoomBox CAIALOG
ZoomBox
0isplays lhe Craph screeu, lels you draw a box
lhal deíiues a uew viewiug wiudow, aud updales
lhe wiudow.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
1.Z5xùcos1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
ZoonSld:Zoonßox ¸
Jhe display aíler deíiuiug Zoom8ox by
pressiug ¸ lhe secoud liue.
1st corner
2nd corner
260 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
zeros() NAIH/Algebra menu
zeros( , )
Relurus a lisl oí caudidale real values oí lhal
uake =0. zeros() does lhis by
coupuliug exp8list(solve( =0, ) ).
ze¡os1aùx^Z+bùx+c,x; ¸

ë1 bñ-4øaøc-+b;
Zøa

bñ-4øaøc-b
Zøa

aùx^Z+bùx+c|x~ans11;jZ¸ ¸ 0
|or soue purposes, lhe resull íoru íor zeros() is
uore couveuieul lhau lhal oí solve(). however,
lhe resull íoru oí zeros() cauuol express iuplicil
solulious, solulious lhal require iuequalilies, or
solulious lhal do uol iuvolve .
Ncte: See also c5olve(), cZeros(), aud solve().
exacl1ze¡os1aù1 ^1x;+x;
1s1çn 1x;ì 1;,x;; ¸ ||
exacl1so!ve1aù1 ^1x;+x;
1s1çn 1x;ì 1;~0,x;; ¸
x
+ x ~ 0 o¡ x`0 o¡ a ~ 0
zeros({ , J, { ,
|, ¦J)
Relurus caudidale real zeros oí lhe siuullaueous
algebraic , where each
speciíies au uukuowu whose value you seek.
0plioually, you cau speciíy au iuilial guess íor a
variable. Each uusl have lhe íoru.
- or -
= ·
|or exauple, x is valid aud so is x=3.
|í all oí lhe expressious are polyuouials aud ií
you do N0J speciíy auy iuilial guesses, zeros()
uses lhe lexical Cröbuer/Buchberger eliuiualiou
uelhod lo alleupl lo deleruiue aII real zeros.
|or exauple, suppose you have a circle oí radius r
al lhe origiu aud auolher circle oí radius r
ceulered where lhe íirsl circle crosses lhe posilive
x·axis. use zeros() lo íiud lhe iulerseclious.
^s illuslraled by r iu lhe exauple lo lhe righl,
siuullaueous expressious cau have
exlra variables lhal have uo values, bul represeul
giveu uuueric values lhal could be subsliluled
laler.
Each row oí lhe resulliug ualrix represeuls au
alleruale zero, wilh lhe coupoueuls ordered lhe
saue as lhe lisl. Jo exlracl a row,
iudex lhe ualrix by | ¦.
ze¡os1|x^Z+y^Zì ¡^Z,
1xì ¡;^Z+y^Zì ¡^Z|,|x,y|; ¸
¡
Z

3ø¡
Z
¡
Z

ë 3ø¡
Z
Exlracl row 2.
ans11;jZ¸ ¸
¡
Z

ë 3ø¡
Z
Cetting Started J7
Example: SeI spliI-screeh mode Io 1OP-8O11OM.
Press Result
J8 Cetting Started
5etting the initial Apps for split screen
A!Ier you selecI eiIher 1OP-8O11OM or LLF1-RIGH1 spliI-screeh mode,
addiIiohal mode seIIihgs become available.
1o seI Ihe ihiIial App !or each spliI-screeh porIioh:
1. SelecI Ihe SpliI 1 App mode seIIihg ahd press Io display a mehu o!
available Apps. (See "SeIIihg spliI-screeh mode" oh page 36.)
2. Press or Io highlighI Ihe App ahd press .
3. RepeaI sIeps 1 ahd 2 !or Ihe SpliI 2 App mode seIIihg.
Example: Display Ihe Y= LdiIor ih Ihe Iop screeh ahd Ihe Graph App ih
Ihe boIIom screeh.
Node Description
SpliI 2 App LeIs you speci!y Ihe App displayed ih Ihe boIIom
or righI porIioh o! Ihe spliI screeh. Works
IogeIher wiIh SpliI 1 App, which leIs you speci!y
Ihe App displayed ih Ihe Iop or le!I porIioh o! Ihe
spliI screeh.
Number o! Graphs LeIs you seI up ahd display Iwo ihdepehdehI
graphs.
Press Result
Full-screeh mode SpliI-screeh mode
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 2S9
xor NAIH/Iest menu
xor
Relurus Irue ií is true aud
is íalse, or vice versa.
Relurus !alse ií aud
are bolh lrue or bolh íalse. Relurus a
siupliíied Booleau expressiou ií eilher oí lhe
origiual Booleau expressious cauuol be resolved
lo lrue or íalse.
Ncte: See or.
l¡ue xo¡ l¡ue ¸ 1a!se
15`3; xo¡ 13`5; ¸ l¡ue
xor
Coupares lwo real iulegers bil·by·bil usiug au
xor operaliou. |ulerually, bolh iulegers are
couverled lo sigued, 32·bil biuary uuubers.
wheu correspoudiug bils are coupared, lhe resull
is 1 ií eilher bil (bul uol bolh) is 1, lhe resull is 0
ií bolh bils are 0 or bolh bils are 1. Jhe relurued
value represeuls lhe bil resulls, aud is displayed
accordiug lo lhe 8ase uode.
You cau euler lhe iulegers iu auy uuuber base.
|or a biuary or hexadeciual eulry, you uusl use
lhe 0b or 0h preíix, respeclively. wilhoul a preíix,
iulegers are lrealed as deciual (base 10).
|í you euler a deciual iuleger lhal is loo large íor
a sigued, 32·bil biuary íoru, a syuuelric uodulo
operaliou is used lo briug lhe value iulo lhe
appropriale rauge.
Ncte: See or.
|u hex base uode.
0l7AC36 xo¡ 0l3L5! ¸ 0l79169
|u Biu base uode.
0b100101 xo¡ 0b100 ¸ 0b100001
Ncte: ^ biuary eulry cau have up lo 32 digils
(uol couuliug lhe 0b preíix). ^ hexadeciual
eulry cau have up lo 8 digils.
XorPic CAIALOG
XorPic [, ] [, ]
0isplays lhe piclure slored iu ou lhe curreul
Craph screeu.
uses xor logic íor each pixel. 0uly lhose pixel
posilious lhal are exclusive lo eilher lhe screeu or
lhe piclure are lurued ou. Jhis iuslrucliou lurus
oíí pixels lhal are lurued ou iu bolh iuages.
uusl coulaiu a pic dala lype.
aud , ií iucluded, speciíy lhe pixel
coordiuales íor lhe upper leíl coruer oí lhe
piclure. 0eíaulls are (0, 0).
Important: Zero, not the letter O.
2S8 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
when() CAIALOG
when( , [, ]
[, ])
Relurus , , or ,
depeudiug ou whelher is lrue, íalse, or
uukuowu. Relurus lhe iupul ií lhere are loo íew
arguueuls lo speciíy lhe appropriale resull.
0uil bolh aud lo uake
au expressiou deíiued ouly iu lhe regiou where
is lrue.
wlen1x´0,x+3;|x~5 ¸
wlen1x´0,3+x;
use au uhde! lo deíiue au expressiou
lhal graphs ouly ou au iulerval.
C!¡ü¡apl ¸
ü¡apl wlen1x‚ëp and
x´0,x+3,unde1; ¸
0uil ouly lhe lo deíiue a lwo·piece
expressiou.
ü¡apl wlen1x´0,x+3,5ì x^Z; ¸
Nesl when() lo deíiue expressious lhal have
uore lhau lwo pieces.
@ "
H ¥ "
C!¡ü¡apl ¸ Lone
ü¡apl wlen1x´0,wlen1x´ëp,
4ùs1n1x;,Zx+3;,5ì x^Z; ¸
when() is helpíul íor deíiuiug recursive íuuclious. wlen1n`0,nù1aclo¡a!1nì 1;,1;
! 1aclo¡a!1n; ¸ Lone
1aclo¡a!13; ¸ 6
3! ¸ 6
While CAIALOG
While

EndWhile
Execules lhe slaleueuls iu as loug as
is lrue.
cau be eilher a siugle slaleueul or a
sequeuce oí slaleueuls separaled wilh lhe "."
characler.
Prograu segueul.
©
:1! 1
:0! lenp
:wl1!e 1´~Z0
: lenp+111! lenp
: 1+1! 1
:£ndwl1!e
:L1sp "sun o1 ¡ec1p¡oca!s up
lo Z0",lenp
©
"With" See j, page 277.
Cetting Started J9
I! you seI SpliI 1 App ahd SpliI 2 App Io Ihe same hohgraphihg App or Io
Ihe same graphihg App wiIh Number o! Graphs seI Io 1, Ihe 1I-89
1iIahium exiIs spliI-screeh mode ahd displays Ihe App ih !ull-screeh
mode.
5electing the active App
Ih spliI-screeh mode, ohly ohe App cah be acIive aI a Iime.
º 1o swiIch beIweeh acIive Apps, press .
º 1o opeh a Ihird App, press ahd selecI Ihe App. 1his App
replaces Ihe acIive spliI-screeh App.
Exiting split-screen mode
LxiI spliI-screeh mode ih ahy o! Ihe !ollowihg ways:
2
4
Press Result
40 Cetting Started
º Press Io close Ihe acIive App ahd display Ihe !ull-screeh
view o! Ihe oIher opeh App.
º I! Ihe Apps deskIop is Iurhed o!!, pressihg replaces Ihe
acIive spliI-screeh App wiIh Ihe calculaIor Home screeh. Pressihg
agaih Iurhs o!! Ihe spliI-screeh mode ahd displays Ihe
calculaIor Home screeh ih !ull-screeh mode.
º SelecI SpliI Screeh oh Page 2 o! Ihe MODL dialog box, seI spliI-screeh
mode Io FULL, ahd press .
º Press Iwice Io display Ihe Apps deskIop
More ih!ormaIioh is available abouI usihg spliI screehs. (See Ihe
elecIrohic Split Screens chapIer.)
Managing Apps and operating system (O5)
versions
Usihg Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium cohhecIiviIy !eaIures, you cah dowhload Apps
!rom:
º 1he 1I LducaIiohal & ProducIiviIy SoluIiohs (L&PS) Web siIe aI:
educaIioh.Ii.com/laIesI
º 1he CD-ROM ihcluded wiIh your 1I-89 1iIahium.
º A compaIible graphihg calculaIor.
Addihg Apps Io your 1I-89 1iIahium is like loadihg so!Iware oh a
compuIer. All you heed is 1I CohhecI so!Iware ahd Ihe US8 compuIer
cable IhaI came wiIh your 1I-89 1iIahium.
For sysIem requiremehIs ahd ihsIrucIiohs Io lihk Io compaIible
calculaIors ahd dowhload 1I CohhecI so!Iware, Apps, ahd OS versiohs,
see Ihe 1I L&PS Web siIe.
8e!ore dowhloadihg Apps Io your 1I-89 1iIahium, please read Ihe licehse
agreemehI oh Ihe CD-ROM or 1I Web siIe.
Finding the O5 version and identification (lD) numbers
I! you purchase so!Iware !rom Ihe 1I L&PS Web siIe or call Ihe cusIomer
supporI humber, you will be asked Io provide ih!ormaIioh abouI your
1I-89 1iIahium. You will !ihd Ihis ih!ormaIioh oh Ihe A8OU1 screeh.
1o display Ihe A8OU1 screeh, press 3:About !rom Ihe Apps deskIop.
1he A8OU1 screeh displays Ihe !ollowihg ih!ormaIioh abouI your 1I-89
1iIahium:
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 2S7
Unarchiv CAIALOG
Unarchiv |, ¦ |, ¦ .
Moves lhe speciíied variables írou lhe user dala
archive ueuory lo R^M.
You cau access au archived variable lhe saue as
you would a variable iu R^M. however, you
cauuol delele, reuaue, or slore lo au archived
variable because il is locked auloualically.
Jo archive variables, use Archive.
10! a¡clesl ¸ 10
A¡cl1ve a¡clesl ¸ Lone
5ùa¡clesl ¸ 50
15! a¡clesl ¸
N
Lna¡cl1v a¡clesl ¸ Lone
15! a¡clesl ¸ 15
unitV() NAIH/Natrix/Vector ops menu
unitV( )
Relurus eilher a row· or coluuu·uuil veclor,
depeudiug ou lhe íoru oí .
uusl be eilher a siugle·row ualrix or a
siugle·coluuu ualrix.
un1l\1ja,b,c¸; ¸
j
a
añ+bñ+cñ

b
añ+bñ+cñ

c
añ+bñ+cñ
¸
un1l\1j1,Z,1¸; ¸
j
‡6
6

‡6
3

‡6
6
¸
un1l\1j1,Z,3¸; ¸
‡14
14
‡14
7
3ø‡14
14
Unlock CAIALOG
Unlock |, ¦| ¦...
uulocks lhe speciíied variables.
Ncte: Jhe variables cau be locked usiug lhe
Lock couuaud.
variance() NAIH/5tatistics menu
variance( | ¦)
Relurus lhe variauce oí .
Each eleueul couuls lhe uuuber oí
couseculive occurreuces oí lhe correspoudiug
eleueul iu .
Ncte: uusl coulaiu al leasl lwo eleueuls.
va¡1ance1|a,b,c|; ¸
añ-aø1b+c;+bñ-bøc+cñ
3
va¡1ance1|1,Z,5,ë6,3,ëZ|; ¸
311Z
va¡1ance1|1,3,5|,|4,6,Z|; ¸
6ß133
variance( | ¦)
Relurus a row veclor coulaiuiug lhe variauce oí
each coluuu iu .
Each eleueul couuls lhe uuuber oí
couseculive occurreuces oí lhe correspoudiug
eleueul iu .
Ncte: uusl coulaiu al leasl lwo rows.
va¡1ance1j1,Z,5,ë3,0,1,
.5,.7,3¸; ¸ j4.75 1.03 4¸
va¡1ance1jL1.1,Z.Z,3.4,5.1,
LZ.3,4.3¸,j6,3,Z,4,5,1¸; ¸
j3.91731,Z.0ß411¸
2S6 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
Irace CAIALOG
Irace
0raws a SmarI Graph aud places lhe lrace cursor
ou lhe íirsl deíiued Y= íuucliou al lhe previously
deíiued cursor posiliou, or al lhe resel posiliou ií
regraphiug was uecessary.
^llows operaliou oí lhe cursor aud uosl keys
wheu ediliug coordiuale values. Several keys,
such as lhe íuucliou keys, O , aud 3 , are
uol aclivaled duriug lrace.
Ncte: Press ¸ lo resuue operaliou.
Iry CAIALOG
Iry
Else
EndIry
Execules uuless au error occurs. Prograu
execuliou lrausíers lo ií au error occurs iu
. variable errorhum coulaius lhe error
uuuber lo allow lhe prograu lo períoru error
recovery.
aud cau be eilher a siugle slaleueul
or a series oí slaleueuls separaled wilh lhe "."
characler.
Prograu segueul.
©
:T¡y
: lew!o!d1lenp;
: £!se
: ¦ A!¡eady ex1sls
: C!¡£¡¡
:£ndT¡y
©
Ncte: See ClrErr aud PassErr.
IwoVar NAIH/5tatistics menu
IwoVar , [, [ ] [, , ]]
Calculales lhe IwoVar slalislics aud updales all
lhe sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-c99
.
|0,1,Z,3,4,5,6|! ¡1 ¸
|0 1 Z ...|
|0,Z,3,4,3,4,6|! ¡Z ¸
|0 Z 3 ...|
Two\a¡ ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
Cetting Started 41
OS versioh
Hardware versioh
UhiI ID (required Io obIaih cerIi!icaIes !or ihsIallihg purchased Apps).
Similar Io a serial humber. WriIe Ihis humber dowh ahd keep iI ih a sa!e
place ih case Ihe calculaIor is ever losI or sIoleh.
Apps cerIi!icaIe revisioh humber (CerI. Rev.)
ProducI idehIi!ier (ProducI ID). Similar Io a model humber.
NoIe IhaI your screeh will be di!!erehI Ihah Ihe ohe showh above.
Deleting an Application
DeleIihg ah applicaIioh removes iI !rom Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium ahd ihcreases
space !or oIher applicaIiohs. 8e!ore deleIihg ah applicaIioh, cohsider
sIorihg iI oh a compuIer !or reihsIallaIioh laIer.
1. QuiI Ihe applicaIioh.
2. Press Io display Ihe VAR-LINK (All) screeh.
3. Press Io display Ihe lisI o! ihsIalled applicaIiohs.
4. SelecI Ihe applicaIioh you wahI Io deleIe by pressihg . (Press
agaih Io deselecI.)
5. Press 1:Delete. 1he VAR-LINK deleIe coh!irmaIioh dialog box
displays.
6. Press Io deleIe Ihe applicaIioh.
Note: Ohly Flash Apps cah be deleIed.
Connecting your 7l-89 7itanium to other devices
1he 1I-89 1iIahium ihcludes boIh a mihi-US8 porI ahd a sIahdard I/O porI.
PorIs are used Io lihk Iwo compaIible graphihg calculaIors or cohhecI Io
a compuIer or peripheral device.
42 Cetting Started
Ih addiIioh, Ihe Ieacher model o! Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium ihcludes ah
accessory porI. 1his porI is used Io ouIpuI visual daIa so IhaI a classroom
cah view Ihe calculaIor's display oh a video device or overhead screeh.
Io connect your calculator to a computer - CohhecI your 1I-89
1iIahium usihg Ihe US8 porI ahd Ihe ihcluded US8 compuIer cable.
Io connect your calculator to another calculator - Use Ihe US8
uhiI-Io-uhiI cable or ah I/O uhiI-Io-uhiI cable Io cohhecI Ihe 1I-89
1iIahium Io a compaIible graphihg calculaIor or peripheral device, such
as a 1I-89 or 1I-92 Plus graphihg calculaIor or Ihe C8L 2¹ ahd C8R¹
sysIems.
Io show your calculator's display to the classroom - Use Ihe
accessory porI Io cohhecI Ihe 1I-PresehIer¹ video adapIer Io Ihe Ieacher
model o! Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium. 1he 1I-PresehIer video adapIer provides a
video ihIer!ace beIweeh Ihe calculaIor ahd video display or recordihg
devices. Or use Ihe accessory porI Io cohhecI Ihe 1I ViewScreeh
overhead pahel Io your calculaIor. 1he 1I ViewScreeh overhead pahel
ehlarges ahd pro|ecIs Ihe display so ah ehIire class cah view iI. For more
ih!ormaIioh abouI Ihe 1I-PresehIer video adapIer ahd 1I ViewScreeh
pahel, see Ihe 1I L&PS Web siIe aI educaIioh.Ii.com.
I/O porI US8 porI
Jl-89 Jitanium ports
Accessory porI
I/O porI US8 porI
Jl-89 Jitanium ports (teacher model)
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 2SS
@tmpCnv() CAIALOG
@tmpCnv( , )

Couverls a leuperalure rauge (lhe diííereuce
belweeu lwo leuperalure values) speciíied by
írou oue uuil lo auolher. valid
leuperalure uuils are.
_¡C Celsius
_¡| |ahreuheil
_¡K Kelviu
_¡R Raukiue
1_¡C aud 1_¡K have lhe saue uaguilude, as do
1_¡| aud 1_¡R. however, 1_¡C is 9/S as large as
1_¡|.
Jo gel @, you cau press ¥ c ¤ |D]
(or 2 ¿ 1 5).
@lnpCnv1100_¡c,_¡1; ¸
1ß0.ø_¡!
@lnpCnv11ß0_¡1,_¡c; ¸
100.ø_¡C
@lnpCnv1100_¡c,_¡k; ¸
100.ø_¡I
@lnpCnv1100_¡1,_¡¡; ¸
100.ø_¡R
@lnpCnv11_¡c,_¡1; ¸
1.ßø_¡!
Ncte: Jo selecl leuperalure uuils írou a
ueuu, press.
@ 2 9
H ¥ À
|or exauple, a 100_¡C rauge (írou 0_¡C lo
100_¡C) is equivaleul lo a 180_¡| rauge.
Jo couverl a parlicular leuperalure value iuslead
oí a rauge, use tmpCnv().
Ioolbar CAIALOG
Ioolbar

EndIBar
Creales a loolbar ueuu.
cau be eilher a siugle slaleueul or a
sequeuce oí slaleueuls separaled wilh lhe "."
characler. Jhe slaleueuls cau be eilher 1iIle or
IIem.
IIems uusl have labels. ^ 1iIle uusl also have a
label ií il does uol have au ileu.
Prograu segueul.
©
:Too!ba¡
: T1l!e "£xanp!es"
: 1len "T¡1ç", l
: 1len "Ca!c", c
: 1len "Slop", Pex1l
:£ndTba¡
©
Ncte: wheu ruu iu a prograu, lhis segueul
creales a ueuu wilh lhree choices lhal brauch
lo lhree places iu lhe prograu.
For ¡, press 2 _.
@ For _ , press ¥ .
H For _ , press 2 .
_¡C
0 100
_¡F
212 32
180_¡F
100_¡C
2S4 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
Iitle CAIALOG
Iitle , [ ]
Creales lhe lille oí a pull·dowu ueuu or dialog
box wheu used iuside a Ioolbar or Custom
couslrucl, or a Dialog...EndDlog block.
Ncte: is ouly valid iu lhe Ioolbar couslrucl.
wheu preseul, il allows lhe ueuu choice lo
brauch lo a speciíied label iuside lhe prograu.
Prograu segueul.
©
:L1a!oç
:T1l!e "Tl1s 1s a d1a!oç
box"
:Requesl "\ou¡ nane",Sl¡1
:L¡opdown "lonll you we¡e
bo¡n",
seq1sl¡1nç11;,1,1,1Z;,\a¡1
:£ndL!oç
©

tmpCnv() CAIALOG
tmpCnv( , )

Couverls a leuperalure value speciíied by
írou oue uuil lo auolher. valid
leuperalure uuils are.
_¡C Celsius
_¡| |ahreuheil
_¡K Kelviu
_¡R Raukiue
|or exauple, 100_¡C couverls lo 212_¡|.
Jo couverl a leuperalure rauge, use @tmpCnv()
iuslead.
lnpCnv1100_¡c,_¡1; ¸ Z1Z.ø_¡!
lnpCnv13Z_¡1,_¡c; ¸ 0.ø_¡C
lnpCnv10_¡c,_¡k; ¸ Z73.15ø_¡I
lnpCnv10_¡1,_¡¡; ¸ 459.67ø_¡R
Ncte: Jo selecl leuperalure uuils írou a
ueuu, press.
@ 2 9
H ¥ À
For ¡, press 2 _.
@ For _ , press ¥ .
H For _ , press 2 .
_¡F
_¡C
0 100
212 32
Cetting Started 4J
8atteries
1he 1I-89 1iIahium uses !our AAA alkalihe baIIeries ahd a backup silver
oxide baIIery (SR44SW or 303). 1he backup baIIery is already ihsIalled,
ahd Ihe AAA baIIeries are provided wiIh your producI.
lnstalling the AAA Batteries
1. Remove Ihe baIIery cover !rom Ihe back o! Ihe calculaIor.
2. Uhwrap Ihe !our AAA baIIeries provided wiIh your producI ahd
ihserI Ihem ih Ihe baIIery comparImehI. Arrahge Ihe baIIeries
accordihg Io Ihe polariIy (+ ahd ) diagram ih Ihe baIIery
comparImehI.
3. Replace Ihe baIIery cover oh Ihe calculaIor. 1he cover should shap
ihIo place.
Replacing the AAA (alkaline) batteries
As Ihe baIIeries lose power, Ihe display begihs Io dim, especially durihg
calculaIiohs. I! you !ihd yoursel! ihcreasihg Ihe cohIrasI !requehIly,
replace Ihe AAA alkalihe baIIeries.
1he sIaIus lihe also gives baIIery ih!ormaIioh.
8e!ore replacihg Ihe baIIeries, Iurh o!! Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium by
pressihg Io avoid losihg ih!ormaIioh sIored ih memory. Do hoI
remove boIh Ihe back-up baIIery ahd Ihe AAA alkalihe baIIeries aI Ihe
same Iime.
lndicator Neaning
8aIIeries are low.
Replace baIIeries as sooh as possible.
44 Cetting Started
Replacing the backup (silver oxide) battery
1. 1o replace Ihe silver oxide backup baIIery, remove Ihe baIIery cover
ahd uhscrew Ihe Iihy screw holdihg Ihe 8ACK UP 8A11LRY cover ih
place.
2. Remove Ihe old baIIery ahd ihsIall a hew SR44SW or 303 baIIery,
posiIive (+) side up. Replace Ihe cover ahd Ihe screw.
lmportant O5 download information
New baIIeries should be ihsIalled be!ore begihhihg ah OS dowhload.
Wheh ih OS dowhload mode, Ihe APD !eaIure does hoI !uhcIioh. I! you
leave your calculaIor ih dowhload mode !or ah exIehded Iime be!ore you
acIually sIarI Ihe dowhload, your baIIeries may become depleIed. You
will Iheh heed Io replace Ihe depleIed baIIeries wiIh hew baIIeries
be!ore dowhloadihg.
You cah also Irahs!er Ihe OS Io ahoIher 1I-89 1iIahium usihg a US8
uhiI-Io-uhiI cable . I! you accidehIally ihIerrupI Ihe Irahs!er be!ore iI is
compleIe, you will heed Io reihsIall Ihe OS via a compuIer. Agaih,
remember Io ihsIall hew baIIeries be!ore dowhloadihg.
Please cohIacI 1exas IhsIrumehIs as described ih Service & SupporI
Ih!ormaIioh, i! you experiehce a problem.
Battery Precautions
1ake Ihese precauIiohs wheh replacihg baIIeries:
º Do hoI leave baIIeries wiIhih Ihe reach o! childreh.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 2SJ
tCollect() NAIH\Algebra\Irig menu
tCollect( )
Relurus au expressiou iu which producls aud
iuleger powers oí siues aud cosiues are couverled
lo a liuear coubiualiou oí siues aud cosiues oí
uulliple augles, augle suus, aud augle
diííereuces. Jhe lrausíorualiou couverls
lrigououelric polyuouials iulo a liuear
coubiualiou oí lheir haruouics.
Soueliues tCollect() will accouplish your goals
wheu lhe deíaull lrigououelric siupliíicaliou
does uol. tCollect() leuds lo reverse
lrausíorualious doue by tExpand(). Soueliues
applyiug tExpand() lo a resull írou tCollect(),
or vice versa, iu lwo separale sleps siupliíies au
expressiou.
lCo!!ecl11cos1a;;^Z; ¸
cos1Zøa;+1
Z
lCo!!ecl1s1n1a;cos1b;; ¸
s1n1aì b;+s1n1a+b;
Z
tExpand() NAIH\Algebra\Irig menu
tExpand( )
Relurus au expressiou iu which siues aud cosiues
oí iuleger·uulliple augles, augle suus, aud augle
diííereuces are expauded. Because oí lhe ideulily
(siu(x))
2
+(cos(x))
2
=1, lhere are uauy possible
equivaleul resulls. Cousequeully, a resull uighl
diííer írou a resull showu iu olher publicalious.
Soueliues tExpand() will accouplish your goals
wheu lhe deíaull lrigououelric siupliíicaliou
does uol. tExpand() leuds lo reverse
lrausíorualious doue by tCollect(). Soueliues
applyiug tCollect() lo a resull írou tExpand(),
or vice versa, iu lwo separale sleps siupliíies au
expressiou.
Ncte: 0egree·uode scaliug by p/180 iuleríeres
wilh lhe abilily oí tExpand() lo recoguize
expaudable íorus. |or besl resulls, tExpand()
should be used iu Radiau uode.
l£xpand1s1n13f ;; ¸
4øs1n1f ;ø1cos1f ;;ñì s1n1f ;
l£xpand1cos1aì b;; ¸
cos1a;øcos1b;+s1n1a;øs1n1b;
Iext CAIALOG
Iext
0isplays lhe characler slriug dialog
box.
|í used as parl oí a Dialog...EndDlog block,
is displayed iuside lhal dialog box. |í
used as a slaudaloue iuslrucliou, Iext creales a
dialog box lo display lhe slriug.
Texl "have a n1ce day." ¸
Lone
Ihen See lf, page 196.
timeCnv() CAIALOG
timeCnv( )
Couverls secouds lo uuils oí liue lhal cau be
uore easily uuderslood íor evalualiou. Jhe lisl is
iu } } íorual.
Ncte: See also checkImr() aud startImr().
1+m-Ûr.'1'.44.11/·
|1/n4 ´ 1 '/|

2S2 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
tanh( )
Relurus lhe ualrix hyperbolic laugeul oí
. Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug
lhe hyperbolic laugeul oí each eleueul. |or
iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou uelhod, reíer
lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode.
lanl1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸;
¸
ë.097. .933. .4Z5.
.4ßß. .53ß. ë.1Z9.
1.ZßZ. ë1.034. .4Zß.
tanhê() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
tanhê( )
tanhê( )
tanhê( ) relurus lhe iuverse hyperbolic
laugeul oí lhe arguueul as au expressiou.
tanhê( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe iuverse
hyperbolic laugeuls oí each eleueul oí .
|u reclaugular couplex íorual uode.
lanlê10; ¸ 0
lanlê1|1,Z.1,3|; ¸
|ˆ .51ß... ì 1.570...ø
!n1Z;
Z
ì
p
Z
ø |
tanhê( )
Relurus lhe ualrix iuverse hyperbolic laugeul oí
. Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug
lhe iuverse hyperbolic laugeul oí each eleueul.
|or iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou uelhod,
reíer lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode aud Reclaugular
couplex íorual uode.
lanlê1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸;
¸
ë.099.+.164.ø .Z67.ì 1.490.ø .
ë.0ß7.ì .7Z5.ø .479.ì .947.ø .
.511.ì Z.0ß3.ø ë.ß7ß.+1.790.ø .
taylor() NAIH/Calculus menu
taylor( , , [, ])
Relurus lhe requesled Jaylor polyuouial. Jhe
polyuouial iucludes uou·zero lerus oí iuleger
degrees írou zero lhrough iu ( uiuus
). taylor() relurus ilselí ií lhere is uo
lruucaled power series oí lhis order, or ií il would
require uegalive or íraclioual expoueuls. use
subsliluliou aud/or leuporary uulliplicaliou by a
power oí
( uiuus ) lo deleruiue uore geueral
power series.
deíaulls lo zero aud is lhe expausiou poiul.
lay!o¡1 ^1‡1x;;,x,Z; ¸
lay!o¡1 ^1l;,l,4;|l~‡1x; ¸
lay!o¡1111xù1xì 1;;,x,3; ¸
expand1lay!o¡1x11xù1xì 1;;,
x,4;1x,x; ¸
Cetting Started 4S
º Do hoI mix hew ahd used baIIeries. Do hoI mix brahds (or Iypes
wiIhih brahds) o! baIIeries.
º Do hoI mix rechargeable ahd hoh-rechargeable baIIeries.
º IhsIall baIIeries accordihg Io polariIy (+ ahd -) diagrams.
º Do hoI place hoh-rechargeable baIIeries ih a baIIery recharger.
º Properly dispose o! used baIIeries immediaIely.
º Do hoI ihciheraIe or dismahIle baIIeries.
46 Cetting Started Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 2S1
tan() @ 2 Y key H Y key
tan( )
tan( )
tan( ) relurus lhe laugeul oí lhe
arguueul as au expressiou.
tan( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe laugeuls oí all
eleueuls iu .
Ncte: Jhe arguueul is iulerpreled as eilher a
degree or radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul
augle uode. You cau use óor ôlo override lhe
augle uode leuporarily.
|u 0egree augle uode.
lan11p14;ô; ¸ 1
lan145; ¸ 1
lan1|0,60,90|; ¸
|0 ‡3 unde1|
|u Radiau augle uode.
lan1p14; ¸ 1
lan145¡; ¸ 1
lan1|p,p13,·p,p14|; ¸
|0 ‡3 0 1|
tan( )
Relurus lhe ualrix laugeul oí . Jhis
is lhe saue as calculaliug lhe laugeul oí each
eleueul. |or iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou
uelhod, reíer lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode.
lan1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸; ¸
ëZß.Z91. Z6.0ßß. 11.114.
1Z.117. ë7.ß35. ë5.4ß1.
36.ß1ß. ë3Z.ß06. ë10.459.
tanê() @ ¥ S key H 2 S key
tanê( )
tanê( )
tanê( ) relurus lhe augle whose
laugeul is as au expressiou.
tanê( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe iuverse laugeuls
oí each eleueul oí .
Ncte: Jhe resull is relurued as eilher a degree or
radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul augle
uode selliug.
|u 0egree augle uode.
lanê11; ¸ 45
|u Radiau augle uode.
lanê1|0,.Z,.5|; ¸
|0 .197... .463...|
tanê( )
Relurus lhe ualrix iuverse laugeul oí
. Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug
lhe iuverse laugeul oí each eleueul. |or
iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou uelhod, reíer
lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode.
lanê1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸;
¸
ë.0ß3. 1.Z66. .6ZZ.
.74ß. .630. ë.070.
1.6ß6. ë1.1ßZ. .455.
tanh() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
tanh( )
tanh( )
tanh( ) relurus lhe hyperbolic laugeul
oí lhe arguueul as au expressiou.
tanh( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe hyperbolic laugeuls
oí each eleueul oí .
lanl11.Z; ¸ .ß33...
lanl1|0,1|; ¸ |0 lanl11;|
2S0 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
I (lrauspose) NAIH/Natrix menu
î
Relurus lhe couplex coujugale lrauspose oí
.
j1,Z,3,4,5,6,7,ß,9¸! nal1 ¸
1 Z 3
4 5 6
7 ß 9
nal1î ¸
1 4 7
Z 5 ß
3 6 9
ja,b,c,d¸! nalZ ¸ j
a b
c d
¸
nalZî ¸ j
a c
b d
¸
j1+ ,Z+ ,3+ ,4+ ¸! nal3 ¸
j
1+ Z+
3+ 4+
¸
nal3
î
¸ j
1ì  3ì 
Zì  4ì 
¸
Iable CAIALOG
Iable [, ] [, ]
Builds a lable oí lhe speciíied expressious or
íuuclious.
Jhe expressious iu lhe lable cau also be graphed.
Expressious eulered usiug lhe Iable or Graph
couuauds are assigued iucreasiug íuucliou
uuubers slarliug wilh 1. Jhe expressious cau be
uodiíied or iudividually deleled usiug lhe edil
íuuclious available wheu lhe lable is displayed by
pressiug _Header. Jhe curreully selecled
íuuclious iu lhe Y= Edilor are leuporarily
iguored.
Jo clear lhe íuuclious crealed by Iable or
Graph, execule lhe ClrGraph couuaud or
display lhe Y= Edilor.
|í lhe paraueler is ouilled, lhe curreul graph·
uode iudepeudeul variable is assuued. Soue
valid varialious oí lhis iuslrucliou are.
|uucliou graphiug. Iable ,
Parauelric graphiug. Iable , ,
Polar graphiug. Iable , q
Ncte: Jhe Iable couuaud is uol valid íor 30,
sequeuce, or diíí equalious graphiug. ^s au
allerualive, you uay waul lo use BldData.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
Tab!e 1.Z5xùcos1x; ¸
Tab!e cos1l1ne;,l1ne ¸
Previews 47

Previews
Performing Computations
1his secIioh provides several examples !or you Io per!orm !rom Ihe
CalculaIor Home screeh IhaI demohsIraIe some o! Ihe compuIaIiohal
!eaIures o! Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium. 1he hisIory area ih each screeh was
cleared by pressihg ahd selecIihg 8:Clear Home, be!ore per!ormihg
each example, Io illusIraIe ohly Ihe resulIs o! Ihe example's keysIrokes.
5howing Computations
Finding the Factorial of Numbers
5teps and keystrokes Display
CompuIe sin( /4) ahd display Ihe resulI ih
symbolic ahd humeric !ormaI. 1o clear Ihe
hisIory area o! previous calculaIiohs, press
ahd selecI 8:Clear Home.
4
5teps and keystrokes Display
CompuIe Ihe !acIorial o! several humbers Io see
how Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium hahdles very large
ihIegers. 1o geI Ihe !acIorial operaIor (!), press
, selecI 7:Probability, ahd Iheh selecI
1:!.
5 7 1 20 7 1
30 7 1
48 Previews
Expanding Complex Numbers
Finding Prime Factors
Expanding Expressions
Reducing Expressions
5teps and keystrokes Display
CompuIe (3+5i)
3
Io see how Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium
hahdles compuIaIiohs ihvolvihg complex
humbers.
Press 3 5 3
5teps and keystrokes Display
CompuIe Ihe !acIors o! Ihe raIiohal humber
2634492. You cah ehIer "!acIor" oh Ihe ehIry
lihe by Iypihg FACIOR oh Ihe keyboard, or by
pressihg ahd selecIihg 2:factor(.
Press 2 2634492
(Cptional) LhIer oIher humbers oh your owh.
5teps and keystrokes Display
Lxpahd Ihe expressioh (x 5)
3
. You cah ehIer
"expahd" oh Ihe ehIry lihe by Iypihg EXPAND
oh Ihe keyboard, or by pressihg ahd selecIihg
3:expand(.
Press 3 X 5 3
(Cptional) LhIer oIher expressiohs oh your owh.
5teps and keystrokes Display
Reduce Ihe expressioh (x
2
2x 5)/(x 1) Io iIs
simplesI !orm. You cah ehIer "propFrac" oh Ihe
ehIry lihe by Iypihg PROPFRAC oh Ihe keyboard,
or by pressihg ahd selecIihg 7:propFrac(.
Press 7 X 2 2 X 5 X 1

Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 249
subNat() CAIALOG
subNat( [, ] [, ] [, ]
[, ])
Relurus lhe speciíied subualrix oí .
0eíaulls. =1, =1, =lasl
row, =lasl coluuu.
j1,Z,3,4,5,6,7,ß,9¸! n1 ¸
1 Z 3
4 5 6
7 ß 9
sublal1n1,Z,1,3,Z; ¸
j
4 5
7 ß
¸
sublal1n1,Z,Z; ¸
j
5 6
ß 9
¸
5um (5igma) See G(), page 273.
sum() NAIH/List menu
sum( { { ]])
Relurus lhe suu oí lhe eleueuls iu .
aud are oplioual. Jhey speciíy a rauge oí
eleueuls.
sun1|1,Z,3,4,5|; ¸ 15
sun1|a,Za,3a|; ¸ 6øa
sun1seq1n,n,1,10;; ¸ 55
sun1|1,3,5,7,9|,3; ¸ Z1
sum( { { ]])
Relurus a row veclor coulaiuiug lhe suus oí lhe
eleueuls iu lhe coluuus iu .
aud are oplioual. Jhey speciíy a rauge oí
rows.
sun1j1,Z,3,4,5,6¸; ¸ j5 7 9¸
sun1j1,Z,3,4,5,6,7,ß,9¸; ¸
j1Z 15 1߸
sun1j1,Z,3,4,5,6,7,ß,9¸,Z,3;
¸
j11,13,15¸
switch() CAIALOG
switch({ ])
Relurus lhe uuuber oí lhe aclive wiudow. ^lso
cau sel lhe aclive wiudow.
Ncte: Wihdow 1 is leíl or lop, Wihdow 2 is righl
or bollou.
|í = 0, relurus lhe aclive wiudow uuuber.
|í = 1, aclivales wiudow 1 aud relurus
lhe previously aclive wiudow uuuber.
|í = 2, aclivales wiudow 2 aud relurus
lhe previously aclive wiudow uuuber.
|í is ouilled, swilches wiudows aud
relurus lhe previously aclive wiudow uuuber.
is iguored ií lhe
J|·89 Jilauiuu/voyage¹ 200 is uol displayiug a
splil screeu.
sw1lcl1; ¸
248 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
5toPic CAIALOG
5toPic [, , ] [, , ]
0isplays lhe graph screeu aud copies a
reclaugular area oí lhe display lo lhe variable
.
aud , ií iucluded, speciíy lhe upper·
leíl coruer oí lhe area lo copy (deíaulls are 0, 0).
aud , ií iucluded, speciíy lhe
diueusious, iu pixels, oí lhe area. 0eíaulls are
lhe widlh aud heighl, iu pixels, oí lhe curreul
graph screeu.
5tore See ! (slore), page 277.
string() NAIH/5tring menu
string( )
Siupliíies aud relurus lhe resull as a
characler slriug.
sl¡1nç11.Z345; ¸ "1.Z345"
sl¡1nç11+Z; ¸ "3"
sl¡1nç1cos1x;+‡13;; ¸
"cos1x; + ‡13;"
5tyle CAIALOG
5tyle
Sels lhe sysleu graphiug íuucliou iu lhe
curreul graph uode lo use lhe graphiug properly
.
uusl be au iuleger írou 1-99 aud lhe
íuucliou uusl already exisl.
uusl be oue oí. "Lihe", "DoI",
"Square", "1hick", "AhimaIe", "PaIh",
"Above", or "8elow".
Nole lhal iu parauelric graphiug, ouly lhe halí
oí lhe pair coulaius lhe slyle iuíorualiou.
valid slyle uaues vs. graphiug uode.
|uucliou. all slyles
Parauelric/Polar. liue, dol, square, lhick,
auiuale, palh
Sequeuce. liue, dol, square, lhick
30. uoue
0iíí Equalious. liue, dol, square, lhick,
auiuale, palh
Ncte: Capilalizaliou aud blauk spaces are
oplioual wheu euleriug uaues.
Sly!e 1,"ll1ck" ¸ Lone
Sly!e 10,"pall" ¸ Lone
Ncte: |u íuucliou graphiug uode, lhese
exauples sel lhe slyle oí y1(x) lo "1hick" aud
y10(x) lo "PaIh".
Previews 49
Factoring Polynomials
5olving Equations
5olving Equations with a Domain Constraint
5teps and keystrokes Display
FacIor Ihe polyhomial (x
2
5) wiIh respecI Io x.
You cah ehIer "!acIor" oh Ihe ehIry lihe by
Iypihg FACIOR oh Ihe keyboard or by pressihg
ahd selecIihg 2:factor(.
Press 2 X 2 5 X
5teps and keystrokes Display
Solve Ihe equaIioh x
2
2x 6=2 wiIh respecI Io x.
You cah ehIer "solve(" oh Ihe ehIry lihe by
selecIihg "solve(° !rom Ihe CaIalog mehu, by
Iypihg 5OLVE( oh Ihe keyboard, or by pressihg
ahd selecIihg 1:solve(.
1he sIaIus lihe area shows Ihe required syhIax
!or Ihe marked iIem ih Ihe Catalog mehu.
Press 1 X 2 2 X 6 2 X
5teps and keystrokes Display
Solve Ihe equaIioh x
2
2x 6=2 wiIh respecI Io x
where x is greaIer Ihah zero. 1he "with" (I)
operaIor provides domaih cohsIraihI.
1 X 2 2 X 6 2 X X
0
S0 Previews
Finding the Derivative of Functions
Finding the lntegral of Functions
5ymbolic Manipulation
Solve Ihe sysIem o! equaIiohs 2x 3y = 4 ahd x + 7y = 12. Solve Ihe !irsI
equaIioh so IhaI x is expressed ih Ierms o! y. SubsIiIuIe Ihe expressioh !or
x ihIo Ihe secohd equaIioh, ahd solve !or Ihe value o! y. 1heh subsIiIuIe
Ihe y value back ihIo Ihe !irsI equaIioh Io solve !or Ihe value o! x.
5teps and keystrokes Display
Fihd Ihe derivaIive o! (x y)
3
/(x+y)
2
wiIh respecI
Io x.
1his example illusIraIes usihg Ihe calculus
di!!erehIiaIioh !uhcIioh ahd how Ihe !uhcIioh is
displayed ih "preIIy prihI" ih Ihe hisIory area.
Press X Y 3 X Y
2 X
5teps and keystrokes Display
Fihd Ihe ihIegral o! x sin(x) wiIh respecI Io x.
1his example illusIraIes usihg Ihe calculus
ihIegraIioh !uhcIioh.
X X X
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe Home screeh ahd clear Ihe ehIry
lihe. Solve Ihe equaIioh 2x 3y = 4 !or x.
1 selecIs solve( !rom Ihe Algebra mehu.
You cah also Iype solve( direcIly !rom Ihe
keyboard or selecI iI !rom Ihe Catalog.
1 2 X 3 Y 4
X
2. 8egih Io solve Ihe equaIioh x + 7y = 12 !or
y, buI do hoI press yeI.
Press 1 X 7 Y 12 Y
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 247
stdDev() NAIH/5tatistics menu
stdDev( { ])
Relurus lhe slaudard devialiou oí lhe eleueuls iu
.
Each eleueul couuls lhe uuuber oí
couseculive occurreuces oí lhe correspoudiug
eleueul iu .
Ncte: uusl have al leasl lwo eleueuls.
sldLev1|a,b,c|; ¸
sldLev1|1,Z,5,ë6,3,ëZ|; ¸
sldLev1|1.3,Z.5,L6.4|,|3,Z,5|;
¸ 4.33345
stdDev( | ¦)
Relurus a row veclor oí lhe slaudard devialious
oí lhe coluuus iu .
Each eleueul couuls lhe uuuber oí
couseculive occurreuces oí lhe correspoudiug
eleueul iu .
Ncte: uusl have al leasl lwo rows.
sldLev1j1,Z,5,·3,0,1,.5,.7,3¸;
¸
jZ.179... 1.014... Z¸
sldLev1jL1.Z,5.3,Z.5,7.3,6,L4¸,
j4,Z,3,3,1,7¸; ¸
jZ.7005,5.44695¸
5toGDB CAIALOG
5toGDB
Creales a Craph dalabase (C0B) variable lhal
coulaius lhe curreul.
* Craphiug uode
* Y= íuuclious
* wiudow variables
* Craph íorual selliugs
1· or 2·Craph selliug (splil screeu aud ralio
selliugs ií 2·Craph uode)
^ugle uode
Real/couplex uode
* |uilial coudilious ií Sequeuce or
0iíí Equalious uode
* Jable ílags
* lblSlarl, @lbl, lbl|upul
You cau use RclGDB lo reslore lhe graph
euvirouueul.
*Ncte: Jhese ileus are saved íor bolh graphs iu
2·Craph uode.
5top CAIALOG
5top
used as a prograu iuslrucliou lo slop prograu
execuliou.
Prograu segueul.
©
!o¡ 1,1,10,1
11 1~5
Slop
£nd!o¡
©
246 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
Each soluliou variable slarls al ils guessed value
ií lhere is oue, olherwise, il slarls al 0.0.
use guesses lo seek addilioual solulious oue by
oue. |or couvergeuce, a guess uay have lo be
ralher close lo a soluliou.
so!ve1 ^1z;ùy~1 and
ëy~s1n1z;,|y,z~Zp|; ¸
y~.001. and z~6.Zß1.
5ortA NAIH/List menu
5ortA [, ] [, ] ...
5ortA [, ] [, ] ...
Sorls lhe eleueuls oí lhe íirsl arguueul iu
asceudiug order.
|í you iuclude addilioual arguueuls, sorls lhe
eleueuls oí each so lhal lheir uew posilious
ualch lhe uew posilious oí lhe eleueuls iu lhe
íirsl arguueul.
^ll arguueuls uusl be uaues oí lisls or veclors.
^ll arguueuls uusl have equal diueusious.
|Z,1,4,3|! !1sl1 ¸ |Z,1,4,3|
So¡lA !1sl1 ¸ Lone
!1sl1 ¸ |1 Z 3 4|
|4,3,Z,1|! !1slZ ¸ |4 3 Z 1|
So¡lA !1slZ,!1sl1 ¸ Lone
!1slZ ¸ |1 Z 3 4|
!1sl1 ¸ |4 3 Z 1|
5ortD NAIH/List menu
5ortD [, ] [, ] ...
5ortD [, ] [, ] ...
|deulical lo 5ortA, excepl 5ortD sorls lhe
eleueuls iu desceudiug order.
|Z,1,4,3|! !1sl1 ¸ |Z 1 4 3|
|1,Z,3,4|! !1slZ ¸ |1 Z 3 4|
So¡lL !1sl1,!1slZ ¸ Lone
!1sl1 ¸ |4 3 Z 1|
!1slZ ¸ |3 4 1 Z|
45phere NAIH/Natrix/Vector ops menu
45phere
0isplays lhe row or coluuu veclor iu spherical
íoru |r q f ¦.
uusl be oí diueusiou 3 aud cau be eilher a
row or a coluuu veclor.
Ncte. 45phere is a display·íorual iuslrucliou,
uol a couversiou íuucliou. You cau use il ouly al
lhe eud oí au eulry liue.
j1,Z,3¸4Sple¡e
¥ ¸ j3.741... 1.107... .640...¸
jZ, pà4,3¸4Sple¡e
¥ ¸ j3.605... .7ß5... .5ßß...¸
¸ j‡13
p
4
cosê1
3ø‡13
13

X
Y
Z

startImr() CAIALOG
startImr()
Relurus lhe curreul value oí lhe clock iu ils
iuleger represeulaliou, giviug lhe íor a
liuer. You cau euler lhe as au arguueul
iu checkImr() lo deleruiue how uauy secouds
have elapsed.
You cau ruu uulliple liuers siuullaueously.
Ncte: See also checkImr() aud timeCnv().
1~·1|m·'· ¸ 14oÛo´´1'
·l-·¹|m·'14oÛo´´1'· ´4
1~·1|m·'·! |+m-·1
©
1~·1|m·'·! |+m-·.
©
·l-·¹|m·'|+m-·1·! |+m-·1!~!u-
©
·l-·¹|m·'|+m-·.·! |+m-·.!~!u-

Previews S1
1his example is a demohsIraIioh o! symbolic mahipulaIioh. A ohe-sIep
!uhcIioh is available !or solvihg sysIems o! equaIiohs.
3. Use Ihe "with" operaIor Io subsIiIuIe Ihe
expressioh !or x IhaI was calculaIed !rom
Ihe !irsI equaIioh. 1his gives Ihe value o! y.
1he "with" operaIor is displayed as [ oh Ihe
screeh.
Use Ihe auIo-pasIe !eaIure Io highlighI Ihe
lasI ahswer ih Ihe hisIory area ahd pasIe iI
Io Ihe ehIry lihe.

4. HighlighI Ihe equaIioh !or x ih Ihe hisIory
area.
Press
5. AuIo-pasIe Ihe highlighIed expressioh Io
Ihe ehIry lihe. 1heh subsIiIuIe Ihe value o! y
IhaI was calculaIed !rom Ihe secohd
equaIioh.

1he soluIioh is:
x = 8/11 ahd y = 20/11
5teps and keystrokes Display
S2 Previews
Constants and Measurement Units
Usihg Ihe equaIioh ! = m a, calculaIe Ihe !orce wheh m = 5 kilograms
ahd a = 20 meIers/secohd
2
. WhaI is Ihe !orce wheh a = 9.8
meIers/secohd
2
. (1his is Ihe acceleraIioh due Io graviIy, which is a
cohsIahI hamed _g). CohverI Ihe resulI !rom hewIohs Io kilograms o!
!orce.
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box, Page 3. For
Unit 5ystem mode, selecI 5l !or Ihe meIric
sysIem o! measuremehIs.
ResulIs are displayed accordihg Io Ihese
de!aulI uhiIs.
Press 1
2. CreaIe ah acceleraIioh uhiI !or
meIers/secohd
2
hamed _ms2.
1he UNlI5 dialog box leIs you selecI uhiIs
!rom ah alphabeIical lisI o! caIegories. You
cah use ahd Io scroll ohe page
aI a Iime Ihrough Ihe caIegories.
I! you use Ihe UNlI5 dialog box Io selecI a
uhiI, Ihe _ is ehIered auIomaIically. Now,
ihsIead o! re-ehIerihg _m/_s
2
each Iime you
heed iI, you cah use _ms2. Also, you cah
how use Ihe UNlI5 dialog box Io selecI
_ms2 !rom Ihe AcceleraIioh caIegory.
M
S 2
MS 2
3. CalculaIe Ihe !orce wheh
m = 5 kilograms (_kg) ahd
a = 20 meIers/secohd
2
(_ms2).
I! you khow Ihe abbreviaIioh !or a uhiI, you
cah Iype iI !rom Ihe keyboard.
5 KG 20
MS 2
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 24S
|í all oí lhe equalious are polyuouials aud ií you
do N0J speciíy auy iuilial guesses, solve() uses
lhe lexical Cröbuer/Buchberger eliuiualiou
uelhod lo alleupl lo deleruiue aII real
solulious.
|or exauple, suppose you have a circle oí radius r
al lhe origiu aud auolher circle oí radius r
ceulered where lhe íirsl circle crosses lhe posilive
x·axis. use solve() lo íiud lhe iulerseclious.
^s illuslraled by r iu lhe exauple lo lhe righl,
siuullaueous equalious cau have
exlra variables lhal have uo values, bul represeul
giveu uuueric values lhal could be subsliluled
laler.
so!ve1x^Z+y^Z~¡^Z and
1xì ¡;^Z+y^Z~¡^Z,|x,y|; ¸
x~
¡
Z
and y~
3ø¡
Z
o¡ x~
¡
Z
and y~
ë 3ø¡
Z
You cau also (or iuslead) iuclude soluliou
variables lhal do uol appear iu lhe equalious. |or
exauple, you cau iuclude z as a soluliou variable
lo exleud lhe previous exauple lo lwo parallel
iulersecliug cyliuders oí radius r.
Jhe cyliuder solulious illuslrale how íauilies oí
solulious uighl coulaiu arbilrary couslauls oí lhe
íoru © , where is au iuleger suííix írou 1
lhrough 2SS. Jhe suííix resels lo 1 wheu you use
ClrHome or _8:Clear Home.
|or polyuouial sysleus, coupulaliou liue or
ueuory exhausliou uay depeud slrougly ou lhe
order iu which you lisl soluliou variables. |í your
iuilial choice exhausls ueuory or your palieuce,
lry rearraugiug lhe variables iu lhe equalious
aud/or lisl.
so!ve1x^Z+y^Z~¡^Z and
1xì ¡;^Z+y^Z~¡^Z,|x,y,z|; ¸
x~
¡
Z
and y~
3ø¡
Z
and z~91
o¡ x~
¡
Z
and y~
ë 3ø¡
Z
and z~91
|í you do uol iuclude auy guesses aud ií auy
equaliou is uou·polyuouial iu auy variable bul all
equalious are liuear iu lhe soluliou variables,
solve() uses Caussiau eliuiualiou lo alleupl lo
deleruiue all real solulious.
so!ve1x+ ^1z;ùy~1 and
xì y~s1n1z;,|x,y|; ¸
x~

z
øs1n1z;+1

z
+1
and y~
ë1s1n1z;ì 1;

z
+1
|í a sysleu is ueilher polyuouial iu all oí ils
variables uor liuear iu ils soluliou variables,
solve() deleruiues al uosl oue soluliou usiug au
approxiuale ileralive uelhod. Jo do so, lhe
uuuber oí soluliou variables uusl equal lhe
uuuber oí equalious, aud all olher variables iu
lhe equalious uusl siupliíy lo uuubers.
so!ve1 ^1z;ùy~1 and
ëy~s1n1z;,|y,z|; ¸
y~.041. and z~3.1ß3.
244 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
use lhe "[" operalor lo reslricl lhe soluliou iulerval
aud/or olher variables lhal occur iu lhe equaliou or
iuequalily. wheu you íiud a soluliou iu oue iulerval,
you cau use lhe iuequalily operalors lo exclude lhal
iulerval írou subsequeul searches.
|u Radiau augle uode.
so!ve1lan1x;~11x,x;|x`0 and
x´1 ¸ x ~.ß60...
!alse is relurued wheu uo real solulious are íouud.
Irue is relurued ií solve() cau deleruiue lhal auy
íiuile real value oí salisíies lhe equaliou or
iuequalily.
so!ve1x~x+1,x; ¸ 1a!se
so!ve1x~x,x; ¸ l¡ue
Siuce solve() always relurus a Booleau resull, you
cau use "aud," "or," aud "uol" lo coubiue resulls
írou solve() wilh each olher or wilh olher Booleau
expressious.
Zxì 1 1 and so!ve1x^Zƒ9,x; ¸
x 1 and x ƒ ë3
Solulious uighl coulaiu a uuique uew uudeíiued
variable oí lhe íoru ©h wilh beiug au iuleger iu
lhe iulerval 1-2SS. Such variables desiguale au
arbilrary iuleger.
|u Radiau augle uode.
so!ve1s1n1x;~0,x; ¸ x ~ 9n1øp
|u real uode, íraclioual powers haviug odd
deuouiualors deuole ouly lhe real brauch.
0lherwise, uulliple brauched expressious such as
íraclioual powers, logarilhus, aud iuverse
lrigououelric íuuclious deuole ouly lhe priucipal
brauch. Cousequeully, solve() produces ouly
solulious correspoudiug lo lhal oue real or priucipal
brauch.
Ncte: See also c5olve(), cZeros(), n5olve(), aud
zeros().
so!ve1x^1113;~ë1,x; ¸ x ~ ë1
so!ve1‡1x;~ëZ,x; ¸ 1a!se
so!ve1ë‡1x;~ëZ,x; ¸ x ~ 4
solve( and [and ], { ,
|, ¦J)
Relurus caudidale real solulious lo lhe
siuullaueous algebraic equalious, where each
speciíies a variable lhal you waul lo
solve íor.
0plioually, you cau speciíy au iuilial guess íor a
variable. Each uusl have lhe íoru.
- or -
=
|or exauple, x is valid aud so is x=3.
so!ve1y~x^Zì Z and
x+Zy~ë1,|x,y|; ¸
x~1 and y~ë1
o¡ x~ë31Z and y~114
Previews SJ
8asic Function Graphing l
1he example ih Ihis secIioh demohsIraIes some o! Ihe graphihg
capabiliIies o! Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium keysIrokes. II illusIraIes how Io graph a
!uhcIioh usihg Ihe Y= Editor. You will learh how Io ehIer a !uhcIioh,
produce a graph o! Ihe !uhcIioh, Irace a curve, !ihd a mihimum poihI,
ahd Irahs!er Ihe mihimum coordihaIes Io Ihe Home screeh.
Lxplore Ihe graphihg capabiliIies o! Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium by graphihg Ihe
!uhcIioh y=([x
2
3[ 10)/2.
4. Usihg Ihe same m, calculaIe Ihe !orce !or ah
acceleraIioh due Io graviIy (Ihe cohsIahI
_g).
For _g, you cah use Ihe pre-de!ihed
cohsIahI available !rom Ihe UNlI5 dialog
box or you cah Iype _g.
5 KG
G
5. CohverI Io kilograms o! !orce (_kg!).
displays Ihe cohversioh operaIor.
KGF
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe Y= Editor.
Press
2. LhIer Ihe !uhcIioh (abs(x
2
3) 10)/2.
1he screeh shoI shows Ihe "preIIy prihI"
display aI y1=.
A X 2 3 1 0
2
5teps and keystrokes Display
ehIry lihe
S4 Previews
3. Display Ihe graph o! Ihe !uhcIioh.
SelecI 6:Zoom5td by pressihg 6 or by
movihg Ihe cursor Io 6:Zoom5td ahd
pressihg .
Press 6
4. 1urh oh Irace.
1he Iracihg cursor, ahd Ihe x ahd y
coordihaIes are displayed.
Press
5. Opeh Ihe NAIH mehu ahd selecI
3:Ninimum.
Press
6. SeI Ihe lower bouhd.
Press (righI cursor) Io move Ihe Iracihg
cursor uhIil Ihe lower bouhd !or x is |usI Io
Ihe le!I o! Ihe mihimum hode be!ore
pressihg Ihe secohd Iime.
Press ...
7. SeI Ihe upper bouhd.
Press (righI cursor) Io move Ihe Iracihg
cursor uhIil Ihe upper bouhd !or x is |usI Io
Ihe righI o! Ihe mihimum hode.
Press ...
8. Fihd Ihe mihimum poihI oh Ihe graph
beIweeh Ihe lower ahd upper bouhds.
Press
5teps and keystrokes Display
Iracihg cursor
mihimum poihI
mihimum coordihaIes
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 24J
5inReg NAIH/5tatistics/Regressions menu
5inReg , [ , [ ] , [ ] [, , ] ]
Calculales lhe siuusoidal regressiou aud updales
all lhe sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
speciíies lhe uaxiuuu uuuber oí liues
(1 lhrough 16) a soluliou will be alleupled. |í
ouilled, 8 is used. Jypically, larger values resull
iu beller accuracy bul louger execuliou liues, aud
vice versa.
speciíies au esliualed period. |í ouilled,
lhe diííereuce belweeu values iu should be
equal aud iu sequeulial order. |í you speciíy
, lhe diííereuces belweeu x values cau be
uuequal.
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-
c99.
Jhe oulpul oí 5inReg is always iu radiaus,
regardless oí lhe augle uode selliug.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
seq1x,x,1,361,30;! ¡1 ¸
|1 31 61 .|
|5.5,ß,11,13.5,16.5,19,19.5,17
,
14.5,1Z.5,ß.5,6.5,5.5|! ¡Z ¸
|5.5 ß 11 .|
S1nReç ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
¸
¡eçeq1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
¥ %
„9
solve() NAIH/Algebra menu
solve( , )
solve( , )
Relurus caudidale real solulious oí au equaliou or
au iuequalily íor . Jhe goal is lo reluru caudidales
íor all solulious. however, lhere uighl be equalious
or iuequalilies íor which lhe uuuber oí solulious is
iuíiuile.
so!ve1aùx^Z+bùx+c~0,x; ¸
x ~
bñ-4øaøc·b
Zøa
o¡ x ~
ë1 bñ-4øaøc+b;
Zøa
Soluliou caudidales uighl uol be real íiuile
solulious íor soue coubiualious oí values íor
uudeíiued variables.
ans11;| a~1 and b~1 and c~1
¸
£¡¡o¡: lon·¡ea! ¡esu!l
|or lhe AU1O selliug oí lhe LxacI/Approx uode,
lhe goal is lo produce exacl solulious wheu lhey are
coucise, aud suppleueuled by ileralive searches
wilh approxiuale arilhuelic wheu exacl solulious
are iupraclical.
so!ve11xì a; ^1x;~ëxù1xì a;,x;
¸
x ~ a o¡ x ~ë.567...
0ue lo deíaull caucellaliou oí lhe grealesl couuou
divisor írou lhe uuueralor aud deuouiualor oí
ralios, solulious uighl be solulious ouly iu lhe liuil
írou oue or bolh sides.
1x+1;1xì 1;11xì 1;+xì 3 ¸
Zøxì Z
so!ve1enl¡y11;~0,x; ¸ x ~ 1
enl¡y1Z;|ans11; ¸ unde1
!1n1l1enl¡y13;,x,1; ¸ 0
|or iuequalilies oí lypes ‚, , <, or >, explicil
solulious are uulikely uuless lhe iuequalily is liuear
aud coulaius ouly .
so!ve15xì Z ‚ Zx,x; ¸ x ‚ Z13
|or lhe LXAC1 selliug oí lhe LxacI/Approx uode,
porlious lhal cauuol be solved are relurued as au
iuplicil equaliou or iuequalily.
exacl1so!ve11xì a; ^1x;~ëxù
1xì a;,x;; ¸
x
+ x ~ 0 o¡ x ~ a
242 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
sinh() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
sinh( )
sinh( )
sinh ( ) relurus lhe hyperbolic siue oí
lhe arguueul as au expressiou.
sinh ( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe hyperbolic siues oí
each eleueul oí .
s1nl11.Z; ¸ 1.509...
s1nl1|0,1.Z,3.|; ¸
|0 1.509... 10.017...|
sinh( )
Relurus lhe ualrix hyperbolic siue oí
. Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug
lhe hyperbolic siue oí each eleueul. |or
iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou uelhod, reíer
lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode.
s1nl1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸;
¸
360.954 305.70ß Z39.604
35Z.91Z Z33.495 193.564
Z9ß.63Z 154.599 140.Z51
sinhê() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
sinhê( )
sinhê( )
sinhê( ) relurus lhe iuverse hyperbolic
siue oí lhe arguueul as au expressiou.
sinhê( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe iuverse
hyperbolic siues oí each eleueul oí .
s1nlê10; ¸ 0
s1nlê1|0,Z.1,3|; ¸
|0 1.4ß7... s1nlê13;|
sinhê( )
Relurus lhe ualrix iuverse hyperbolic siue oí
. Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug
lhe iuverse hyperbolic siue oí each eleueul. |or
iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou uelhod, reíer
lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode.
s1nlê1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸;
¸
.041. Z.155. 1.15ß.
1.463. .9Z6. .11Z.
Z.750. ë1.5Zß. .57Z.
Previews SS
8asic Function Graphing ll
Graph a circle o! radius 5, cehIered oh Ihe origih o! Ihe coordihaIe
sysIem. View Ihe circle usihg Ihe sIahdard viewihg wihdow (Zoom5td).
1heh use Zoom5qr Io ad|usI Ihe viewihg wihdow.
9. 1rahs!er Ihe resulI Io Ihe Home screeh, ahd
Iheh display Ihe Home screeh.

5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box. For Graph
mode, selecI FUNCIlON.
Press 1
2. Display Ihe Home screeh. 1heh sIore Ihe
radius, 5, ih variable r.
5 R
3. Display ahd clear Ihe Y= Editor. 1heh
de!ihe y1(x) = , Ihe Iop hal! o! a
circle.
Ih !uhcIioh graphihg, you musI de!ihe
separaIe !uhcIiohs !or Ihe Iop ahd boIIom
halves o! a circle.
8 R
2 X 2
4. De!ihe y2(x) = , Ihe !uhcIioh !or
Ihe boIIom hal! o! Ihe circle.
1he boIIom hal! is Ihe hegaIive o! Ihe Iop
hal!, so you cah de!ihe y2(x) = y1(x).
Use Ihe !ull !uhcIioh hame y1(x), hoI
simply y1.
Press Y 1 X
5teps and keystrokes Display
5 r
r
2
x
2
–
r
2
x
2
– –
S6 Previews
Note: 1here is a gap beIweeh Ihe Iop ahd boIIom halves o! Ihe circle
because each hal! is a separaIe !uhcIioh. 1he maIhemaIical ehdpoihIs o!
each hal! are ( 5,0) ahd (5,0). Depehdihg oh Ihe viewihg wihdow,
however, Ihe plotted ehdpoihIs !or each hal! may be slighIly di!!erehI
!rom Iheir mathematical ehdpoihIs.
Parametric Graphing
Graph Ihe parameIric equaIiohs describihg Ihe paIh o! a ball kicked aI ah
ahgle ( ) o! 60 wiIh ah ihiIial velociIy (v
0
) o! 15 meIers/sec. 1he graviIy
cohsIahI g = 9.8 meIers/sec
2
. Ighorihg air resisIahce ahd oIher drag
!orces, whaI is Ihe maximum heighI o! Ihe ball ahd wheh does iI hiI Ihe
grouhd?
5. SelecI Ihe Zoom5td viewihg wihdow,
which auIomaIically graphs Ihe !uhcIiohs.
Ih Ihe sIahdard viewihg wihdow, boIh Ihe
x ahd y axes rahge !rom 10 Io 10.
However, Ihis rahge is spread over a lohger
disIahce alohg Ihe x axis Ihah Ihe y axis.
1here!ore, Ihe circle appears as ah ellipse.
Press 6
6. SelecI Zoom5qr.
Zoom5qr ihcreases Ihe rahge alohg Ihe
x axis so IhaI circles ahd squares are showh
ih correcI proporIioh.
Press 5
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box. For Graph
mode, selecI PARANEIRlC.
Press 2
5teps and keystrokes Display
NoIice slighI gap
beIweeh Iop ahd
boIIom halves.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 241
simult( , |, ¦)
Solves uulliple sysleus oí liuear equalious,
where each sysleu has lhe saue equaliou
coeííicieuls bul diííereul couslauls.
Each coluuu iu uusl coulaiu lhe
couslauls íor a sysleu oí equalious. Each coluuu
iu lhe resulliug ualrix coulaius lhe soluliou íor
lhe correspoudiug sysleu.
Solve. x + 2y = 1 x + 2y = 2
3x + 4y = ë1 3x + 4y = ë3
s1nu!l1j1,Z,3,4¸,j1,Z,ë1,ë3¸;
¸
j
ë3 ë7
Z 91Z
¸
|or lhe íirsl sysleu, x=ë3 aud y=2. |or lhe
secoud sysleu, x=ë7 aud y=9/2.
sin() @ 2 W key H W key
sin( )
sin( )
sin( ) relurus lhe siue oí lhe arguueul
as au expressiou.
sin( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe siues oí all eleueuls
iu .
Ncte: Jhe arguueul is iulerpreled as eilher a
degree or radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul
augle uode. You cau use óor ôlo override lhe
augle uode selliug leuporarily.
|u 0egree augle uode.
s1n11p14;ô; ¸
‡Z
Z
s1n145; ¸
‡Z
Z
s1n1|0,60,90|; ¸ |0
‡3
Z
1|
|u Radiau augle uode.
s1n1p14; ¸
‡Z
Z
s1n145¡; ¸
‡Z
Z
sin( )
Relurus lhe ualrix siue oí . Jhis is
lhe saue as calculaliug lhe siue oí each
eleueul. |or iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou
uelhod, reíer lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode.
s1n1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸; ¸
.94Z. ë.045. ë.031.
ë.045. .949. ë.0Z0.
ë.04ß. ë.005. .961.
sinê() @ ¥ Q key H 2 Q key
sinê( )
sinê( )
sinê( ) relurus lhe augle whose siue is
as au expressiou.
sinê( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe iuverse siues oí
each eleueul oí .
Ncte: Jhe resull is relurued as eilher a degree or
radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul augle
uode selliug.
|u 0egree augle uode.
s1nê11; ¸ 90
|u Radiau augle uode.
s1nê1|0,.Z,.5|; ¸
|0 .Z01... .5Z3...|
sinê( )
Relurus lhe ualrix iuverse siue oí .
Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug lhe iuverse
siue oí each eleueul. |or iuíorualiou aboul lhe
calculaliou uelhod, reíer lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode aud Reclaugular
couplex íorual uode.
s1nê1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸;
¸
ë.164.ì .064.ø 1.490.ì Z.105.ø .
.7Z5.ì 1.515.ø .947.ì .77ß.ø .
Z.0ß3.ì Z.63Z.ø ë1.790.+1.Z71.ø .
240 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
5how5tat CAIALOG
5how5tat
0isplays a dialog box coulaiuiug lhe lasl
coupuled slalislics resulls ií lhey are slill valid.
Slalislics resulls are cleared auloualically ií lhe
dala lo coupule lheu has chauged.
use lhis iuslrucliou aíler a slalislics calculaliou,
such as LinReg.
|1,Z,3,4,5|! ¡1 ¸ |1 Z 3 4 5|
|0,Z,6,10,Z5|! ¡Z ¸
|0 Z 6 10 Z5|
Two\a¡ ¡1,¡Z ¸
SlowSlal ¸
sign() NAIH/Number menu
sign( )
sign( )
sign( )
|or real aud couplex , relurus
/abs( ) wheu ƒ 0.
Relurus 1 ií is posilive.
Relurus ë1 ií is uegalive.
sign(0) relurus „1 ií lhe couplex íorual uode is
RLAL, olherwise, il relurus ilselí.
sign(0) represeuls lhe uuil circle iu lhe couplex
douaiu.
|or a lisl or ualrix, relurus lhe sigus oí all lhe
eleueuls.
s1çn1ë3.Z; ¸ ë1.
s1çn1|Z,3,4,ë5|; ¸
|1 1 1 ë1|
s1çn11+abs1x;; ¸ 1
|í couplex íorual uode is RLAL.
s1çn1jë3,0,3¸; ¸ jë1 „1 1¸
simult() NAIH/Natrix menu
simult( , |, ¦)
Relurus a coluuu veclor lhal coulaius lhe
solulious lo a sysleu oí liuear equalious.
uusl be a square ualrix lhal coulaius
lhe coeííicieuls oí lhe equalious.
uusl have lhe saue uuuber oí rows
(saue diueusiou) as aud coulaiu lhe
couslauls.
0plioually, auy ualrix eleueul is lrealed as zero
ií ils absolule value is less lhau . Jhis lolerauce
is used ouly ií lhe ualrix has íloaliug·poiul
eulries aud does uol coulaiu auy syubolic
variables lhal have uol beeu assigued a value.
0lherwise, is iguored.
 |í you use ¥ ¸ or sel lhe uode lo
LxacI/Approx=APPROXIMA1L, coupulalious
are doue usiug íloaliug·poiul arilhuelic.
 |í is ouilled or uol used, lhe deíaull
lolerauce is calculaled as.
5Lë14 ùmax(dim( ))
ùrowNorm( )
Solve íor x aud y. x + 2y = 1
3x + 4y = ë1
s1nu!l1j1,Z,3,4¸,j1,ë1¸; ¸
j
ë3
Z
¸
Jhe soluliou is x=ë3 aud y=2.
Solve. ax + by = 1
cx + dy = 2
ja,b,c,d¸! nalx1 ¸ j
a b
c d
¸
s1nu!l1nalx1,j1,Z¸; ¸
ë1Zøbì d;
aødì bøc


Zøaì c
aødì bøc
Previews S7
2. Display ahd clear Ihe Y= Editor. 1heh
de!ihe Ihe horizohIal compohehI
xI1(I) = v
0
I cos .
LhIer values !or v
0
ahd .
8 151
60
1ype 1 , hoI 1 .
LhIer a symbol by Iypihg eiIher or
2 1. 1his ehsures a humber is
ihIerpreIed as degrees, regardless o! Ihe
ahgle mode.
3. De!ihe Ihe verIical compohehI
yI1(I) = v
0
I sih (g/2)I
2
.
LhIer values !or v
0
, , ahd g.
151 60
9.8 2 1 2
4. Display Ihe Window Editor. LhIer Wihdow
variables appropriaIe !or Ihis example.
You cah press eiIher or Io ehIer a
value ahd move Io Ihe hexI variable.
Press 0 3 .02 2 25
5 2 10 5
5. Graph Ihe parameIric equaIiohs Io model
Ihe paIh o! Ihe ball.
Press
6. SelecI Irace. 1heh move Ihe cursor alohg
Ihe paIh Io !ihd Ihe:
º y value aI maximum heighI.
º I value where Ihe ball hiIs Ihe grouhd.
Press or as hecessary
5teps and keystrokes Display
xI1(I)=15I cos(60 )
S8 Previews
Polar Graphing
1he graph o! Ihe polar equaIioh r1( ) = A sih 8 !orms Ihe shape o! a
rose. Graph Ihe rose !or A=8 ahd 8=2.5. 1heh explore Ihe appearahce o!
Ihe rose !or oIher values o! A ahd 8.
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box. For Graph
mode, selecI POLAR. For Angle mode,
selecI RADlAN.
Press 3 1
2. Display ahd clear Ihe Y= Editor. 1heh de!ihe
Ihe polar equaIioh r1( ) = A sih 8 .
LhIer 8 ahd 2.5 !or A ahd 8, respecIively.
8 8 2.5

3. SelecI Ihe Zoom5td viewihg wihdow, which
graphs Ihe equaIioh.
º 1he graph shows ohly !ive rose peIals.
- Ih Ihe sIahdard viewihg wihdow,
Ihe Wihdow variable max = 2 .
1he remaihihg peIals have values
greaIer Ihah 2 .
º 1he rose does hoI appear symmeIrical.
- 8oIh Ihe x ah y axes rahge !rom 10
Io 10. However, Ihis rahge is spread
over a lohger disIahce alohg Ihe x
axis Ihah Ihe y axis.
Press 6
4. Display Ihe Window Editor, ahd chahge
max Io 4 .
4 will be evaluaIed Io a humber wheh you
leave Ihe Window Editor.
Press 4
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 2J9
shift() CAIALOG
shift( |, ¦)
Shiíls lhe bils iu a biuary iuleger. You cau euler
iu auy uuuber base, il is couverled
auloualically lo a sigued, 32·bil biuary íoru. |í
lhe uaguilude oí is loo large íor lhis
íoru, a syuuelric uodulo operaliou briugs il
wilhiu lhe rauge.
|í is posilive, lhe shiíl is lo lhe leíl. |í
is uegalive, lhe shiíl is lo lhe righl. Jhe
deíaull is ë1 (shiíl righl oue bil).
|u a righl shiíl, lhe righluosl bil is dropped aud 0
or 1 is iuserled lo ualch lhe leíluosl bil. |u a leíl
shiíl, lhe leíluosl bil is dropped aud 0 is iuserled
as lhe righluosl bil.
|or exauple, iu a righl shiíl.
|u Biu base uode.
sl11l10b1111010110000110101;
¸
0b111101011000011010
sl11l1Z56,1; ¸
0b1000000000
|u hex base uode.
sl11l10l7ߣ; ¸ 0l3C7
sl11l10l7ߣ,ëZ; ¸ 0l1£3
sl11l10l7ߣ,Z; ¸ 0l1£3ß
Impcrtant: Jo euler a biuary or hexadeciual
uuuber, always use lhe 0b or 0h preíix (zero,
uol lhe leller 0).
0b00000000000001111010110000110101
produces.
0b00000000000000111101011000011010
Jhe resull is displayed accordiug lo lhe 8ase
uode. Leadiug zeros are uol showu.
shift( |, ¦)
Relurus a copy oí shiíled righl or leíl by
eleueuls. 0oes uol aller .
|í is posilive, lhe shiíl is lo lhe leíl. |í
is uegalive, lhe shiíl is lo lhe righl. Jhe
deíaull is ë1 (shiíl righl oue eleueul).
Eleueuls iulroduced al lhe begiuuiug or eud oí
by lhe shiíl are sel lo lhe syubol "uudeí".
|u 0ec base uode.
sl11l1|1,Z,3,4|; ¸
|unde1 1 Z 3|
sl11l1|1,Z,3,4|,ëZ; ¸
|unde1 unde1 1 Z|
sl11l1|1,Z,3,4|,1; ¸
|Z 3 4 unde1|
shift( |, ¦)
Relurus a copy oí shiíled righl or leíl by
characlers. 0oes uol aller .
|í is posilive, lhe shiíl is lo lhe leíl. |í
is uegalive, lhe shiíl is lo lhe righl. Jhe
deíaull is ë1 (shiíl righl oue characler).
Characlers iulroduced al lhe begiuuiug or eud oí
by lhe shiíl are sel lo a space.
sl11l1"abcd"; ¸ " abc"
sl11l1"abcd",ëZ; ¸ " ab"
sl11l1"abcd",1; ¸ "bcd "
Ìnserts 0 if leftmost bit is 0,
or 1 if leftmost bit is 1.
Each bit shifts right.
Dropped
2J8 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
5hade CAIALOG
5hade , , [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ]
0isplays lhe Craph screeu, graphs aud
, aud shades areas iu which is less lhau
. ( aud uusl be expressious lhal
use x as lhe iudepeudeul variable.)
aud , ií iucluded, speciíy leíl aud righl
bouudaries íor lhe shadiug. valid iupuls are
belweeu xmih aud xmax. 0eíaulls are xmih aud
xmax.
speciíies oue oí íour shadiug pallerus.
1 = verlical (deíaull)
2 = horizoulal
3 = uegalive·slope 4S¡
4 = posilive·slope 4S¡
speciíies lhe resoluliou oí lhe shadiug
pallerus.
1= solid shadiug
2= 1 pixel spaciug (deíaull)
3= 2 pixels spaciug
©
10= 9 pixels spaciug
Ncte. |uleraclive shadiug is available ou lhe
Craph screeu lhrough lhe 5hade iuslrucliou.
^uloualic shadiug oí a speciíic íuucliou is
available lhrough lhe 5tyle iuslrucliou. 5hade is
uol valid iu 30 graphiug uode.
|u lhe Zoom1rig viewiug wiudow.
Slade cos1x;,s1n1x; ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
C!¡L¡aw ¸ Lone
Slade cos1x;,s1n1x;,0,5 ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
C!¡L¡aw ¸ Lone
Slade cos1x;,s1n1x;,0,5,Z ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
C!¡L¡aw ¸ Lone
Slade cos1x;,s1n1x;,0,5,Z,1
¸
Previews S9
5equence Graphing
A small !oresI cohIaihs 4000 Irees. Lach year, 20% o! Ihe Irees will be
harvesIed (wiIh 80% remaihihg) ahd 1000 hew Irees will be plahIed.
Usihg a sequehce, calculaIe Ihe humber o! Irees ih Ihe !oresI aI Ihe ehd o!
each year. Does iI sIabilize aI a cerIaih humber?
5. SelecI Zoom5qr, which regraphs Ihe
equaIioh.
Zoom5qr ihcreases Ihe rahge alohg Ihe
x axis so IhaI Ihe graph is showh ih correcI
proporIioh.
Press 5
You cah chahge values !or A ahd 8 as
hecessary ahd regraph Ihe equaIioh.
lnitially After 1 Year After 2 Years After 3 Years . . .
4000 .8 x 4000
+ 1000
.8 x (.8 x 4000 +
1000) + 1000
.8 x (.8 x (.8 x
4000 + 1000) +
1000) + 1000
. . .
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box. For Graph
mode, selecI 5EÇUENCE.
Press 4
5teps and keystrokes Display
60 Previews
2. Display ahd clear Ihe Y= Editor. 1heh de!ihe
Ihe sequehce as
u1(h) = iParI(.8 u1(h 1)+1000).
Use iPart Io Iake Ihe ihIeger parI o! Ihe
resulI. No !racIiohal Irees are harvesIed.
1o access iPart(, you cah use ,
simply Iype iI, or selecI iI !rom Ihe
CAIALOG.
8 14.8
U1 N 1 1000
3. De!ihe ui1 as Ihe ihiIial value IhaI will be
used as Ihe !irsI Ierm.
Press 4000
4. Display Ihe Window Editor. SeI Ihe h ahd
ploI Wihdow variables.
nmin=0 ahd nmax=50 evaluaIe Ihe size o!
Ihe !oresI over 50 years.
Press 0 50 1 1
5. SeI Ihe x ahd y Wihdow variables Io
appropriaIe values !or Ihis example.
Press 0 50 10 0 6000 1000
6. Display Ihe Graph screeh.
Press
5teps and keystrokes Display
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 2J7
setImFmt() CAIALOG
setImFmt( )
Sels lhe liue íorual íor lhe desklop accordiug lo
lhe arguueul aud relurus lhe previous liue
íorual value.
|uleger values.
1. ¬ 1. l0u· ·!0·¹
.4 ¬ .4 l0u· ·!0·¹

setImZn() CAIALOG
setImZn( )
Sels lhe liue zoue accordiug lo lhe arguueul aud
relurus lhe previous liue zoue value.
Jhe liue zoue is deíiued by au iuleger lhal gives
lhe uiuules oíísel írou Creeuwich Meau Jiue
(CMJ), as eslablished iu Creeuwich, Euglaud. |or
exauple, ií lhe liue zoue is oíísel írou CMJ by
lwo hours, lhe device would reluru 120
(uiuules).
|ulegers íor liue zoues wesl oí CMJ are
uegalive.
|ulegers íor liue zoues easl oí CMJ are posilive.
|í Creeuwich Meau Jiue is 14.07.07, il is.
7.07.07 a.u. iu 0euver, Colorado (Mouulaiu
Slaudard Jiue)
(-420 uiuules írou CMJ)
1S.07.07 p.u. iu Brussels, Belgiuu (Ceulral
Europeau Slaudard Jiue)
(+60 uiuules írou CMJ)

setUnits() CAIALOG
setUnits( )
Sels lhe deíaull uuils lo lhe values speciíied iu
, aud relurus a lisl oí lhe previous deíaulls.
 Jo speciíy lhe buill·iu S| (uelric) or ENC/uS
sysleu, uses lhe íoru.
}"SI"} or }"LNG/US"}
 Jo speciíy a cuslou sel oí deíaull uuils,
uses lhe íoru.
}"CUS1OM", " ", " "|, " ", " ", .¦}
where each aud pair speciíies a
calegory aud ils deíaull uuil. (You cau speciíy
buill·iu uuils ouly, uol user·deíiued uuils.) ^uy
calegory uol speciíied will use ils previous
cuslou uuil.
^ll uuil uaues uusl begiu wilh au uuderscore
_.
@ ¥
H 2
You cau also selecl uuils írou a ueuu by
pressiug.
@ 2 9
H ¥ À
selLn1ls1|"S1"|; ¸
|"S1" "A¡ea" "l0l£"
"Capac1lance" "_!" ...|
selLn1ls1|"CLST0l","¡ençll",
"_cn","lass","_çn"|; ¸
|"S1" "¡ençll" "_n"
"lass" "_kç" ...|
Ncte: Your screeu uay display diííereul
uuils.
 Jo reluru lo lhe previous cuslou deíaull uuils,
uses lhe íoru.
}"CUS1OM"}
|í you waul diííereul deíaulls depeudiug ou lhe
silualiou, creale separale lisls aud save lheu lo
uuique lisl uaues. Jo use a sel oí deíaulls,
speciíy lhal lisl uaue iu setUnits().
You cau use setUnits() lo reslore selliugs
previously saved wilh setUnits() ! or wilh
getUnits() ! .
2J6 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
Node Name 5ettings
"Craph" "|uucliou", "Parauelric", "Polar", "Sequeuce", "30", "0iíí Equalious"
"0isplay 0igils" "|ix 0", "|ix 1", ..., "|ix 12", "|loal", "|loal 1", ..., "|loal 12"
"^ugle" "Radiau", "0egree"
"Expoueulial |orual" "Norual", "Scieuliíic", "Eugiueeriug"
"Couplex |orual" "Real", "Reclaugular", "Polar"
"veclor |orual" "Reclaugular", "Cyliudrical", "Spherical"
"Prelly Priul" "0íí", "0u"
"Splil Screeu" "|ull", "Jop·Bollou", "Leíl·Righl"
"Splil 1 ^pp" "houe", "Y= Edilor", "wiudow Edilor", "Craph", "Jable", "0ala/Malrix
Edilor", "Prograu Edilor", "Jexl Edilor", "Nuueric Solver", " "
"Splil 2 ^pp" "houe", "Y= Edilor", "wiudow Edilor", "Craph", "Jable", "0ala/Malrix
Edilor", "Prograu Edilor", "Jexl Edilor", "Nuueric Solver", " "
"Nuuber oí Craphs" "1", "2"
"Craph2" "|uucliou", "Parauelric", "Polar", "Sequeuce", "30", "0iíí Equalious"
"Splil Screeu Ralio" "1.1", "1.2", "2.1" (voyage¹ 200 ouly)
"Exacl/^pprox" "^ulo", "Exacl", "^pproxiuale"
"Base" "0ec", "hex", "Biu"
"Lauguage" "Euglish", " "
"^pps 0esklop" "0íí", "0u"
setIable() CAIALOG
setIable( , )
Sels lhe lable paraueler lo
, aud relurus lhe previous selliug oí
lhe paraueler. Sloriug lhe previous selliug lels
you reslore il laler.
is a characler slriug lhal speciíies
which paraueler you waul lo sel. |l uusl be oue
oí lhe parauelers írou lhe lable below.
is a characler slriug lhal speciíies lhe
uew selliug íor lhe paraueler. |l uusl be oue oí
lhe selliugs lisled below íor lhe speciíic
paraueler you are selliug.
selTab!e1"ü¡apl ´ì `
Tab!e","0l";
¸ "0!!"
selTab!e1"1ndependenl","ALT0";
¸ "ASI"
¥ &
Ncte: Capilalizaliou aud blauk spaces are
oplioual wheu euleriug parauelers.
Parameter Name 5ettings
"Craph <·> Jable" "0íí", "0u"
"|udepeudeul" "^ulo", "^sk"

setIime() CAIALOG
setIime( )
Sels lhe clock lo lhe liue giveu iu lhe arguueul
aud relurus a lisl. Jhe lisl is iu
} } íorual. Jhe relurued
liue is lhe previous clock value.
Enter the hour in the 24 hour format, in which 13 =
1 p.m.
-1|+m-'11.´..'Û·
|1Û 44 4´|

Previews 61
3D Graphing
Graph Ihe 3D equaIioh z(x,y) = (x
3
y y
3
x) / 390. AhimaIe Ihe graph by
usihg Ihe cursor Io ihIeracIively chahge Ihe eye Wihdow variable values
IhaI cohIrol your viewihg ahgle. 1heh view Ihe graph ih di!!erehI graph
!ormaI sIyles.
7. SelecI Irace. Move Ihe cursor Io Irace year
by year. How mahy years (hc) does iI Iake
Ihe humber o! Irees (yc) Io sIabilize?
1race begihs aI hc=0.
hc is Ihe humber o! years.
xc = hc sihce h is ploIIed oh Ihe x axis.
yc = u1(h), Ihe humber o! Irees aI
year h.
Press ahd as hecessary
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box. For Graph
mode, selecI 3D.
Press 5
2. Display ahd clear Ihe Y= Editor. 1heh de!ihe
Ihe 3D equaIioh z1(x,y) = (x
3
y y
3
x) / 390.
NoIice IhaI implied mulIiplicaIioh is used ih
Ihe keysIrokes.
Press 8 X 3 Y
Y 3 X 390
3. Chahge Ihe graph !ormaI Io display ahd
label Ihe axes. Also seI 5tyle = WlRE
FRANE.
You cah ahimaIe ahy graph !ormaI sIyle,
buI WlRE FRANE is !asIesI.
2 2 1
5teps and keystrokes Display
8y de!aulI, sequehces use
Ihe Square display sIyle.
62 Previews
4. SelecI Ihe Zoom5td viewihg cube, which
auIomaIically graphs Ihe equaIioh.
As Ihe equaIioh is evaluaIed (be!ore iI is
graphed), "evaluaIioh percehIages" are
showh ih Ihe upper-le!I parI o! Ihe screeh.
Press 6
Note: I! you have already used 3D
graphihg, Ihe graph may be showh ih
expahded view. Wheh you ahimaIe Ihe
graph, Ihe screeh reIurhs Io hormal view
auIomaIically. (LxcepI !or ahimaIioh, you
cah do Ihe same Ihihgs ih hormal ahd
expahded view.)
Press (press Io swiIch beIweeh
expahded ahd hormal view)
5. AhimaIe Ihe graph by decreasihg Ihe eye
Wihdow variable value.
or may a!!ecI eye ahd eye , buI Io a
lesser exIehI Ihah eye .
1o ahimaIe Ihe graph cohIihuously, press
ahd hold Ihe cursor !or abouI 1 secohd ahd
Iheh release iI. 1o sIop, press .
Press eighI Iimes
6. ReIurh Ihe graph Io iIs ihiIial oriehIaIioh.
1heh move Ihe viewihg ahgle alohg Ihe
"viewihg orbiI" arouhd Ihe graph.
Press 0 (zero, hoI Ihe leIIer O)
7. View Ihe graph alohg Ihe x axis, Ihe y axis,
ahd Iheh Ihe z axis.
Press X
1his graph has Ihe same shape alohg Ihe
y axis ahd x axis.
Press Y
Press Z
5teps and keystrokes Display
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 2JS
Node Name 5ettings
"Coordiuales" "Recl", "Polar", "0íí"
"Craph 0rder" "Seq", "Siuul"
1
"Crid" "0íí", "0u"
2
"^xes" "0íí", "0u" (uol 30 graph uode)
"0íí", "^xes", "Box" (30 graph uode)
"Leadiug Cursor" "0íí", "0u"
2
"Labels" "0íí", "0u"
"Slyle" "wire |raue", "hiddeu Suríace", "Coulour Levels", "wire aud Coulour",
"|uplicil Plol"
3
"Seq ^xes" "Jiue", "web", "u1·vs·u2"
4
"0E ^xes" "Jiue", "l·vs·y' ", "y·vs·y' ", "y1·vs·y2", "y1·vs·y2' ", "y1'·vs·y2' "
S
1ip: Jo lype a priue syubol ( ' ), press 2 È .
"Soluliou Melhod" "RK", "Euler"
S
"|ields" "Slp|ld", "0ir|ld", "|ld0íí"
S
1
Nol available iu Sequeuce, 30, or 0iíí Equalious graph uode.
2
Nol available iu 30 graph uode.
3
^pplies ouly lo 30 graph uode.
4
^pplies ouly lo Sequeuce graph uode.
S
^pplies ouly lo 0iíí Equalious graph uode.
setNode() CAIALOG
setNode( , )
setNode( )
Sels uode lo lhe uew selliug
, aud relurus lhe curreul selliug oí
lhal uode.
is a characler slriug lhal speciíies
which uode you waul lo sel. |l uusl be oue oí
lhe uode uaues írou lhe lable below.
is a characler slriug lhal speciíies lhe
uew selliug íor lhe uode. |l uusl be oue oí lhe
selliugs lisled below íor lhe speciíic uode you
are selliug.
coulaius pairs oí keyword slriugs aud will sel
lheu all al ouce. Jhis is recouueuded íor
uulliple·uode chauges. Jhe exauple showu uay
uol work ií each oí lhe pairs is eulered wilh a
separale setNode() iu lhe order showu.
use setNode( ) lo reslore selliugs saved wilh
getNode("ALL")! .
Ncte: Jo sel or reluru iuíorualiou aboul lhe
UhiI SysIem uode, use setUnits() or getUnits()
iuslead oí setNode() or getNode().
sellode1"Anç!e","Leç¡ee";
¸ "RAL1Al"
s1n145; ¸
‡Z
Z
sellode1"Anç!e","Rad1an";
¸ "L£üR££"
s1n1pà4; ¸
‡Z
Z
sellode1"L1sp!ay L1ç1ls",
"!1x Z"; ¸ "!¡0AT"
p¥ ¸ 3.14
sellode 1"L1sp!ay L1ç1ls",
"!!oal"; ¸ "!17 Z"
p¥ ¸ 3.141...
sellode 1|"Sp!1l Sc¡een",
"¡e1l·R1çll","Sp!1l 1 App",
"ü¡apl","Sp!1l Z
App","Tab!e"|;
¸
|"Sp!1l Z App" "ü¡apl"
"Sp!1l 1 App" "hone"
"Sp!1l Sc¡een" "!L¡¡"|
Ncte: Capilalizaliou aud blauk spaces are
oplioual wheu euleriug uode uaues. ^lso,
lhe resulls iu lhese exauples uay be diííereul
ou your uuil.
2J4 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
seq() NAIH/List menu
seq( , , , [, ])
|ucreueuls írou lhrough by au
iucreueul oí , evaluales , aud
relurus lhe resulls as a lisl. Jhe origiual couleuls
oí are slill lhere aíler seq() is coupleled.
cauuol be a sysleu variable.
Jhe deíaull value íor 1.
seq1n^Z,n,1,6; ¸
|1 4 9 16 Z5 36|
seq111n,n,1,10,Z; ¸
|1 113 115 117 119|
sun1seq11àn^Z,n,1,10,1;; ¸
196...
1Z7...
or press ¥ ¸ lo gel. 1.549...

setDate() CAIALOG
setDate( )
Sels lhe clock lo lhe dale giveu iu lhe arguueul
aud relurus a lisl. (Ncte: Jhe uusl íall iu
lhe rauge 1997 · 2132.) Jhe relurued lisl is iu
} } íorual. Jhe relurued
dale is lhe previous clock value.
Euler lhe year as a íour·digil iuleger. Jhe uoulh
aud day cau be eilher oue· or lwo·digil iulegers.
-1U~1-'.ÛÛ1.1Û.´1· ¸
|.ÛÛ1 11 1|

setDtFmt() CAIALOG
setDtFmt( )
Sels lhe dale íorual íor lhe desklop accordiug lo
lhe arguueul aud relurus lhe previous dale
íorual value.
|uleger values.
1 ¬ ||´UU´¨¨ ' ¬ ¨¨.||.UU
. ¬ UU´||´¨¨ n ¬ ||UU¨¨
´ ¬ ||.UU.¨¨ / ¬ UU||¨¨
4 ¬ UU.||.¨¨ o ¬ ¨¨||UU

setFold() CAIALOG
setFold( )
Relurus lhe uaue oí lhe curreul íolder as a slriug
aud sels as lhe curreul íolder.
Jhe íolder uusl exisl.
new!o!d cl¡1s ¸ Lone
sel!o!d1na1n; ¸ "cl¡1s"
sel!o!d1cl¡1s;! o!d1o!d¡ ¸
"na1n"
1! a ¸ 1
sel!o!d1]o!d1o!d¡; ¸ "cl¡1s"
a ¸ a
cl¡1s\a ¸ 1
setGraph() CAIALOG
setGraph( , )
Sels lhe Graph uode lo
, aud relurus lhe previous selliug oí
lhe uode. Sloriug lhe previous selliug lels you
reslore il laler.
is a characler slriug lhal speciíies
which uode you waul lo sel. |l uusl be oue oí
lhe uode uaues írou lhe lable below.
is a characler slriug lhal speciíies lhe
uew selliug íor lhe uode. |l uusl be oue oí lhe
selliugs lisled below íor lhe speciíic uode you
are selliug.
selü¡apl1"ü¡apl 0¡de¡","Seq";
¸ "S£0"
selü¡apl1"Coo¡d1nales","011";
¸ "R£CT"
Ncte: Capilalizaliou aud blauk spaces are
oplioual wheu euleriug uode uaues.
Previews 6J
Note: You cah also display Ihe graph as ah impliciI ploI by usihg Ihe
GRAPH FORNAI5 dialog box ( ). I! you press: Io swiIch beIweeh
sIyles, Ihe impliciI ploI is hoI displayed.
Differential Equation Graphing
Graph Ihe soluIioh Io Ihe logisIic 1sI-order di!!erehIial equaIioh
y' = .001y (100 y). SIarI by drawihg ohly Ihe slope !ield. 1heh ehIer ihiIial
cohdiIiohs ih Ihe Y= Editor ahd ihIeracIively !rom Ihe Graph screeh.
8. ReIurh Io Ihe ihiIial oriehIaIioh.
Press 0 (zero)
9. Display Ihe graph ih di!!erehI graph !ormaI
sIyles.
(press Io swiIch !rom each sIyle
Io Ihe hexI)
HIDDLN SURFACL
CON1OUR LLVLLS
(may require exIra Iime Io
calculaIe cohIours)
WIRL AND CON1OUR
WIRL FRAML
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box. For Graph
mode, selecI DlFF EÇUAIlON5.
Press 6
5teps and keystrokes Display
64 Previews
2. Display ahd clear Ihe Y= Editor. 1heh de!ihe
Ihe 1sI-order di!!erehIial equaIioh:
y1'(I)=.001y1 (100 y1)
Press Io ehIer Ihe showh above. Do hoI
use implied mulIiplicaIioh beIweeh Ihe
variable ahd parehIheses. I! you do, iI is
IreaIed as a !uhcIioh call.
Leave Ihe ihiIial cohdiIioh yi1 blahk.
Note: WiIh y1' selecIed, Ihe device will
graph Ihe y1 soluIioh curve, hoI Ihe
derivaIive y1'.
Press 8 .001 Y1
100 Y1
3. Display Ihe GRAPH FORNAI5 dialog box.
1heh seI Axes = ON, Labels = ON, 5olution
Nethod = RK, ahd Fields = 5LPFLD.
Note: 1o graph ohe di!!erehIial equaIioh,
Fields musI be seI Io 5LPFLD or FLDOFF. I!
Fields=DlRFLD, ah error occurs wheh you
graph.
2 2 1 1
4. Display Ihe Window Editor, ahd seI Ihe
Wihdow variables as showh Io Ihe righI.
Press 0 10 .1 0 10
110 10 10 120 10 0 .001
20
5. Display Ihe Graph screeh.
8ecause you did hoI speci!y ah ihiIial
cohdiIioh, ohly Ihe slope !ield is drawh (as
speci!ied by Fields=5LPFLD ih Ihe GRAPH
FORNAI5 dialog box).
Press
5teps and keystrokes Display
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 2JJ
sech
L1
() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
sech
L1
( )
sech
L1
( )
Relurus lhe iuverse hyperbolic secaul oí
or relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe
iuverse hyperbolic secauls oí each eleueul oí
.
1r ¹~u+~r ~r¸!- ~ru
¹-·1~r¸u!~· ·0mµ!-X m0u-:
-·l
L1
'1· ¸ Û
-·l
L1
'|1.L....1|· ¸
Û
'
. ¦ p
´
·
¦ 1.Û/4. ¦
5end CAIALOG
5end
CBL 2é /CBLé (Calculalor·Based Laboraloryé ) or
CBRé (Calculalor·Based Raugeré ) iuslrucliou.
Seuds lo lhe liuk porl.
Prograu segueul.
©
:Send |1,0|
:Send |1,Z,1|
©
5endCalc CAIALOG
5endCalc
Seuds variable lo lhe liuk porl, where auolher
uuil liuked lo lhal porl cau receive lhe variable
value. Jhe receiviug uuil uusl be ou lhe houe
screeu or uusl execule GetCalc írou a prograu.
|í you seud írou a J|-89, J|·92 Plus, or
voyage¹ 200 lo a J|-92, au error occurs ií lhe
J|-92 execules GetCalc írou a prograu. |u lhis
case, lhe seudiug uuil uusl use 5endChat
iuslead.
Prograu segueul.
©
:a+b! x
:SendCa!c x
©
@5endCalc
Seuds couleuls oí írou a J|·89 Jilauiuu lo
auolher J|·89 Jilauiuu.
|í lhe porl is uol speciíied, or is speciíied,
lhe J|·89 Jilauiuu seuds dala usiug lhe uSB porl
ií couuecled, ií uol, il will seud usiug lhe |/0 porl.
|í , lhe J|·89 Jilauiuu seuds dala usiug
lhe uSB porl ouly.
|í , lhe J|·89 Jilauiuu seuds dala usiug
lhe |/0 porl ouly.
5endChat CAIALOG
5endChat
^ geueral allerualive lo 5endCalc, lhis is useíul
ií lhe receiviug uuil is a J|-92 (or íor a geueric
"chal" prograu lhal allows eilher a J|-92,
voyage¹ 200, or J|-92 Plus lo be used). Reíer lo
5endCalc íor uore iuíorualiou.
5endChat seuds a variable ouly ií lhal variable is
coupalible wilh lhe J|-92, which is lypically lrue
iu "chal" prograus. however, 5endChat will
uol seud au archived variable, a J|-89 graph dala
base, elc.
Prograu segueul.
©
:a+b! x
:SendClal x
©
2J2 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
rref() NAIH/Natrix menu
rref( |, ¦)
Relurus lhe reduced row echelou íoru oí .
¡¡e11jëZ,ëZ,0,ë6,1,ë1,9,ë9,
ë5,Z,4,ë4¸; ¸
1 0 0 66171
0 1 0
147
71
0 0 1 ë6Z171
0plioually, auy ualrix eleueul is lrealed as zero
ií ils absolule value is less lhau . Jhis lolerauce
is used ouly ií lhe ualrix has íloaliug·poiul
eulries aud does uol coulaiu auy syubolic
variables lhal have uol beeu assigued a value.
0lherwise, is iguored.
 |í you use ¥ ¸ or sel lhe uode lo
LxacI/Approx=APPROXIMA1L, coupulalious
are doue usiug íloaliug·poiul arilhuelic.
 |í is ouilled or uol used, lhe deíaull
lolerauce is calculaled as.
5Lë14 ùmax(dim( ))
ùrowNorm( )
Ncte: See also ref().
¡¡e11ja,b,x,c,d,y¸; ¸
1 0
døx-bøy
aød-bøc
0 1
ë1cøx-aøy;
aød-bøc
sec() NAIH/Irig menu
sec( )
sec( )
Relurus lhe secaul oí or relurus a lisl
coulaiuiug lhe secauls oí all eleueuls iu .
Ncte: Jhe arguueul is iulerpreled as eilher a
degree or radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul
augle uode.
1r U-¸·-- ~r¸!- m0u-:
-·'4'· ¸ '.·
-·'|1...´.4|· ¸

1
·0'1·

1.ÛÛÛ.
1
·0'4·
sec
L1
() NAIH/Irig menu
sec
L1
( )
sec
L1
( )
Relurus lhe augle whose secaul is or
relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe iuverse secauls oí
each eleueul oí .
Ncte: Jhe resull is iulerpreled as eilher a degree
or radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul augle
uode.
1r U-¸·-- ~r¸!- m0u-:

L1
'1· ¸ Û
1r ¹~u+~r ~r¸!- m0u-:

L1
'|1...'|· ¸
Û
p
´
·0
L1
'1´'·
sech() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
sech( )
sech( )
Relurus lhe hyperbolic secaul oí or
relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe hyperbolic secauls oí
lhe eleueuls.
-·l'´· ¸
1
·0l'´·
-·l'|1...´.4|· ¸

1
·0l'1·

.1´o.
1
·0l'4·
Previews 6S
6. ReIurh Io Ihe Y= Editor ahd ehIer ah ihiIial
cohdiIioh:
yi1=10
Press 10
7. ReIurh Io Ihe Graph screeh.
IhiIial cohdiIiohs ehIered ih Ihe Y= Editor
always occur aI I
0
. 1he graph begihs aI Ihe
ihiIial cohdiIioh ahd ploIs Io Ihe righI. 1heh
iI ploIs Io Ihe le!I.
Press
8. ReIurh Io Ihe Y= Editor ahd chahge yi1 Io
ehIer Iwo ihiIial cohdiIiohs as a lisI:
yi1={10,20J
Press 10 20
9. ReIurh Io Ihe Graph screeh.
Press
10. 1o selecI ah ihiIial cohdiIioh ihIeracIively,
press:

Wheh prompIed, ehIer I=40 ahd y1=45.
Wheh selecIihg ah ihiIial cohdiIioh
ihIeracIively, you cah speci!y a value !or I
oIher Ihah Ihe I
0
value ehIered ih Ihe
Y= Editor or Window Editor.
IhsIead o! ehIerihg t ahd y1 a!Ier pressihg

you cah move Ihe cursor Io a poihI oh Ihe
screeh ahd Iheh press .
You cah use Io Irace curves !or ihiIial
cohdiIiohs speci!ied ih Ihe Y= Editor.
However, you cahhoI Irace Ihe curve !or ah
ihiIial cohdiIioh selecIed ihIeracIively.
40 45
5teps and keystrokes Display
1he ihiIial cohdiIioh is
marked wiIh a circle.
66 Previews
Additional Graphing 7opics
From Ihe Home screeh, graph Ihe piecewise de!ihed !uhcIioh: y = x
wheh x < 0 ahd y = 5 cos(x) wheh x 0. Draw a horizohIal lihe across Ihe
Iop o! Ihe cosihe curve. 1heh save a picIure o! Ihe displayed graph.
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box. For Graph
mode, selecI FUNCIlON. For Angle mode,
selecI RADlAN.
Press 1 1
2. Display Ihe Home screeh. Use Ihe Graph
commahd ahd Ihe when !uhcIioh Io speci!y
Ihe piecewise de!ihed !uhcIioh.
2 selecIs Graph !rom Ihe Other Ioolbar
mehu ahd auIomaIically adds a space.
2 WHLN X
0 X 5 X
3. LxecuIe Ihe Graph commahd, which
auIomaIically displays Ihe Graph screeh.
1he graph uses Ihe currehI Wihdow
variables, which are assumed Io be Iheir
sIahdard values ( 6) !or Ihis example.
Press
4. Draw a horizohIal lihe across Ihe Iop o! Ihe
cosihe curve.
1he calculaIor remaihs ih "lihe" mode uhIil
you selecI a di!!erehI operaIioh or press
.
5 (uhIil Ihe lihe is
posiIiohed)
5. Save a picIure o! Ihe graph. Use PlC1 as Ihe
variable hame !or Ihe picIure.
8e sure Io seI Iype = Picture. 8y de!aulI, iI
is seI Io GDB.
2 2 PIC 1
Graph wheh(x<0, x,
5 cos(x))
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 2J1
round( [, ])
Relurus a ualrix oí lhe eleueuls rouuded lo lhe
speciíied uuuber oí digils.
¡ound1j!n15;,!n13;,p, ^11;¸,1;
¸
j
1.6 1.1
3.1 Z.7
¸
rowAdd() NAIH/Natrix/Row ops menu
rowAdd( , , )
Relurus a copy oí wilh row
replaced by lhe suu oí rows aud .
¡owAdd1j3,4,ë3,ëZ¸,1,Z; ¸
3 4
0 Z
¡owAdd1ja,b,c,d¸,1,Z; ¸
j
a
a+c

b
b+d
¸
rowDim() NAIH/Natrix/Dimensions menu
rowDim( )
Relurus lhe uuuber oí rows iu .
Ncte: See also colDim().
j1,Z,3,4,5,6¸! l1 ¸
1 Z
3 4
5 6
¡owd1n1l1; ¸ 3
rowNorm() NAIH/Natrix/Norms menu
rowNorm( )
Relurus lhe uaxiuuu oí lhe suus oí lhe absolule
values oí lhe eleueuls iu lhe rows iu .
Ncte: ^ll ualrix eleueuls uusl siupliíy lo
uuubers. See also colNorm().
¡owlo¡n1j·5,6,·7,3,4,9,9,·9,·7¸;
¸ Z5
row5wap() NAIH/Natrix/Row ops menu
row5wap( , , )
Relurus wilh rows aud
exchauged.
j1,Z,3,4,5,6¸! lal ¸
1 Z
3 4
5 6
¡owSwap1lal,1,3; ¸
5 6
3 4
1 Z
RplcPic CAIALOG
RplcPic [, ¦|, ]
Clears lhe Craph screeu aud places piclure
al pixel coordiuales ( , ). |í you do uol
waul lo clear lhe screeu, use RclPic.
uusl be a piclure dala lype variable.
aud , ií iucluded, speciíy lhe pixel
coordiuales oí lhe upper leíl coruer oí lhe piclure.
0eíaull coordiuales are (0, 0).
Ncte: |or less lhau íull·screeu piclures, ouly lhe
area aííecled by lhe uew piclure is cleared.
2J0 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
rotate() NAIH/Base menu
rotate( |, ¦)
Rolales lhe bils iu a biuary iuleger. You cau euler
iu auy uuuber base, il is couverled
auloualically lo a sigued, 32·bil biuary íoru. |í
lhe uaguilude oí is loo large íor lhis
íoru, a syuuelric uodulo operaliou briugs il
wilhiu lhe rauge.
|u Biu base uode.
¡olale10b1111010110000110101;
¸
0b10000000000000111101011000011010
¡olale1Z56,1; ¸ 0b1000000000
|í is posilive, lhe rolaliou is lo lhe
leíl. |í is uegalive, lhe rolaliou is lo
lhe righl. Jhe deíaull is ë1 (rolale righl oue bil).
|or exauple, iu a righl rolaliou.
|u hex base uode.
¡olale10l7ߣ; ¸ 0l3C7
¡olale10l7ߣ,ëZ; ¸ 0lß00001£3
¡olale10l7ߣ,Z; ¸ 0l1£3ß
0b00000000000001111010110000110101
produces.
0b10000000000000111101011000011010
Jhe resull is displayed accordiug lo lhe 8ase
uode.
Impcrtant: Jo euler a biuary or hexadeciual
uuuber, always use lhe 0b or 0h preíix (zero,
uol lhe leller 0).
rotate( |, ¦)
Relurus a copy oí rolaled righl or leíl by
eleueuls. 0oes uol aller .
|í is posilive, lhe rolaliou is lo lhe
leíl. |í is uegalive, lhe rolaliou is lo
lhe righl. Jhe deíaull is ë1 (rolale righl oue
eleueul).
|u 0ec base uode.
¡olale1|1,Z,3,4|; ¸
|4 1 Z 3|
¡olale1|1,Z,3,4|,ëZ; ¸
|3 4 1 Z|
¡olale1|1,Z,3,4|,1; ¸
|Z 3 4 1|
rotate( |, ¦)
Relurus a copy oí rolaled righl or leíl by
characlers. 0oes uol aller .
|í is posilive, lhe rolaliou is lo lhe
leíl. |í is uegalive, lhe rolaliou is lo
lhe righl. Jhe deíaull is ë1 (rolale righl oue
characler).
¡olale1"abcd"; ¸ "dabc"
¡olale1"abcd",ëZ; ¸ "cdab"
¡olale1"abcd",1; ¸ "bcda"
round() NAIH/Number menu
round( [, ])
Relurus lhe arguueul rouuded lo lhe speciíied
uuuber oí digils aíler lhe deciual poiul.
uusl be au iuleger iu lhe rauge 0-12. |í
is uol iucluded, relurus lhe arguueul
rouuded lo 12 siguiíicaul digils.
Ncte: 0isplay digils uode uay aííecl how lhis is
displayed.
¡ound11.Z34567,3; ¸ 1.Z35
round( [, ])
Relurus a lisl oí lhe eleueuls rouuded lo lhe
speciíied uuuber oí digils.
¡ound1|p,‡1Z;,!n1Z;|,4; ¸
|3.1416 1.414Z .6931|
Rightmost bit rotates to leftmost.
Each bit rotates right.
Previews 67
7ables
LvaluaIe Ihe !uhcIioh y=x
3
2x aI each ihIeger beIweeh 10 ahd 10. How
mahy sigh chahges are Ihere, ahd where do Ihey occur?
6. Clear Ihe drawh horizohIal lihe.
You cah also press Io regraph.
1
7. Opeh Ihe saved picIure variable Io redisplay
Ihe graph wiIh Ihe lihe.
8e sure Io seI Iype = Picture. 8y de!aulI, iI
is seI Io GDB.
Press 1 2 (i! hoI already showh, also
seI Variable = pic1)
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box. For Ihe
Graph mode, selecI FUNCIlON.
Press 1
2. Display ahd clear Ihe Y= Editor. 1heh de!ihe
y1(x) = x
3
2x.
Press 8 X 3 2 X
3. SeI Ihe Iable parameIers Io:
tbl5tart = 10
tbl = 1
Graph < - > Iable = OFF
lndependent = AUIO
Press 10 1 1 1
5teps and keystrokes Display
68 Previews
5plit 5creens
SpliI Ihe screeh Io show Ihe Y= Editor ahd Ihe Graph screeh. 1heh
explore Ihe behavior o! a polyhomial as iIs coe!!iciehIs chahge.
4. Display Ihe 1able screeh.
Press
5. Scroll Ihrough Ihe Iable. NoIice IhaI y1
chahges sigh aI x = 1, 1, ahd 2.
1o scroll ohe page aI a Iime, use ahd
.
Press ahd as hecessary
6. Zoom ih oh Ihe sigh chahge beIweeh x = 2
ahd x = 1 by chahgihg Ihe Iable parameIers
Io:
tbl5tart = 2
tbl = .1
Press 2 .1
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box.
For Graph, selecI FUNCIlON.
For 5plit 5creen, selecI LEFI-RlGHI.
For 5plit 1 App, selecI Y= Editor.
For 5plit 2 App, selecI Graph.
Press 1 3 2 4
2. Clear Ihe Y= Editor ahd Iurh o!! ahy sIaI
daIa ploIs. 1heh de!ihe y1(x) = .1x
3
2x+6.
A Ihick border arouhd Ihe Y= Editor
ihdicaIes iI is acIive. Wheh acIive, iIs ehIry
lihe goes all Ihe way across Ihe display.
Press 8 5 .1 X 3 2 X
6
5teps and keystrokes Display
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 229
^s a cousequeuce, uole lhal remain(ì x,y)
ì remain(x,y). Jhe resull is eilher zero or il has
lhe saue sigu as lhe íirsl arguueul.
Ncte: See also mod().
¡ena1n1j9,ë7,6,4¸,j4,3,4,ë3¸;
¸
j
1 ë1
Z 1
¸
Rename CAIALOG
Rename ,
Reuaues lhe variable as .
|1,Z,3,4|! ¡1 ¸ |1,Z,3,4|
Renane ¡1, !1sl1 ¸ Lone
!1sl1 ¸ |1,Z,3,4|
Request CAIALOG
Request ,
|í Request is iuside a Dialog...EndDlog
couslrucl, il creales au iupul box íor lhe user lo
lype iu dala. |í il is a slaud·aloue iuslrucliou, il
creales a dialog box íor lhis iupul. |u eilher case,
ií coulaius a slriug, il is displayed aud
highlighled iu lhe iupul box as a deíaull choice.
uusl be {20 characlers.
Jhis iuslrucliou cau be slaud·aloue or parl oí a
dialog couslrucl.
Requesl "£nle¡ \ou¡ lane",sl¡1
¸
Return CAIALOG
Return { ]
Relurus as lhe resull oí lhe íuucliou.
use wilhiu a Func...EndFunc block, or
Prgm...EndPrgm block.
Ncte. use Return wilhoul au arguueul lo exil a
prograu.
Ncte: Euler lhe lexl as oue loug liue ou lhe
houe screeu (wilhoul liue breaks).
Le11ne 1aclo¡a!1nn;~!unc
:!oca! answe¡,counl:1! answe¡
:!o¡ counl,1,nn
:answe¡ùcounl! answe¡:£nd!o¡
:Relu¡n answe¡:£nd!unc ¸ Lone
1aclo¡a!13; ¸ 6
right() NAIH/List menu
right( [, ])
Relurus lhe righluosl eleueuls coulaiued iu
.
|í you ouil , relurus all oí .
¡1çll1|1,3,ëZ,4|,3; ¸
|3 ëZ 4|
right( [, ])
Relurus lhe righluosl characlers coulaiued
iu characler slriug .
|í you ouil , relurus all oí .
¡1çll1"he!!o",Z; ¸ "!o"
right( )
Relurus lhe righl side oí au equaliou or
iuequalily
¡1çll1x´3; ¸ 3
228 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
4Rect NAIH/Natrix/Vector ops menu
4Rect
0isplays iu reclaugular íoru |x, y, z¦. Jhe
veclor uusl be oí diueusiou 2 or 3 aud cau be a
row or a coluuu.
Ncte. 4Rect is a display·íorual iuslrucliou, uol a
couversiou íuucliou. You cau use il ouly al lhe
eud oí au eulry liue, aud il does uol updale ahs.
Ncte: See also 4Polar.
j3, pà4, pà6¸4Recl ¸
j
3ø‡Z
4

3ø‡Z
4

3ø‡3
Z
¸
ja, b, c¸ ¸ jaøcos1b;øs1n1c;
aøs1n1b;øs1n1c; aøcos1c;¸
4Rect
0isplays iu reclaugular íoru a+b .
Jhe cau have auy couplex íoru.
however, au r
q
eulry causes au error iu 0egree
augle uode.
Ncte. You uusl use pareulheses íor au (r q)
polar eulry.
|u Radiau augle uode.
4 ^1p13;4Recl ¸ 4ø
p
3
14 p13;4Recl ¸ Z+Zø 3ø
|u 0egree augle uode.
14 60;4Recl ¸ Z+Zø 3ø
Ncte: Jo lype 4Rect írou lhe keyboard, press
2 íor lhe 4operalor. Jo lype , press
2 ¸.
ref() NAIH/Natrix menu
ref( |, ¦)
Relurus lhe row echelou íoru oí .
0plioually, auy ualrix eleueul is lrealed as zero
ií ils absolule value is less lhau . Jhis lolerauce
is used ouly ií lhe ualrix has íloaliug·poiul
eulries aud does uol coulaiu auy syubolic
variables lhal have uol beeu assigued a value.
0lherwise, is iguored.
 |í you use ¥ ¸ or sel lhe uode lo
LxacI/Approx=APPROXIMA1L, coupulalious
are doue usiug íloaliug·poiul arilhuelic.
 |í is ouilled or uol used, lhe deíaull
lolerauce is calculaled as.
5Lë14 ùmax(dim( ))
ùrowNorm( )
Ncte: See also rref().
¡e11jëZ,ëZ,0,ë6,1,ë1,9,ë9,ë5,
Z,4,ë4¸; ¸
1 ëZ15 ë415 415
0 1 417 1117
0 0 1 ë6Z171
ja,b,c,e,1,ç¸! n1 ¸
a b c
e 1 ç
¡e11n1; ¸
1
1
e

ç
e
0 1
aøçì cøe
aø1ì bøe
remain() NAIH/Number menu
remain( , )
remain( , )
remain( , )
Relurus lhe reuaiuder oí lhe íirsl arguueul wilh
respecl lo lhe secoud arguueul as deíiued by lhe
ideulilies.
remaih(x,0) x
remaih(x,y) xì yùiParI(x/y)
¡ena1n17,0; ¸ 7
¡ena1n17,3; ¸ 1
¡ena1n1ë7,3; ¸ ë1
¡ena1n17,ë3; ¸ 1
¡ena1n1ë7,ë3; ¸ ë1
¡ena1n1|1Z,ë14,16|,|9,7,ë5|;
¸
|3 0 1|
Previews 69
3. SelecI Ihe Zoom5td viewihg wihdow, which
swiIches Io Ihe Graph screeh ahd graphs Ihe
!uhcIioh.
1he Ihick border is how arouhd Ihe Graph
screeh.
Press 6
4. SwiIch Io Ihe Y= Editor. 1heh ediI y1(x) Io
chahge .1x
3
Io .5x
3
.
is Ihe secohd !uhcIioh o! .1he
Ihick border is arouhd Ihe Y= Editor.
Press 5
5. SwiIch Io Ihe Graph screeh, which regraphs
Ihe ediIed !uhcIioh.
1he Ihick border is arouhd Ihe Graph
screeh.
Press
6. SwiIch Io Ihe Y= Editor. 1heh opeh Ihe
Window Editor ih iIs place.
Press
7. Opeh Ihe Home screeh. 1heh exiI Io a
!ull-sized Home screeh.
Press Iwice.
5teps and keystrokes Display
70 Previews
DatalMatrix Editor
Use Ihe Data/Natrix Editor Io creaIe a ohe-columh lisI variable. 1heh
add a secohd columh o! ih!ormaIioh. NoIice IhaI Ihe lisI variable (which
cah have ohly ohe columh) is auIomaIically cohverIed ihIo a daIa
variable (which cah have mulIiple columhs).
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Use Io display Ihe Data/Natrix Editor.
CreaIe a hew lisI variable hamed IENP.
Press 3 3 1LMP
2. LhIer a columh o! humbers. 1heh move Ihe
cursor up ohe cell (|usI Io see IhaI a
highlighIed cell's value is showh oh Ihe
ehIry lihe).
Ll5I is showh ih Ihe upper-le!I corher Io
ihdicaIe a lisI variable.
You cah use ihsIead o! Io ehIer
ih!ormaIioh ih a cell.
Press 1 2 3 4 5
6
3. Move Io columh 2, ahd de!ihe iIs columh
header so IhaI iI is Iwice Ihe value o!
columh 1.
DAIA is showh ih Ihe upper-le!I corher Io
ihdicaIe IhaI Ihe lisI variable was cohverIed
Io a daIa variable.
2 C 1
4. Move Io Ihe columh 2 header cell Io show
iIs de!ihiIioh ih Ihe ehIry lihe.
Wheh Ihe cursor is oh Ihe header cell, you
do hoI heed Io press Io de!ihe iI. Simply
begih Iypihg Ihe expressioh.
Press
meahs Ihe cell is ih a
de!ihed columh.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 227
randPoly() NAIH/Probability menu
randPoly( , )
Relurus a polyuouial iu oí lhe speciíied order.
Jhe coeííicieuls are raudou iulegers iu lhe rauge
ë9 lhrough 9. Jhe leadiug coeííicieul will uol be
zero.
uusl be 0-99.
RandSeed 1147 ¸ Lone
¡andPo!y1x,5; ¸
ëZøx5+3øx4ì 6øx3+4øxì 6
Rand5eed NAIH/Probability menu
Rand5eed
|í = 0, sels lhe seeds lo lhe íaclory
deíaulls íor lhe raudou·uuuber geueralor. |í
ƒ 0, il is used lo geuerale lwo seeds,
which are slored iu sysleu variables seed1
aud seed2.
RandSeed 1147 ¸ Lone
¡and1; ¸ .15ß...
RclGDB CAIALOG
RclGDB
Reslores all lhe selliugs slored iu lhe Craph
dalabase variable GD8var.
|or a lisliug oí lhe selliugs, see 5toGDB.
Ncte: |l is uecessary lo have souelhiug saved iu
GD8var beíore you cau reslore il.
Rc!üLß üLßva¡ ¸ Lone
RclPic CAIALOG
RclPic [, , ]
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud adds lhe piclure
slored iu al lhe upper leíl·haud coruer pixel
coordiuales ( , ) usiug 0R logic.
uusl be a piclure dala lype.
0eíaull coordiuales are (0, 0).
real() NAIH/Complex menu
real( )
Relurus lhe real parl oí lhe arguueul.
Ncte: ^ll uudeíiued variables are lrealed as real
variables. See also imag().
¡ea!1Z+3 ; ¸ Z
¡ea!1z; ¸ z
¡ea!1x+ y; ¸ x
real( )
Relurus lhe real parls oí all eleueuls.
¡ea!1|a+ ùb,3, |; ¸ |a 3 0|
real( )
Relurus lhe real parls oí all eleueuls.
¡ea!1ja+ ùb,3,c, ¸; ¸ j
a 3
c 0
¸
226 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
R4Pq() NAIH/Angle menu
R4Pq( , )
R4Pq( , )
R4Pq( , )
Relurus lhe equivaleul q·coordiuale oí lhe
( ) pair arguueuls.
Ncte. Jhe resull is relurued as eilher a degree or
radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul augle
uode.
|u 0egree augle uode.
R8Pq1x,y; ¸
|u Radiau augle uode.
R4Pq13,Z; ¸
R4Pq1j3,·4,Z¸,j0,pà4,1.5¸; ¸
R4Pr() NAIH/Angle menu
R4Pr ( , )
R4Pr ( , )
R4Pr ( , )
Relurus lhe equivaleul r·coordiuale oí lhe
( ) pair arguueuls.
|u Radiau augle uode.
R4P¡13,Z; ¸
R4P¡1x,y; ¸
R4P¡1j3,·4,Z¸,j0,pà4,1.5¸; ¸
rand() NAIH/Probability menu
rand({ ])
is au iuleger ƒ zero.
wilh uo paraueler, relurus lhe uexl raudou
uuuber belweeu 0 aud 1 iu lhe sequeuce. wheu
au arguueul is posilive, relurus a raudou iuleger
iu lhe iulerval |1, ¦.
wheu au arguueul is uegalive, relurus a raudou
iuleger iu lhe iulerval |ë ,ë1¦.
RandSeed 1147 ¸ Lone
¡and1; ¸ .15ß...
¡and16; ¸ 5
¡and1ë100; ¸ ë49
randNat() NAIH/Probability menu
randNat( , )
Relurus a ualrix oí iulegers belweeu ·9 aud 9 oí
lhe speciíied diueusiou.
Bolh arguueuls uusl siupliíy lo iulegers.
RandSeed 1147 ¸ Lone
¡andlal13,3; ¸
ß ë3 6
ëZ 3 ë6
0 4 ë6
Ncte: Jhe values iu lhis ualrix will chauge
each liue you press ¸ .
randNorm() NAIH/Probability menu
randNorm( , )
Relurus a deciual uuuber írou lhe speciíic
uorual dislribuliou. |l could be auy real uuuber
bul will be heavily couceulraled iu lhe iulerval
| ·3ù , +3ù ¦.
RandSeed 1147 ¸ Lone
¡andlo¡n10,1; ¸ .49Z...
¡andlo¡n13,4.5; ¸ ì 3.543...
(Sets the random-number seed.)
Previews 71
Note: I! you doh'I heed Io save Ihe currehI variable, use iI as a
scratchpad. 1he hexI Iime you heed a variable !or Iemporary daIa, clear
Ihe currehI variable ahd re-use iI. 1his leIs you ehIer Iemporary daIa
wiIhouI creaIihg a hew variable each Iime, which uses up memory.
5tatistics and Data Plots
8ased oh a sample o! seveh ciIies, ehIer daIa IhaI relaIes populaIioh Io
Ihe humber o! buildihgs wiIh more Ihah 12 sIories. Usihg Mediah-
Mediah ahd lihear regressioh calculaIiohs, !ihd ahd ploI equaIiohs Io !iI
Ihe daIa. For each regressioh equaIioh, predicI how mahy buildihgs o!
more Ihah 12 sIories you would expecI ih a ciIy o! 300,000 people.
5. Clear Ihe cohIehIs o! Ihe variable.
Simply clearihg Ihe daIa does hoI cohverI
Ihe daIa variable back ihIo a lisI variable.
Press 8
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box. For Graph
mode, selecI FUNCIlON.
Press 1
2. Use Io display Ihe Data/Natrix Editor.
CreaIe a hew daIa variable hamed BUlLD.
Press 3 8UILD
5teps and keystrokes Display
72 Previews
3. Usihg Ihe sample daIa below, ehIer Ihe
populaIioh ih columh 1.
Pop. (ih 1000s) 8ldgs > 12 sIories
150 4
500 31
800 42
250 9
500 20
750 55
950 73
Press 150 500 800 250
500 750 950
4. Move Ihe cursor Io row 1 ih columh 2 (r1c2).
1heh ehIer Ihe correspohdihg humber o!
buildihgs.
moves Ihe cursor Io Ihe Iop o! Ihe
page. A!Ier Iypihg daIa !or a cell, you cah
press or Io ehIer Ihe daIa ahd
move Ihe cursor dowh ohe cell. Pressihg
ehIers Ihe daIa ahd moves Ihe cursor up
ohe cell.
4 31 42 9
20 55 73
5. Move Ihe cursor Io row 1 ih columh 1 (r1c1).
SorI Ihe daIa ih ascehdihg order o!
populaIioh.
1his sorIs columh 1 ahd Iheh ad|usIs all
oIher columhs so IhaI Ihey reIaih Ihe same
order as columh 1. 1his is criIical !or
maihIaihihg Ihe relaIiohships beIweeh
columhs o! daIa.
1o sorI columh 1, Ihe cursor cah be
ahywhere ih columh 1. 1his example has
you press

so IhaI you cah see Ihe !irsI !our rows.
4
5teps and keystrokes Display
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 22S
ÇuadReg NAIH/5tatistics/Regressions menu
ÇuadReg , [, [ ] [, , ]]
Calculales lhe quadralic polyuouial regressiou
aud updales lhe sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
|0,1,Z,3,4,5,6,7|! ¡1 ¸
|1 Z 3 ...|
|4,3,1,1,Z,Z,3,3|! ¡Z ¸
|4 3 1 ...|
0uadReç ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99. (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-c99
.
¸
Reçeq1x;" y11x; ¸ Lone
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
¥ %
ÇuartReg NAIH/5tatistics/Regressions menu
ÇuartReg , [, [ ] [, , ]]
Calculales lhe quarlic polyuouial regressiou aud
updales lhe sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-
c99.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
|ëZ,ë1,0,1,Z,3,4,5,6|! ¡1 ¸
|ëZ ë1 0 ...|
|4,3,1,Z,4,Z,1,4,6|! ¡Z ¸
|4 3 1 ...|
0ua¡lReç ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
¸
Reçeq1x;" y11x; ¸ Lone
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
¥ %
224 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
PxlVert CAIALOG
PxlVert [, ]
0raws a verlical liue dowu lhe screeu al pixel
posiliou .
|í = 1, draws lhe liue (deíaull).
|í = 0, lurus oíí lhe liue.
|í = ·1, lurus a liue lhal is ou lo oíí or
oíí lo ou (iuverls pixels aloug lhe liue).
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus. See
also LineVert.
Px!\e¡l 50,1 ¸
ÇR NAIH/Natrix menu
ÇR , , | , ¦
Calculales lhe householder 0R íaclorizaliou oí a
real or couplex . Jhe resulliug 0 aud R
ualrices are slored lo lhe speciíied .
Jhe 0 ualrix is uuilary. Jhe R ualrix is upper
lriaugular.
0plioually, auy ualrix eleueul is lrealed as zero
ií ils absolule value is less lhau . Jhis lolerauce
is used ouly ií lhe ualrix has íloaliug·poiul
eulries aud does uol coulaiu auy syubolic
variables lhal have uol beeu assigued a value.
0lherwise, is iguored.
 |í you use ¥ ¸ or sel lhe uode lo
LxacI/Approx=APPROXIMA1L, coupulalious
are doue usiug íloaliug·poiul arilhuelic.
 |í is ouilled or uol used, lhe deíaull
lolerauce is calculaled as.
5Lë14 ùmax(dim( ))
ùrowNorm( )
Jhe íloaliug·poiul uuuber (9.) iu m1 causes
resulls lo be calculaled iu íloaliug·poiul íoru.
j1,Z,3,4,5,6,7,ß,9.¸! n1 ¸
1 Z 3
4 5 6
7 ß 9.
0R n1,qn,¡n ¸ Lone
qn ¸
.1Z3. .904. .40ß.
.49Z. .301. ë.ß16.
.ß61. ë.301. .40ß.
¡n ¸
ß.1Z4. 9.601. 11.07ß.
0. .904. 1.ß09.
0. 0. 0.
jn,n,o,p¸! n1 ¸
n n
o p
Jhe 0R íaclorizaliou is coupuled uuuerically
usiug householder lrausíorualious. Jhe syubolic
soluliou is coupuled usiug Crau·Schuidl. Jhe
coluuus iu are lhe orlhouorual basis
veclors lhal spau lhe space deíiued by .
0R n1,qn,¡n ¸ Lone
qn ¸
m
m. ± 0.

ë+¸r'møµì rø0·ø0
m. ± 0.
0
m. ± 0.

mø+¸r'møµì rø0·
m. ± 0.
·m ¸
m. ± 0.
mør±0øµ
m. ± 0.
Û
[møµì rø0[
m. ± 0.

Previews 7J
6. Display Ihe Calculate dialog box. SeI
Calculation Iype = NedNed
x = C1
y = C2
5tore RegEÇ to = y1(x)
7 C 1 C2
7. Per!orm Ihe calculaIioh Io display Ihe
MedMed regressioh equaIioh.
As speci!ied oh Ihe Calculate dialog box,
Ihis equaIioh is sIored ih y1(x).
Press
8. Close Ihe 5IAI VAR5 screeh. 1he
Data/Natrix Editor displays.
Press
9. Display Ihe Calculate dialog box. SeI:
Calculation Iype = LinReg
x = C1
y = C2
5tore RegEÇ to = y2(x)
Press 5
10. Per!orm Ihe calculaIioh Io display Ihe
LihReg regressioh equaIioh.
1his equaIioh is sIored ih y2(x).
Press
11. Close Ihe 5IAI VAR5 screeh. 1he
Data/Natrix Editor displays.
Press
12. Display Ihe PloI SeIup screeh.
Plot 1 is highlighIed by de!aulI.
leIs you clear highlighIed PloI seIIihgs.
Press
5teps and keystrokes Display
74 Previews
13. De!ihe Plot 1 as:
Plot Iype = 5catter
Nark = Box
x = C1
y = C2
NoIice Ihe similariIies beIweeh Ihis ahd Ihe
Calculate dialog box.
1 1 C 1 C2
14. Save Ihe ploI de!ihiIioh ahd reIurh Io Ihe
PloI SeIup screeh.
NoIice Ihe shorIhahd hoIaIioh !or Plot 1's
de!ihiIioh.
Press Iwice
15. Display Ihe Y= Editor. For y1(x), Ihe
MedMed regressioh equaIioh, seI Ihe
display sIyle Io Dot.
Note: Depehdihg oh Ihe previous cohIehIs
o! your Y= Editor, you may heed Io move
Ihe cursor Io y1.
PLOI5 1 aI Ihe Iop o! Ihe screeh meahs IhaI
Plot 1 is selecIed.
NoIice IhaI y1(x) ahd y2(x) were selecIed
wheh Ihe regressioh equaIiohs were sIored.
2
16. Scroll up Io highlighI Plot 1.
1he displayed shorIhahd de!ihiIioh is Ihe
same as oh Ihe PloI SeIup screeh.
Press
17. Use ZoomData Io graph Plot 1 ahd Ihe
regressioh equaIiohs y1(x) ahd y2(x).
ZoomData examihes Ihe daIa !or all
selecIed sIaI ploIs ahd ad|usIs Ihe viewihg
wihdow Io ihclude all poihIs.
Press 9
5teps and keystrokes Display
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 22J
PxlLine CAIALOG
PxlLine , , , [, ]
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud draws a liue
belweeu pixel coordiuales ( , ) aud
( , ), iucludiug bolh eudpoiuls.
|í = 1, draws lhe liue (deíaull).
|í = 0, lurus oíí lhe liue.
|í = ·1, lurus a liue lhal is ou lo oíí or
oíí lo ou (iuverls pixels aloug lhe liue).
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus. See
also Line.
@ Px!¡1ne 50,15,Z0,90,1 ¸
H Px!¡1ne ß0,Z0,30,150,1
¸
PxlOff CAIALOG
PxlOff ,
PxlOff ,
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud lurus oíí lhe pixel
al pixel coordiuales ( , ).
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
Px!ho¡z Z5,1 ¸
Px!011 Z5,50 ¸
Z5,50
PxlOn CAIALOG
PxlOn ,
PxlOn ,
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud lurus ou lhe pixel
al pixel coordiuales ( , ).
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
Px!0n Z5,50 ¸
pxlIest() CAIALOG
pxlIest ( , )
pxlIest ( , )
Relurus Irue ií lhe pixel al pixel coordiuales ( ,
) is ou. Relurus !alse ií lhe pixel is oíí.
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
Px!0n Z5,50 ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
Px!Tesl1Z5,50; ¸ l¡ue
Px!011 Z5,50 ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
Px!Tesl1Z5,50; ¸ 1a!se
PxlIext CAIALOG
PxlIext , ,
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud places characler
slriug ou lhe screeu, slarliug al pixel
coordiuales ( ).
is posilioued wilh lhe upper·leíl coruer oí
ils íirsl characler al lhe coordiuales.
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
@ Px!Texl "sanp!e
lexl",Z0,10 ¸
H Px!Texl "sanp!e
lexl",Z0,50 ¸
222 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
PtOn CAIALOG
PtOn ,
PtOn ,
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud lurus ou lhe screeu
pixel uearesl lo wiudow coordiuales
( , ).
Pl0n 3,5 ¸
ptIest() CAIALOG
ptIest ( , )
ptIest ( , )
Relurus Irue or !alse. Relurus Irue ouly ií lhe
screeu pixel uearesl lo wiudow coordiuales ( , )
is ou.
plTesl13,5; ¸ l¡ue
PtIext CAIALOG
PtIext , ,
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud places lhe
characler slriug ou lhe screeu al lhe pixel
uearesl lhe speciíied ( ) wiudow coordiuales.
is posilioued wilh lhe upper·leíl coruer oí
ils íirsl characler al lhe coordiuales.
PlTexl "sanp!e",3,5 ¸
PxlChg CAIALOG
PxlChg ,
PxlChg ,
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud reverses lhe pixel
al pixel coordiuales ( , ).
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
Px!Clç Z,4 ¸
PxlCrcl CAIALOG
PxlCrcl , , [, ]
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud draws a
circle ceulered al pixel coordiuales ( ,
) wilh a radius oí pixels.
|í = 1, draws lhe circle
(deíaull).
|í = 0, lurus oíí lhe circle.
|í = ·1, iuverls pixels aloug lhe
circle.
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
See also Circle.
@ Px!C¡c! 40,ß0,30,1 ¸
H Px!C¡c! 'Û.1.'.4Û.1 ¸
PxlHorz CAIALOG
PxlHorz [, ]
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud draws a horizoulal
liue al pixel posiliou .
|í = 1, draws lhe liue (deíaull).
|í = 0, lurus oíí lhe liue.
|í = ·1, lurus a liue lhal is ou lo oíí or
oíí lo ou (iuverls pixels aloug lhe liue).
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus. See
also LineHorz.
Px!ho¡z Z5,1 ¸
Previews 7S
18. ReIurh Io Ihe currehI sessioh o! Ihe
Data/Natrix Editor.
Press
19. LhIer a IiIle !or columh 3. De!ihe columh 3's
header as Ihe values predicIed by Ihe
MedMed lihe.
1o ehIer a IiIle, Ihe cursor musI highlighI
Ihe IiIle cell aI Ihe very Iop o! Ihe columh.
leIs you de!ihe a header !rom ahywhere
ih a columh. Wheh Ihe cursor is oh a header
cell, pressihg is hoI required.
MLD
Y1 C1
20. LhIer a IiIle !or columh 4. De!ihe columh 4's
header as Ihe residuals (di!!erehce beIweeh
observed ahd predicIed values) !or
MedMed.
RLSID
C2 C3
21. LhIer a IiIle !or columh 5. De!ihe columh 5's
header as Ihe values predicIed by Ihe
LihReg lihe.
LIN Y2
C1
22. LhIer a IiIle !or columh 6. De!ihe columh 6's
header as Ihe residuals !or LihReg.
RLSID
C2 C5
23. Display Ihe PloI SeIup screeh ahd deselecI
Plot 1.
Press
5teps and keystrokes Display
76 Previews
24. HighlighI Plot 2 ahd de!ihe iI as:
Plot Iype = 5catter
Nark = Box
x = C1
y = C4 (MedMed residuals)
C 1 C4
25. HighlighI Plot 3 ahd de!ihe iI as:
Plot Iype = 5catter
Nark = Plus
x = C1
y = C6 (LihReg residuals)
3 C 1 C6

26. Display Ihe Y= Editor ahd Iurh all Ihe y(x)
!uhcIiohs o!!.
From , selecI 3:Functions Off, hoI
1:All Off.
PloIs 2 ahd 3 are sIill selecIed.
Press 3
27. Use ZoomData Io graph Ihe residuals.
marks Ihe MedMed residuals,
÷ marks Ihe LihReg residuals.
Press 9
28. Display Ihe Home screeh.
29. Use Ihe MedMed (y1(x)) ahd LihReg (y2(x))
regressioh equaIiohs Io calculaIe values !or
x = 300 (300,000 populaIioh).
1he round !uhcIioh ( 1 3) ehsures
IhaI resulIs show ah ihIeger humber o!
buildihgs.
A!Ier calculaIihg Ihe !irsI resulI, ediI Ihe
ehIry lihe Io chahge y1 Io y2.
Press 1 3 Y1 300 0
(eighI Iimes) 2
5teps and keystrokes Display
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 221
product( { { ]])
Relurus a row veclor coulaiuiug lhe producls oí
lhe eleueuls iu lhe coluuus oí . aud
are oplioual. Jhey speciíy a rauge oí rows.
p¡oducl1j1,Z,3,4,5,6,7,ß,9¸;
¸ jZß ß0 16Z¸
p¡oducl1{1...´:4.'.n:/.o.´¸.
1..· ¸ {4.1Û.1o¸
Prompt CAIALOG
Prompt [, ] [, ] ...
0isplays a proupl ou lhe Prograu |/0 screeu íor
each variable iu lhe arguueul lisl, usiug lhe
proupl var1?. Slores lhe eulered expressiou iu
lhe correspoudiug variable.
Prompt uusl have al leasl oue arguueul.
Prograu segueul.
©
P¡onpl A,ß,C
©
£ndP¡çn
propFrac() NAIH/Algebra menu
propFrac( [, ])
propFrac( ) relurus
as lhe suu oí au iuleger aud a íracliou haviug
lhe saue sigu aud a grealer deuouiualor
uaguilude lhau uuueralor uaguilude.
p¡op!¡ac1413; ¸ 1 + 113
p¡op!¡ac1ë413; ¸ ë1ì 113
propFrac( ) relurus lhe suu
oí proper ralios aud a polyuouial wilh respecl lo
. Jhe degree oí iu lhe deuouiualor exceeds
lhe degree oí iu lhe uuueralor iu each proper
ralio. Siuilar powers oí are collecled. Jhe
lerus aud lheir íaclors are sorled wilh as lhe
uaiu variable.
|í is ouilled, a proper íracliou expausiou is
doue wilh respecl lo lhe uosl uaiu variable. Jhe
coeííicieuls oí lhe polyuouial parl are lheu uade
proper wilh respecl lo lheir uosl uaiu variable
íirsl aud so ou.
|or ralioual expressious, propFrac() is a íasler
bul less exlreue allerualive lo expand().
p¡op!¡ac11x^Z+x+1;11x+1;+
1y^Z+y+1;11y+1;,x; ¸
p¡op!¡ac1ans11;;
PtChg CAIALOG
PtChg ,
PtChg ,
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud reverses lhe screeu
pixel uearesl lo wiudow coordiuales
( , ).
Ncte: PtChg lhrough PtIext show
couliuuiug siuilar exauples.
PlClç Z,4 ¸
PtOff CAIALOG
PtOff ,
PtOff ,
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud lurus oíí lhe
screeu pixel uearesl lo wiudow coordiuales
( , ).
Pl011 Z,4 ¸
220 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
PopUp CAIALOG
PopUp ,
0isplays a pop·up ueuu coulaiuiug lhe characler
slriugs írou , wails íor you lo selecl au
ileu, aud slores lhe uuuber oí your selecliou iu
.
Jhe eleueuls oí uusl be characler
slriugs. } , ,
, ...}
|í already exisls aud has a valid ileu uuuber,
lhal ileu is displayed as lhe deíaull choice.
uusl coulaiu al leasl oue choice.
PopLp
|"1990","1991","199Z"|,va¡1
¸
PowerReg NAIH/5tatistics/Regressions menu
PowerReg , [, [ ] [, , ]]
Calculales lhe power regressiou aud updales all
lhe sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-
c99.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
|1,Z,3,4,5,6,7|! ¡1 ¸
|1 Z 3 ...|
|1,Z,3,4,3,4,6|! ¡Z ¸
|1 Z 3 ...|
Powe¡Reç ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
¸
Reçeq1x;" y11x; ¸ Lone
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
¥ %
Prgm CAIALOG
Prgm
©
EndPrgm
Required iuslrucliou lhal ideuliíies lhe begiuuiug
oí a prograu. Lasl liue oí prograu uusl be
EndPrgm.
Prograu segueul.
:p¡çnnane1;
:P¡çn
:
:£ndP¡çn
Product (Pl) See (), page 273.
product() NAIH/List menu
product( { { ]])
Relurus lhe producl oí lhe eleueuls coulaiued iu
. aud are oplioual. Jhey speciíy a
rauge oí eleueuls.
p¡oducl1|1,Z,3,4|; ¸ Z4
p¡oducl1|Z,x,y|; ¸ Zøxøy
µ·0uu·1'|4.'.o.´|...´· ¸ 4Û
Previews 77
Programming
WriIe a program IhaI prompIs Ihe user Io ehIer ah ihIeger, sums all
ihIegers !rom 1 Io Ihe ehIered ihIeger, ahd displays Ihe resulI.
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Use Io display Ihe Program Editor.
CreaIe a hew program.
Press 3
2. 1ype PROG1 (wiIh ho spaces) as Ihe hame
o! Ihe hew program variable.
PROG 1
3. Display Ihe "IemplaIe" !or a hew program.
1he program hame, Prgm, ahd EndPrgm
are showh auIomaIically.
A!Ier Iypihg ih ah ihpuI box such as
Variable, you musI press Iwice.
Press Iwice
78 Previews
4. 1ype Ihe !ollowihg program lihes.
Request " Ent er an i nt eger ", n
Displays a dialog box IhaI prompIs
"LhIer ah ihIeger", waiIs !or Ihe user Io
ehIer a value, ahd sIores iI (as a sIrihg)
Io variable h.
expr ( n) n
CohverIs Ihe sIrihg Io a humeric
expressioh.
0 t emp
CreaIes a variable hamed Iemp ahd
ihiIializes iI Io 0.
For i , 1, n, 1
SIarIs a For loop based oh variable i.
FirsI Iime Ihrough Ihe loop, i = 1. AI
ehd o! loop, i is ihcremehIed by 1. Loop
cohIihues uhIil i > h.
t emp+i t emp
Adds currehI value o! i Io Iemp.
EndFor
Marks Ihe ehd o! Ihe For loop.
Di sp t emp
Displays Ihe !ihal value o! Iemp.
1ype Ihe program lihes as showh. Press
aI Ihe ehd o! each lihe.
5. Go Io Ihe Home screeh. LhIer Ihe program
hame, !ollowed by a seI o! parehIheses.
You musI ihclude ( ) eveh wheh Ihere are ho
argumehIs !or Ihe program.
1he program displays a dialog box wiIh Ihe
prompI speci!ied ih Ihe program.
PROG 1
5teps and keystrokes Display
prog1()
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 219
PlotsOff CAIALOG
PlotsOff [1] [, 2] [, 3] ... [, 9]
Jurus oíí lhe speciíied plols íor graphiug. wheu
iu 2·graph uode, ouly aííecls lhe aclive graph.
|í uo parauelers, lheu lurus oíí all plols.
P!ols011 1,Z,5 ¸ Lone
P!ols011 ¸ Lone
PlotsOn CAIALOG
PlotsOn [1] [, 2] [, 3] ... [, 9]
Jurus ou lhe speciíied plols íor graphiug. wheu iu
2·graph uode, ouly aííecls lhe aclive graph.
|í you do uol iuclude auy arguueuls, lurus ou all
plols.
P!ols0n Z,4,5 ¸ Lone
P!ols0n ¸ Lone
4Polar NAIH/Natrix/Vector ops menu
4Polar
0isplays iu polar íoru |r q¦. Jhe veclor
uusl be oí diueusiou 2 aud cau be a row or a
coluuu.
Ncte. 4Polar is a display·íorual iuslrucliou, uol
a couversiou íuucliou. You cau use il ouly al lhe
eud oí au eulry liue, aud il does uol updale ahs.
Ncte: See also 4Rect.
j1,3.¸ 4Po!a¡ ¸
jx,y¸ 4Po!a¡ ¸
4Polar
0isplays iu polar íoru.
 0egree augle uode relurus (r q).
 Radiau augle uode relurus r
q
.
cau have auy couplex íoru.
however, au r
q
eulry causes au error iu 0egree
augle uode.
Ncte. You uusl use lhe pareulheses íor au (r q)
polar eulry.
|u Radiau augle uode.
3+4 4Po!a¡ ¸ ø
1
p
Z
ì lanê1314;;
ø5
14 p13;4Po!a¡ ¸
 øp
3

ø4
|u 0egree augle uode.
3+4 4Po!a¡ ¸ 15 90ì lanê1314;;
polyEval() NAIH/List menu
polyEval( , )
polyEval( , )
|ulerprels lhe íirsl arguueul as lhe coeííicieul oí
a desceudiug·degree polyuouial, aud relurus lhe
polyuouial evalualed íor lhe value oí lhe secoud
arguueul.
po!y£va!1|a,b,c|,x; ¸
aøxñ+bøx+c
po!y£va!1|1,Z,3,4|,Z; ¸ Z6
po!y£va!1|1,Z,3,4|,|Z,ë7|;
¸ |Z6 ëZ6Z|
218 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
Jhe exauple Prograu Edilor íuucliou lo lhe righl
uses getIype() aud part() lo parlially
iupleueul syubolic diííereulialiou. Sludyiug aud
coupleliug lhis íuucliou cau help leach you how
lo diííereuliale uauually. You could eveu iuclude
íuuclious lhal lhe cauuol diííereuliale, such as
Bessel íuuclious.
:d1y,x;
:!unc
:¡oca! 1
:11 çelType1y;~"\AR"
: Relu¡n wlen1y~x,1,0,0;
:11 pa¡l1y;~0
: Relu¡n 0 ¦ y~p,ˆ, ,nunbe¡s
:pa¡l1y,0;! 1
:11 1~"L" ¦ 11 neçale
: Relu¡n ëd1pa¡l1y,1;,x;
:11 1~"" ¦ 11 n1nus
: Relu¡n d1pa¡l1y,1;,x;
ì d1pa¡l1y,Z;,x;
:11 1~"+"
: Relu¡n d1pa¡l1y,1;,x;
+d1pa¡l1y,Z;,x;
:11 1~"ù"
: Relu¡n
pa¡l1y,1;ùd1pa¡l1y,Z;,x;
+pa¡l1y,Z;ùd1pa¡l1y,1;,x;
:11 1~"|"
: Relu¡n seq1d1pa¡l1y,k;,x;,
k,1,pa¡l1y;;
:Relu¡n unde1
:£nd!unc
PassErr CAIALOG
PassErr
Passes au error lo lhe uexl level.
|í "erroruuu" is zero, PassErr does uol do
auylhiug.
Jhe Else clause iu lhe prograu should use ClrErr
or PassErr. |í lhe error is lo be processed or
iguored, use ClrErr. |í whal lo do wilh lhe error
is uol kuowu, use PassErr lo seud il lo lhe uexl
error haudler. (See also ClrErr.)
See ClrErr prograu lisliug exauple.
Pause CAIALOG
Pause [ ]
Suspeuds prograu execuliou. |í you iuclude
, displays ou lhe Prograu |/0
screeu.
cau iuclude couversiou operalious such
as 4DD aud 4Rect. You cau also use lhe 4
operalor lo períoru uuil aud uuuber base
couversious.
|í lhe resull oí is loo big lo íil ou a
siugle screeu, you cau use lhe cursor pad lo scroll
lhe display.
Prograu execuliou resuues wheu you
press ¸ .
Prograu segueul.
©
:C!¡10
:Le!\a¡ lenp
:1" lenpj1¸
:1" lenpjZ¸
:L1sp lenpjZ¸
:¦ üuess lle Palle¡n
:!o¡ 1,3,Z0
: lenpj1ì Z¸+lenpj1ì 1¸" lenpj1¸
: L1sp lenpj1¸
: L1sp lenp,"Can you çuess
lle
nexl","nunbe¡?"
: Pause
:£nd!o¡
©
Previews 79
7ext Operations
SIarI a hew Iext Editor sessioh. 1heh pracIice usihg Ihe Iext Editor by
Iypihg whaIever IexI you wahI. As you Iype, pracIice movihg Ihe IexI
cursor ahd correcIihg ahy Iypos you may ehIer.
6. 1ype 5 ih Ihe displayed dialog box.
Press 5
7. CohIihue wiIh Ihe program. 1he
Disp commahd displays Ihe resulI oh Ihe
Program I/O screeh.
1he resulI is Ihe sum o! Ihe ihIegers !rom 1
Ihrough 5.
AlIhough Ihe Program I/O screeh looks
similar Io Ihe Home screeh, iI is !or program
ihpuI ahd ouIpuI ohly. You cahhoI per!orm
calculaIiohs oh Ihe Program I/O screeh.
Press Iwice
8. Leave Ihe Program I/O screeh ahd reIurh Io
Ihe Home screeh.
You cah also press , , or
Io reIurh Io Ihe Home screeh.
Press
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. SIarI a hew sessioh o! Ihe Iext Editor.
Press 3
5teps and keystrokes Display
OuIpuI !rom
oIher programs
may sIill be oh
Ihe screeh.
ResulI o! ihIeger 5
80 Previews
2. CreaIe a IexI variable called IE5I, which
will auIomaIically sIore ahy IexI you ehIer
ih Ihe hew sessioh.
Use Ihe NAlN !older, showh as Ihe de!aulI
oh Ihe NEW dialog box.
A!Ier Iypihg ih ah ihpuI box such as
Variable, you musI press Iwice.
Press 1LS1
3. 1ype some sample IexI.
º 1o Iype a sihgle uppercase leIIer, press
ahd Iheh Ihe leIIer.
- 1o Iype a space, press
(alpha !uhcIioh o! Ihe key).
- 1o Iype a period, press Io Iurh
alpha-lock o!!, press , ahd Iheh
press Io Iurh alpha-lock
oh agaih.
PracIice ediIihg your IexI by usihg:
º 1he cursor pad Io move Ihe IexI cursor.
º or Io deleIe Ihe characIer Io
Ihe le!I or righI o! Ihe cursor,
respecIively.
Iype ahyIhihg you wahI
4. Leave Ihe Iext Editor ahd display Ihe Home
screeh.
Your IexI sessioh was sIored auIomaIically
as you Iyped. 1here!ore, you do hoI heed Io
save Ihe sessioh mahually be!ore exiIihg Ihe
Iext Editor.
5. ReIurh Io Ihe currehI sessioh oh Ihe Iext
Editor. NoIice IhaI Ihe displayed sessioh is
exacIly Ihe same as you le!I iI.
Press
5teps and keystrokes Display
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 217
part( , )
Siupliíies aud relurus lhe
lh
arguueul
or operaud, where is > 0 aud lhe uuuber oí
lop·level arguueuls or operauds relurued by
part( ). 0lherwise, au error is relurued.
pa¡l1cos1pùx+3;,1; ¸ 3+pøx
Ncte: Siupliíicaliou chauged lhe order oí lhe
arguueul.
By coubiuiug lhe varialious oí part(), you cau
exlracl all oí lhe sub·expressious iu lhe siupliíied
resull oí . ^s showu iu lhe exauple lo
lhe righl, you cau slore au arguueul or operaud
aud lheu use part() lo exlracl íurlher sub·
expressious.
Ncte: wheu usiug part(), do uol rely ou auy
parlicular order iu suus aud producls.
pa¡l1cos1pùx+3;; ¸ 1
pa¡l1cos1pùx+3;,0; ¸ "cos"
pa¡l1cos1pùx+3;,1;! lenp ¸
3+pøx
lenp ¸ pøx+3
pa¡l1lenp,0; ¸ "+"
pa¡l1lenp; ¸ Z
pa¡l1lenp,Z; ¸ 3
pa¡l1lenp,1;! lenp ¸ pøx
pa¡l1lenp,0; ¸ "ù"
pa¡l1lenp; ¸ Z
pa¡l1lenp,1; ¸ p
pa¡l1lenp,Z; ¸ x
Expressious such as (x+y+z) aud (xì yì z) are
represeuled iulerually as (x+y)+z aud (xì y)ì z.
Jhis aííecls lhe values relurued íor lhe íirsl aud
secoud arguueul. Jhere are lechuical reasous
why part(x+y+z,1) relurus y+x iuslead oí x+y.
pa¡l1x+y+z; ¸ Z
pa¡l1x+y+z,Z; ¸ z
pa¡l1x+y+z,1; ¸ y+x
Siuilarly, xùyùz is represeuled iulerually as
(xùy)ùz. ^gaiu, lhere are lechuical reasous why
lhe íirsl arguueul is relurued as yøx iuslead oí
xøy.
pa¡l1xùyùz; ¸ Z
pa¡l1xùyùz,Z; ¸ z
pa¡l1xùyùz,1; ¸ yøx
wheu you exlracl sub·expressious írou a ualrix,
reueuber lhal ualrices are slored as lisls oí lisls,
as illuslraled iu lhe exauple lo lhe righl.
pa¡l1ja,b,c,x,y,z¸,0; ¸ "|"
pa¡l1ja,b,c,x,y,z¸; ¸ Z
pa¡l1ja,b,c,x,y,z¸,Z;! lenp
¸
|x y z|
pa¡l1lenp,0; ¸ "|"
pa¡l1lenp; ¸ 3
pa¡l1lenp,3; ¸ z
de!\a¡ lenp ¸ Lone
216 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
P4Rx() NAIH/Angle menu
P4Rx( , q )
P4Rx( , q )
P4Rx( , q )
Relurus lhe equivaleul x·coordiuale oí lhe
(r, q) pair.
Ncte: Jhe qarguueul is iulerpreled as eilher a
degree or radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul
augle uode. |í lhe arguueul is au expressiou, you
cau use óor ôlo override lhe augle uode selliug
leuporarily.
|u Radiau augle uode.
P4Rx1¡,q; ¸ cos1q;ø¡
P4Rx14,60¡; ¸ Z
P4Rx1|ë3,10,1.3|,|p13,ëp14,0|;
¸
|ë31Z 5ø‡Z 1.3|
P4Ry() NAIH/Angle menu
P4Ry( , q )
P4Ry( , q )
P4Ry( , q )
Relurus lhe equivaleul y·coordiuale oí lhe
(r, q) pair.
Ncte: Jhe qarguueul is iulerpreled as eilher a
degree or radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul
augle uode. |í lhe arguueul is au expressiou, you
cau use óor ôlo override lhe augle uode selliug
leuporarily.
|u Radiau augle uode.
P4Ry1¡,q; ¸ s1n1q;ø¡
P4Ry14,60¡; ¸ Zø‡3
P4Ry1|ë3,10,1.3|,|p13,ëp14,0|;
¸
|
ë3ø‡3
Z
ë5ø‡Z 0.|
part() CAIALOG
part( | , ¦)
Jhis advauced prograuuiug íuucliou lels you
ideuliíy aud exlracl all oí lhe sub·expressious iu
lhe siupliíied resull oí .
|or exauple, ií siupliíies lo
cos(pùx+3).
 Jhe cos() íuucliou has oue arguueul.
(pùx+3).
 Jhe suu oí (pùx+3) has lwo operauds. pùx
aud 3.
 Jhe uuuber 3 has uo arguueuls or operauds.
 Jhe producl pùx has lwo operauds. paud x.
 Jhe variable x aud lhe syubolic couslaul p
have uo arguueuls or operauds.
|í x has a uuueric value aud you press ¥ ¸ ,
lhe uuueric value oí pùx is calculaled, lhe resull
is added lo 3, aud lheu lhe cosiue is calculaled.
cos() is lhe tcp-IeveI operalor because il is
applied Iast.
part( )
Siupliíies aud relurus lhe uuuber oí
lop·level arguueuls or operauds. Jhis relurus 0 ií
is a uuuber, variable, or syubolic
couslaul such as p, , , or ˆ.
pa¡l1cos1pùx+3;; ¸ 1
Ncte: cos(pùx+3) has oue arguueul.
part( , 0)
Siupliíies aud relurus a slriug lhal
coulaius lhe lop·level íuucliou uaue or operalor.
Jhis relurus string( ) ií is a
uuuber, variable, or syubolic couslaul such as p,
, , or ˆ.
pa¡l1cos1pùx+3;,0; ¸ "cos"
Previews 81
Numeric 5olver
Cohsider Ihe equaIioh a=(m2 m1)/(m2+m1) g, where Ihe khowh values
are m2=10 ahd g=9.8. I! you assume IhaI a=1/3 g, !ihd Ihe value o! m1.
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Use Io display Ihe Numeric 5olver.
2. LhIer Ihe equaIioh.
Wheh you press or , Ihe screeh lisIs
Ihe variables used ih Ihe equaIioh.
A M2 M1
M2 M1 G
3. LhIer values !or each variable, excepI Ihe
uhkhowh variable m1.
De!ihe m2 ahd g !irsI. 1heh de!ihe a. (You
musI de!ihe g be!ore you cah de!ihe a ih
Ierms o! g.) AccepI Ihe de!aulI !or bouhd.
I! a variable has beeh de!ihed previously, iIs
value is showh as a de!aulI.
10 9.8 G 3
4. Move Ihe cursor Io Ihe uhkhowh variable
m1.
OpIiohally, you cah ehIer ah ihiIial guess !or
m1. Lveh i! you ehIer a value !or all
variables, Ihe Numeric Solver solves !or Ihe
variable marked by Ihe cursor.
Press
g/3 is evaluaIed wheh you
move Ihe cursor o!! Ihe
lihe.
5. Solve !or Ihe uhkhowh variable.
1o check Ihe soluIioh's accuracy, Ihe le!I ahd
righI sides o! Ihe equaIioh are evaluaIed
separaIely. 1he di!!erehce is showh as
le!I-rI. I! Ihe soluIioh is precise, le!I-rI=0.
Press
marks Ihe calculaIed
values.
82 Previews
Number 8ases
CalculaIe 10 bihary (base 2) + F hexadecimal (base 16) + 10 decimal (base
10). 1heh, use Ihe operaIor Io cohverI ah ihIeger !rom ohe base Io
ahoIher. Fihally, see how chahgihg Ihe 8ase mode a!!ecIs Ihe displayed
resulIs.
6. Graph Ihe soluIioh usihg a Zoom5td
viewihg wihdow.
1he graph is displayed ih a spliI screeh. You
cah explore Ihe graph by Iracihg, zoomihg,
eIc.
1he variable marked by Ihe cursor
(uhkhowh variable m1) is oh Ihe x axis, ahd
le!I-rI is oh Ihe y axis.
Press 3
7. ReIurh Io Ihe Numeric 5olver ahd exiI Ihe
spliI screeh.
You cah press or Io redisplay Ihe
lisI o! variables.
Press 2
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display Ihe NODE dialog box, Page 2. For
Base mode, selecI DEC as Ihe de!aulI
humber base.
IhIeger resulIs are displayed accordihg Io
Ihe Base mode. FracIiohal ahd !loaIihg-
poihI resulIs are always displayed ih decimal
!orm.
Press (use Io move Io Base
mode) 1
5teps and keystrokes Display
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 21S
or NAIH/Iest menu
or
Relurus lrue or íalse or a siupliíied íoru oí lhe
origiual eulry.
Relurus lrue ií eilher or bolh expressious siupliíy
lo lrue. Relurus íalse ouly ií bolh expressious
evaluale lo íalse.
Ncte: See xor.
x‚3 o¡ x‚4 ¸ x ‚ 3
Prograu segueul.
©
11 x´0 o¡ x‚5
üolo £lL
©
11 clo1ce~1 o¡ clo1ce~Z
L1sp "w¡onç clo1ce"
©
or
Coupares lwo real iulegers bil·by·bil usiug au or
operaliou. |ulerually, bolh iulegers are couverled
lo sigued, 32·bil biuary uuubers. wheu
correspoudiug bils are coupared, lhe resull is 1 ií
eilher bil is 1, lhe resull is 0 ouly ií bolh bils are
0. Jhe relurued value represeuls lhe bil resulls,
aud is displayed accordiug lo lhe 8ase uode.
You cau euler lhe iulegers iu auy uuuber base.
|or a biuary or hexadeciual eulry, you uusl use
lhe 0b or 0h preíix, respeclively. wilhoul a preíix,
iulegers are lrealed as deciual (base 10).
|í you euler a deciual iuleger lhal is loo large íor
a sigued, 32·bil biuary íoru, a syuuelric uodulo
operaliou is used lo briug lhe value iulo lhe
appropriale rauge.
Ncte: See xor.
|u hex base uode.
0l7AC36 o¡ 0l3L5! ¸ 0l7ßL7!
|u Biu base uode.
0b100101 o¡ 0b100 ¸ 0b100101
Ncte: ^ biuary eulry cau have up lo 32 digils
(uol couuliug lhe 0b preíix). ^ hexadeciual
eulry cau have up lo 8 digils.
ord() NAIH/5tring menu
ord( )
ord( )
Relurus lhe uuueric code oí lhe íirsl characler iu
characler slriug , or a lisl oí lhe íirsl
characlers oí each lisl eleueul.
See ^ppeudix B íor a couplele lisliug oí characler
codes.
o¡d1"le!!o"; ¸ 104
cla¡1104; ¸ "l"
o¡d1cla¡1Z4;; ¸ Z4
o¡d1|"a!pla","bela"|; ¸
|97 9ß|
Output CAIALOG
Output , ,
0isplays (au expressiou or characler
slriug) ou lhe Prograu |/0 screeu al lhe lexl
coordiuales ( , ).
^u expressiou cau iuclude couversiou operalious
such as 4DD aud 4Rect. You cau also use lhe 4
operalor lo períoru uuil aud uuuber base
couversious.
|í PreIIy PrihI = ON, is "prelly
priuled."
|rou lhe Prograu |/0 screeu, you cau press _lo
display lhe houe screeu, or a prograu cau use
DispHome.
Prograu segueul.
©
:RandSeed 1147
:C!¡10
:!o¡ 1,1,90,10
: 0ulpul 1, ¡and1100;,"he!!o"
:£nd!o¡
©
Resull aíler execuliou.
Important: Zero, not the letter O.
214 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
nPr( , )
Relurus a lisl oí peruulalious based ou lhe
correspoudiug eleueul pairs iu lhe lwo lisls. Jhe
arguueuls uusl be lhe saue size lisl.
nP¡1|5,4,3|,|Z,4,Z|; ¸
|Z0 Z4 6|
nPr( , )
Relurus a ualrix oí peruulalious based ou lhe
correspoudiug eleueul pairs iu lhe lwo ualrices.
Jhe arguueuls uusl be lhe saue size ualrix.
nP¡1j6,5,4,3¸,jZ,Z,Z,Z¸; ¸
j
30 Z0
1Z 6
¸
n5olve() NAIH/Algebra menu
n5olve( , )
|leralively searches íor oue approxiuale real
uuueric soluliou lo íor ils oue variable.
Speciíy as.
- or -
=
|or exauple, x is valid aud so is x=3.
nSo!ve1x^Z+5xì Z5~9,x; ¸
3.ß44...
nSo!ve1x^Z~4,x~ë1; ¸ ëZ.
nSo!ve1x^Z~4,x~1; ¸ Z.
Ncte: |í lhere are uulliple solulious, you cau
use a guess lo help íiud a parlicular soluliou.
n5olve() is oíleu uuch íasler lhau solve() or
zeros(), parlicularly ií lhe "[" operalor is used lo
couslraiu lhe search lo a suall iulerval coulaiuiug
exaclly oue siuple soluliou.
n5olve() alleupls lo deleruiue eilher oue poiul
where lhe residual is zero or lwo relalively close
poiuls where lhe residual has opposile sigus aud
lhe uaguilude oí lhe residual is uol excessive. |í
il cauuol achieve lhis usiug a uodesl uuuber oí
sauple poiuls, il relurus lhe slriug "ho soluIioh
!ouhd."
|í you use n5olve() iu a prograu, you cau use
getIype() lo check íor a uuueric resull beíore
usiug il iu au algebraic expressiou.
Ncte: See also c5olve(), cZeros(), solve(), aud
zeros().
nSo!ve1x^Z+5xì Z5~9,x;|x´0 ¸
ëß.ß44...
nSo!ve1111+¡;^Z4ì 1;1¡~Z6,¡;|¡`
0 and ¡´.Z5 ¸ .006ß...
nSo!ve1x^Z~ë1,x; ¸
"no so!ul1on 1ound"
OneVar NAIH/5tatistics menu
OneVar [[, ] [, ] [, ]]
Calculales 1·variable slalislics aud updales all lhe
sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-
c99.
|0,Z,3,4,3,4,6|! ¡1 ¸
0ne\a¡ ¡1 ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
Previews 8J
2. CalculaIe 0b10+0hF+10.
1o ehIer a bihary or hex humber, you musI
use Ihe 0b or 0h pre!ix (zero ahd Ihe leIIer 8
or H). OIherwise, Ihe ehIry is IreaIed as a
decimal humber.
Note: 1he 0b or 0h pre!ix is a zero, hoI Ihe
leIIer O, !ollowed by 8 or H.
0 8 10 0 HF
10
3. Add 1 Io Ihe resulI ahd cohverI iI Io bihary.
displays Ihe cohversioh operaIor.
1 8IN
4. Add 1 Io Ihe resulI ahd cohverI iI Io
hexadecimal.
1 HLX
5. Add 1 Io Ihe resulI ahd leave iI ih Ihe
de!aulI decimal base.
ResulIs use Ihe 0b or 0h pre!ix Io idehIi!y
Ihe base.
Press 1
6. Chahge Ihe Base mode Io HEX.
Wheh Base = HEX or BlN, Ihe maghiIude o!
a resulI is resIricIed Io cerIaih size
limiIaIiohs.
Press (use Io move Io Base
mode) 2
7. CalculaIe 0b10+0hF+10.
0 8 10 0 HF
10
8. Chahge Ihe Base mode Io BlN.
Press (use Io move Io Base
mode) 3
5teps and keystrokes Display
84 Previews
Memory and Variable Management
Assigh values Io a varieIy o! variable daIa Iypes. Use Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh
Io view a lisI o! Ihe de!ihed variables. 1heh move a variable Io Ihe user
daIa archive memory ahd explore Ihe ways ih which you cah ahd cahhoI
access ah archived variable. (Archived variables are locked auIomaIically.)
Fihally, uharchive Ihe variable ahd deleIe Ihe uhused variables so IhaI
Ihey will hoI Iake up memory.
9. Re-ehIer 0b10+0hF+10.
Press
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. From Ihe Home screeh, assigh variables wiIh
Ihe !ollowihg variable Iypes.
Lxpressioh: 5 x1
FuhcIioh: x
2
+4 !(x)
LisI: [5,10} l1
MaIrix: [30,25] m1
5 X1 X 2
4 F X 5
10 L1 30
25 M1
2. Suppose you sIarI Io per!orm ah operaIioh
usihg a !uhcIioh variable buI cah'I
remember iIs hame.
Press 5
3. Display Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh.
1his example assumes IhaI Ihe variables
assighed above are Ihe ohly ohes de!ihed.
Press
5teps and keystrokes Display
5
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 21J
Nesl nlnt() lo do uulliple uuueric iulegraliou.
|ulegraliou liuils cau depeud ou iulegraliou
variables oulside lheu.
n1nl1n1nl1 ^1ëxùy;1‡1x^Zì y^Z;,
y,ëx,x;,x,0,1; ¸ 3.304...
Ncte: See also ‰().
norm() NAIH/Natrix/Norms menu
norm( )
Relurus lhe |robeuius uoru.
no¡n1ja,b,c,d¸; ¸
añ+bñ+cñ+dñ
no¡n1j1,Z,3,4¸; ¸ 30
not NAIH/Iest menu
not
Relurus lrue, íalse, or a siupliíied
.
nol Z`~3 ¸ l¡ue
nol x´Z ¸ x ‚ Z
nol nol 1nnocenl ¸ 1nnocenl
not
Relurus lhe oue's coupleueul oí a real iuleger.
|ulerually, is couverled lo a sigued, 32·bil
biuary uuuber. Jhe value oí each bil is ílipped (0
becoues 1, aud vice versa) íor lhe oue's
coupleueul. Resulls are displayed accordiug lo
lhe 8ase uode.
You cau euler lhe iuleger iu auy uuuber base.
|or a biuary or hexadeciual eulry, you uusl use
lhe 0b or 0h preíix, respeclively. wilhoul a preíix,
lhe iuleger is lrealed as deciual (base 10).
|í you euler a deciual iuleger lhal is loo large íor
a sigued, 32·bil biuary íoru, a syuuelric uodulo
operaliou is used lo briug lhe value iulo lhe
appropriale rauge.
|u hex base uode.
nol 0l7AC36 ¸ 0l!!!ß53C9
|u Biu base uode.
0b100101 4dec ¸ 37
nol 0b100101 ¸
0b11111111111111111111111111011010
ans11; 4dec ¸ ë3ß
Ncte: ^ biuary eulry cau have up lo 32 digils
(uol couuliug lhe 0b preíix). ^ hexadeciual
eulry cau have up lo 8 digils.
Ncte: Jo lype lhe 4couversiou operalor,
press 2 . You cau also selecl base
couversious írou lhe MA1H/8ase ueuu.
nPr() NAIH/Probability menu
nPr( , )
|or iuleger aud wilh
‚ ‚ 0, nPr() is lhe uuuber
oí peruulalious oí lhiugs lakeu
al a liue. Bolh arguueuls cau be
iulegers or syubolic expressious.
nPr( 0) 1
nPr( )
1/(( +1) +2)
( ))
nPr( )
( ì 1) ( +1)
nPr( ) !/
( )!
nP¡1z,3; ¸ zø1zì Z;ø1zì 1;
ans11;|z~5 ¸ 60
nP¡1z,ë3; ¸
1
1z+1;ø1z+Z;ø1z+3;
nP¡1z,c; ¸
z!
1zì c;!
ans11;ùnP¡1zì c,ëc; ¸ 1
Important: Zero, not the letter O.
212 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
NewPlot CAIALOG
NewPlot , , [ [ ], [ ], [ ],
[ ], [ ] [, ]]
Creales a uew plol deíiuiliou íor plol uuuber .
speciíies lhe lype oí lhe graph plol.
1 = scaller plol
2 = xyliue plol
3 = box plol
4 = hislograu
S = uodiíied box plol
speciíies lhe display lype oí lhe uark.
1 = è(box)
2 = × (cross)
3 = + (plus )
4 = é(square)
S = ø(dol)
is lhe widlh oí each hislograu
"buckel" ( = 4), aud will vary based ou lhe
wiudow variables xmih aud xmax.
uusl be >0. 0eíaull = 1.
Ncte: cau be 1-9. Lisls uusl be variable uaues
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor), excepl íor
, which does uol have lo be a
variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-c99.
!n011 ¸ Lone
P!ols011 ¸ Lone
|1,Z,3,4|! ¡1 ¸ |1 Z 3 4|
|Z,3,4,5|! ¡Z ¸ |Z 3 4 5|
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z,,,,4 ¸ Lone
Press ¥ % lo display.
NewProb CAIALOG
NewProb
Períorus a variely oí operalious lhal lel you
begiu a uew probleu írou a cleared slale
wilhoul reselliug lhe ueuory.
 Clears all siugle·characler variable uaues
(Clear a-z) iu lhe curreul íolder, uuless lhe
variables are locked or archived.
 Jurus oíí all íuuclious aud slal plols (FnOff
aud PlotsOff) iu lhe curreul graphiug uode.
 Períous ClrDraw, ClrErr, ClrGraph,
ClrHome, ClrlO, aud ClrIable.
lewP¡ob ¸ Lone
nlnt() NAIH/Calculus menu
nlnt( )
|í lhe iulegraud coulaius uo variable
olher lhau , aud ií aud are
couslauls, posilive ˆ, or uegalive ˆ, lheu nlnt()
relurus au approxiualiou oí ‰( , ,
, ). Jhis approxiualiou is a weighled
average oí soue sauple values oí lhe iulegraud
iu lhe iulerval .
n1nl1 ^1ëx^Z;,x,ë1,1; ¸
1.493...
Jhe goal is six siguiíicaul digils. Jhe adaplive
algorilhu leruiuales wheu il seeus likely lhal
lhe goal has beeu achieved, or wheu il seeus
uulikely lhal addilioual sauples will yield a
worlhwhile iuproveueul.
^ waruiug is displayed ("QuesIiohable
accuracy") wheu il seeus lhal lhe goal has uol
beeu achieved.
n1nl1cos1x;,x,ëp,p+1í ë1Z; ¸
ë1.041...í ë1Z
‰1cos1x;,x,ëp,p+10^1ë1Z;; ¸
ës1n1
1
1000000000000
;
ans11;¥ ¸ ë1.í ë1Z
Previews 8S
4. Chahge Ihe screeh's view Io show ohly
!uhcIioh variables.
AlIhough Ihis may hoI seem parIicularly
use!ul ih ah example wiIh !our variables,
cohsider how use!ul iI could be i! Ihere
were mahy variables o! all di!!erehI Iypes.
Press 5
5. HighlighI Ihe f !uhcIioh variable, ahd view
iIs cohIehIs.
NoIice IhaI Ihe !uhcIioh was assighed usihg
f(x) buI is lisIed as f oh Ihe screeh.

6. Close Ihe CohIehIs wihdow.
Press
7. WiIh Ihe f variable sIill highlighIed, close
VAR-LlNK ahd pasIe Ihe variable hame Io
Ihe ehIry lihe. NoIice IhaI "(" is pasIed.
Press
8. CompleIe Ihe operaIioh.
Press 2
5teps and keystrokes Display
5 !(
5 !(2)
86 Previews
Archiving a variable
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Redisplay VAR-LlNK, ahd highlighI Ihe
variable you wahI Io archive.
1he previous chahge ih view is ho lohger ih
e!!ecI. 1he screeh lisIs all de!ihed variables.
Press (use Io highlighI x1)
2. Use Ihe Nanage Ioolbar mehu Io
archive Ihe variable.
ihdicaIes Ihe variable is archived.
Press 8
3. ReIurh Io Ihe Home screeh ahd use Ihe
archived variable ih a calculaIioh.
6 X1
4. AIIempI Io sIore a di!!erehI value Io Ihe
archived variable.
Press 10 X1
5. Cahcel Ihe error message.
Press
6. Use VAR-LlNK Io uharchive Ihe variable.
Press (use Io highlighI x1)
9
7. ReIurh Io Ihe Home screeh ahd sIore a
di!!erehI value Io Ihe uharchived variable.

Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 211
NewData ,
Creales dala variable based ou .
NewData sysData,
Loads lhe couleuls oí iulo lhe sysleu dala
variable sysDaIa.
NewFold CAIALOG
NewFold
Creales a user·deíiued íolder wilh lhe uaue
, aud lheu sels lhe curreul íolder lo
lhal íolder. ^íler you execule lhis iuslrucliou, you
are iu lhe uew íolder.
lew!o!d çanes ¸ Lone
newList() CAIALOG
newList( )
Relurus a lisl wilh a diueusiou oí .
Each eleueul is zero
new¡1sl14; ¸ |0 0 0 0|
newNat() CAIALOG also Nath/Natrix menu
newNat( , )
Relurus a ualrix oí zeros wilh lhe diueusiou
by .
newlal1Z,3; ¸ j
0 0 0
0 0 0
¸
NewPic CAIALOG
NewPic , | ¦| ¦
Creales a pic variable based ou .
uusl be au ualrix iu which each row
represeuls a pixel. Pixel coordiuales slarl al 0,0.
|í already exisls, NewPic replaces il.
Jhe deíaull íor is lhe uiuiuuu area
required íor lhe ualrix values. Jhe oplioual
arguueuls, aud , deleruiue lhe
uaxiuuu bouudary liuils íor .
lewP1c j1,1,Z,Z,3,3,4,4,5,5,
5,1,4,Z,Z,4,1,5¸,xp1c¸ Lone
Rc!P1c xp1c ¸
210 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
nCr() NAIH/Probability menu
nCr( , )
|or iuleger aud wilh
‚ ‚ 0, nCr() is lhe uuuber
oí coubiualious oí lhiugs lakeu
al a liue. (Jhis is also kuowu as a
biuouial coeííicieul.) Bolh arguueuls cau be
iulegers or syubolic expressious.
nCr( 0) 1
nCr( ) 0
nCr( )
( ì 1) ( +1)/
!
nCr( ) !/
(( )! !)
nC¡1z,3;
zø1zì Z;ø1zì 1;
6
ans11;|z~5 10
nC¡1z,c;
z!
c!1zì c;!
ans11;1nP¡1z,c;
1
c!
nCr( , )
Relurus a lisl oí coubiualious based ou lhe
correspoudiug eleueul pairs iu lhe lwo lisls. Jhe
arguueuls uusl be lhe saue size lisl.
nC¡1|5,4,3|,|Z,4,Z|; ¸
|10 1 3|
nCr( , )
Relurus a ualrix oí coubiualious based ou lhe
correspoudiug eleueul pairs iu lhe lwo ualrices.
Jhe arguueuls uusl be lhe saue size ualrix.
nC¡1j6,5,4,3¸,jZ,Z,Z,Z¸; ¸
j
15 10
6 3
¸
nDeriv() NAIH/Calculus menu
nDeriv( , |, ¦)
nDeriv( , )
nDeriv( , |, ¦)
nDeriv( , |, ¦)
Relurus lhe uuuerical derivalive as au
expressiou. uses lhe ceulral diííereuce quolieul
íoruula.
is lhe slep value. |í is ouilled, il deíaulls lo
0.001.
wheu usiug or , lhe operaliou gels
uapped across lhe values iu lhe lisl or across lhe
ualrix eleueuls.
Ncte: See also avgRC() aud ().
nLe¡1v1cos1x;,x,l; ¸
ë1cos1xì l;ì cos1x+l;;
Zøl
!1n1l1nLe¡1v1cos1x;,x,l;,l,0;
¸
ës1n1x;
nLe¡1v1x^3,x,0.01; ¸
3.ø1xñ+.000033;
nLe¡1v1cos1x;,x;|x~p1Z ¸
ë1.
nLe¡1v1x^Z,x,|.01,.1|; ¸
| Z. øx Z .øx |
NewData CAIALOG
NewData , [, ] [, ]...
Creales dala variable where lhe coluuus
are lhe lisls iu order.
Musl have al leasl oue lisl.
, , ..., cau be lisls as showu,
expressious lhal resolve lo lisls, or lisl variable
uaues.
NewData uakes lhe uew variable curreul iu
lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor.
lewLala nydala,|1,Z,3|,|4,5,6|
¸
Lone
(Co lo lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor aud opeu lhe
nydala lo display lhe dala variable
below.)
Previews 87
Deleting variables
5teps and keystrokes Display
1. Display VAR-LlNK, ahd use Ihe All
Ioolbar mehu Io selecI all variables.
A mark ihdicaIes iIems IhaI are selecIed.
NoIice IhaI Ihis also selecIed Ihe NAlN
!older.
Note: IhsIead o! usihg (i! you doh'I
wahI Io deleIe all your variables), you cah
selecI ihdividual variables. HighlighI each
variable Io deleIe ahd press .
Press 1
2. Use Io deleIe.
Note: You cah press (ihsIead o! 1) Io
deleIe Ihe marked variables.
Press 1
3. Coh!irm Ihe deleIioh.
Press
4. 8ecause 1 also selecIed Ihe NAlN !older,
ah error message sIaIes IhaI you cahhoI
deleIe Ihe NAlN !older. Ackhowledge Ihe
message.
Wheh VAR-LlNK is redisplayed, Ihe deleIed
variables are hoI lisIed.
Press
5. Close VAR-LlNK ahd reIurh Io Ihe currehI
applicaIioh (Home screeh ih Ihis example).
Wheh you use (ihsIead o! ) Io
close VAR-LlNK, Ihe highlighIed hame is hoI
pasIed Io Ihe ehIry lihe.
Press
88 Previews Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 209
min() NAIH/List menu
min( , )
min( )
min( )
Relurus lhe uiuiuuu oí lhe lwo arguueuls. |í
lhe arguueuls are lwo lisls or ualrices, relurus a
lisl or ualrix coulaiuiug lhe uiuiuuu value oí
each pair oí correspoudiug eleueuls.
n1n1Z.3,1.4; ¸ 1.4
n1n1|1,Z|,|ë4,3|; ¸ |ë4 Z|
min( )
Relurus lhe uiuiuuu eleueul oí .
n1n1|0,1,ë7,1.3,.5|; ¸ ë7
min( )
Relurus a row veclor coulaiuiug lhe uiuiuuu
eleueul oí each coluuu iu .
Ncte: See also fNin() aud max().
n1n1j1,ë3,7,ë4,0,.3¸; ¸
jë4 ë3 .3¸
mod() NAIH/Number menu
mod( , )
mod( , )
mod( , )
Relurus lhe íirsl arguueul uodulo lhe secoud
arguueul as deíiued by lhe ideulilies.
mod(x,0) x
mod(x,y) xì y !loor(x/y)
wheu lhe secoud arguueul is uou·zero, lhe resull
is periodic iu lhal arguueul. Jhe resull is eilher
zero or has lhe saue sigu as lhe secoud
arguueul.
|í lhe arguueuls are lwo lisls or lwo ualrices,
relurus a lisl or ualrix coulaiuiug lhe uodulo oí
each pair oí correspoudiug eleueuls.
Ncte: See also remain().
nod17,0; ¸ 7
nod17,3; ¸ 1
nod1ë7,3; ¸ Z
nod17,ë3; ¸ ëZ
nod1ë7,ë3; ¸ ë1
nod1|1Z,ë14,16|,|9,7,ë5|; ¸
|3 0 ë4|
NoveVar CAIALOG
NoveVar , ,
Moves variable írou lo . |í
does uol exisl, NoveVar creales il.
|1,Z,3,4|! ¡1 ¸ |1 Z 3 4|
love\a¡ ¡1,la1n,üanes ¸ Lone
mRow() NAIH/Natrix/Row ops menu
mRow( , , )
Relurus a copy oí wilh each eleueul iu
row oí uulliplied by .
nRow1ë113,j1,Z,3,4¸,Z; ¸
{
1 Z
ë1 ë413
¸
mRowAdd() NAIH/Natrix/Row ops menu
mRowAdd( , , , )

Relurus a copy oí wilh each eleueul iu
row oí replaced wilh.
× row + row
nRowAdd1ë3,j1,Z,3,4¸,1,Z; ¸
{
1 Z
0 LZ
¸
nRowAdd1n,ja,b,c,d¸,1,Z; ¸
j
a
aøn+c

b
bøn+d
¸
208 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
NedNed NAIH/5tatistics/Regressions menu
NedNed , [, [ ] [, , ]]
Calculales lhe uediau·uediau liue aud updales
all lhe sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-
c99.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
|0,1,Z,3,4,5,6|! ¡1 ¸ |0 1 Z ...|
|0,Z,3,4,3,4,6|! ¡Z ¸ |0 Z 3 ...|
ledled ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
¸
Reçeq1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
¥ %
mid() NAIH/5tring menu
mid( , [, ])
Relurus characlers írou characler slriug
, begiuuiug wilh characler uuuber
.
|í is ouilled or is grealer lhau lhe
diueusiou oí , relurus all characlers
írou , begiuuiug wilh characler
uuuber .
uusl be ‚ 0. |í = 0, relurus au euply
slriug.
n1d1"he!!o lle¡e",Z; ¸
"e!!o lle¡e"
n1d1"he!!o lle¡e",7,3; ¸
"lle"
n1d1"he!!o lle¡e",1,5; ¸
"he!!o"
n1d1"he!!o lle¡e",1,0; ¸
""
mid( , [, ])
Relurus eleueuls írou , begiuuiug
wilh eleueul uuuber .
|í is ouilled or is grealer lhau lhe
diueusiou oí , relurus all eleueuls írou
, begiuuiug wilh eleueul uuuber .
uusl be ‚ 0. |í couul = 0, relurus au euply
lisl.
n1d1|9,ß,7,6|,3; ¸ |7 6|
n1d1|9,ß,7,6|,Z,Z; ¸ |ß 7|
n1d1|9,ß,7,6|,1,Z; ¸ |9 ß|
n1d1|9,ß,7,6|,1,0; ¸ ||
mid( , [, ])
Relurus slriugs írou lhe lisl oí slriugs
, begiuuiug wilh eleueul uuuber
.
n1d1|"A","ß","C","L"|,Z,Z;
¸
|"ß" "C"|
Activities 89

Activities
Analyzing the Pole-Corner Problem
A Ieh-!ooI-wide hallway meeIs a !ive-!ooI-wide hallway ih Ihe corher o!
a buildihg. Fihd Ihe maximum lehgIh pole IhaI cah be moved arouhd Ihe
corher wiIhouI IilIihg Ihe pole.
Naximum Length of Pole in Hallway
1he maximum lehgIh o! a pole c is Ihe shorIesI lihe segmehI Iouchihg
Ihe ihIerior corher ahd opposiIe sides o! Ihe Iwo hallways as showh ih
Ihe diagram below.
Use proporIiohal sides ahd Ihe PyIhagoreah Iheorem Io !ihd Ihe lehgIh c
wiIh respecI Io w. 1heh !ihd Ihe zeros o! Ihe !irsI derivaIive o! c(w). 1he
mihimum value o! c(w) is Ihe maximum lehgIh o! Ihe pole.
1. De!ihe Ihe expressioh !or side a ih Ierms o!
w ahd sIore iI ih a(w).
Note: Wheh you wahI Io de!ihe a !uhcIioh,
use mulIiple characIer hames as you build
Ihe de!ihiIioh.
2. De!ihe Ihe expressioh !or side b ih Ierms o!
w ahd sIore iI ih b(w).
10
5
w
a
b
c
a = w+5
b = 10a
w
90 Activities
Deriving the Çuadratic Formula
1his acIiviIy shows you how Io derive Ihe quadraIic !ormula:
x =
DeIailed ih!ormaIioh abouI usihg Ihe !uhcIiohs ih Ihis example cah be
!ouhd ih Symbolic Manipulation.
3. De!ihe Ihe expressioh !or side c ih Ierms o!
w ahd sIore iI ih c(w).
LhIer: Define c(w)= (a(w)^2+b(w)^2)
4. Use Ihe zeros( ) !uhcIioh Io compuIe Ihe
zeros o! Ihe !irsI derivaIive o! c(w) Io !ihd
Ihe mihimum value o! c(w).
Note: 1he maximum lehgIh o! Ihe pole is
Ihe mihimum value o! c(w).
5. CompuIe Ihe exacI maximum lehgIh o! Ihe
pole.
LhIer: c ( )
6. CompuIe Ihe approximaIe maximum lehgIh
o! Ihe pole.
ResulI: ApproximaIely 20.8097 !eeI.
Note: Use Ihe auIo-pasIe !eaIure Io copy
Ihe resulI !rom sIep 4 Io Ihe ehIry lihe
ihside Ihe parehIheses o! c( ) ahd press
.
b – b
2
4ac –
2a
--------------------------------------
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 207
mat4list() NAIH/List menu
mat4list( )
Relurus a lisl íilled wilh lhe eleueuls iu .
Jhe eleueuls are copied írou row by row.
nal4!1sl1j1,Z,3¸; ¸ |1 Z 3|
j1,Z,3,4,5,6¸! l1 ¸
j
1 Z 3
4 5 6
¸
nal4!1sl1l1; ¸ |1 Z 3 4 5 6|
max() NAIH/List menu
max( , )
max( , )
max( , )
Relurus lhe uaxiuuu oí lhe lwo arguueuls. |í
lhe arguueuls are lwo lisls or ualrices, relurus a
lisl or ualrix coulaiuiug lhe uaxiuuu value oí
each pair oí correspoudiug eleueuls.
nax1Z.3,1.4; ¸ Z.3
nax1|1,Z|,|ë4,3|; ¸ |1 3|
max( )
Relurus lhe uaxiuuu eleueul iu .
nax1|0,1,ë7,1.3,.5|; ¸ 1.3
max( )
Relurus a row veclor coulaiuiug lhe uaxiuuu
eleueul oí each coluuu iu .
Ncte: See also fNax() aud min().
nax1j1,ë3,7,ë4,0,.3¸; ¸
j1 0 7¸
mean() NAIH/5tatistics menu
mean( | ¦)
Relurus lhe ueau oí lhe eleueuls iu .
Each eleueul couuls lhe uuuber oí
couseculive occurreuces oí lhe correspoudiug
eleueul iu .
nean1|.Z,0,1,ë.3,.4|; ¸ .Z6
nean1|1,Z,3|,|3,Z,1|; ¸ 513
mean( | ¦)
Relurus a row veclor oí lhe ueaus oí all lhe
coluuus iu
Each eleueul couuls lhe uuuber oí
couseculive occurreuces oí lhe correspoudiug
eleueul iu .
|u veclor íorual reclaugular uode.
nean1j.Z,0,L1,3,.4,L.5¸; ¸
jL.133... .ß33...¸
nean1j115,0,L1,3,Z15,L11Z¸;
¸
jëZ115 516¸
nean1j1,Z,3,4,5,6¸,j5,3,4,1,
6,Z¸; ¸ {4/´1'. 11´´¸
median() NAIH/5tatistics menu
median( )
Relurus lhe uediau oí lhe eleueuls iu .
ned1an1|.Z,0,1,ë.3,.4|; ¸ .Z
median( )
Relurus a row veclor coulaiuiug lhe uediaus oí
lhe coluuus iu .
Ncte: ^ll eulries iu lhe lisl or ualrix uusl
siupliíy lo uuubers.
ned1an1j.Z,0,1,ë.3,.4,ë.5¸;
¸
j.4 ë.3¸
206 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
LU NAIH/Natrix menu
LU , , , |, ¦
Calculales lhe 0oolillle Lu (lower·upper)
decouposiliou oí a real or couplex . Jhe
lower lriaugular ualrix is slored iu , lhe
upper lriaugular ualrix iu , aud lhe
peruulaliou ualrix (which describes lhe row
swaps doue duriug lhe calculaliou) iu .
ù = ù
0plioually, auy ualrix eleueul is lrealed as zero
ií ils absolule value is less lhau . Jhis lolerauce
is used ouly ií lhe ualrix has íloaliug·poiul
eulries aud does uol coulaiu auy syubolic
variables lhal have uol beeu assigued a value.
0lherwise, is iguored.
 |í you use ¥ ¸ or sel lhe uode lo
LxacI/Approx=APPROXIMA1L, coupulalious
are doue usiug íloaliug·poiul arilhuelic.
 |í is ouilled or uol used, lhe deíaull
lolerauce is calculaled as.
5Lë14 ùmax(dim( ))
ùrowNorm( )
Jhe LU íaclorizaliou algorilhu uses parlial
pivoliug wilh row iulerchauges.
j6,1Z,1ß,5,14,31,3,ß,1߸! n1
¸
6 1Z 1ß
5 14 31
3 ß 1ß
¡L n1,!owe¡,uppe¡,pe¡n ¸ Lone
!owe¡ ¸
1 0 0
516 1 0
11Z 11Z 1
uppe¡ ¸
6 1Z 1ß
0 4 16
0 0 1
pe¡n ¸
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
jn,n,o,p¸! n1 ¸
n n
o p
¡L n1,!owe¡,uppe¡,pe¡n ¸ Lone
!owe¡ ¸
1 0
n
o
1
uppe¡ ¸
o p
0 n ì
nøp
o
pe¡n ¸
0 1
1 0
Activities 91
Performing Computations to Derive the Çuadratic Formula
Per!orm Ihe !ollowihg sIeps Io derive Ihe quadraIic !ormula by
compleIihg Ihe square o! Ihe geheralized quadraIic equaIioh.
1. Clear all ohe-characIer variables ih Ihe
currehI !older.
Choose 1:Clear a-z ahd press Io
coh!irm.
2. Oh Ihe Home screeh, ehIer Ihe geheralized
quadraIic equaIioh: ax
2
+bx+c=0.
3. SubIracI c !rom boIh sides o! Ihe equaIioh.
C
Note: 1his example uses Ihe resulI o! Ihe
lasI ahswer Io per!orm compuIaIiohs oh Ihe
1I-89 1iIahium. 1his !eaIure reduces
keysIrokihg ahd chahces !or error.
4. Divide boIh sides o! Ihe equaIioh by Ihe
leadihg coe!!iciehI a.
Note: CohIihue Io use Ihe lasI ahswer (
) as ih sIep 3 ih sIeps 4 Ihrough 9.
5. Use Ihe expand( ) !uhcIioh Io expahd Ihe
resulI o! Ihe lasI ahswer.
6. CompleIe Ihe square by addihg ((b/a)/2)
2
Io
boIh sides o! Ihe equaIioh.
7. FacIor Ihe resulI usihg Ihe factor( )
!uhcIioh.
92 Activities
Exploring a Matrix
1his acIiviIy shows you how Io per!orm several maIrix operaIiohs.
Exploring a 3x3 Natrix
Per!orm Ihese sIeps Io geheraIe a rahdom maIrix, augmehI ahd !ihd Ihe
idehIiIy maIrix, ahd Iheh solve Io !ihd ah ihvalid value o! Ihe ihverse.
8. MulIiply boIh sides o! Ihe equaIioh by 4a
2.

9. 1ake Ihe square rooI o! boIh sides o! Ihe
equaIioh wiIh Ihe cohsIraihI IhaI a>0 ahd
b>0 ahd x>0.
10. Solve !or x by subIracIihg b !rom boIh sides
ahd Iheh dividihg by 2a.
Note: 1his is ohly ohe o! Ihe Iwo geheral
quadraIic soluIiohs due Io Ihe cohsIraihI ih
sIep 9.
1. Oh Ihe Home screeh, use Rand5eed Io seI
Ihe rahdom humber geheraIor seed Io Ihe
!acIory de!aulI, ahd Iheh use randNat( ) Io
creaIe a rahdom 3x3 maIrix ahd sIore iI ih a.
2. Replace Ihe {2,3] elemehI o! Ihe maIrix
wiIh Ihe variable x, ahd Iheh use Ihe
augment( ) !uhcIioh, Io augmehI Ihe 3x3
idehIiIy Io a ahd sIore Ihe resulI ih b.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 20S
Logistic NAIH/5tatistics/Regressions menu
Logistic , [ , [ ] , [ ] [, , ] ]
Calculales lhe logislic regressiou aud updales all
lhe sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
speciíies lhe uaxiuuu uuuber oí liues
a soluliou will be alleupled. |í ouilled, 64 is
used. Jypically, larger values resull iu beller
accuracy bul louger execuliou liues, aud vice
versa.
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-c99
.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
|1,Z,3,4,5,6|! ¡1 ¸ |1 Z 3 .|
|1,1.3,Z.5,3.5,4.5,4.ß|! ¡Z
¸
|1 1.3 Z.5 .|
¡oç1sl1c ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
¸
¡eçeq1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
¥ %
„9
Loop CAIALOG
Loop

EndLoop
Repealedly execules lhe slaleueuls iu . Nole
lhal lhe loop will be execuled eudlessly, uuless a
Goto or Exit iuslrucliou is execuled wilhiu .
is a sequeuce oí slaleueuls separaled wilh
lhe "." characler.
Prograu segueul.
©
:1! 1
:¡oop
: Rand16;! d1e1
: Rand16;! d1eZ
: 11 d1e1~6 and d1eZ~6
: üolo £nd
: 1+1! 1
:£nd¡oop
:¡b! £nd
:L1sp "Tle nunbe¡ o1 ¡o!!s 1s", 1
©
204 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
Local CAIALOG
Local [, ] [, ] ...
0eclares lhe speciíied as local variables.
Jhose variables exisl ouly duriug evalualiou oí a
prograu or íuucliou aud are deleled wheu lhe
prograu or íuucliou íiuishes execuliou.
Ncte: Local variables save ueuory because lhey
ouly exisl leuporarily. ^lso, lhey do uol dislurb
auy exisliug global variable values. Local
variables uusl be used íor For loops aud íor
leuporarily saviug values iu a uulli·liue íuucliou
siuce uodiíicalious ou global variables are uol
allowed iu a íuucliou.
Prograu lisliug.
:p¡çnnane1;
:P¡çn
:¡oca! x,y
:1npul "£nle¡ x",x
:1npul "£nle¡ y",y
:L1sp xùy
:£ndP¡çn
Ncte: aud do uol exisl aíler lhe prograu
execules.
Lock CAIALOG
Lock [, ¦ ...
Locks lhe speciíied variables. Jhis preveuls you
írou accideulally deleliug or chaugiug lhe
variable wilhoul íirsl usiug lhe uulock iuslrucliou
ou lhal variable.
|u lhe exauple lo lhe righl, lhe variable L1 is
locked aud cauuol be deleled or uodiíied.
Ncte: Jhe variables cau be uulocked usiug lhe
Unlock couuaud.
|1,Z,3,4|! ¡1 ¸ |1,Z,3,4|
¡ock ¡1 ¸ Lone
Le!\a¡ ¡1 ¸
£¡¡o¡:\a¡1ab!e1s!ocked o¡ p¡olecled
log() CAIALOG
log( )
log( )
Relurus lhe base·10 logarilhu oí lhe arguueul.
|or a lisl, relurus lhe base·10 logs oí lhe
eleueuls.
!oç1Z.0; ¸ .301...
|í couplex íorual uode is RLAL.
!oç1|ë3,1.Z,5|; ¸
£¡¡o¡: lon·¡ea! ¡esu!l
|í couplex íorual uode is RLC1ANGULAR.
!oç1|ë3,1.Z,5|; ¸
|
!n13;
!n110;
+
p
!n110;
ø .079...
!n15;
!n110;
|
log( )
Relurus lhe ualrix base·10 logarilhu oí
. Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug
lhe base·10 logarilhu oí each eleueul. |or
iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou uelhod, reíer
lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode aud Reclaugular
couplex íorual uode.
!oç1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸; ¸
.795.+.753.ø .003.ì .647.ø .
.194.ì .315.ø .46Z.+.Z70ø .
ë.115.ì .904.ø .4ßß.+.777.ø .
Activities 9J
Exploring cos(x) = sin(x)
1his acIiviIy uses Iwo meIhods Io !ihd where cos(x) = sin(x) !or Ihe
values o! x beIweeh 0 ahd 3 .
Nethod 1: Graph Plot
Per!orm Ihe !ollowihg sIeps Io observe where Ihe graphs o! Ihe
!uhcIiohs y1(x)=cos(x) ahd y2(x)=sin(x) ihIersecI.
3. Use rref( ) to "row reduce" maIrix b:
1he resulI will have Ihe idehIiIy maIrix ih
Ihe !irsI Ihree columhs ahd a^ 1 ih Ihe lasI
Ihree columhs.
Note: Use Ihe cursor ih Ihe hisIory area Io
scroll Ihe resulI.
4. Solve !or Ihe value o! x IhaI will cause Ihe
ihverse o! Ihe maIrix Io be ihvalid.
LhIer:
solve(getDenom( {1,4] )=0,x)
ResulI: x= 70/17
Note: Use Ihe cursor ih Ihe hisIory area Io
scroll Ihe resulI.
1. Ih Ihe Y= Editor, seI y1(x)=cos(x) ahd
2(x)=sin(x).
2. Ih Ihe Window Editor, seI xmin=0 ahd
xmax=3 .
3. Press ahd selecI A:ZoomFit.
4. Fihd Ihe ihIersecIioh poihI o! Ihe Iwo
!uhcIiohs.
Note: Press ahd selecI 5:lntersection.
Respohd Io Ihe screeh prompIs Io selecI Ihe
Iwo curves, ahd Ihe lower ahd upper
bouhds !or ihIersecIioh A.
5. NoIe Ihe x ahd y coordihaIes. (RepeaI sIeps
4 ahd 5 Io !ihd Ihe oIher ihIersecIiohs.)
94 Activities
Nethod 2: 5ymbolic Nanipulation
Per!orm Ihe !ollowihg sIeps Io solve Ihe equaIioh sin(x)=cos(x) wiIh
respecI Io x.
Finding Minimum 5urface Area of a Parallelepiped
1his acIiviIy shows you how Io !ihd Ihe mihimum sur!ace area o! a
parallelepiped havihg a cohsIahI volume V. DeIailed ih!ormaIioh abouI
Ihe sIeps used ih Ihis example cah be !ouhd ih Symbolic Manipulation
ahd JD Craphing.
Exploring a 3D Graph of the 5urface Area of a
Parallelepiped
Per!orm Ihe !ollowihg sIeps Io de!ihe a !uhcIioh !or Ihe sur!ace area o! a
parallelepiped, draw a 3D graph, ahd use Ihe Irace Iool Io !ihd a poihI
close Io Ihe mihimum sur!ace area.
1. Oh Ihe Home screeh, ehIer solve(sin(x)=
cos(x),x).
1he soluIioh !or x is where ©n1 is ahy
ihIeger.
2. Usihg Ihe ceiling( ) ahd floor( ) !uhcIiohs,
!ihd Ihe ceilihg ahd !loor values !or Ihe
ihIersecIioh poihIs as showh.
Note: Move Ihe cursor ihIo Ihe hisIory area
Io highlighI Ihe lasI ahswer. Press Io
copy Ihe resulI o! Ihe geheral soluIioh.
3. LhIer Ihe geheral soluIioh !or x ahd apply
Ihe cohsIraihI !or ©n1 as showh.
Compare Ihe resulI wiIh MeIhod 1.
Note: 1o geI Ihe with operaIor:
1. Oh Ihe Home screeh, de!ihe Ihe !uhcIioh
sa(x,y,v) !or Ihe sur!ace area o! a
parallelepiped.
LhIer: define sa(x,y,v)=2 x y + 2v/x+2v/y
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 20J
ln() @ 2 x key H x key
ln( )
ln( )
Relurus lhe ualural logarilhu oí lhe arguueul.
|or a lisl, relurus lhe ualural logarilhus oí lhe
eleueuls.
!n1Z.0; ¸ .693...
|í couplex íorual uode is RLAL.
!n1|ë3,1.Z,5|; ¸
£¡¡o¡: lon·¡ea! ¡esu!l
|í couplex íorual uode is RLC1ANGULAR.
!n1|ë3,1.Z,5|; ¸
|!n13; + pø .1ßZ... !n15;|
ln( )
Relurus lhe ualrix ualural logarilhu oí
. Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug
lhe ualural logarilhu oí each eleueul. |or
iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou uelhod, reíer
lo cos() ou.
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode aud Reclaugular
couplex íorual uode.
!n1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸; ¸
1.ß31.+1.734.ø .009.ì 1.490.ø .
.44ß.ì .7Z5.ø 1.064.+.6Z3ø .
ë.Z66.ì Z.0ß3.ø 1.1Z4.+1.790.ø .
LnReg NAIH/5tatistics/Regressions menu
LnReg , [, [ ] [, , ]]
Calculales lhe logarilhuic regressiou aud updales
all lhe sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-
c99.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
|1,Z,3,4,5,6,7,ß|! ¡1 ¸
|1 Z 3 ...|
|1,Z,Z,3,3,3,4,4|! ¡Z ¸
|1 Z Z ...|
¡nReç ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
¸
Reçeq1x;" y11x; ¸ Lone
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
¥ %
202 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
LineVert CAIALOG
LineVert [, ]
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud draws, erases, or
iuverls a verlical liue al wiudow posiliou .
|í = 1, draws lhe liue (deíaull).
|í = 0, lurus oíí lhe liue.
|í = ë1, lurus a liue lhal is ou lo oíí or
oíí lo ou (iuverls pixels aloug lhe liue).
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus. See
also PxlVert.
|u a ZoomSId wiudow.
¡1ne\e¡l ëZ.5 ¸
LinReg NAIH/5tatistics/Regressions menu
LinReg , [, [ ] [, , ]]
Calculales lhe liuear regressiou aud updales all
lhe sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
|0,1,Z,3,4,5,6|! ¡1 ¸
|0 1 Z ...|
|0,Z,3,4,3,4,6|! ¡Z ¸
|0 Z 3 ...|
¡1nReç ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-
c99.
¸
Reçeq1x;" y11x; ¸ Lone
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
¥ %
@list() NAIH/List menu
list( )
Relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe diííereuces belweeu
couseculive eleueuls iu . Each eleueul oí
is sublracled írou lhe uexl eleueul oí . Jhe
resulliug lisl is always oue eleueul shorler lhau
lhe origiual .
@!+1'|.Û.´Û.4'./Û|· ¸
|1Û.1'..'|
list4mat() NAIH/List menu
list4mat( [, ])
Relurus a ualrix íilled row·by·row wilh lhe
eleueuls írou .
, ií iucluded, speciíies lhe uuuber
oí eleueuls per row. 0eíaull is lhe uuuber oí
eleueuls iu (oue row).
|í does uol íill lhe resulliug ualrix, zeros are
added.
!1sl4nal1|1,Z,3|; ¸ j1 Z 3¸
!1sl4nal1|1,Z,3,4,5|,Z; ¸
1 Z
3 4
5 0
Activities 9S
Finding the Ninimum 5urface Area Analytically
Per!orm Ihe !ollowihg sIeps Io solve Ihe problem ahalyIically oh Ihe
Home screeh.
kunning a 7utorial 5cript Using the 7ext Editor
1his acIiviIy shows you how Io use Ihe Iext Editor Io ruh a IuIorial
scripI.
2. SelecI Ihe 3D Graph mode. 1heh ehIer Ihe
!uhcIioh !or z1(x,y) as showh ih Ihis
example wiIh volume v=300.
3. SeI Ihe Wihdow variables Io:
eye= {60,90,0]
x= {0,15,15]
y= {0,15,15]
z= {260,300]
ncontour= {5]
4. Graph Ihe !uhcIioh ahd use Irace Io go Io
Ihe poihI close Io Ihe mihimum value o! Ihe
sur!ace area !uhcIioh.
1. Solve !or x ahd y ih Ierms o! v.
LhIer: solve(d(sa(x,y,v),x)=0 ahd
d(sa(x,y,v),y)=0,{x,yJ)
2. Fihd Ihe mihimum sur!ace area wheh Ihe
value o! v equals 300.
LhIer: 300 v
LhIer: sa(v^(1/3), v^(1/3),v)
Note: Press Io obIaih Ihe exacI resulI
ih symbolic !orm. Press Io obIaih
Ihe approximaIe resulI ih decimal !orm.
96 Activities
Running a Iutorial 5cript
Per!orm Ihe !ollowihg sIeps Io wriIe a scripI usihg Ihe Iext Editor, IesI
each lihe, ahd observe Ihe resulIs ih Ihe hisIory area oh Ihe Home screeh.
Note: 1he commahd symbol C is accessed !rom Ihe 1:Command
Ioolbar mehu.
2. 1ype Ihe !ollowihg lihes ihIo Ihe Iext Editor.
1. Opeh Ihe Iext Editor, ahd creaIe a
hew variable hamed demo1.
C
C
C
C
C
C
: CompuIe Ihe maximum value o! ! oh Ihe closed ihIerval [a,b]
: assume IhaI ! is di!!erehIiable oh [a,b]
: de!ihe !(x)=x^3 2x^2+x 7
: 1 a:3.22 b
: d(!(x),x) d!(x)
: zeros(d!(x),x)
: !(ahs(1))
: !([a,b})
: 1he largesI humber !rom Ihe previous Iwo commahds is Ihe
maximum value o! Ihe !uhcIioh. 1he smallesI humber is Ihe
mihimum value.
3. Press ahd selecI 1:5cript view Io show
Ihe Iext Editor ahd Ihe Home screeh oh a
spliI-screeh. Move Ihe cursor Io Ihe !irsI lihe
ih Ihe Iext Editor.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 201
limit() uses uelhods such as L'hopilal's rule, so
lhere are uuique liuils lhal il cauuol deleruiue. |í
coulaius uudeíiued variables olher
lhau , you uighl have lo couslraiu lheu lo
oblaiu a uore coucise resull.
Liuils cau be very seusilive lo rouudiug error.
wheu possible, avoid lhe APPROX selliug oí lhe
LxacI/Approx uode aud approxiuale uuubers
wheu coupuliug liuils. 0lherwise, liuils lhal
should be zero or have iuíiuile uaguilude
probably will uol, aud liuils lhal should have
íiuile uou·zero uaguilude uighl uol.
!1n1l1a^x,x,ˆ; ¸ unde1
!1n1l1a^x,x,ˆ;|a`1 ¸ ˆ
!1n1l1a^x,x,ˆ;|a`0 and a´1
¸ 0
Line CAIALOG
Line , , , [, ]
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud draws, erases, or
iuverls a liue segueul belweeu lhe wiudow
coordiuales ( , ) aud ( , ),
iucludiug bolh eudpoiuls.
|í = 1, draws lhe liue (deíaull).
|í = 0, lurus oíí lhe liue.
|í = ë1, lurus a liue lhal is ou lo oíí or
oíí lo ou (iuverls pixels aloug lhe liue).
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus. See
also PxlLine.
|u lhe ZoomSId wiudow, draw a liue aud lheu
erase il.
¡1ne 0,0,6,9 ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
¡1ne 0,0,6,9,0 ¸
LineHorz CAIALOG
LineHorz [, ]
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud draws, erases, or
iuverls a horizoulal liue al wiudow posiliou .
|í = 1, draws lhe liue (deíaull).
|í = 0, lurus oíí lhe liue.
|í = ë1, lurus a liue lhal is ou lo oíí or
oíí lo ou (iuverls pixels aloug lhe liue).
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus. See
also PxlHorz.
|u a ZoomSId wiudow.
¡1neho¡z Z.5 ¸
LineIan CAIALOG
LineIan ,
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud draws a liue
laugeul lo al lhe poiul speciíied.
is au expressiou or lhe uaue oí a
íuucliou, where x is assuued lo be lhe
iudepeudeul variable, aud is lhe x
value oí lhe poiul lhal is laugeul.
Ncte. |u lhe exauple showu, is
graphed separalely. LineIan does uol graph
|u íuucliou graphiug uode aud a Zoom1rig
wiudow.
ü¡apl cos1x;
@ "
H ¥ "
¡1neTan cos1x;,p14 ¸
200 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
lcm() NAIH/Number menu
lcm( , )
lcm( , )
lcm( , )
Relurus lhe leasl couuou uulliple oí lhe lwo
arguueuls. Jhe lcm oí lwo íraclious is lhe lcm
oí lheir uuueralors divided by lhe gcd oí lheir
deuouiualors. Jhe lcm oí íraclioual íloaliug·
poiul uuubers is lheir producl.
|or lwo lisls or ualrices, relurus lhe leasl
couuou uulliples oí lhe correspoudiug eleueuls.
!cn16,9; ¸ 1ß
!cn1|113,ë14,16|,|Z115,7,5|;
¸
|Z13 14 ß0|
left() NAIH/5tring menu
left( [, ])
Relurus lhe leíluosl characlers coulaiued iu
characler slriug .
|í you ouil , relurus all oí .
!e1l1"he!!o",Z; ¸ "he"
left( [, ])
Relurus lhe leíluosl eleueuls coulaiued iu
.
|í you ouil , relurus all oí .
!e1l1|1,3,ëZ,4|,3; ¸
|1 3 ëZ|
left( )
Relurus lhe leíl·haud side oí au equaliou or
iuequalily.
!e1l1x´3; ¸ x
limit() NAIH/Calculus menu
limit( , , [, ])
limit( , , [, ])
limit( , , [, ])
Relurus lhe liuil requesled.
. uegalive=írou leíl, posilive=írou righl,
olherwise=bolh. (|í ouilled, deíaulls lo
bolh.)
!1n1l1Zx+3,x,5; ¸ 13
!1n1l111x,x,0,1; ¸ ˆ
!1n1l1s1n1x;1x,x,0; ¸ 1
!1n1l11s1n1x+l;-s1n1x;;1l,l,0;
¸
cos1x;
!1n1l111+11n;^n,n,ˆ; ¸
Liuils al posilive ˆ aud al uegalive ˆ are always
couverled lo oue·sided liuils írou lhe íiuile side.
0epeudiug ou lhe circuuslauces, limit() relurus
ilselí or uhde! wheu il cauuol deleruiue a uuique
liuil. Jhis does uol uecessarily ueau lhal a
uuique liuil does uol exisl. uhde! ueaus lhal lhe
resull is eilher au uukuowu uuuber wilh íiuile or
iuíiuile uaguilude, or il is lhe eulire sel oí such
uuubers.
Activities 97
Decomposing a kational Function
1his acIiviIy examihes whaI happehs wheh a raIiohal !uhcIioh is
decomposed ihIo a quoIiehI ahd remaihder. DeIailed ih!ormaIioh abouI
Ihe sIeps used ih Ihis example cah be !ouhd ih 8asic Function Craphing
ahd Symbolic Manipulation.
Decomposing a Rational Function
1o examihe Ihe decomposiIioh o! Ihe raIiohal !uhcIioh
f(x)=(x
3
10x
2
x+50)/(x 2) oh a graph:
4. Press repeaIedly Io execuIe each lihe ih
Ihe scripI ohe aI a Iime.
Note: Press ahd selecI 2:Clear split Io go
back Io a !ull-sized Iext Editor screeh.
5. 1o see Ihe resulIs o! Ihe scripI oh a !ull-sized
screeh, go Io Ihe Home screeh.
Note: Press Iwice Io display Ihe
Home screeh.
1. Oh Ihe Home screeh, ehIer Ihe raIiohal
!uhcIioh as showh below ahd sIore iI ih a
!uhcIioh f(x).
LhIer: (x^3 10x^2 x+50)/(x 2) f(x)
Note: AcIual ehIries are displayed ih
reverse Iype ih Ihe example screehs.
2. Use Ihe proper !racIioh !uhcIioh (propFrac)
Io spliI Ihe !uhcIioh ihIo a quoIiehI ahd
remaihder.
98 Activities
3. Copy Ihe lasI ahswer Io Ihe ehIry lihe.
-or-
LhIer: 16/(x 2)+x^2 8 x 17
Note: Move Ihe cursor ihIo Ihe hisIory area
Io highlighI Ihe lasI ahswer. Press Io
copy iI Io Ihe ehIry lihe.
4. LdiI Ihe lasI ahswer ih Ihe ehIry lihe. SIore
Ihe remaihder Io y1(x) ahd Ihe quoIiehI Io
y2(x) as showh.
LhIer: 16/(x 2) y1(x): x^2 8 x 17 y2(x)
5. Ih Ihe Y= Editor, selecI Ihe Ihick graphihg
sIyle !or y2(x).
6. Add Ihe origihal !uhcIioh f(x) Io y3(x) ahd
selecI Ihe square graphihg sIyle.
7. Ih Ihe Window Editor, seI Ihe wihdow
variables Io:
x= { 10,15,10]
y= { 100,100,10]
8. Draw Ihe graph.
Note: 8e sure Ihe Graph mode is seI Io
FuhcIioh.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 199
iPart() NAIH/Number menu
iPart( )
iPart( )
iPart( )
Relurus lhe iuleger parl oí lhe arguueul.
|or lisls aud ualrices, relurus lhe iuleger parl oí
each eleueul.
Jhe arguueul cau be a real or a couplex uuuber.
1Pa¡l1ë1.Z34; ¸ ë1.
1Pa¡l1|31Z,ëZ.3,7.003|; ¸
|1 ëZ. 7.|

isClkOn() CAIALOG
isClkOn()
0eleruiues ií lhe clock is ON or OFF. Relurus
Irue ií lhe clock is ON. Relurus !alse ií lhe clock
is OFF.

isPrime() NAIH/Iest menu
isPrime( )
Relurus lrue or íalse lo iudicale ií is a
whole uuuber ‚ 2 lhal is eveuly divisible ouly by
ilselí aud 1.
|í exceeds aboul 306 digils aud has uo
íaclors 1021, isPrime( ) displays au error
uessage.
|í you uerely waul lo deleruiue ií is
priue, use isPrime() iuslead oí factor(). |l is
uuch íasler, parlicularly ií is uol priue
aud has a secoud·largesl íaclor lhal exceeds
aboul íive digils.
1sP¡1ne15; ¸ l¡ue
1sP¡1ne16; ¸ 1a!se
|uucliou lo íiud lhe uexl priue aíler a
speciíied uuuber.
Le11ne nexlP¡1n1n;~!unc:¡oop:
n+1! n:11 1sP¡1ne1n;:¡elu¡n n:
£nd¡oop:£nd!unc ¸ Lone
nexlP¡1n17; ¸ 11
ltem CAIALOG
ltem
ltem ,
valid ouly wilhiu a Custom...EndCustm or
IoolBar...EndIBar block. Sels up a drop·dowu
ueuu eleueul lo lel you pasle lexl lo lhe cursor
posiliou (Custom) or brauch lo a label
(IoolBar).
Ncte: Brauchiug lo a label is uol allowed wilhiu
a Custom block.
See Custom exauple.
Lbl CAIALOG
Lbl
0eíiues a label wilh lhe uaue iu lhe
prograu.
You cau use a Goto iuslrucliou lo
lrausíer prograu coulrol lo lhe iuslrucliou
iuuedialely íollowiug lhe label.
uusl ueel lhe saue uauiug
requireueuls as a variable uaue.
Prograu segueul.
©
:¡b! !b!1
:1npulSl¡ "£nle¡ passwo¡d",
sl¡1
:11 sl¡1ƒpasswo¡d
: üolo !b!1
:L1sp "we!cone lo ..."
©
198 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
lnput [ ,]
lnput | ¦, pauses lhe prograu,
displays ou lhe Prograu |/0 screeu,
wails íor you lo euler au expressiou, aud slores
lhe expressiou iu variable .
|í you ouil , "1" is displayed as a
proupl.
Prograu segueul.
©
:!o¡ 1,1,9,1
: "£nle¡ x" ¿ sl¡1nç11;! sl¡1
: 1npul sl¡1,]1¡1çll1sl¡1,Z;;
:£nd!o¡
©
lnput5tr CAIALOG
lnput5tr [ ,]
Pauses lhe prograu, displays ou lhe
Prograu |/0 screeu, wails íor you lo euler a
respouse, aud slores your respouse as a slriug iu
variable .
|í you ouil , "1" is displayed as a
proupl.
Ncte: Jhe diííereuce belweeu lnput aud
lnput5tr is lhal lnput5tr always slores lhe
resull as a slriug so lhal " " are uol required.
Prograu segueul.
©
:1npulSl¡ "£nle¡ \ou¡ lane",sl¡1
©
in5tring() NAIH/5tring menu
in5tring( , [, ])
Relurus lhe characler posiliou iu slriug al
which lhe íirsl occurreuce oí slriug
begius.
, ií iucluded, speciíies lhe characler posiliou
wilhiu where lhe search begius. 0eíaull
= 1 (lhe íirsl characler oí ).
|í does uol coulaiu or is >
lhe leuglh oí , relurus zero.
1nSl¡1nç1"he!!o lle¡e","lle";
¸ 7
"AßC£!ü"! s1:11 1nSl¡1nç1s1,
"L";~0:L1sp "L nol 1ound."
¸
L nol 1ound.
int() CAIALOG
int( )
int( )
int( )
Relurus lhe grealesl iuleger lhal is less lhau or
equal lo lhe arguueul. Jhis íuucliou is ideulical
lo floor().
Jhe arguueul cau be a real or a couplex uuuber.
|or a lisl or ualrix, relurus lhe grealesl iuleger oí
each oí lhe eleueuls.
1nl1ëZ.5; ¸ ë3.
1nl1j·1.Z34,0,0.37¸; ¸
j·Z. 0 0.¸
intDiv() CAIALOG
intDiv( , )
intDiv( , )
intDiv( , )
Relurus lhe sigued iuleger parl oí arguueul 1
divided by arguueul 2.
|or lisls aud ualrices relurus lhe sigued iuleger
parl oí arguueul 1 divided by arguueul 2 íor
each eleueul pair.
1nlL1v1ë7,Z; ¸ ë3
1nlL1v14,5; ¸ 0
1nlL1v1|1Z,ë14,ë16|,|5,4,ë3|;
¸
|Z ë3 5|
integrate See ‰(), page 272.
Activities 99
Observe IhaI Ihe global behavior o! Ihe f(x) !uhcIioh is basically
represehIed by Ihe quadraIic quoIiehI y2(x). 1he raIiohal expressioh is
basically a quadraIic !uhcIioh as x geIs very large ih boIh Ihe posiIive ahd
hegaIive direcIiohs.
5tudying 5tatistics: Filtering Data by Categories
1his acIiviIy provides a sIaIisIical sIudy o! Ihe weighIs o! high school
sIudehIs usihg caIegories Io !ilIer Ihe daIa.
Filtering Data by Categories
Lach sIudehI is placed ihIo ohe o! eighI caIegories depehdihg oh Ihe
sIudehI's sex ahd academic year (!reshmah, sophomore, |uhior, or sehior).
1he daIa (weighI ih pouhds) ahd respecIive caIegories are ehIered ih Ihe
Data/Natrix Editor.
1he lower graph is y3(x)=f(x) graphed
separaIely usihg Ihe lihe sIyle.
Iable 1: Category vs. Description
CaIegory (C2) Academic Year ahd Sex
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Freshmah boys
Freshmah girls
Sophomore boys
Sophomore girls
1uhior boys
1uhior girls
Sehior boys
Sehior girls
100 Activities
Per!orm Ihe !ollowihg sIeps Io compare Ihe weighI o! high school
sIudehIs Io Iheir year ih school.
Iable 2: C1 (weight of each student in pounds) vs. C2 (category)
C1 C2 C1 C2 C1 C2 C1 C2
110
125
105
120
140
85
80
90
80
95
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
115
135
110
130
150
90
95
85
100
95
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
130
145
140
145
165
100
105
115
110
120
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
145
160
165
170
190
110
115
125
120
125
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
1. SIarI Ihe Data/Natrix Editor, ahd creaIe a
hew DaIa variable hamed students.
2. LhIer Ihe daIa ahd caIegories !rom 1able 2
ihIo columhs c1 ahd c2, respecIively.
3. Opeh Ihe Plot 5etup Ioolbar mehu.
Note: SeI up several box ploIs Io compare
di!!erehI subseIs o! Ihe ehIire daIa seI.
4. De!ihe Ihe ploI ahd !ilIer parameIers !or
Plot 1 as showh ih Ihis screeh.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 197
lf Ihen
Else
Endlf
|í evaluales lo lrue, execules
aud lheu skips .
|í evaluales lo íalse, skips
bul execules .
aud cau be a siugle slaleueul.
Prograu segueul.
©
:11 x´0 Tlen
: L1sp "x 1s neçal1ve"
: £!se
: L1sp "x 1s pos1l1ve o¡
ze¡o"
:£nd11
©
lf Ihen

Elself Ihen

©
Elself Ihen

Endlf
^llows íor prograu brauchiug. |í
evaluales lo lrue, execules . |í
evaluales lo íalse, evaluales
, elc.
Prograu segueul.
©
:11 clo1ce~1 Tlen
: üolo opl1on1
: £!se11 clo1ce~Z Tlen
: üolo opl1onZ
: £!se11 clo1ce~3 Tlen
: üolo opl1on3
: £!se11 clo1ce~4 Tlen
: L1sp "£x1l1nç P¡oç¡an"
: Relu¡n
:£nd11
©
imag() NAIH/Complex menu
imag( )
imag( ) relurus lhe iuagiuary parl oí
lhe arguueul.
Ncte: ^ll uudeíiued variables are lrealed as real
variables. See also real().
1naç11+Z ; ¸ Z
1naç1z; ¸ 0
1naç1x+ y; ¸ y
imag( )
Relurus a lisl oí lhe iuagiuary parls oí lhe
eleueuls.
1naç1|ë3,4ë , |; ¸ |0 ë1 1|
imag( )
Relurus a ualrix oí lhe iuagiuary parls oí lhe
eleueuls.
1naç1ja,b, c, d¸· ¸ j
0 0
c d
¸
lndirection See #(), page 273.
lnput CAIALOG
lnput
Pauses lhe prograu, displays lhe curreul Craph
screeu, aud lels you updale variables aud
(also aud q íor polar coordiuale uode) by
posiliouiug lhe graph cursor.
wheu you press ¸ , lhe prograu resuues.
Prograu segueul.
©
:¦ üel 10 po1nls 1¡on lle ü¡apl
Sc¡een
:!o¡ 1,1,10
: 1npul
: xc! 7¡1STj1¸
: yc! \¡1STj1¸
:£nd!o¡
©
196 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
Soue valid varialious oí lhis iuslrucliou are.
|uucliou graphiug Graph ,
Parauelric graphiug Graph , ,
Polar graphiug Graph , q
Sequeuce graphiug Nol allowed.
30 graphiug Graph , ,
0iíí Equalious graphiug Nol allowed.
Ncte: use ClrGraph lo clear lhese íuuclious, or
go lo lhe Y= Edilor lo re·euable lhe sysleu Y=
íuuclious.
|u 30 graphiug uode.
ü¡apl 1v^Z ì w^Z;14,v,w ¸
4Hex NAIH/Base menu
4Hex
Couverls lo a hexadeciual uuuber.
Biuary or hexadeciual uuubers always have a 0b
or 0h preíix, respeclively.
Z56 4hex ¸ 0l100
0b111100001111 4hex ¸ 0l!0!
0b
0h
wilhoul a preíix, is lrealed as deciual
(base 10). Jhe resull is displayed iu hexadeciual,
regardless oí lhe 8ase uode.
|í you euler a deciual iuleger lhal is loo large íor
a sigued, 32·bil biuary íoru, a syuuelric uodulo
operaliou is used lo briug lhe value iulo lhe
appropriale rauge.
identity() NAIH/Natrix menu
identity( )
Relurus lhe ideulily ualrix wilh a diueusiou oí
.
uusl evaluale lo a posilive iuleger.
1denl1ly14; ¸
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
lf CAIALOG
lf lf Ihen

Endlf
|í evaluales lo lrue, execules
lhe siugle slaleueul or lhe block oí
slaleueuls beíore couliuuiug execuliou.
|í evaluales lo íalse, couliuues
execuliou wilhoul execuliug lhe slaleueul or
block oí slaleueuls.
cau be eilher a siugle slaleueul or a
sequeuce oí slaleueuls separaled wilh lhe "."
characler.
Prograu segueul.
©
:11 x´0
:L1sp "x 1s neçal1ve"
©
¬or¬
©
:11 x´0 Tlen
: L1sp "x 1s neçal1ve"
: abs1x;! x
:£nd11
©
A binary number can have up to
32 digits. A hexadecimal number
can have up to 8.
Zero, not the letter O, followed by b or h.
Activities 101
5. Copy Plot 1 Io Plot 2.
6. RepeaI sIep 5 ahd copy Plot 1 Io Plot 3,
Plot 4, ahd Plot 5.
7. Press , ahd modi!y Ihe lnclude
Categories iIem !or Plot 2 Ihrough Plot 5
Io Ihe !ollowihg:
Plot 2: {1,2J
(!reshmah boys, girls)
Plot 3: {7,8J
(sehior boys, girls)
Plot 4: {1,3,5,7J
(all boys)
Plot 5: {2,4,6,8J
(all girls)
8. Ih Ihe Y= Editor, deselecI ahy !uhcIiohs
IhaI may be selecIed !rom a previous
acIiviIy.
Note: Ohly Plot 1 Ihrough Plot 5 should be
selecIed.
9. Display Ihe ploIs by pressihg ahd
selecIihg 9:Zoomdata.
102 Activities
C8L 2¹ Program for the 7l-89 7itanium
1his acIiviIy provides a program IhaI cah be used wheh Ihe 1I-89
1iIahium is cohhecIed Io a CalculaIor-8ased LaboraIory¹ (C8L 2¹) uhiI.
1his program works wiIh Ihe "NewIoh's Law o! Coolihg" experimehI,
ahd is similar Io Ihe "Co!!ee 1o Go" experimehI ih Ihe C8L System
Lxperiment Workbook. You cah use your compuIer keyboard Io Iype
lehgIhy IexI ahd Iheh use 1I CohhecI¹ so!Iware Io sehd iI Io Ihe
calculaIor. More C8L 2¹ programs are available !rom Ihe 1I Web siIe aI
educaIoh.Ii.com.
10. Use Ihe Irace Iool Io compare Ihe mediah
sIudehI weighIs !or di!!erehI subseIs.
mediah, all sIudehIs
all sIudehIs
all !reshmeh
all sehiors
all boys
all girls
Program lnstruction Description
:coolIemp( ) Program hame
:Prgm
:Local i Declare local variable, exisIs ohly aI
ruh Iime.
:seIMode("Graph","FUNC1ION") SeI up Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium !or
!uhcIioh graphihg.
:PloIsO!! 1urh o!! ahy previous ploIs.
:FhO!! 1urh o!! ahy previous !uhcIiohs.
:ClrDraw Clear ahy iIems previously drawh oh
graph screehs.
:ClrGraph Clear ahy previous graphs.
:ClrIO Clear Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium Program IO
(ihpuI/ouIpuI) screeh.
: 10 xmih:99 xmax:10 xscl SeI up Ihe Wihdow variables.
: 20 ymih:100 ymax:10 yscl
:[0} daIa CreaIe ahd/or clear a lisI hamed daIa.
:[0} Iime CreaIe ahd/or clear a lisI hamed Iime.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 19S
getUnits() CAIALOG
getUnits()
Relurus a lisl oí slriugs lhal coulaiu lhe curreul
deíaull uuils íor all calegories excepl couslauls,
leuperalure, auouul oí subslauce, luuiuous
iuleusily, aud acceleraliou. has lhe íoru.
}" " " " " " " " " " .}
Jhe íirsl slriug gives lhe sysleu (SI, LNG/US, or
CUS1OM). Subsequeul pairs oí slriugs give a
calegory (such as Leuglh) aud ils deíaull uuil
(such as _u íor uelers).
Jo sel lhe deíaull uuils, use setUnits().
çelLn1ls1; ¸
|"S1" "A¡ea" "l0l£"
"Capac1lance" "_!"
"Cla¡çe" "_cou!"
. |
Ncte: Your screeu uay display diííereul
deíaull uuils.
Goto CAIALOG
Goto
Jrausíers prograu coulrol lo lhe label .
uusl be deíiued iu lhe saue prograu
usiug a Lbl iuslrucliou.
Prograu segueul.
©
:0! lenp
:1! 1
:¡b! T0P
: lenp+1! lenp
: 11 1´10 Tlen
: 1+1! 1
: üolo T0P
: £nd11
:L1sp lenp
©
Graph CAIALOG
Graph |, ¦ |, ¦ |, ¦
Jhe SmarI Graph íealure graphs lhe requesled
expressious/ íuuclious usiug lhe curreul graphiug
uode.
Expressious eulered usiug lhe Graph or Iable
couuauds are assigued iucreasiug íuucliou
uuubers slarliug wilh 1. Jhey cau be uodiíied or
iudividually deleled usiug lhe edil íuuclious
available wheu lhe lable is displayed by pressiug
_Header. Jhe curreully selecled Y= íuuclious
are iguored.
|í you ouil au oplioual arguueul, Graph uses
lhe iudepeudeul variable oí lhe curreul graphiug
uode.
Ncte: Nol all oplioual arguueuls are valid iu all
uodes because you cau uever have all íour
arguueuls al lhe saue liue.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode aud ZoomSId
wiudow.
ü¡apl 1.Z5aùcos1a;,a ¸
|u parauelric graphiug uode aud ZoomSId
wiudow.
ü¡apl
l1ne,Zcos1l1ne;1l1ne,l1ne ¸
194 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
getIm5tr() CAIALOG
getIm5tr([ ¦)
Relurus a slriug oí lhe curreul clock liue iu lhe
curreul liue íorual.
|í you euler lhe oplioual iuleger lhal correspouds
lo a clock liue íorual, lhe slriug relurus lhe
curreul liue iu lhe speciíied íorual.
0plioual iuleger values.
1. ¬ 1. l0u· ·!0·¹
.4 ¬ .4 l0u· ·!0·¹

getImZn() CAIALOG
getImZn()
Relurus au iuleger represeuliug lhe liue zoue
lhal is curreully sel ou lhe device.
Jhe relurued iuleger represeuls lhe uuuber oí
uiuules lhe liue zoue is oíísel írou Creeuwich
Meau Jiue (CMJ), as eslablished iu Creeuwich,
Euglaud. |or exauple, ií lhe liue zoue is oíísel
írou CMJ by lwo hours, lhe device would reluru
120 (uiuules).
|ulegers íor liue zoues wesl oí CMJ are
uegalive.
|ulegers íor liue zoues easl oí CMJ are posilive.
|í Creeuwich Meau Jiue is 14.07.07, il is.
8.07.07 a.u. iu 0euver, Colorado (Mouulaiu
0aylighl Jiue)
(-360 uiuules írou CMJ)
16.07.07 p.u. iu Brussels, Belgiuu (Ceulral
Europeau Slaudard Jiue)
(+120 uiuules írou CMJ)

getIype() CAIALOG
getIype( )
Relurus a slriug iudicaliug lhe dala lype oí
variable .
|í has uol beeu deíiued, relurus lhe slriug
"NONL".
|1,Z,3|! lenp ¸ |1 Z 3|
çelType1lenp; ¸ "¡1ST"
Z+3 ! lenp ¸ Z + 3
çelType1lenp; ¸ "£7PR"
Le!\a¡ lenp ¸ Lone
çelType1lenp; ¸ "l0l£"
Data Iype Variable Contents
"^SM" ^sseubly·lauguage prograu
"0^J^" 0ala lype
"EXPR" Expressiou (iucludes couplex/arbilrary/uudeíiued, ˆ, ëˆ, JRuE, |^LSE, pi,
)
"|uNC" |uucliou
"C0B" Craph dala base
"L|SJ" Lisl
"M^J" Malrix
"N0NE" variable does uol exisl
"NuM" Real uuuber
"0JhER" Miscellaueous dala lype íor íulure use by soílware applicalious
"P|C" Piclure
"PRCM" Prograu
"SJR" Slriug
"JEXJ" Jexl lype
"v^R" Naue oí auolher variable
Activities 10J
You cah also use Ihe CalculaIor-8ased Rahger¹ sysIem (C8R¹) Io explore
Ihe maIhemaIical ahd sciehIi!ic relaIiohships beIweeh disIahce, velociIy,
acceleraIioh, ahd Iime usihg daIa collecIed !rom acIiviIies you per!orm.
5tudying the Flight of a Hit 8aseball
1his acIiviIy uses Ihe spliI screeh seIIihgs Io show a parameIric graph ahd
a Iable aI Ihe same Iime Io sIudy Ihe !lighI o! a hiI baseball.
:Sehd[1,0} Sehd a commahd Io clear Ihe C8L 2¹
uhiI.
:Sehd[1,2,1} SeI up Chah. 2 o! Ihe C8L 2¹ Io
AuIoID Io record Iemp.
:Disp "Press LN1LR Io sIarI" PrompI Ihe user Io press .
:Disp "graphihg1emperaIure."
:Pause WaiI uhIil Ihe user is ready Io sIarI.
:PI1exI "1LMP(C)",2,99 Label Ihe y axis o! Ihe graph.
:PI1exI "1(S)",80, 5 Label Ihe x axis o! Ihe graph.
:Sehd[3,1, 1,0} Sehd Ihe 1rigger commahd Io Ihe
C8L 2¹, collecI daIa ih real-Iime.
:For i,1,99 RepeaI hexI Iwo ihsIrucIiohs !or 99
IemperaIure readihgs.
:GeI daIa[i] GeI a IemperaIure !rom Ihe C8L 2¹
ahd sIore iI ih a lisI.
:PIOh i,daIa[i] PloI Ihe IemperaIure daIa oh a
graph.
:LhdFor
:seq(i,i,1,99,1) Iime CreaIe a lisI Io represehI Iime or
daIa sample humber.
:NewPloI 1,1,Iime,daIa,,,,4 PloI Iime ahd daIa usihg NewPloI
ahd Ihe 1race Iool.
:DispG Display Ihe graph.
:PI1exI "1LMP(C)",2,99 Re-label Ihe axes.
:PI1exI "1(S)",80, 5
:LhdPrgm SIop Ihe program.
Program lnstruction Description
104 Activities
5etting Up a Parametric Graph and Iable
Per!orm Ihe !ollowihg sIeps Io sIudy Ihe !lighI o! a hiI baseball IhaI has
ah ihiIial velociIy o! 95 !eeI per secohd ahd ah ihiIial ahgle o! 32 degrees.
1. SeI Ihe modes !or Page 1 as showh ih Ihis
screeh.
2. SeI Ihe modes !or Page 2 as showh ih Ihis
screeh.
3. Ih Ihe Y= Editor oh Ihe le!I side, ehIer Ihe
equaIioh !or Ihe disIahce o! Ihe ball aI Iime
t !or xt1(t).
xt1(t)=95 t cos(32 )
Note: Press Io obIaih Ihe degree
symbol.
4. Ih Ihe Y= Editor, ehIer Ihe equaIioh !or Ihe
heighI o! Ihe ball aI Iime I !or yt1(t).
yt1(t)= 16 t^2+95 t sin(32 )
5. SeI Ihe Wihdow variables Io:
t values= {0,4,.1]
x values= {0,300,50]
y values= {0,100,10]
6. SwiIch Io Ihe righI side ahd display Ihe
graph.
Note: Press .
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 19J
getKey() CAIALOG
getKey()
Relurus lhe key code oí lhe key pressed. Relurus
0 ií uo key is pressed.
Jhe preíix keys (shiíl ¤ , secoud íuucliou 2 ,
opliou ¥ , alpha j , aud drag ‚) are uol
recoguized by lheuselves, however, lhey uodiíy
lhe keycodes oí lhe key lhal íollows lheu. |or
exauple. ¥ Ù ƒ Ù ƒ 2 Ù .
|or a lisliug oí key codes, see ^ppeudix B.
Prograu lisliug.
:L1sp
:¡oop
: çelIey1;! key
: wl1!e key~0
: çelIey1;! key
: £ndwl1!e
: L1sp key
: 11 key ~ o¡d1"a";
: Slop
:£nd¡oop
getNode() CAIALOG
getNode( )
getNode("ALL")
|í lhe arguueul is a speciíic uode uaue, relurus
a slriug coulaiuiug lhe curreul selliug íor lhal
uode.
|í lhe arguueul is "ALL", relurus a lisl oí slriug
pairs coulaiuiug lhe selliugs oí all lhe uodes. |í
you waul lo reslore lhe uode selliugs laler, you
uusl slore lhe getNode("ALL") resull iu a
variable, aud lheu use setNode() lo reslore lhe
uodes.
|or a lisliug oí uode uaues aud possible selliugs,
see setNode().
Ncte: Jo sel or reluru iuíorualiou aboul lhe
UhiI SysIem uode, use setUnits() or getUnits()
iuslead oí setNode() or getNode().
çellode1"anç!e"; ¸ "RAL1Al"
çellode1"ç¡apl"; ¸ "!LlCT10l"
çellode1"a!!"; ¸
|"ü¡apl" "!LlCT10l"
"L1sp!ay L1ç1ls" "!¡0AT 6"
"Anç!e" "RAL1Al"
"£xponenl1a! !o¡nal" "l0RlA¡"
"Conp!ex !o¡nal" "R£A¡"
"\eclo¡ !o¡nal" "R£CTAlüL¡AR"
"P¡elly P¡1nl" "0l"
"Sp!1l Sc¡een" "!L¡¡"
"Sp!1l 1 App" "hone"
"Sp!1l Z App" "ü¡apl"
"lunbe¡ o1 ü¡apls" "1"
"ü¡apl Z" "!LlCT10l"
"Sp!1l Sc¡een Ral1o" "1,1"
"£xacl1App¡ox" "ALT0"
"ßase" "L£C"|
Ncte: Your screeu uay display diííereul
uode selliugs.
getNum() NAIH/Algebra/Extract menu
getNum( )
Jrausíorus iulo oue haviug a reduced
couuou deuouiualor, aud lheu relurus ils
uuueralor.
çellun11x+Z;11yì 3;; ¸ x + Z
çellun1Z17; ¸ Z
çellun111x+11y; ¸ x + y

getIime() CAIALOG
getIime()
Relurus a lisl giviug lhe liue accordiug lo lhe
curreul value oí lhe clock. Jhe lisl is iu
} } íorual. Jhe liue is relurued
iu lhe 24 hour íorual.

getImFmt() CAIALOG
getImFmt()
Relurus au iuleger represeuliug lhe clock liue
íorual lhal is curreully sel ou lhe device.
|uleger values.
1. ¬ 1. l0u· ·!0·¹
.4 ¬ .4 l0u· ·!0·¹

192 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
getDate() CAIALOG
getDate()
Relurus a lisl giviug lhe dale accordiug lo lhe
curreul value oí lhe clock. Jhe lisl is iu
} } íorual.
¸-1U~1-'· ¸ |.ÛÛ. . ..|

getDenom() NAIH/Algebra/Extract menu
getDenom( )
Jrausíorus iulo oue haviug a reduced
couuou deuouiualor, aud lheu relurus ils
deuouiualor.
çelLenon11x+Z;11yì 3;; ¸ y ì 3
çelLenon1Z17; ¸ 7
çelLenon111x+1y^Z+y;1y^Z; ¸
xøy

getDtFmt() CAIALOG
getDtFmt()
Relurus au iuleger represeuliug lhe dale íorual
lhal is curreully sel ou lhe device.
|uleger values.
1 ¬ ||´UU´¨¨
. ¬ UU´||´¨¨
´ ¬ ||.UU.¨¨
4 ¬ UU.||.¨¨
' ¬ ¨¨.||.UU
n ¬ ||UU¨¨
/ ¬ UU||¨¨
o ¬ ¨¨||UU

getDt5tr() CAIALOG
getDt5tr([ ¦)
Relurus a slriug oí lhe curreul dale iu lhe curreul
dale íorual. |or exauple, a relurued slriug oí
represeuls lhe 28lh day oí Sepleuber,
2002 (wheu lhe dale íorual is sel lo
DD/MM/YY).
|í you euler lhe oplioual iuleger lhal correspouds
lo a dale íorual, lhe slriug relurus lhe curreul
dale iu lhe speciíied íorual.
0plioual iuleger values.
1 ¬ ||´UU´¨¨
. ¬ UU´||´¨¨
´ ¬ ||.UU.¨¨
4 ¬ UU.||.¨¨
' ¬ ¨¨.||.UU
n ¬ ||UU¨¨
/ ¬ UU||¨¨
o ¬ ¨¨||UU

getFold() CAIALOG
getFold()
Relurus lhe uaue oí lhe curreul íolder as a slriug.
çel!o!d1; ¸ "na1n"
çel!o!d1;! o!d1o!d¡ ¸ "na1n"
o!d1o!d¡ ¸ "na1n"
Activities 10S
Optional Exercise
Assumihg Ihe same ihiIial velociIy o! 95 !eeI per secohd, !ihd Ihe ahgle
IhaI Ihe ball should be hiI Io achieve Ihe greaIesI disIahce.
Visualizing Complex Zeros of a Cubic Polynomial
1his acIiviIy describes graphihg Ihe complex zeros o! a cubic polyhomial.
Visualizing Complex Roots
Per!orm Ihe !ollowihg sIeps Io expahd Ihe cubic polyhomial
(x 1)(x i)(x+i), !ihd Ihe absoluIe value o! Ihe !uhcIioh, graph Ihe
modulus sur!ace, ahd use Ihe Irace Iool Io explore Ihe modulus sur!ace.
7. Display Ihe IABLE 5EIUP dialog box, ahd
chahge tbl5tart Io 0 ahd tbl Io 0.1.
Note: Press .
8. Display Ihe Iable ih Ihe le!I side ahd press
Io highlighI t=2.
Note: Press .
9. SwiIch Io Ihe righI side. Press , ahd Irace
Ihe graph Io show Ihe values o! xc ahd yc
wheh tc=2.
Note: As you move Ihe Irace cursor !rom
tc=0.0 Io tc=3.1, you will see Ihe posiIioh o!
Ihe ball aI Iime tc.
1. Oh Ihe Home screeh, use Ihe expand( )
!uhcIioh Io expahd Ihe cubic expressioh
(x 1)(x i)(x+i) ahd see Ihe !irsI polyhomial.
2. Copy ahd pasIe Ihe lasI ahswer Io Ihe ehIry
lihe ahd sIore iI ih Ihe !uhcIioh f(x).
Note: Move Ihe cursor ihIo Ihe hisIory area
Io highlighI Ihe lasI ahswer ahd press ,
Io copy iI Io Ihe ehIry lihe.
106 Activities
3. Use Ihe abs( ) !uhcIioh Io !ihd Ihe absoluIe
value o! f(x+yi).
(1his calculaIioh may Iake abouI 2 mihuIes.)
Note: 1he absoluIe value o! a !uhcIioh
!orces ahy rooIs Io visually |usI Iouch raIher
Ihah cross Ihe x axis. Likewise, Ihe absoluIe
value o! a !uhcIioh o! Iwo variables will
!orce ahy rooIs Io visually |usI Iouch Ihe xy
plahe.
4. Copy ahd pasIe Ihe lasI ahswer Io Ihe ehIry
lihe ahd sIore iI ih Ihe !uhcIioh z1(x,y).
Note: 1he graph o! z1(x,y) will be Ihe
modulus sur!ace.
5. SeI Ihe uhiI Io 3D graph mode, Iurh oh Ihe
axes !or graph !ormaI, ahd seI Ihe Wihdow
variables Io:
eye= {20,70,0]
x= { 2,2,20]
y= { 2,2,20]
z= { 1,2]
ncontour= {5]
6. Ih Ihe Y=Editor, press:

ahd seI Ihe Graph FormaI variables Io:
Axes= ON
Labels= ON
5tyle= HlDDEN 5URFACE
Note: CalculaIihg ahd drawihg Ihe graph
Iakes abouI Ihree mihuIes.
7. Graph Ihe modulus sur!ace.
1he 3D graph is used Io visually display a
picIure o! Ihe rooIs where Ihe sur!ace
Iouches Ihe xy plahe.
8. Use Ihe 1race Iool Io explore Ihe !uhcIioh
values aI x=1 ahd y=0.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 191
GetCalc CAIALOG
GetCalc
Relrieves a value írou lhe liuk porl aud slores il
iu variable . Jhis is íor uuil·lo·uuil liukiug.
Ncte: Jo gel a variable lo lhe liuk porl írou
auolher uuil, use 2 ° ou lhe olher uuil
lo selecl aud seud a variable, or do a 5endCalc
ou lhe olher uuil.
Prograu segueul.
©
:L1sp "P¡ess £nle¡ wlen ¡eady"
:Pause
:üelCa!c ¡1
:L1sp "¡1sl ¡1 ¡ece1ved"
©
@GetCalc
Relrieves a value írou lhe liuk porl aud slores il
iu variable ou lhe receiviug J|·89 Jilauiuu.
|í lhe porl is uol speciíied, or is speciíied,
lhe J|·89 Jilauiuu wails íor dala írou eilher
porl.
|í , lhe J|·89 Jilauiuu wails íor dala írou
lhe uSB porl.
|í , lhe J|·89 Jilauiuu wails íor dala írou
lhe |/0 porl.
getConfg() CAIALOG
getConfg()
Relurus a lisl oí calculalor allribules. Jhe
allribule uaue is lisled íirsl, íollowed by ils
value.
@:
çelCon1ç1; ¸
|"¹·0uu·1 H~m-" "^u.~r·-u
|~1l-m~1+· '0f1w~·-"
"!-·+0r" "..ÛÛ. Û´´.'´1´´´"
"¹·0uu·1 1U" "Û´14no"
"1U }" "Û1Û1. ´4'n/ ^hÛU"
"Û-·1. ¹-.. }" Û
"'··--r U+u1l" 1nÛ
"'··--r h-+¸l1" 1ÛÛ
"U+ru0w U+u1l" 1nÛ
"U+ru0w h-+¸l1" n/
"¹^| '+z-" .n.1´.
"!·-- ¹^|" 1´/1/o
"^··l+.- '+z-" n''´nÛ
"!·-- ^··l+.-" n''´4Û|
H
¸-1Û0rf¸'· ¸
|"¹·0uu·1 H~m-" "^u.~r·-u
|~1l-m~1+· '0f1w~·-"
"!-·+0r" "..ÛÛ. Û´´.'´1´´´"
"¹·0uu·1 1U" "Û114oÛ"
"1U }" "Û1Û1. ´4'n/ ^hÛU"
"Û-·1. ¹-.. }" Û
"'··--r U+u1l" .4Û
"'··--r h-+¸l1" 1.Û
"U+ru0w U+u1l" .4Û
"U+ru0w h-+¸l1" ´1
"¹^| '+z-" .n.144
"!·-- ¹^|" 1´.´oo
"^··l+.- '+z-" /.Ûo´n
"!·-- ^··l+.-" /.Ûo/4|
Ncte: Your screeu uay display diííereul allribule
values. Jhe CerI. Rev. # allribule appears ouly ií
you have purchased aud iuslalled addilioual
soílware iulo lhe calculalor.

190 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
fPart() NAIH/Number menu
fPart( )
fPart( )
fPart( )
Relurus lhe íraclioual parl oí lhe arguueul.
|or a lisl or ualrix, relurus lhe íraclioual parls oí
lhe eleueuls.
Jhe arguueul cau be a real or a couplex uuuber.
1Pa¡l1ë1.Z34; ¸ ë.Z34
1Pa¡l1|1, ëZ.3, 7.003|; ¸
|0 ë.3 .003|
Func CAIALOG
Func

EndFunc
Required as lhe íirsl slaleueul iu a uulli·
slaleueul íuucliou deíiuiliou.
cau be eilher a siugle slaleueul or a series
oí slaleueuls separaled wilh lhe "." characler.
Ncte: when() also cau be used lo deíiue aud
graph piecewise·deíiued íuuclious.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode, deíiue a piecewise
íuucliou.
Le11ne ç1x;~!unc:11 x´0 Tlen
:Relu¡n 3ùcos1x;:£!se:Relu¡n
3ì x:£nd11:£nd!unc ¸ Lone
ü¡apl ç1x; ¸
gcd() NAIH/Number menu
gcd( )
Relurus lhe grealesl couuou divisor oí lhe lwo
arguueuls. Jhe gcd oí lwo íraclious is lhe gcd
oí lheir uuueralors divided by lhe lcm oí lheir
deuouiualors.
|u ^ulo or ^pproxiuale uode, lhe gcd oí
íraclioual íloaliug·poiul uuubers is 1.0.
çcd11ß,33; ¸ 3
gcd( )
Relurus lhe grealesl couuou divisors oí lhe
correspoudiug eleueuls iu aud .
çcd1|1Z,14,16|,|9,7,5|; ¸
|3 7 1|
gcd( )
Relurus lhe grealesl couuou divisors oí lhe
correspoudiug eleueuls iu aud .
çcd1jZ,4,6,߸,j4,ß,1Z,16¸;
¸
j
Z 4
6 ß
¸
Get CAIALOG
Get
Relrieves a CBL 2é /CBL¹ (Calculalor·Based
Laboraloryé ) or CBRé (Calculalor·Based
Raugeré ) value írou lhe liuk porl aud slores il iu
variable .
Prograu segueul.
©
:Send |3,1,ë1,0|
:!o¡ 1,1,99
: üel dalaj1¸
: Pl0n 1,dalaj1¸
:£nd!o¡
©
Activities 107
5ummary
NoIe IhaI zc is zero !or each o! Ihe !uhcIioh values ih sIeps 7-9. 1hus, Ihe
complex zeros 1, i, i o! Ihe polyhomial x
3
x
2
+x 1 cah be visualized wiIh
Ihe Ihree poihIs where Ihe graph o! Ihe modulus sur!ace Iouches Ihe xy
plahe.
5olving a 5tandard Annuity Problem
1his acIiviIy cah be used Io !ihd Ihe ihIeresI raIe, sIarIihg prihcipal,
humber o! compouhdihg periods, ahd !uIure value o! ah ahhuiIy.
Finding the lnterest Rate of an Annuity
Per!orm Ihe !ollowihg sIeps Io !ihd Ihe ihIeresI raIe (i) o! ah ahhuiIy
where Ihe sIarIihg prihcipal (p) is 1,000, humber o! compouhdihg periods
(n) is 6, ahd Ihe !uIure value (s) is 2,000.
9. Use Ihe 1race Iool Io explore Ihe !uhcIioh
values aI x=0 ahd y=1.
10. Use Ihe 1race Iool Io explore Ihe !uhcIioh
values aI x=0 ahd y= 1.
1. Oh Ihe Home screeh, ehIer Ihe equaIioh Io
solve !or p.
2. LhIer Ihe equaIioh Io solve !or n.
108 Activities
Finding the Future Value of an Annuity
Fihd Ihe !uIure value o! ah ahhuiIy usihg Ihe values !rom Ihe previous
example where Ihe ihIeresI raIe is 14%.
Computing the 7ime-Value-of-Money
1his acIiviIy creaIes a !uhcIioh IhaI cah be used Io !ihd Ihe cosI o!
!ihahcihg ah iIem. DeIailed ih!ormaIioh abouI Ihe sIeps used ih Ihis
example cah be !ouhd ih Programming.
3. LhIer Ihe equaIioh Io solve !or i usihg Ihe
with operaIor.
solve(s=p (1+i)^n,i) j s=2000 ahd p=1000
ahd n=6
ResulI: 1he ihIeresI raIe is 12.246%.
Note:
º 1o ehIer Ihe "with" ( [ ) operaIor:
º Press Io obIaih a !loaIihg-
poihI resulI.
LhIer Ihe equaIioh Io solve !or s.
solve(s=p (1+i)^n,s) j i=.14 ahd p=1000 ahd
n=6
ResulI: 1he !uIure value aI 14% ihIeresI is
2,194.97.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 189
FnOn {1] {, 2] ... {,99]
Selecls lhe speciíied Y= íuuclious íor lhe curreul
graphiug uode.
Ncte: |u 30 graphiug uode, ouly oue íuucliou al
a liue cau be selecled. FhOh 2 selecls z2(x,y) aud
deselecls auy previously selecled íuucliou. |u lhe
olher graph uodes, previously selecled íuuclious
are uol aííecled.
For CAIALOG
For , , [, ]
EndFor
Execules lhe slaleueuls iu ileralively íor
each value oí , írou lo , iu iucreueuls
oí .
uusl uol be a sysleu variable.
cau be posilive or uegalive. Jhe deíaull value
is 1.
cau be eilher a siugle slaleueul or a series
oí slaleueuls separaled wilh lhe "." characler.
Prograu segueul.
©
:0! lenpsun : 1! slep
:!o¡ 1,1,100,slep
: lenpsun+1! lenpsun
:£nd!o¡
:L1sp lenpsun
©
Couleuls oí lenpsun aíler
execuliou. 5050
Couleuls oí lenpsun wheu slep
is chauged lo 2. Z500
format() NAIH/5tring menu
format( | ¦)
Relurus as a characler slriug based ou
lhe íorual leuplale.
uusl siupliíy lo a uuuber.
is a slriug aud uusl be iu lhe íoru. "F| ]",
"S[ ]", "L[ ]", "G[ ][ ]", where [ ] iudicale
oplioual porlious.
F[ ]. |ixed íorual. is lhe uuuber oí digils lo
display aíler lhe deciual poiul.
S[ ]. Scieuliíic íorual. is lhe uuuber oí digils lo
display aíler lhe deciual poiul.
L[ ]. Eugiueeriug íorual. is lhe uuuber oí
digils aíler lhe íirsl siguiíicaul digil. Jhe expoueul
is adjusled lo a uulliple oí lhree, aud lhe deciual
poiul is uoved lo lhe righl by zero, oue, or lwo
digils.
1o¡nal11.Z34567,"13"; ¸
"1.Z35"
1o¡nal11.Z34567,"sZ"; ¸
"1.Z3í 0"
1o¡nal11.Z34567,"e3"; ¸
"1.Z35í 0"
1o¡nal11.Z34567,"ç3"; ¸
"1.Z35"
1o¡nal11Z34.567,"ç3"; ¸
"1,Z34.567"
1o¡nal11.Z34567,"ç3,¡:"; ¸
"1:Z35"
G[ ][ ]. Saue as íixed íorual bul also separales
digils lo lhe leíl oí lhe radix iulo groups oí lhree.
speciíies lhe group separalor characler aud
deíaulls lo a couua. |í is a period, lhe radix
will be showu as a couua.
[R ]. ^uy oí lhe above speciíiers uay be suííixed
wilh lhe R radix ílag, where is a siugle
characler lhal speciíies whal lo subslilule íor lhe
radix poiul.
188 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
fNax() NAIH/Calculus menu
fNax( )
Relurus a Booleau expressiou speciíyiug
caudidale values oí lhal uaxiuize
or locale ils leasl upper bouud.
1lax11ì 1xì a;^Zì 1xì b;^Z,x;
¸
x ~
a+b
Z
1lax1.5x^3ì xì Z,x; ¸ x ~ ˆ
use lhe "[" operalor lo reslricl lhe soluliou
iulerval aud/or speciíy lhe sigu oí olher uudeíiued
variables.
|or lhe APPROX selliug oí lhe LxacI/Approx
uode, fNax() ileralively searches íor oue
approxiuale local uaxiuuu. Jhis is oíleu íasler,
parlicularly ií you use lhe "[" operalor lo
couslraiu lhe search lo a relalively suall iulerval
lhal coulaius exaclly oue local uaxiuuu.
Ncte: See also fNin() aud max().
1lax1.5x^3ì xì Z,x;|x 1 ¸
x ~ ë.ß16...
1lax1aùx^Z,x; ¸
x ~ ˆ o¡ x ~ ëˆ o¡ x ~ 0 o¡ a ~ 0
1lax1aùx^Z,x;|a´0 ¸ x ~ 0
fNin() NAIH/Calculus menu
fNin( )
Relurus a Booleau expressiou speciíyiug
caudidale values oí lhal uiuiuize or
locale ils grealesl lower bouud.
use lhe "[" operalor lo reslricl lhe soluliou
iulerval aud/or speciíy lhe sigu oí olher uudeíiued
variables.
|or lhe APPROX selliug oí lhe LxacI/Approx
uode, fNin() ileralively searches íor oue
approxiuale local uiuiuuu. Jhis is oíleu íasler,
parlicularly ií you use lhe "[" operalor lo
couslraiu lhe search lo a relalively suall iulerval
lhal coulaius exaclly oue local uiuiuuu.
Ncte: See also fNax() aud min().
1l1n11ì 1xì a;^Zì 1xì b;^Z,x;
¸
x ~ ˆ o¡ x ~ ëˆ
1l1n1.5x^3ì xì Z,x;|x‚1 ¸ x ~ 1
1l1n1aùx^Z,x; ¸
x ~ ˆ o¡ x ~ ëˆ o¡ x ~ 0 o¡ a ~ 0
1l1n1aùx^Z,x;|a`0 and x`1 ¸
x ~ 1.
1l1n1aùx^Z,x;|a`0 ¸ x ~ 0
FnOff CAIALOG
FnOff
0eselecls all Y= íuuclious íor lhe curreul
graphiug uode.
|u splil·screeu, lwo·graph uode, FnOff ouly
applies lo lhe aclive graph.
FnOff {1] {, 2] ... {,99]
0eselecls lhe speciíied Y= íuuclious íor lhe
curreul graphiug uode.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
FhO!! 1,3 ¸ deselecls y1(x) aud
y3(x).
|u parauelric graphiug uode.
FhO!! 1,3 ¸ deselecls xI1(I), yI1(I),
xI3(I), aud yI3(I).
FnOn CAIALOG
FnOn
Selecls all Y= íuuclious lhal are deíiued íor lhe
curreul graphiug uode.
|u splil·screeu, lwo·graph uode, FnOn ouly
applies lo lhe aclive graph.
Activities 109
Iime-Value-of- Noney Function
Ih Ihe Program LdiIor, de!ihe Ihe !ollowihg 1ime-Value-o!-Mohey (tvm)
!uhcIioh where temp1 = humber o! paymehIs, temp2 = ahhual ihIeresI
raIe, temp3 = presehI value, temp4 = mohIhly paymehI, temp5 = !uIure
value, ahd temp6 = begih- or ehd-o!-paymehI period (1 = begihhihg o!
mohIh, 0 = ehd o! mohIh).
Note: You cah use your compuIer keyboard Io Iype lehgIhy IexI ahd
Iheh use 1I CohhecI¹ so!Iware Io sehd iI Io Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium.
Finding the Nonthly Payment
Fihd Ihe mohIhly paymehI oh 10,000 i! you make 48 paymehIs aI 10%
ihIeresI per year.
:Ivm(Iemp1,Iemp2,Iemp3,Iemp4,Iemp5,Iemp6)
:Fuhc
:Local Iempi,Iemp!uhc,IempsIr1
: Iemp3+(1+Iemp2/1200 Iemp6) Iemp4 ((1 (1+Iemp2/1200)^
( Iemp1))/(Iemp2/1200)) Iemp5 (1+Iemp2/1200)^( Iemp1)
Iemp!uhc
:For Iempi,1,5,1
:"Iemp"&exacI(sIrihg(Iempi)) IempsIr1
:I! wheh(#IempsIr1=0,!alse,!alse,Irue) 1heh
:I! Iempi=2
:ReIurh approx(hsolve(Iemp!uhc=0,#IempsIr1) [ #IempsIr1>0
ahd
#IempsIr1<100)
:ReIurh approx(hsolve(Iemp!uhc=0,#IempsIr1))
:LhdI!
:LhdFor
:ReIurh "parameIer error"
:LhdFuhc
Oh Ihe Home screeh, ehIer Ihe tvm values Io
!ihd pmt.
ResulI: 1he mohIhly paymehI is 251.53.
110 Activities
Finding the Number of Payments
Fihd Ihe humber o! paymehIs iI will Iake Io pay o!! Ihe loah i! you could
make a 300 paymehI each mohIh.
Finding kational, keal, and Complex Factors
1his acIiviIy shows how Io !ihd raIiohal, real, or complex !acIors o!
expressiohs. DeIailed ih!ormaIioh abouI Ihe sIeps used ih Ihis example
cah be !ouhd ih Symbolic Manipulation.
Finding Factors
LhIer Ihe expressiohs showh below oh Ihe Home screeh.
5imulation of 5ampling without keplacement
1his acIiviIy simulaIes drawihg di!!erehI colored balls !rom ah urh
wiIhouI replacihg Ihem. DeIailed ih!ormaIioh abouI Ihe sIeps used ih
Ihis example cah be !ouhd ih Programming.
Oh Ihe Home screeh, ehIer Ihe tvm values Io
!ihd n.
ResulI: 1he humber o! paymehIs is 38.8308.
1. factor(x^3 5x) displays a raIiohal
resulI.
2. factor(x^3+5x) displays a raIiohal
resulI.
3. factor(x^3 5x,x) displays a real
resulI.
4. cfactor(x^3+5x,x) displays a complex
resulI.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 187
|or lhe AU1O selliug oí lhe LxacI/Approx uode,
iucludiug peruils approxiualiou wilh íloaliug·
poiul coeííicieuls where irralioual coeííicieuls
cauuol be explicilly expressed coucisely iu lerus
oí lhe buill·iu íuuclious. Eveu wheu lhere is ouly
oue variable, iucludiug uighl yield uore
couplele íaclorizaliou.
Ncte: See also comDenom() íor a íasl way lo
achieve parlial íacloriug wheu factor() is uol
íasl euough or ií il exhausls ueuory.
Ncte: See also cFactor() íor íacloriug all lhe
way lo couplex coeííicieuls iu pursuil oí liuear
íaclors.
1aclo¡1x^5+4x^4+5x^3ì 6xì 3;
¸
x
5
+ 4øx
4
+ 5øx
3
ì 6øx ì 3
1aclo¡1ans11;,x; ¸
1xì .964.;ø1x +.611.;ø
1x + Z.1Z5.;ø1xñ+ Z.ZZ7.ø
x + Z.39Z.;
factor( ) relurus lhe ralioual
uuuber íaclored iulo priues. |or couposile
uuubers, lhe coupuliug liue grows
expoueulially wilh lhe uuuber oí digils iu lhe
secoud·largesl íaclor. |or exauple, íacloriug a
30·digil iuleger could lake uore lhau a day, aud
íacloriug a 100·digil uuuber could lake uore
lhau a ceulury.
Ncte: Jo slop (break) a coupulaliou, press ´ .
|í you uerely waul lo deleruiue ií a uuuber is
priue, use isPrime() iuslead. |l is uuch íasler,
parlicularly ií is uol priue aud ií
lhe secoud·largesl íaclor has uore lhau íive
digils.
1aclo¡115Z41717Z6ß9; ¸
1Z3457ø1Z34577
1sP¡1ne115Z41717Z6ß9; ¸ 1a!se
Fill NAIH/Natrix menu
Fill
Replaces each eleueul iu variable wilh
.
uusl already exisl.
j1,Z,3,4¸! anal¡x ¸ j
1 Z
3 4
¸
!1!! 1.01,anal¡x ¸ Lone
anal¡x ¸ j
1.01 1.01
1.01 1.01
¸
Fill
Replaces each eleueul iu variable wilh
.
uusl already exisl.
|1,Z,3,4,5|! a!1sl ¸
|1 Z 3 4 5|
!1!! 1.01,a!1sl ¸ Lone
a!1sl ¸
|1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01|
floor() NAIH/Number menu
floor( )
Relurus lhe grealesl iuleger lhal is lhe
arguueul. Jhis íuucliou is ideulical lo int().
Jhe arguueul cau be a real or a couplex uuuber.
1!oo¡1ëZ.14; ¸ ë3.
floor( )
floor( )
Relurus a lisl or ualrix oí lhe íloor oí each
eleueul.
Ncte: See also ceiling() aud int().
1!oo¡1|31Z,0,ë5.3|; ¸
|1 0 ë6.|
1!oo¡1j1.Z,3.4,Z.5,4.߸; ¸
j
1. 3.
Z. 4.
¸
186 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
ExpReg NAIH/5tatistics/Regressions menu
ExpReg |, | ¦ |, ¦¦
Calculales lhe expoueulial regressiou aud
updales all lhe sysleu slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-c99
.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
|1,Z,3,4,5,6,7,ß|! ¡1 ¸
|1 Z ...|
|1,Z,Z,Z,3,4,5,7|! ¡Z ¸
|1 Z ...|
£xpReç ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
¸
Reçeq1x;" y11x; ¸ Lone
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
¥ %
factor() NAIH/Algebra menu
factor( [, ])
factor( [ ])
factor( [ ])
factor( ) relurus íaclored
wilh respecl lo all oí ils variables over a couuou
deuouiualor.
is íaclored as uuch as possible loward
liuear ralioual íaclors wilhoul iulroduciug uew
uou·real subexpressious. Jhis allerualive is
appropriale ií you waul íaclorizaliou wilh respecl
lo uore lhau oue variable.
1aclo¡1a^3ùx^Zì aùx^Zì a^3+a;
¸
aø1a ì 1;ø1a + 1;ø1x ì 1;ø1x + 1;
1aclo¡1x^Z+1; ¸ xñ+ 1
1aclo¡1x^Zì 4; ¸ 1x ì Z;ø1x + Z;
1aclo¡1x^Zì 3; ¸ xñì 3
1aclo¡1x^Zì a; ¸ xñì a
factor( ) relurus
íaclored wilh respecl lo variable .
is íaclored as uuch as possible loward
real íaclors lhal are liuear iu , eveu ií il
iulroduces irralioual couslauls or subexpressious
lhal are irralioual iu olher variables.
Jhe íaclors aud lheir lerus are sorled wilh as
lhe uaiu variable. Siuilar powers oí are
collecled iu each íaclor. |uclude ií
íaclorizaliou is ueeded wilh respecl lo ouly lhal
variable aud you are williug lo accepl irralioual
expressious iu auy olher variables lo iucrease
íaclorizaliou wilh respecl lo . Jhere uighl be
soue iucideulal íacloriug wilh respecl lo olher
variables.
1aclo¡1a^3ùx^Zì aùx^Zì a^3+a,x;
¸
aø1añì 1;ø1x ì 1;ø1x + 1;
1aclo¡1x^Zì 3,x; ¸
1x + ‡3;ø1x ì ‡3;
1aclo¡1x^Zì a,x; ¸
1x + ‡a;ø1x ì ‡a;
Activities 111
5ampling-without- Replacement Function
Ih Ihe Program Editor, de!ihe drawball( ) as a !uhcIioh IhaI cah be
called wiIh Iwo parameIers. 1he !irsI parameIer is a lisI where each
elemehI is Ihe humber o! balls o! a cerIaih color. 1he secohd parameIer is
Ihe humber o! balls Io selecI. 1his !uhcIioh reIurhs a lisI where each
elemehI is Ihe humber o! balls o! each color IhaI were selecIed.
5ampling without Replacement
Suppose ah urh cohIaihs n1 balls o! a color, n2 balls o! a secohd color, n3
balls o! a Ihird color, eIc. SimulaIe drawihg balls wiIhouI replacihg Ihem.
Using Vectors to Determine Velocity
A small !ishihg boaI leaves !rom Ihe souIh bahk o! Ihe Alleghehy River
ahd heads aI a 80° ahgle wiIh ah ehgihe speed o! 20 khoIs. However, Ihe
easIward !orce o! Ihe currehI carries Ihe boaI alohg so iI acIually Iravels
aI a 60° ahgle wiIh Ihe shore.
How !asI is Ihe currehI, ahd how !asI does Ihe boaI acIually Iravel?
:drawball(urhlisI,drawhum)
:Fuhc
:Local IemplisI,drawlisI,colordim,
humballs,i,pick,urhcum,|
:I! drawhum>sum(urhlisI)
:ReIurh "Ioo !ew balls"
:dim(urhlisI) colordim
:urhlisI IemplisI
:hewlisI(colordim) drawlisI
:For i,1,drawhum,1
:sum(IemplisI) humballs
:rahd(humballs) pick
(continued in next column)
:For |,1,colordim,1
:cumSum(IemplisI) urhcum
:I! pick urhcum[|] 1heh
:drawlisI[|]+1 drawlisI[|]
:IemplisI[|] 1 IemplisI[|]
:LxiI
:LhdI!
:LhdFor
:LhdFor
:ReIurh drawlisI
:LhdFuhc
1. LhIer a rahdom seed usihg Ihe Rand5eed
commahd.
2. Assumihg Ihe urh cohIaihs 10 red balls ahd
25 whiIe balls, simulaIe pickihg 5 balls aI
rahdom !rom Ihe urh wiIhouI replacemehI.
LhIer drawball({10,25J,5).
ResulI: 2 red balls ahd 3 whiIe balls.
112 Activities
1. SeI Ihe modes !or Page 1 as showh ih Ihis
screeh. (Show ahgles ih degrees ihsIead o!
radiahs ahd display all digiIs wiIh a !loaIihg
decimal poihI.)
Press: . Oh Ihe Ahgle opIioh,
selecI 2:DEGREE. Oh Ihe Display DigiIs
opIioh, selecI E:FLOAI.
2. LhIer vecIors describihg Ihe ihiIial paIh o!
Ihe boaI, waIer currehI, ahd resulIahI paIh
o! Ihe boaI.
SIore Ihese vecIors as i, c, ahd r. Use Ihe
value a !or Ihe uhkhowh speed o! Ihe
currehI. Use Ihe value b !or Ihe speed o! Ihe
boaI.
LhIer:
{20,80 ] i
{a,0 ] c
{b,60°] r
VecIors are commohly wriIIeh ih eiIher polar or
recIahgular !orm, so iI is use!ul Io cohverI polar
vecIors ihIo recIahgular !orm.
3. De!ihe !uhcIioh p2r.
LhIer: Define p2r(x)={x{1,1]*cos(x{1,2]),
x{1,1]*sin(x{1,2])]
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 18S
Eveu wheu lhere is ouly oue variable, usiug
uighl uake lhe deuouiualor íaclorizaliou used
íor parlial íracliou expausiou uore couplele.
Kint: |or ralioual expressious, propFrac() is a
íasler bul less exlreue allerualive lo expand().
Ncte: See also comDenom() íor au expauded
uuueralor over au expauded deuouiualor.
expand11x^3+x^Zì Z;11x^Zì Z;;
¸
Zøx
xñì Z
+x+1
expand1ans11;,x; ¸
1
xì ‡Z

1
x+‡Z
+x+1
expand( | ¦) also dislribules
logarilhus aud íraclioual powers regardless oí
. |or iucreased dislribuliou oí logarilhus aud
íraclioual powers, iuequalily couslraiuls uighl be
uecessary lo guaraulee lhal soue íaclors are
uouuegalive.
expand( | ¦) also dislribules
absolule values, sign(), aud expoueulials,
regardless oí .
Ncte: See also tExpand() íor lrigououelric
augle·suu aud uulliple·augle expausiou.
!n1Zxùy;+‡1Zxùy; ¸
!n1Zøxøy; + ‡1Zøxøy;
expand1ans11;; ¸
!n1xøy; + ‡Zø‡'xøy; + !n1Z;
expand1ans11;;|y`~0 ¸
!n1x; + ‡Zø‡xø‡y + !n1y; + !n1Z;
s1çn1xùy;+abs1xùy;+ ^1Zx+y;
¸
Zø x+y
+ s1çn1xøy; + |xøy|
expand1ans11;; ¸
s1çn1x;øs1çn1y; + |x|ø|y|+ 1
x
;
Z
ø
y
expr() NAIH/5tring menu
expr( )
Relurus lhe characler slriug coulaiued iu as
au expressiou aud iuuedialely execules il.
exp¡1"1+Z+x^Z+x"; ¸ xñ+ x + 3
exp¡1"expand111+x;^Z;"; ¸
xñ+ Zøx + 1
"Le11ne cube1x;~x^3"! 1uncsl¡
¸
"Le11ne cube1x;~x^3"
exp¡11uncsl¡; ¸ Lone
cube1Z; ¸ ß
184 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
Exit CAIALOG
Exit
Exils lhe curreul For, While, or Loop block.
Exit is uol allowed oulside lhe lhree loopiug
slruclures (For, While, or Loop).
Prograu lisliug.
:0! lenp
:!o¡ 1,1,100,1
: lenp+1! lenp
: 11 lenp`Z0
: £x1l
:£nd!o¡
:L1sp lenp
Couleuls oí temp aíler execuliou. Z1
exp4list() CAIALOG
exp4list( , )
Exauiues íor equalious lhal are
separaled by lhe word "or," aud relurus a lisl
coulaiuiug lhe righl·haud sides oí lhe equalious
oí lhe íoru . Jhis gives you au easy
way lo exlracl soue soluliou values eubedded iu
lhe resulls oí lhe solve(), c5olve(), fNin(), aud
fNax() íuuclious.
Ncte: exp4list() is uol uecessary wilh lhe zeros
aud cZeros() íuuclious because lhey reluru a lisl
oí soluliou values direclly.
so!ve1x^Zì xì Z~0,x; ¸ x~Z o¡
x~ë1
exp4!1sl1so!ve1x^Zì xì Z~0,x;,x;
¸
|ë1 Z|
expand() NAIH/Algebra menu
expand( [, ])
expand( [ ])
expand( [ ])
expand( ) relurus
expauded wilh respecl lo all ils variables. Jhe
expausiou is polyuouial expausiou íor
polyuouials aud parlial íracliou expausiou íor
ralioual expressious.
Jhe goal oí expand() is lo lrausíoru
iulo a suu aud/or diííereuce oí siuple lerus. |u
coulrasl, lhe goal oí factor() is lo lrausíoru
iulo a producl aud/or quolieul oí
siuple íaclors.
expand11x+y+1;^Z; ¸
xñ+ Zøxøy + Zøx + yñ+ Zøy + 1
expand11x^Zì x+y^Zì y;11x^Zùy^Z
ì x^Zùyì xùy^Z+xùy;; ¸
expand( ) relurus
expauded wilh respecl lo . Siuilar powers oí
are collecled. Jhe lerus aud lheir íaclors are
sorled wilh as lhe uaiu variable. Jhere uighl
be soue iucideulal íacloriug or expausiou oí lhe
collecled coeííicieuls. Coupared lo ouilliug ,
lhis oíleu saves liue, ueuory, aud screeu space,
while uakiug lhe expressiou uore
coupreheusible.
expand11x+y+1;^Z,y; ¸
yñ+ Zøyø1x + 1; + 1x + 1;ñ
expand11x+y+1;^Z,x; ¸
xñ+ Zøxø1y + 1; + 1y + 1;ñ
expand11x^Zì x+y^Zì y;11x^Zùy^Z
ì x^Zùyì xùy^Z+xùy;,y; ¸
expand1ans11;,x; ¸
Activities 11J
Wheh cohverIed Io recIahgular !orm, Ihe sum
o! vecIors i ahd c equals Ihe resulIahI vecIor r.
4. Usihg !uhcIioh p2r, cohverI vecIors i, c, ahd
r Io recIahgular !orm.
LhIer:
p2r(i) i
p2r(c) c
p2r(r) r
8ecause Ihe vecIors are equal, Ihe x-coordihaIe
o! i+c musI equal Ihe x-coordihaIe o! Ihe
resulIahI vecIor r. Likewise, Ihe y-coordihaIe o!
i+c musI equal Ihe y-coordihaIe o! resulIahI
vecIor r.
5. SeI up Iwo equaIiohs ihvolvihg vecIors i+c
ahd r.
º LquaIioh 1 seIs Ihe x-coordihaIes equal
Io each oIher.
º LquaIioh 2 seIs Ihe y-coordihaIes equal.
SIore Ihese equaIiohs ihIo eq1 ahd eq2,
respecIively. LhIer:
i{1,1]+c{1,1]=r{1,1] eq1
i{1,2]+c{1,2]=r{1,2] eq2
6. Solve eq2 !or b Io calculaIe Ihe acIual
speed o! Ihe boaI.
solve(eq2,b)
7. SubsIiIuIe Ihe khowh value o! b ihIo eq1,
ahd solve eq1 !or a Io deIermihe a, Ihe
speed o! Ihe easIward Iravelihg currehI.
solve(eq1,a) j b
1he boaI Iravels aI a speed o! 22.7 khoIs, ahd
Ihe waIer currehI is approximaIely 7.9 khoIs.
114 Activities Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 18J
entry() CAIALOG
entry()
entry( )
Relurus a previous eulry·liue eulry írou lhe
houe screeu hislory area.
, ií iucluded, speciíies which eulry
expressiou iu lhe hislory area. Jhe deíaull is 1,
lhe uosl receully evalualed eulry. valid rauge is
írou 1 lo 99 aud cauuol be au expressiou.
Ncte. |í lhe lasl eulry is slill highlighled ou lhe
houe screeu, pressiug ¸ is equivaleul lo
execuliug entry(1).
0u lhe houe screeu.
1+11x ¸
1
x
+1
1+11enl¡y11; ¸ Zì
1
x+1
¸
1
Zø1Zøx+1;
+31Z
¸ 513ì
1
3ø13øx+Z;
enl¡y14; ¸
1
x
+1
exact() NAIH/Number menu
exact( [, ])
exact( [, ])
exact( [, ])
uses LxacI uode arilhuelic regardless oí lhe
LxacI/Approx uode selliug lo reluru, wheu
possible, lhe ralioual·uuuber equivaleul oí lhe
arguueul.
speciíies lhe lolerauce íor lhe couversiou, lhe
deíaull is 0 (zero).
exacl1.Z5; ¸ 114
exacl1.333333; ¸
333333
1000000
exacl1.33333,.001; 113
exacl13.5x+y; ¸
7øx
Z
+y
exacl1|.Z,.33,4.1Z5|; ¸
|1à5
33
100
33àß|
Exec CAIALOG
Exec [, ] [, ] ...
Execules a cousisliug oí a series oí Molorola
68000 op·codes. Jhese codes acl as a íoru oí au
asseubly·lauguage prograu. |í ueeded, lhe
oplioual lel you pass oue or uore
arguueuls lo lhe prograu.
|or uore iuíorualiou, check lhe J| web sile.
http://www.ti.com/calc
Warning: Exec gives you access lo lhe íull
power oí lhe uicroprocessor. Please be aware
lhal you cau easily uake a uislake lhal locks up
lhe calculalor aud causes you lo lose your dala.
we suggesl you uake a backup oí lhe calculalor
couleuls beíore alleupliug lo use lhe Exec
couuaud.
182 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
eigVl() NAIH/Natrix menu
eigVl( )
Relurus a lisl oí lhe eigeuvalues oí a real or
couplex .
is íirsl balauced wilh siuilarily
lrausíorualious uulil lhe row aud coluuu uorus
are as close lo lhe saue value as possible. Jhe
is lheu reduced lo upper hesseuberg
íoru aud lhe eigeuvalues are coupuled írou lhe
upper hesseuberg ualrix.
|u Reclaugular couplex íorual uode.
jL1,Z,5,3,L6,9,Z,L5,7¸! n1 ¸
ë1 Z 5
3 ë6 9
Z ë5 7
e1ç\!1n1; ¸
|ë4.409. Z.Z04.+.763.ø
Z.Z04.ì .763.ø |
Else See lf, page 196.
Elself CAIALOG See also lf, page 196.
lf Ihen

Elself Ihen

©
Elself Ihen

Endlf
©
Elself cau be used as a prograu iuslrucliou íor
prograu brauchiug.
Prograu segueul.
©
:11 clo1ce~1 Tlen
: üolo opl1on1
: £!se11 clo1ce~Z Tlen
: üolo opl1onZ
: £!se11 clo1ce~3 Tlen
: üolo opl1on3
: £!se11 clo1ce~4 Tlen
: L1sp "£x1l1nç P¡oç¡an"
: Relu¡n
:£nd11
©
EndCustm See Custom, page 169.
EndDlog See Dialog, page 177.
EndFor See For, page 189.
EndFunc See Func, page 190.
Endlf See lf, page 196.
EndLoop See Loop, page 205.
EndPrgm See Prgm, page 220.
EndIBar See IoolBar, page 255.
EndIry See Iry, page 256.
EndWhile See While, page 258.
Connectivity 11S

Connectivity
Connecting 7wo Units
1he 1I-89 1iIahium comes wiIh a cable IhaI leIs you cohhecI Iwo uhiIs.
Ohce cohhecIed, you cah IrahsmiI ih!ormaIioh beIweeh Iwo uhiIs. A US8
uhiI-Io-uhiI cable is ihcluded wiIh Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium, use Ihe calculaIor's
US8 porI wiIh Ihis cable.
Note: 1he 1I-89 1iIahium !eaIures boIh a US8 porI ahd ah I/O porI, so
you cah cohhecI 1I graphihg calculaIors wiIh eiIher Iype o! lihk porI.
However, usihg Ihe I/O porI requires Ihe I/O uhiI-Io-uhiI cable (sold
separaIely) or Ihe US8 Silver LdiIioh cable (also sold separaIely), which is
used Io cohhecI Io a compuIer.
Connecting before 5ending or Receiving
Usihg !irm pressure, ihserI ohe ehd o! Ihe cable ihIo Ihe lihk porI o! each
uhiI. LiIher uhiI cah sehd or receive, depehdihg oh how you seI Ihem up
!rom Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh.
You cah lihk a 1I-89 1iIahium or Voyage¹ 200 Io ahoIher 1I-89 1iIahium,
Voyage¹ 200, 1I-89, or 1I-92 Plus.
Jwo Jl-89 Jitanium calculators linked together
US8 PorI
US8 uhiI-Io-uhiI cable
US8 PorI
116 Connectivity
Position so that the US8 symbols face each other, then insert the
connector.
A Jl-89 Jitanium and a Voyage' 200 linked together
US8 uhiI-Io-uhiI
cable
I/O PorI
I/O PorI
I/O uhiI-Io-uhiI
cable
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 181
í @ ^ key H 2 ^ key
E
Eulers a uuuber iu scieuliíic uolaliou. Jhe
uuuber is iulerpreled as × 10 .
Kint: |í you waul lo euler a power oí 10 wilhoul
causiug a deciual value resull, use 10^ .
Z.3í 4 ¸ Z3000.
Z.3í 9+4.1í 15 ¸ 4.1í 15
3ù10^4 ¸ 30000
^() @ ¥ s key H 2 s key
^( )
Relurus raised lo lhe power.
Ncte: 0u lhe J|·89 Jilauiuu, pressiug ¥ s lo
display e^( is diííereul írou pressiug j [L] .
0u lhe voyage 200, pressiug 2 s lo display
e^ is diííereul írou accessiug lhe characler e
írou lhe 0wERJY keyboard.
You cau euler a couplex uuuber iu r
q
polar
íoru. however, use lhis íoru iu Radiau augle
uode ouly, il causes a Domaih error iu 0egree
augle uode.
^11; ¸
^11.; ¸ Z.71ß...
^13;^Z ¸
9
^( )
Relurus raised lo lhe power oí each eleueul iu
.
^1|1,1.,0,.5|; ¸
| Z.71ß... 1 1.64ß...|
^( )
Relurus lhe ualrix expoueulial oí .
Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug raised lo lhe
power oí each eleueul. |or iuíorualiou aboul lhe
calculaliou uelhod, reíer lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
^1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸; ¸
7ßZ.Z09 559.617 456.509
6ß0.546 4ßß.795 396.5Z1
5Z4.9Z9 371.ZZZ 307.ß79
eigVc() NAIH/Natrix menu
eigVc( )
Relurus a ualrix coulaiuiug lhe eigeuveclors íor a
real or couplex , where each coluuu
iu lhe resull correspouds lo au eigeuvalue. Nole
lhal au eigeuveclor is uol uuique, il uay be
scaled by auy couslaul íaclor. Jhe eigeuveclors
are uorualized, ueauiug lhal ií v = |x1, x2, . ,
x
u
¦, lheu.
x
1
2 + x
2
2 + . + x
u
2 = 1
is íirsl balauced wilh siuilarily
lrausíorualious uulil lhe row aud coluuu uorus
are as close lo lhe saue value as possible. Jhe
is lheu reduced lo upper hesseuberg
íoru aud lhe eigeuveclors are coupuled via a
Schur íaclorizaliou.
|u Reclaugular couplex íorual uode.
jL1,Z,5,3,L6,9,Z,L5,7¸! n1 ¸
ë1 Z 5
3 ë6 9
Z ë5 7
e1ç\c1n1; ¸
ë.ß00. .767. .767.
.4ß4. .573.+.05Z.ø .573.ì .05Z.ø
.35Z. .Z6Z.+.096.ø .Z6Z.ì .096.ø
180 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
Draw5lp CAIALOG
Draw5lp , ,
0isplays lhe graph aud draws a liue usiug lhe
íoruula yì y1=slopeø(xì x1).
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode aud ZoomSId
wiudow.
L¡awS!p Z,3,ëZ ¸
DropDown CAIALOG
DropDown , { , , ...J,
0isplays a drop·dowu ueuu wilh lhe uaue
aud coulaiuiug lhe ileus 1: ,
2: , aud so íorlh. DropDown uusl be
wilhiu a Dialog...EndDlog block.
|í already exisls aud has a value wilhiu
lhe rauge oí ileus, lhe reíereuced ileu is
displayed as lhe deíaull selecliou. 0lherwise, lhe
ueuu's íirsl ileu is lhe deíaull selecliou.
wheu you selecl au ileu írou lhe ueuu, lhe
correspoudiug uuuber oí lhe ileu is slored iu lhe
variable . (|í uecessary, DropDown
creales .)
See Dialog prograu lisliug exauple.
DrwCtour CAIALOG
DrwCtour
DrwCtour
0raws coulours ou lhe curreul 30 graph al lhe z
values speciíied by or . Jhe 30
graphiug uode uusl already be sel. DrwCtour
auloualically sels lhe graph íorual slyle lo
CON1OUR LLVLLS.
By deíaull, lhe graph auloualically coulaius lhe
uuuber oí equally spaced coulours speciíied by
lhe hcohIour wiudow variable. DrwCtour
draws coulours iu addiliou lo lhe deíaulls.
Jo luru oíí lhe deíaull coulours, sel hcohIour lo
zero, eilher by usiug lhe wiudow screeu or by
sloriug 0 lo lhe hcohIour sysleu variable.
|u 30 graphiug uode.
1115;x^Z+1115;y^Zì 10! z11x,y;
¸
Lone
L10! xn1n:10! xnax ¸ 10
L10! yn1n:10! ynax ¸ 10
L10! zn1n:10! znax ¸ 10
0! nconlou¡ ¸ 0
L¡wClou¡ |L9,L4.5,L3,0,4.5,9|
¸
 use lhe cursor lo chauge lhe viewiug
augle. Press 0 (zero) lo reluru lo lhe
origiual view.
 Jo loggle belweeu diííereul graph íorual
slyles, press.
@ Í
H F
 Press X, Y, or Z lo look dowu lhe
correspoudiug axis.
Connectivity 117
A Jl-89 Jitanium and a Jl-89 linked together
7ransmitting Variables, Flash Applications, and
Folders
1rahsmiIIihg variables is a cohvehiehI way Io share ahy variable lisIed oh
Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh - !uhcIiohs, programs, eIc. You cah also IrahsmiI
Flash applicaIiohs (Apps) ahd !olders.
5etting Up the Units
Flash applicaIiohs will Irahs!er ohly beIweeh cerIaih uhiIs. For example,
you cah Irahs!er ah App !rom a 1I-89 1iIahium Io ahoIher 1I-89 1iIahium,
or !rom a 1I-89 1iIahium Io a 1I-89.
Durihg Irahsmissioh, a progress bar is displayed ih Ihe sIaIus lihe o! Ihe
receivihg uhiI. Wheh Irahsmissioh is compleIe, Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh is
updaIed oh Ihe receivihg uhiI.
Note: 8e!ore Irahs!errihg a purchased App, Ihe receivihg uhiI musI have
Ihe appropriaIe cerIi!icaIe, i! required. A cerIi!icaIe is a !ile IhaI is
geheraIed by 1I. Free ahd cohcepI Apps do hoI require a cerIi!icaIe.
Rules for Iransmitting Variables, Flash Applications, or
Folders
Uhlocked ahd uharchived variables IhaI have Ihe same hame oh boIh Ihe
sehdihg ahd receivihg uhiIs will be overwriIIeh !rom Ihe sehdihg uhiI.
I/O PorI
I/O PorI
I/O uhiI-Io-uhiI cable
118 Connectivity
Locked variables IhaI have Ihe same hame oh boIh Ihe sehdihg ahd
receivihg uhiIs musI be uhlocked oh Ihe receivihg uhiI be!ore Ihey cah
be overwriIIeh !rom Ihe sehdihg uhiI. I! archived variables have Ihe same
hames oh boIh Ihe sehdihg ahd receivihg uhiIs, a message asks you Io
coh!irm IhaI you will allow Ihe variables Io be overwriIIeh.
Canceling a Iransmission
From eiIher Ihe sehdihg or receivihg uhiI:
lf you select: What happens:
Uhlocked variable 1he variable is IrahsmiIIed Io Ihe currehI !older
ahd iI remaihs uhlocked oh Ihe receivihg uhiI.
Locked variable 1he variable is IrahsmiIIed Io Ihe currehI !older
ahd iI remaihs locked oh Ihe receivihg uhiI.
Archived variable 1he variable is IrahsmiIIed Io Ihe currehI !older
ahd iI remaihs archived oh Ihe receivihg uhiI.
Uhlocked Flash
applicaIioh
I! Ihe receivihg uhiI has Ihe correcI cerIi!icaIioh,
Ihe Flash applicaIioh is IrahsmiIIed. II remaihs
uhlocked oh Ihe receivihg uhiI.
Locked Flash
applicaIioh
I! Ihe receivihg uhiI has Ihe correcI cerIi!icaIioh,
Ihe Flash applicaIioh is IrahsmiIIed. II remaihs
locked oh Ihe receivihg uhiI.
Uhlocked Folder 1he !older ahd iIs selecIed cohIehIs are
IrahsmiIIed. 1he !older remaihs uhlocked oh Ihe
receivihg uhiI.
Locked Folder 1he !older ahd iIs selecIed cohIehIs are
IrahsmiIIed. 1he !older becomes uhlocked oh
Ihe receivihg uhiI.
1. Press .
Ah error message is displayed.
2. Press or .
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 179
dotP( , )
Relurus lhe "dol" producl oí lwo veclors.
Bolh uusl be row veclors, or bolh uusl be
coluuu veclors.
dolP1ja,b,c¸,jd,e,1¸; ¸
aød + bøe + cø1
dolP1j1,Z,3¸,j4,5,6¸; ¸ 3Z
DrawFunc CAIALOG
DrawFunc
0raws as a íuucliou, usiug x as lhe
iudepeudeul variable.
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode aud ZoomSId
wiudow.
L¡aw!unc 1.Z5xùcos1x; ¸
Drawlnv CAIALOG
Drawlnv
0raws lhe iuverse oí by plolliug x
values ou lhe y axis aud y values ou lhe x axis.
x is lhe iudepeudeul variable.
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode aud ZoomSId
wiudow.
L¡aw1nv 1.Z5xùcos1x; ¸
DrawParm CAIALOG
DrawParm ,
[, ] [, ] [, ]
0raws lhe parauelric equalious aud
, usiug I as lhe iudepeudeul variable.
0eíaulls íor , , aud are lhe curreul
selliugs íor lhe wiudow variables Imih, Imax,
aud IsIep. Speciíyiug values does uol aller lhe
wiudow selliugs. |í lhe curreul graphiug uode is
uol parauelric, lhese lhree arguueuls are
required.
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode aud ZoomSId
wiudow.
L¡awPa¡n
lùcos1l;,lùs1n1l;,0,10,.1 ¸
DrawPol CAIALOG
DrawPol [, q ] [, q ] [, q ]
0raws lhe polar graph oí , usiug qas
lhe iudepeudeul variable.
0eíaulls íor q , q , aud q are lhe curreul
selliugs íor lhe wiudow variables qmih, qmax,
aud qsIep. Speciíyiug values does uol aller lhe
wiudow selliugs. |í lhe curreul graphiug uode is
uol polar, lhese lhree arguueuls are required.
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode aud ZoomSId
wiudow.
L¡awPo! 5ùcos13ùq;,0,3.5,.1
¸
178 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
DispG CAIALOG
DispG
0isplays lhe curreul couleuls oí lhe Craph screeu.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
Prograu segueul.
©
:5ùcos1x;! y11x;
:ë10! xn1n
:10! xnax
:ë5! yn1n
:5! ynax
:L1spü
©
DispHome CAIALOG
DispHome
0isplays lhe curreul couleuls oí lhe houe screeu.
Prograu segueul.
©
:L1sp "Tle ¡esu!l 1s: ",xx
:Pause "P¡ess £nle¡ lo qu1l"
:L1sphone
:£ndP¡çn
DispIbl CAIALOG
DispIbl
0isplays lhe curreul couleuls oí lhe Jable screeu.
Ncte: Jhe cursor pad is aclive íor scrolliug. Press
N or ¸ lo resuue execuliou ií iu a
prograu.
5ùcos1x;! y11x; ¸
L1spTb! ¸
4DN5 NAIH/Angle menu
4DN5
4DN5
4DN5
|ulerprels lhe arguueul as au augle aud displays
lhe equivaleul 0MS ( ¡ ¢ £) uuuber.
See ¡, ', " ou page 27S íor 0MS (degree, uiuules,
secouds) íorual.
Ncte. 4DN5 will couverl írou radiaus lo degrees
wheu used iu radiau uode. |í lhe iupul is
íollowed by a degree syubol ( ¡ ), uo couversiou
will occur. You cau use 4DN5 ouly al lhe eud oí
au eulry liue.
|u 0egree augle uode.
45.371 4LlS ¸ 45óZZ`15.6"
|45.371,60| 4LlS ¸
|45óZZ`15.6" 60ó|
dotP() NAIH/Natrix/Vector ops menu
dotP( , )
Relurus lhe "dol" producl oí lwo lisls.
dolP1|a,b,c|,|d,e,1|; ¸
aød + bøe + cø1
dolP1|1,Z|,|5,6|; ¸ 17
Connectivity 119
Common Error and Notification Nessages
5hown on: Nessage and Description:
Sehdihg uhiI
1his is displayed a!Ier several secohds i!:
º A cable is hoI aIIached Io Ihe sehdihg uhiI's
lihk porI.
- or -
º A receivihg uhiI is hoI aIIached Io Ihe oIher
ehd o! Ihe cable.
- or -
º 1he receivihg uhiI is hoI seI up Io receive.
Press or Io cahcel Ihe Irahsmissioh.
Note: 1he sehdihg uhiI may hoI always display Ihis
message. IhsIead, iI may remaih BU5Y uhIil you
cahcel Ihe Irahsmissioh.
Sehdihg uhiI
1he receivihg uhiI does hoI have Ihe correcI
cerIi!icaIioh !or Ihe operaIihg sysIem (OS) or Flash
applicaIioh beihg sehI.
120 Connectivity
Deleting Variables, Flash Applications, or Folders
1. Press Io display Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh.
2. SelecI Ihe variables, !olders, or Flash applicaIiohs Io deleIe.
º 1o selecI a sihgle variable, Flash applicaIioh, or !older, move Ihe
cursor Io highlighI iI ahd press Io place a checkmark ( )
beside iI.
- I! oh Ihe de!aulI VAR-LlNK screeh, Ihis selecIs Ihe !older ahd
iIs cohIehIs. Collapsed !olders become expahded wheh
selecIed.
- I! selecIihg a Flash App (!rom Ihe F7 Iab), Ihis selecIs Ihe
App !older ahd iIs cohIehIs. A checkmark appears beside
Ihe !older, buI hoI beside Ihe cohIehIs. Collapsed Flash App
!olders do hoI auIomaIically become expahded.
Note: You cahhoI deleIe Ihe Nain !older.
Receivihg uhiI
1he receivihg uhiI has a variable wiIh Ihe same
hame as Ihe speci!ied variable beihg sehI.
º 1o overwriIe Ihe exisIihg variable, press .
(8y de!aulI, Overwrite = YE5.)
º 1o sIore Ihe variable Io a di!!erehI hame, seI
Overwrite = NO. Ih Ihe New Name ihpuI box,
Iype a variable hame IhaI does hoI exisI ih Ihe
receivihg uhiI. 1heh press Iwice.
º 1o skip Ihis variable ahd cohIihue wiIh Ihe hexI
ohe, seI Overwrite = 5KlP ahd press .
º 1o cahcel Ihe Irahsmissioh, press .
Receivihg uhiI
1he receivihg uhiI does hoI have ehough memory
!or whaI is beihg sehI. Press or Io cahcel
Ihe Irahsmissioh.
5hown on: Nessage and Description:
New Name is acIive ohly i! you
chahge OverwriIe Io NO.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 177
Dialog CAIALOG
Dialog
EndDlog
Ceuerales a dialog box wheu lhe prograu is
execuled.
cau be eilher a siugle slaleueul or a series
oí slaleueuls separaled wilh lhe "." characler.
valid oplious iu lhe _|/0, 1.0ialog ueuu
ileu iu lhe Prograu Edilor are 1:1exI, 2:RequesI,
4:DropDowh, aud 7:1iIle.
Jhe variables iu a dialog box cau be giveu values
lhal will be displayed as lhe deíaull (or iuilial)
value. |í ¸ is pressed, lhe variables are
updaled írou lhe dialog box aud variable ok is
sel lo 1. |í N is pressed, ils variables are uol
updaled, aud sysleu variable ok is sel lo zero.
Prograu lisliug.
:L!oçlesl1;
:P¡çn
:L1a!oç
:T1l!e "Tl1s 1s a d1a!oç box"
:Requesl "\ou¡ nane",Sl¡1
:L¡opdown "lonll you we¡e bo¡n",
seq1sl¡1nç11;,1,1,1Z;,\a¡1
:£ndL!oç
:£ndP¡çn

dim() NAIH/Natrix/Dimensions menu
dim( )
Relurus lhe diueusiou oí .
d1n1|0,1,Z|; ¸ 3
dim( )
Relurus lhe diueusious oí as a lwo·
eleueul lisl }rows, coluuus}.
d1n1j1,ë1,Z,ëZ,3,5¸; ¸ |Z 3|
dim( )
Relurus lhe uuuber oí characlers coulaiued iu
characler slriug .
d1n1"he!!o"; ¸ 5
d1n1"he!!o"¿" lle¡e"; ¸ 11
Disp CAIALOG
Disp [ ] [, ] ...
0isplays lhe curreul couleuls oí lhe Prograu |/0
screeu. |í oue or uore is speciíied,
each expressiou or characler slriug is displayed
ou a separale liue oí lhe Prograu |/0 screeu.
^u expressiou cau iuclude couversiou operalious
such as 4DD aud 4Rect. You cau also use lhe 4
operalor lo períoru uuil aud uuuber base
couversious.
|í PreIIy PrihI = ON, expressious are displayed iu
prelly priul.
|rou lhe Prograu |/0 screeu, you cau press _lo
display lhe houe screeu, or a prograu cau use
DispHome.
L1sp "he!!o" ¸ he!!o
L1sp cos1Z.3; ¸ ë.666.
|1,Z,3,4|! ¡1 ¸
L1sp ¡1 ¸ |1 Z 3 4|
L1sp 1ß0_n1n 4_l¡ ¸ 3.ø_l¡
Ncte: Jo lype au uuderscore ( _ ), press.
@ ¥
H 2
Jo lype 4, press 2 .
176 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
de5olve( and and
, ,
)
Relurus a parlicular soluliou lhal salisíies
aud has speciíied values al lwo
diííereul poiuls.
deSo!ve1w``ì Zw`1x+19+Z1x^Z;w~
xù ^1x; and w1p16;~0 and
w1p13;~0,x,w; ¸
w~

p
3øxøcos13øx;
10
ì

p
6øxøs1n13øx;
10
+
x 
x
10
det() NAIH/Natrix menu
det( |, ¦)
Relurus lhe deleruiuaul oí .
0plioually, auy ualrix eleueul is lrealed as zero
ií ils absolule value is less lhau . Jhis lolerauce
is used ouly ií lhe ualrix has íloaliug·poiul
eulries aud does uol coulaiu auy syubolic
variables lhal have uol beeu assigued a value.
0lherwise, is iguored.
 |í you use ¥ ¸ or sel lhe uode lo
LxacI/Approx=APPROXIMA1L, coupulalious
are doue usiug íloaliug·poiul arilhuelic.
 |í is ouilled or uol used, lhe deíaull
lolerauce is calculaled as.
5Lë14 ùmax(dim( ))
ùrowNorm( )
del1ja,b,c,d¸; ¸ aød ì bøc
del1j1,Z,3,4¸; ¸ ëZ
del11denl1ly13; ì xùj1,ëZ,3,
ëZ,4,1,ë6,ëZ,7¸; ¸
ë19ßøxòì 55øxñ+ 1Zøx ì 1;
j1£Z0,1,0,1¸! nal1 j
1.£Z0 1
0 1
¸
del1nal1; ¸ 0
del1nal1,.1; ¸ 1.£Z0
diag() NAIH/Natrix menu
diag( )
diag( )
diag( )
Relurus a ualrix wilh lhe values iu lhe arguueul
lisl or ualrix iu ils uaiu diagoual.
d1aç1|Z,4,6|; ¸
Z 0 0
0 4 0
0 0 6
diag( )
Relurus a row ualrix coulaiuiug lhe eleueuls
írou lhe uaiu diagoual oí .
uusl be square.
j4,6,ß,1,Z,3,5,7,9¸ ¸
4 6 ß
1 Z 3
5 7 9
d1aç1ans11;; ¸ j4 Z 9¸
Connectivity 121
º 1o selecI mulIiple variables, Flash applicaIiohs, or !olders
highlighI each ohe ahd press Io place a checkmark ( ) beside
iI. Use agaih Io deselecI ahy IhaI you do hoI wahI Io
IrahsmiI.
º 1o selecI all variables, Flash applicaIiohs, or !olders use
All 1:5elect All.
3. Press ahd choose 1:Delete.
- or -
Press . A coh!irmaIioh message appears.
4. Press Io coh!irm Ihe deleIioh.
Where to Get Flash Applications (Apps)
For up-Io-daIe ih!ormaIioh abouI available Flash applicaIiohs, check Ihe
1exas IhsIrumehIs Web siIe aI educaIioh.Ii.com.
Mahy Apps ho lohger require a cerIi!icaIe. I! you Iry Io Irahs!er ah App
!rom ohe uhiI Io ahoIher ahd receive ah Unlicensed O5 or Flash
application message, Iry dowhloadihg Ihe App agaih !rom Ihe 1exas
IhsIrumehIs Web siIe aI educaIioh.Ii.com.
You cah dowhload a Flash applicaIioh ahd/or cerIi!icaIe !rom Ihe 1exas
IhsIrumehIs Web siIe Io a compuIer, ahd use a Io ihsIall Ihe applicaIioh
or cerIi!icaIe oh your 1I-89 1iIahium.
For Flash App ihsIallaIioh ihsIrucIiohs, see educaIioh.Ii.com/guides.
7ransmitting Variables under Program Control
You cah use a program cohIaihihg GetCalc ahd 5endCalc Io IrahsmiI a
variable !rom ohe device Io ahoIher.
5endCalc sehds a variable Io Ihe lihk porI, where a lihked device cah
receive Ihe variable. 1he lihked device musI be oh Ihe Home screeh or
musI execuIe GetCalc !rom a program.
You cah use opIiohal parameIers wiIh Ihe SehdCalc or GeICalc commahd
Io speci!y eiIher Ihe US8 porI or I/O porI. (See Appehdix A !or deIails.) I!
you do hoI ihclude Ihese parameIers, Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium commuhicaIes
Ihrough Ihe US8 porI.
Ihe "Chat" Program
1he !ollowihg program uses GetCalc ahd 5endCalc. 1he program seIs up
Iwo loops IhaI leI Ihe lihked devices Iake Iurhs sehdihg ahd
receivihg/displayihg a variable hamed msg. lnput5tr leIs each user ehIer
a message ih Ihe msg variable
122 Connectivity
Notes:
SeIs up Ihis uhiI Io receive ahd display Ihe variable msg.
1heh leIs Ihis user ehIer a message ih msg ahd sehd iI.
Loop execuIed by Ihe uhiI IhaI receives Ihe !irsI message.
LeIs Ihis user ehIer a message ih msg ahd sehd iI.
1heh seIs up Ihis uhiI Io receive ahd display msg.
Loop execuIed by Ihe uhiI IhaI sehds Ihe !irsI message.
1o syhchrohize GetCalc ahd 5endCalc, Ihe loops are arrahged so IhaI Ihe receivihg
uhiI execuIes GetCalc while Ihe sehdihg uhiI is waiIihg !or Ihe user Io ehIer a
message.
Running the Program
1his procedure assumes IhaI:
º 1he Iwo devices are lihked wiIh Ihe cohhecIihg cable.
º 1he ChaI program is loaded oh boIh devices.
- Use each device's Program LdiIor Io ehIer Ihe program.
- or -
: Chat ( )
: Pr gm
: Cl r I O
: Di sp "On f i r st uni t t o send, ", "
ent er 1; ", " On f i r st t o r ecei ve, "
: I nput St r " ent er 0" , msg
: I f msg="0" Then
: Whi l e t r ue
: Get Cal c msg
: Di sp msg
: I nput St r msg
: SendCal c msg
: EndWhi l e
: El se
: Whi l e t r ue
: I nput St r msg
: SendCal c msg
: Get Cal c msg
: Di sp msg
: EndWhi l e
: EndI f
: EndPr gm
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 17S
^pply solve() lo au iuplicil soluliou ií you waul
lo lry lo couverl il lo oue or uore equivaleul
explicil solulious.
deSo!ve1y`~1cos1y;;^Zùx,x,y;
¸
lan1y;~

Z
+93
wheu coupariug your resulls wilh lexlbook or
uauual solulious, be aware lhal diííereul
uelhods iulroduce arbilrary couslauls al diííereul
poiuls iu lhe calculaliou, which uay produce
diííereul geueral solulious.
so!ve1ans11;,y; ¸
y~lanê
'
xñ+Zø93
Z ·
+9n1øp
Ncte: Jo lype au © syubol, press.
@ ¥ §
H 2 R
ans11;|93~cì 1 and 9n1~0 ¸
y~lanê
'
xñ+Zø1cì 1;
Z ·
de5olve( and ,
, )

Relurus a parlicular soluliou lhal salisíies
aud . Jhis is usually
easier lhau deleruiuiug a geueral soluliou,
subsliluliug iuilial values, solviug íor lhe arbilrary
couslaul, aud lheu subsliluliug lhal value iulo
lhe geueral soluliou.
is au equaliou oí lhe íoru.
( ) =
Jhe aud
cau be variables such as x0
aud y0 lhal have uo slored values. |uplicil
diííereulialiou cau help veriíy iuplicil solulious.
s1n1y;~1yù ^1x;+cos1y;;y`! ode
¸
s1n1y;~1
x
øy+cos1y;;øy`
deSo!ve1ode and
y10;~0,x,y;! so!n ¸
ë1Zøs1n1y;+yñ;
Z
~ë1
x
ì 1;ø
ëx
øs1n1y;
so!n|x~0 and y~0 ¸ l¡ue
1¡1çll1eq;ì !e1l1eq;,x;1
1 1!e1l1eq;ì ¡1çll1eq;,y;;
! 1npd111eq,x,y; ¸
Lone
ode|y`~1npd111so!n,x,y; ¸
l¡ue
Le!\a¡ ode,so!n ¸ Lone
de5olve( and and
, ,
)
Relurus a parlicular soluliou lhal salisíies
aud has a speciíied value oí lhe
depeudeul variable aud ils íirsl derivalive al oue
poiul.
deSo!ve1y``~y^1ë11Z; and
y10;~0 and y`10;~0,l,y; ¸
Zøy
314
3
~l
so!ve1ans11;,y; ¸
y~
Z
Z13
ø13øl;
413
4
and l‚0
|or , use lhe íoru.
( ) =
|or , use lhe íoru.
' ( ) =
174 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
Define ( ) = Prgm
EndPrgm
Creales as a prograu or subprograu,
bul cauuol reluru a resull usiug Return. Cau
execule a block oí uulliple slaleueuls.
cau be eilher a siugle slaleueul or a series
oí slaleueuls separaled wilh lhe "." characler.
also cau iuclude expressious aud
iuslruclious (such as lf, Ihen, Else, aud For)
wilhoul reslriclious.
Ncte: |l is usually easier lo aulhor aud edil a
prograu block iu lhe Prograu Edilor ralher lhau
ou lhe eulry liue.
Le11ne !1sl1npl1;~p¡çn:¡oca!
n,1,sl¡1,nun:1npulSl¡ "£nle¡
nane o1 !1sl",sl¡1:1npul
"lo. o1 e!enenls",n:!o¡
1,1,n,1:1npul "e!enenl
"¿sl¡1nç11;,nun:
nun! ]sl¡1j1¸:£nd!o¡:£ndP¡çn
¸
Lone
!1sl1npl1; ¸ £nle¡ nane o1 !1sl
DelFold CAIALOG
DelFold [, ] [, ] ...
0eleles user·deíiued íolders wilh lhe uaues
elc. ^u error uessage is
displayed ií lhe íolders coulaiu auy variables.
Ncte: You cauuol delele lhe maih íolder.
lew!o!d çanes ¸ Lone
(creales lhe íolder çanes)
Le!!o!d çanes ¸ Lone
(deleles lhe íolder çanes)
DelVar CAIALOG
DelVar [, ] [, ] ...
0eleles lhe speciíied variables írou ueuory.
Z! a ¸ Z
1a+Z;^Z ¸ 16
Le!\a¡ a ¸ Lone
1a+Z;^Z ¸ 1a + Z;ñ
de5olve() NAIH/Calculus menu
de5olve( , ,
)
Relurus au equaliou lhal explicilly or iuplicilly
speciíies a geueral soluliou lo lhe 1sl· or 2ud·
order ordiuary diííereulial equaliou (00E). |u lhe
00E.
 use a priue syubol ( ' , press 2 È ) lo
deuole lhe 1sl derivalive oí lhe depeudeul
variable wilh respecl lo lhe iudepeudeul
variable.
 use lwo priue syubols lo deuole lhe
correspoudiug secoud derivalive.
Jhe ' syubol is used íor derivalives wilhiu
de5olve() ouly. |u olher cases, use ( ) .
Jhe geueral soluliou oí a 1sl·order equaliou
coulaius au arbilrary couslaul oí lhe íoru © ,
where is au iuleger suííix írou 1 lhrough 2SS.
Jhe suííix resels lo 1 wheu you use ClrHome or
_8: Clear Home. Jhe soluliou oí a 2ud·order
equaliou coulaius lwo such couslauls.
Ncte: Jo lype a priue syubol ( ' ), press
2 È .
deSo!ve1y``+Zy`+y~x^Z,x,y;¸
y~191øx+9Z;ø
ë x
+xñì 4øx+6
¡1çll1ans11;;! lenp ¸
191øx+9Z;ø
ë x
+xñì 4øx+6
1lenp,x,Z;+Zù 1lenp,x;+lenpì x^Z
¸ 0
Le!\a¡ lenp ¸ Lone
Connectivity 12J
- LhIer Ihe program oh ohe device ahd Iheh use VAR-LlNK Io
IrahsmiI Ihe program variable Io Ihe oIher device.
1o ruh Ihe program oh boIh devices:
1. Oh Ihe Home screeh o! each device, ehIer chat( ).
2. Wheh each device displays iIs ihiIial prompI, respohd as showh
below.
3. 1ake Iurhs Iypihg a message ahd pressihg Io sehd Ihe variable
msg Io Ihe oIher device.
5topping the Program
8ecause Ihe Chat program seIs up ah ih!ihiIe loop oh boIh devices, press
(oh boIh devices) Io break Ihe program. I! you press Io
ackhowledge Ihe error message, Ihe program sIops oh Ihe Program I/O
screeh. Press or Io reIurh Io Ihe Home screeh.
Upgrading the Operating 5ystem (O5)
You cah upgrade Ihe OS oh your 1I-89 1iIahium usihg your compuIer. You
cah also Irahs!er Ihe OS !rom ohe uhiI Io ahoIher idehIical model (!or
example, !rom a 1I-89 1iIahium Io a 1I-89 1iIahium or !rom a Voyage¹
200 Io a Voyage¹ 200).
IhsIallihg OS so!Iware reseIs all device memory Io Ihe origihal !acIory
seIIihgs. 1his meahs IhaI all user-de!ihed variables (ih boIh RAM ahd Ihe
user daIa archive), !uhcIiohs, programs, lisIs, ahd !olders (excepI Ihe
Maih !older) will be deleIed. II is possible IhaI Flash applicaIiohs could
also be deleIed. You should use 1I CohhecI so!Iware Io back up your daIa
Io your compuIer be!ore ihsIallihg a hew OS oh your calculaIor.
See Ihe imporIahI ih!ormaIioh cohcerhihg baIIeries be!ore per!ormihg
ah OS upgrade.
lmportant Operating 5ystem Download lnformation
New baIIeries should be ihsIalled be!ore begihhihg ah OS dowhload.
On the: Iype:
Device IhaI will sehd Ihe !irsI
message.
1 ahd press .
Device IhaI will receive Ihe !irsI
message.
0 ahd press .
124 Connectivity
Wheh ih OS dowhload mode, Ihe AuIomaIic Power Dowh¹ (APD¹)
!eaIure does hoI !uhcIioh. I! you leave your device ih dowhload mode !or
ah exIehded Iime be!ore you acIually sIarI Ihe dowhloadihg process,
your baIIeries may become depleIed. You will Iheh heed Io replace Ihe
depleIed baIIeries wiIh hew baIIeries be!ore dowhloadihg.
I! you accidehIally ihIerrupI Ihe Irahs!er be!ore iI is compleIe, you will
heed Io reihsIall Ihe OS. Agaih, remember Io ihsIall hew baIIeries be!ore
dowhloadihg.
Backing Up Your Unit Before an Operating 5ystem
lnstallation
Wheh you ihsIall ah OS upgrade, Ihe ihsIallaIioh process:
º DeleIes all user-de!ihed variables (ih boIh RAM ahd Ihe user daIa
archive), !uhcIiohs, programs, ahd !olders.
º Could deleIe all Flash applicaIiohs.
º ReseIs all sysIem variables ahd modes Io Iheir origihal !acIory
seIIihgs. 1his is equivalehI Io usihg Ihe NENORY screeh Io reseI all
memory.
1o reIaih ahy exisIihg variables or Flash applicaIiohs, do Ihe !ollowihg
be!ore ihsIallihg Ihe upgrade:
º lmportant: IhsIall hew baIIeries.
º 1rahsmiI Ihe variables or Flash applicaIiohs Io ahoIher device.
- or -
º Use a US8 cable or 1I CohhecIiviIy Cable US8 ahd 1I CohhecI¹
so!Iware (educaIioh.Ii.com/dowhloadIicohhecI) Io sehd Ihe variables
ahd/or Flash applicaIiohs Io a compuIer.
Where to Get Operating 5ystem Upgrades
For up-Io-daIe ih!ormaIioh abouI available OS upgrades, check Ihe 1exas
IhsIrumehIs Web siIe aI educaIioh.Ii.com/dowhloadIicohhecI.
You cah dowhload ah OS upgrade or Flash applicaIioh !rom Ihe 1exas
IhsIrumehIs Web siIe Io a compuIer, ahd use a US8 compuIer cable Io
ihsIall Ihe OS or applicaIioh oh your 1I-89 1iIahium.
For compleIe ih!ormaIioh, re!er Io Ihe ihsIrucIiohs oh Ihe web.
Iransferring the Operating 5ystem
OS so!Iware will Irahs!er ohly !rom a 1I-89 1iIahium Io a 1I-89 1iIahium,
1I-89 Io a 1I-89, !rom a Voyage¹ 200 Io a Voyage¹ 200, or !rom a
1I-92 Plus Io a 1I-92 Plus.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 17J
4Dec NAIH/Base menu
4Dec
Couverls lo a deciual (base 10) uuuber.
^ biuary or hexadeciual eulry uusl always have
a 0b or 0h preíix, respeclively.
0b10011 4Lec ¸ 19
0l1! 4Lec ¸ 31
0b
0h
wilhoul a preíix, is lrealed as deciual.
Jhe resull is displayed iu deciual, regardless oí
lhe 8ase uode.
Define CAIALOG
Define ( ) =
Creales as a user·deíiued íuucliou. You
lheu cau use (), jusl as you use buill·iu
íuuclious. Jhe íuucliou evaluales usiug
lhe supplied arguueuls aud relurus lhe resull.
cauuol be lhe uaue oí a sysleu
variable or buill·iu íuucliou.
Jhe arguueul uaues are placeholders, you
should uol use lhose saue uaues as arguueuls
wheu you use lhe íuucliou.
Ncte: Jhis íoru oí Define is equivaleul lo
execuliug lhe expressiou.
! ' ·.
Jhis couuaud also cau be used lo deíiue siuple
variables, íor exauple, De!ihe a=3.
Le11ne ç1x,y;~Zxì 3y ¸ Lone
ç11,Z; ¸ ë4
1! a:Z! b:ç1a,b; ¸ ë4
Le11ne l1x;~wlen1x´Z,Zx-3,
ëZx+3; ¸ Lone
l1ë3; ¸ ë9
l14; ¸ ë5
Le11ne e1çenv!1a;~
cZe¡os1del11denl1ly1d1n1a;
j1¸;-xùa;,x; ¸ Lone
e1çenv!1jë1,Z,4,3¸; ¸
|
Zø 3 - 1
11

ë1Zø 3 + 1;
11
|
Define ( ) = Func
EndFunc
|s ideulical lo lhe previous íoru oí Define,
excepl lhal iu lhis íoru, lhe user·deíiued íuucliou
() cau execule a block oí uulliple
slaleueuls.
cau be eilher a siugle slaleueul or a series
oí slaleueuls separaled wilh lhe "." characler.
also cau iuclude expressious aud
iuslruclious (such as lf, Ihen, Else, aud For).
Jhis allows lhe íuucliou () lo use lhe
Return iuslrucliou lo reluru a speciíic resull.
Ncte: |l is usually easier lo aulhor aud edil lhis
íoru oí |uucliou iu lhe prograu edilor ralher
lhau ou lhe eulry liue.
Le11ne ç1x,y;~!unc:11 x`y Tlen
:Relu¡n x:£!se:Relu¡n y:£nd11
:£nd!unc ¸ Lone
ç13,ë7; ¸ 3
A binary number can have up to
32 digits. A hexadecimal number
can have up to 8.
Zero, not the letter O, followed by b or h.
172 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
() 2 = key or NAIH/Calculus menu
( , [, ])
( [, ])
( [, ])
Relurus lhe íirsl derivalive oí wilh
respecl lo variable . cau be a lisl or
a ualrix.
, ií iucluded, uusl be au iuleger. |í lhe order
is less lhau zero, lhe resull will be au auli·
derivalive.
() does uol íollow lhe uorual evalualiou
uechauisu oí íully siupliíyiug ils arguueuls aud
lheu applyiug lhe íuucliou deíiuiliou lo lhese íully
siupliíied arguueuls. |uslead, () períorus lhe
íollowiug sleps.
1. Siupliíy lhe secoud arguueul ouly lo lhe
exleul lhal il does uol lead lo a uou·
variable.
2. Siupliíy lhe íirsl arguueul ouly lo lhe exleul
lhal il does recall auy slored value íor lhe
variable deleruiued by slep 1.
3. 0eleruiue lhe syubolic derivalive oí lhe
resull oí slep 2 wilh respecl lo lhe variable
írou slep 1.
4. |í lhe variable írou slep 1 has a slored value
or a value speciíied by a "wilh" ([) operalor,
subslilule lhal value iulo lhe resull írou
slep 3.
13x^3ì x+7,x; ¸ 9xñì 1
'3x^3ì x+7,x,Z; ¸ 1ßøx
111x;ùç1x;,x; ¸

x
111x;;øç1x;+

x
1ç1x;;ø11x;
1s1n111x;;,x; ¸
cos111x;;

x
111x;;
1x^3,x;|x~5 ¸ 75
1 1x^Zùy^3,x;,y; ¸ 6øyñøx
1x^Z,x,ë1; ¸

3
1|x^Z,x^3,x^4|,x; ¸
|Zøx 3øxñ 4øxò|
dayOfWk() CAIALOG
dayOfWk( )
Relurus au iuleger írou 1 lo 7, wilh each iuleger
represeuliug a day oí lhe week. use dayOfWk()
lo deleruiue ou which day oí lhe week a
parlicular dale would occur.
Ncte: May uol give accurale resulls íor years
prior lo 1S83 (pre·Cregoriau caleudar).
Euler lhe year as a íour·digil iuleger. Jhe uoulh
aud day cau be eilher oue· or lwo·digil iulegers.
u~,ÛfU¹'1´4o.´.n· .
|uleger values.
1 ¬ 'uru~,
. ¬ |0ru~,
´ ¬ |u-u~,
4 ¬ U-ur-u~,
' ¬ |lu·u~,
n ¬ !·+u~,
/ ¬ '~1u·u~,
4DD NAIH/Angle menu
4DD
4DD
4DD
Relurus lhe deciual equivaleul oí lhe arguueul.
Jhe arguueul is a uuuber, lisl, or ualrix lhal is
iulerpreled by lhe Mode selliug iu radiaus or
degrees.
Ncte: 4DD cau also accepl iupul iu radiaus.
|u 0egree augle uode.
1.5ó4LL ¸ 1.5ó
45óZZ`14.3" 4LL ¸ 45.370...ó
|45óZZ`14.3",60ó0`0"| 4LL ¸
|45.370... 60|¡
|u Radiau augle uode.
1.5 4LL ¸ ß5.9ó
Connectivity 12S
1o Irahs!er Ihe OperaIihg SysIem (OS) !rom uhiI Io uhiI:
1. Lihk Iwo like uhiIs IogeIher, !or example, a 1I-89 1iIahium Io a 1I-89
1iIahium, or a Voyage¹ 200 Io a Voyage¹ 200.
2. Oh Ihe receivihg ahd Ihe sehdihg uhiI, press Io display
Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh.
3. Oh Ihe receivihg ahd Ihe sehdihg uhiI, press Link Io display Ihe
mehu opIiohs.
4. Oh Ihe receivihg uhiI, selecI 5:Receive O5.
A warhihg message displays. Press Io halI Ihe process, or press
Io proceed. Pressihg , displays VAR-LlNK: WAlIlNG IO
RECElVE ahd BU5Y ih Ihe sIaIus lihe o! Ihe receivihg uhiI.
5. Oh Ihe sehdihg uhiI, selecI 4:5end O5.
A warhihg message displays. Press Io halI Ihe process, or press
Io sIarI Ihe Irahsmissioh.
lmportant:
º For each receivihg uhiI, remember Io back up ih!ormaIioh as
hecessary ahd ihsIall hew baIIeries.
º 8e sure boIh Ihe sehdihg ahd receivihg uhiIs are ih Ihe VAR-LlNK
screeh.
Durihg Ihe Irahs!er, Ihe receivihg uhiI shows how Ihe Irahs!er is
progressihg. Wheh Ihe Irahs!er is compleIe:
º 1he sehdihg uhiI reIurhs Io Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh.
º 1he receivihg uhiI reIurhs Io eiIher Ihe Apps deskIop or Ihe Home
screeh. You may heed Io use (lighIeh) or (darkeh) Io
ad|usI Ihe cohIrasI.
Do Not Attempt to Cancel an Operating 5ystem Iransfer
A!Ier Ihe Irahs!er sIarIs, Ihe receivihg uhiI's exisIihg OS is e!!ecIively
deleIed. I! you ihIerrupI Ihe Irahs!er be!ore iI is compleIe, Ihe receivihg
uhiI will hoI operaIe properly. You will Iheh heed Io reihsIall Ihe OS
upgrade.
lf You are Upgrading the Operating 5ystem on Nultiple
Units
1o per!orm ah OS upgrade oh mulIiple uhiIs, dowhload ahd ihsIall Ihe
OS ihIo ohe uhiI ahd Iheh Irahs!er Ihe OS upgrade !rom ohe uhiI Io
ahoIher. 1his meIhod is !asIer Ihah ihsIallihg iI oh each uhiI via a
compuIer. OS upgrades are released !ree o! charge ahd you do hoI heed
Io obIaih a cerIi!icaIe be!ore you dowhload or ihsIall Ihem.
126 Connectivity
Error Nessages
MosI error messages are displayed oh Ihe sehdihg uhiI. Depehdihg oh
wheh Ihe error occurs durihg Ihe Irahs!er process, you may see ah error
message oh Ihe receivihg uhiI.
Collecting and 7ransmitting lD Lists
1he VAR-LlNK screeh 6:5end lD List mehu opIioh allows collecIioh o!
elecIrohic ID humbers !rom ihdividual 1I-89 1iIahium, 1I-89, Voyage¹
200, or 1I-92 Plus devices.
lD Lists and Group Certificates
1he ID lisI !eaIure provides a cohvehiehI way Io collecI device IDs !or
group purchase o! commercial applicaIiohs. A!Ier Ihe IDs are collecIed,
IrahsmiI Ihem Io 1exas IhsIrumehIs so a group cerIi!icaIe cah be issued.
Error Nessage Description
1he sehdihg ahd receivihg uhiIs are hoI
cohhecIed properly, or Ihe receivihg uhiI is hoI
seI up Io receive.
1he cerIi!icaIe oh Ihe receivihg uhiI is hoI
valid !or Ihe operaIihg sysIem (OS) or App oh
Ihe sehdihg uhiI. You musI obIaih ahd ihsIall a
valid cerIi!icaIe.
I! Ihe App ho lohger requires a cerIi!icaIe, you
cah dowhload iI agaih !rom Ihe 1exas
IhsIrumehIs Web siIe aI educaIioh.Ii.com ahd
Iheh ihsIall Ihe App agaih oh your calculaIor.
Ah error occurred durihg Ihe Irahs!er. 1he
currehI OS ih Ihe receivihg uhiI is corrupIed.
You musI reihsIall Ihe producI so!Iware !rom a
compuIer.
Replace Ihe baIIeries oh Ihe uhiI displayihg
Ihis message.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 171
Couplex zeros cau iuclude bolh real aud uou·real
zeros, as iu lhe exauple lo lhe righl.
Each row oí lhe resulliug ualrix represeuls au
alleruale zero, wilh lhe coupoueuls ordered lhe
saue as lhe lisl. Jo exlracl a row,
iudex lhe ualrix by | ¦.
cZe¡os1|u_ùv_ì u_ì v_,v_^Z+u_|,
|u_,v_|; ¸
11Z ì
3
Z
ø 11Z +
3
Z
ø
11Z +
3
Z
ø 11Z ì
3
Z
ø
0 0
Exlracl row 2.
ans11;jZ¸ ¸
11Z +
3
Z
ø 11Z ì
3
Z
ø
Siuullaueous cau have exlra
variables lhal have uo values, bul represeul giveu
uuueric values lhal could be subsliluled laler.
cZe¡os1|u_ùv_ì u_ì 1c_ùv_;,
v_^Z+u_|,|u_,v_|; ¸
ë1
1ì 4øc_+1;
Z
4

1ì 4øc_+1
Z
ë1
1ì 4øc_ì 1;
Z
4

ë1
1ì 4øc_ì 1;
Z
0 0
You cau also iuclude uukuowu variables lhal do
uol appear iu lhe expressious. Jhese zeros show
how íauilies oí zeros uighl coulaiu arbilrary
couslauls oí lhe íoru © , where is au iuleger
suííix írou 1 lhrough 2SS. Jhe suííix resels lo 1
wheu you use ClrHome or _8:Clear Home.
|or polyuouial sysleus, coupulaliou liue or
ueuory exhausliou uay depeud slrougly ou lhe
order iu which you lisl uukuowus. |í your iuilial
choice exhausls ueuory or your palieuce, lry
rearraugiug lhe variables iu lhe expressious
aud/or lisl.
cZe¡os1|u_ùv_ì u_ì v_,v_^Z+u_|,
|u_,v_,w_|; ¸
11Z ì
3
Z
ø 11Z +
3
Z
ø 91
11Z +
3
Z
ø 11Z ì
3
Z
ø 91
0 0 91
|í you do uol iuclude auy guesses aud ií auy
expressiou is uou·polyuouial iu auy variable bul
all expressious are liuear iu all uukuowus,
cZeros() uses Caussiau eliuiualiou lo alleupl lo
deleruiue all zeros.
cZe¡os1|u_+v_ì ^1w_;,u_ì v_ì |,
|u_,v_|; ¸

w_
Z
+11Zø

w_

Z
|í a sysleu is ueilher polyuouial iu all oí ils
variables uor liuear iu ils uukuowus, cZeros()
deleruiues al uosl oue zero usiug au
approxiuale ileralive uelhod. Jo do so, lhe
uuuber oí uukuowus uusl equal lhe uuuber oí
expressious, aud all olher variables iu lhe
expressious uusl siupliíy lo uuubers.
cZe¡os1| ^1z_;ì w_,w_ì z_^Z|,
|w_,z_|; ¸
j ¸ .494. ë.703.
^ uou·real guess is oíleu uecessary lo deleruiue
a uou·real zero. |or couvergeuce, a guess uighl
have lo be ralher close lo a zero.
cZe¡os1| ^1z_;ì w_,w_ì z_^Z|,
|w_,z_~1+ |; ¸
j ¸ .149.+4.ß9.ø 1.5ßß.+1.540.ø
170 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
CyclePic CAIALOG
CyclePic , | | ¦ , | ¦
| ¦¦
0isplays all lhe P|C variables speciíied aud al lhe
speciíied iulerval. Jhe user has oplioual coulrol
over lhe liue belweeu piclures, lhe uuuber oí
liues lo cycle lhrough lhe piclures, aud lhe
direcliou lo go, circular or íorward aud
backwards.
is 1 íor circular or ë1 íor íorward aud
backwards. 0eíaull = 1.
1. Save lhree pics uaued pic1, pic2, aud
pic3.
2. Euler. CyclePic "pic".´..'.4.ë1
3. Jhe lhree piclures (´) will be displayed
auloualically-oue·halí secoud (.')
belweeu piclures, íor íour cycles (4), aud
íorward aud backwards (ë1).
4Cylind NAIH/Natrix/Vector ops menu
4Cylind
0isplays lhe row or coluuu veclor iu cyliudrical
íoru |r q, z¦.
uusl have exaclly lhree eleueuls. |l cau be
eilher a row or a coluuu.
jZ,Z,3¸ 4Cy!1nd ¸
jZø‡Z
p
4

cZeros() NAIH/Algebra/Complex menu
cZeros( , )
Relurus a lisl oí caudidale real aud uou·real
values oí lhal uake =0. cZeros()
does lhis by coupuliug
exp8list(c5olve( =0, ), ).
0lherwise, cZeros() is siuilar lo zeros().
Ncte: See also c5olve(), solve(), aud zeros().
0isplay 0igils uode iu Fix 3.
cZe¡os1x^5+4x^4+5x^3ì 6xì 3,x;
¸
|ëZ.1Z5 ë.61Z .965
ë1.114 ì 1.073ø
ë1.114 + 1.073ø |
Ncte: |í is uou·polyuouial wilh
íuuclious such as abs(), angle(), conj(), real(),
or imag(), you should place au uuderscore _
(@¥ , H 2 ) al lhe eud oí . By
deíaull, a variable is lrealed as a real value. |í
you use _ , lhe variable is lrealed as couplex.
You should also use _ íor auy olher variables
iu lhal uighl have uureal values.
0lherwise, you uay receive uuexpecled resulls.
z is lrealed as real.
cZe¡os1con¸1z;ì 1ì ,z; ¸
|1+ |
z_ is lrealed as couplex.
cZe¡os1con¸1z_;ì 1ì ,z_; ¸
|1ì |
cZeros({ , [, ] J,
{ , |, ¦ J)
Relurus caudidale posilious where lhe
expressious are zero siuullaueously. Each
speciíies au uukuowu whose value you
seek.
0plioually, you cau speciíy au iuilial guess íor a
variable. Each uusl have lhe íoru.
- or -
=
|or exauple, x is valid aud so is x=3+ .
|í all oí lhe expressious are polyuouials aud you
do N0J speciíy auy iuilial guesses, cZeros() uses
lhe lexical Cröbuer/Buchberger eliuiualiou
uelhod lo alleupl lo deleruiue aII couplex
zeros.
Ncte: Jhe íollowiug exauples use au
uuderscore _ ( @ ¥ , H 2 ) so
lhal lhe variables will be lrealed as couplex.
Connectivity 127
A group cerIi!icaIe allows disIribuIioh o! purchased so!Iware Io mulIiple
1I-89 1iIahium, 1I-89, Voyage¹ 200, or 1I-92 Plus uhiIs. 1he so!Iware cah
be loaded, deleIed !rom, ahd reloaded Io Ihe devices as o!Ieh as heeded
!or as lohg as Ihe so!Iware remaihs lisIed ih Ihe group cerIi!icaIe. You
may add hew ID humbers ahd/or hew commercial applicaIiohs Io a group
cerIi!icaIe.
Collecting lD Lists
You cah use ohe device Io collecI all o! Ihe IDs, or use several collecIioh
uhiIs ahd Iheh cohsolidaIe Iheir ID lisIs ohIo ohe device.
1o sehd ah ID humber !rom ohe device Io ahoIher, !irsI cohhecI Iwo uhiIs
by usihg a US8 uhiI-Io-uhiI cable or I/O uhiI-Io-uhiI cable.
Notes:
º You cahhoI view Ihe ID lisI oh Ihe sehdihg or collecIihg uhiIs.
º Lach Iime ah ID lisI is success!ully sehI !rom ohe device Io ahoIher, Ihe
ID lisI is auIomaIically deleIed !rom Ihe sehdihg uhiI.
5tep: On the: Do this:
1. CollecIihg uhiI
(Receivihg uhiI)
Display Ihe Home screeh. Press:
2. Sehdihg uhiI a. Press Io display Ihe VAR-LlNK
screeh.
b. Press Link ahd selecI 6:5end lD List.
1he sehdihg uhiI adds a copy o! iIs uhique ID
humber Io Ihe collecIioh uhiI's ID lisI. 1he
sehdihg uhiI always reIaihs iIs owh ID
humber, which cahhoI be deleIed !rom Ihe
device.
3. AddiIiohal uhiIs RepeaI sIeps 1 ahd 2 uhIil all Ihe IDs are
collecIed ohIo ohe device.
Depehdihg oh available memory ih Ihe
collecIioh device, iI is possible Io collecI over
4,000 IDs.
128 Connectivity
º I! ah ID is collecIed !rom a device Iwice, Ihe duplicaIe ID is
auIomaIically deleIed !rom Ihe lisI.
Clearing the lD List
1he ID lisI remaihs oh Ihe collecIioh device a!Ier iI is uploaded Io Ihe
compuIer. You cah Iheh use Ihe collecIioh device Io upload Ihe lisI Io
oIher compuIers.
1o clear Ihe ID lisI !rom Ihe collecIioh uhiI:
1. Press Io display Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh.
Compatibility among the 7l-89 7itanium,
Voyage¹ 200, 7l-89, and 7l-92 Plus
Ih geheral, 1I-89 1iIahium, 1I-89, Voyage¹ 200, ahd 1I-92 Plus daIa ahd
programs are compaIible wiIh each oIher, wiIh a !ew excepIiohs.
MosI !uhcIiohs o! Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium are compaIible wiIh Ihe 1I-89,
Voyage¹ 200, ahd 1I-92 Plus. 1he 1I-89 1iIahium ahd Ihe 1I-89 are
similar, excepI IhaI Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium has more memory (more room !or
Apps ahd user archive) ahd Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium has a US8 porI. 1he
Voyage¹ 200 is Ihe same as Ihe 1I-92 Plus excepI iI has more memory,
ahd Ihus more room !or applicaIiohs (Apps).
All daIa is compaIible amohg Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium, 1I-89, Voyage¹ 200,
ahd 1I-92 Plus, buI some programs wriIIeh !or ohe may hoI ruh or may
hoI ruh Ihe same oh Ihe oIher because o! di!!erehces ih Ihe device's
screeh sizes ahd keyboards ahd Ihe US8 porI oh Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium.
OIher ihcompaIibiliIes cah occur because o! di!!erehI versioh Ihe
operaIihg sysIem. 1o dowhload Ihe laIesI versioh o! Ihe operaIihg
sysIem, visiI Ihe 1exas IhsIrumehIs Web siIe aI
educaIioh.Ii.com/dowhloadIicohhecI.
2. Press Nanage ahd selecI
A:Clear lD List.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 169
CustmOff CAIALOG
CustmOff
Reuoves a cuslou loolbar.
CustmOn aud CustmOff euable a prograu lo
coulrol a cuslou loolbar. Mauually, you cau press
2 ¾ lo loggle a cuslou loolbar ou aud
oíí. ^lso, a cuslou loolbar is reuoved
auloualically wheu you chauge applicalious.
See Custom prograu lisliug exauple.
CustmOn CAIALOG
CustmOn
^clivales a cuslou loolbar lhal has already beeu
sel up iu a Custom...EndCustm block.
CustmOn aud CustmOff euable a prograu lo
coulrol a cuslou loolbar. Mauually, you cau press
2 ¾ lo loggle a cuslou loolbar ou aud
oíí.
See Custom prograu lisliug exauple.
Custom 2 ¾ key
Custom
EndCustm
Sels up a loolbar lhal is aclivaled wheu you press
2 ¾ . |l is very siuilar lo lhe IoolBar
iuslrucliou excepl lhal 1iIle aud IIem slaleueuls
cauuol have labels.
cau be eilher a siugle slaleueul or a series
oí slaleueuls separaled wilh lhe "." characler.
Ncte: 2 ¾ acls as a loggle. Jhe íirsl
iuslauce iuvokes lhe ueuu, aud lhe secoud
iuslauce reuoves lhe ueuu. Jhe ueuu is
reuoved also wheu you chauge applicalious.
Prograu lisliug.
:Tesl1;
:P¡çn
:Cuslon
:T1l!e "¡1sls"
:1len "¡1sl1"
:1len "Sco¡es"
:1len "¡3"
:T1l!e "!¡acl1ons"
:1len "11x;"
:1len "l1x;"
:T1l!e "ü¡apl"
:£ndCusln
:£ndP¡çn
Cycle CAIALOG
Cycle
Jrausíers prograu coulrol iuuedialely lo lhe
uexl ileraliou oí lhe curreul loop (For, While, or
Loop).
Cycle is uol allowed oulside lhe lhree loopiug
slruclures (For, While, or Loop).
Prograu lisliug.
:¦ Sun lle 1nleçe¡s 1¡on 1 lo
100 sk1pp1nç 50.
:0! lenp
:!o¡ 1,1,100,1
:11 1~50
:Cyc!e
:lenp+1! lenp
:£nd!o¡
:L1sp lenp
Couleuls oí Iemp aíler execuliou. 5000
168 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
|í you do uol iuclude auy guesses aud ií auy
equaliou is uou·polyuouial iu auy variable bul all
equalious are liuear iu all soluliou variables,
c5olve() uses Caussiau eliuiualiou lo alleupl lo
deleruiue all solulious.
cSo!ve1u_+v_~ ^1w_; and u_ì v_~
, |u_,v_|; ¸
u_~

w_
Z
+11Zø and v_~

w_

Z
|í a sysleu is ueilher polyuouial iu all oí ils
variables uor liuear iu ils soluliou variables,
c5olve() deleruiues al uosl oue soluliou usiug
au approxiuale ileralive uelhod. Jo do so, lhe
uuuber oí soluliou variables uusl equal lhe
uuuber oí equalious, aud all olher variables iu
lhe equalious uusl siupliíy lo uuubers.
cSo!ve1 ^1z_;~w_ and w_~z_^Z,
|w_,z_|; ¸
w_~.494. and z_~ë.703.
^ uou·real guess is oíleu uecessary lo deleruiue
a uou·real soluliou. |or couvergeuce, a guess
uighl have lo be ralher close lo a soluliou.
cSo!ve1 ^1z_;~w_ and w_~z_^Z,
|w_,z_~1+ |; ¸
w_~.149. + 4.ß91.ø and
z_~1.5ßß. + 1.540.ø
CubicReg NAIH/5tatistics/Regressions menu
CubicReg , [, [ ] [, , ]]
Calculales lhe cubic polyuouial regressiou aud
updales all lhe slalislics variables.
^ll lhe lisls uusl have equal diueusious excepl
íor .
represeuls xlisl.
represeuls ylisl.
represeuls írequeucy.
represeuls calegory codes.
represeuls calegory iuclude lisl.
Ncte: lhrough uusl be a variable uaue
or c1-c99 (coluuus iu lhe lasl dala variable
showu iu lhe 0ala/Malrix Edilor). does uol
have lo be a variable uaue aud cauuol be c1-c99
.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode.
|0,1,Z,3|! ¡1 ¸ |0 1 Z 3|
|0,Z,3,4|! ¡Z ¸ |0 Z 3 4|
Cub1cReç ¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
SlowSlal ¸
¸
¡eçeq1x;" y11x; ¸ Lone
lewP!ol 1,1,¡1,¡Z ¸ Lone
¥ %
cum5um() NAIH/List menu
cum5um( )
Relurus a lisl oí lhe cuuulalive suus oí lhe
eleueuls iu , slarliug al eleueul 1.
cunSun1|1,Z,3,4|; ¸
|1 3 6 10|
cum5um( )
Relurus a ualrix oí lhe cuuulalive suus oí lhe
eleueuls iu . Each eleueul is lhe
cuuulalive suu oí lhe coluuu írou lop lo
bollou.
j1,Z,3,4,5,6¸! n1 ¸
1 Z
3 4
5 6
cunSun1n1; ¸
1 Z
4 6
9 1Z
Connectivity 129
Link Iransmission Iable
Io
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Voyage¹
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Variables Variables OS
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Variables
1J0 Connectivity Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 167
|í you use _ , lhe variable is lrealed as
couplex.
You should also use _ íor auy olher variables
iu lhal uighl have uureal values.
0lherwise, you uay receive uuexpecled resulls.
z is lrealed as real.
cSo!ve1con¸1z;~1+ ,z; ¸
z~1+
z_ is lrealed as couplex.
cSo!ve1con¸1z_;~1+ ,z_; ¸
z_~1
c5olve( and [and ],
{ , |, ¦J)

Relurus caudidale couplex solulious lo lhe
siuullaueous algebraic equalious, where each
speciíies a variable lhal you waul lo
solve íor.
0plioually, you cau speciíy au iuilial guess íor a
variable. Each uusl have lhe íoru.
- or -
= ·
|or exauple, x is valid aud so is x=3+ .
|í all oí lhe equalious are polyuouials aud ií you
do N0J speciíy auy iuilial guesses, c5olve() uses
lhe lexical Cröbuer/Buchberger eliuiualiou
uelhod lo alleupl lo deleruiue aII couplex
solulious.
Ncte: Jhe íollowiug exauples use au
uuderscore _
@ ¥
H 2 so lhal lhe variables will be
lrealed as couplex.
Couplex solulious cau iuclude bolh real aud uou·
real solulious, as iu lhe exauple lo lhe righl.
cSo!ve1u_ùv_ì u_~v_ and
v_^Z~ëu_,|u_,v_|; ¸
u_~11Z +
3
Z
ø and v_~11Z ì
3
Z
ø
o¡ u_~11Z ì
3
Z
ø and v_~11Z +
3
Z
ø
o¡ u_~0 and v_~0
Siuullaueous equalious cau have
exlra variables lhal have uo values, bul represeul
giveu uuueric values lhal could be subsliluled
laler.
cSo!ve1u_ùv_ì u_~c_ùv_ and
v_^Z~ëu_,|u_,v_|; ¸
u_~
ë1
1ì 4øc_+1;
Z
4
and v_~
1ì 4øc_+1
Z

u_~
ë1
1ì 4øc_ì 1;
Z
4
andv_~
ë1
1ì 4øc_ì 1;
Z
o¡ u_~0 and v_~0
You cau also iuclude soluliou variables lhal do
uol appear iu lhe equalious. Jhese solulious
show how íauilies oí solulious uighl coulaiu
arbilrary couslauls oí lhe íoru © , where is au
iuleger suííix írou 1 lhrough 2SS. Jhe suííix
resels lo 1 wheu you use ClrHome or _
8:Clear Home.
|or polyuouial sysleus, coupulaliou liue or
ueuory exhausliou uay depeud slrougly ou lhe
order iu which you lisl soluliou variables. |í your
iuilial choice exhausls ueuory or your palieuce,
lry rearraugiug lhe variables iu lhe equalious
aud/or lisl.
cSo!ve1u_ùv_ì u_~v_ and
v_^Z~ëu_,|u_,v_,w_|; ¸
u_~11Z +
3
Z
ø and v_~11Z ì
3
Z
ø
and w_~91

u_~11Z ì
3
Z
ø and v_~11Z +
3
Z
ø
and w_~91
o¡ u_~0 and v_~0 and w_~91
166 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
csc
L1
() NAIH/Irig menu
csc
-1
( )
csc
-1
( )
Relurus lhe augle whose cosecaul is
or relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe iuverse
cosecauls oí each eleueul oí .
Ncte: Jhe resull is relurued as eilher a degree or
radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul augle
uode.
1r U-¸·-- ~r¸!- m0u-:
··
L1
'1· ¸ ´Û
1r ¹~u+~r ~r¸!- m0u-:
··
L1
'|1.4.n|· ¸

p
.

+r
L1
'1´4·

+r
L1
'1´n·
csch() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
csch( )
csch( )
Relurus lhe hyperbolic cosecaul oí or
relurus a lisl oí lhe hyperbolic cosecauls oí all
eleueuls oí .
··l'´· ¸
1
+rl'´·
··l'|1...1.4|· ¸

1
+rl'1·

..4o.
1
+rl'4·
csch
L1
() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
csch
L1
( )
csch
L1
( )
Relurus lhe iuverse hyperbolic cosecaul oí
or relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe
iuverse hyperbolic cosecauls oí each eleueul oí
.
··l
L1
'1· ¸ +rl
1
'1·
··l
L1
'|1...1.´|· ¸
+rl
L1
'1· .4'´. +rl
L1
'1´´·
c5olve() NAIH/Algebra/Complex menu
c5olve( , )
Relurus caudidale couplex solulious oí au
equaliou íor . Jhe goal is lo produce
caudidales íor all real aud uou·real solulious.
Eveu ií is real, c5olve() allows uou·real
resulls iu real uode.
^llhough lhe J|·89 Jilauiuu/voyage¹ 200
processes all uudeíiued variables lhal do uol eud
wilh au uuderscore (_) as ií lhey were real,
c5olve() cau solve polyuouial equalious íor
couplex solulious.
cSo!ve1x^3~ë1,x; ¸
so!ve1x^3~ë1,x; ¸
c5olve() leuporarily sels lhe douaiu lo couplex
duriug lhe soluliou eveu ií lhe curreul douaiu is
real. |u lhe couplex douaiu, íraclioual powers
haviug odd deuouiualors use lhe priucipal ralher
lhau lhe real brauch. Cousequeully, solulious
írou solve() lo equalious iuvolviug such
íraclioual powers are uol uecessarily a subsel oí
lhose írou c5olve().
cSo!ve1x^1113;~ë1,x; ¸ 1a!se
so!ve1x^1113;~ë1,x; ¸ x ~ ë1
c5olve() slarls wilh exacl syubolic uelhods.
Excepl iu LXAC1 uode, c5olve() also uses
ileralive approxiuale couplex polyuouial
íacloriug, ií uecessary.
Ncte: See also cZeros(), solve(), aud zeros().
Ncte: |í is uou·polyuouial wilh
íuuclious such as abs(), angle(), conj(), real(),
or imag(), you should place au uuderscore _
@ ¥
H 2 ) al lhe eud oí . By deíaull, a
variable is lrealed as a real value.
0isplay 0igils uode iu Fix 2.
exacl1cSo!ve1x^5+4x^4+5x
^3ì 6xì 3~0,x;; ¸
cSo!ve1ans11;,x; ¸
Memory and Variable Management 1J1

Nemory and Variable Nanagement
Checking and kesetting Memory
1he NENORY screeh shows Ihe amouhI o! memory (ih byIes) used by all
variables ih each daIa Iype, regardless o! wheIher Ihe variables are
sIored ih RAM or Ihe user daIa archive. You cah also use Ihis screeh Io
reseI Ihe memory.
Displaying the NENORY 5creen
Press . (1he humbers oh your NENORY screeh may vary !rom
Ihose showh.)
Prgm/Asn: Ihcludes programs wriIIeh !or Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium as well as
ahy assembly-lahguage programs you have loaded.
History: Size o! hisIory pairs saved ih Ihe Home screeh's hisIory area.
FlashApp: Size o! Flash applicaIiohs.
RAN free: Free space ih RAM.
Flash RON free: Free space ih Flash ROM.
Note: 1o display Ihe size o! ihdividual variables ahd deIermihe i! Ihey are
ih Ihe user daIa archive, use Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh.
1o close Ihe screeh, press . 1o reseI Ihe memory, use Ihe !ollowihg
procedure.
1J2 Memory and Variable Management
Resetting the Nemory
From Ihe NENORY screeh:
lmportant: 1o deleIe ihdividual (ihsIead o! all) variables, use
VAR-LlNK.
3. Wheh prompIed !or coh!irmaIioh, press .
1he 1I-89 1iIahium displays a message wheh Ihe reseI is compleIe.
Note: 1o cahcel Ihe reseI, press ihsIead o! .
4. Press Io ackhowledge Ihe message.
Displaying the VAk-LlNK 5creen
1he VAR-LlNK screeh lisIs Ihe variables ahd !olders IhaI are currehIly
de!ihed. A!Ier displayihg Ihe screeh, you cah mahipulaIe Ihe variables
ahd/or !olders.
Displaying the VAR-LlNK 5creen
Press . 8y de!aulI, Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh lisIs all user-de!ihed
variables ih all !olders ahd wiIh all daIa Iypes.
1. Press .
2. SelecI Ihe applicable iIem.
ltem Description
RAM 1:All RAN: ReseIIihg RAM erases all daIa ahd
programs !rom RAM.
2:Default: ReseIs all sysIem variables ahd modes Io
Iheir origihal !acIory seIIihgs. 1his does hoI a!!ecI
ahy user-de!ihed variables, !uhcIiohs, or !olders.
Flash ROM 1:Archive: ReseIIihg Archive erases all daIa ahd
programs !rom Flash ROM.
2:Flash Apps: ReseIIihg Flash Apps erases all Flash
applicaIiohs !rom Flash ROM.
3:Both: ReseIIihg boIh erases all daIa, programs,
ahd Flash applicaIiohs !rom Flash ROM.
All Memory ReseIIihg will deleIe all daIa, programs, ahd Flash
applicaIiohs !rom RAM ahd Flash ROM.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 16S
cot
L1
() NAIH/Irig menu
cot
L1
( )
cot
L1
( )
Relurus lhe augle whose colaugeul is
or relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe
iuverse colaugeuls oí each eleueul oí .
Ncte: Jhe resull is relurued as eilher a degree or
radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul augle
uode.
1r U-¸·-- ~r¸!- m0u-:
·01
L1
'1· ¸ 4'
1r ¹~u+~r ~r¸!- m0u-:
·01
L1
'1· ¸
p
4
coth() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
coth( )
cot( )
Relurus lhe hyperbolic colaugeul oí
or relurus a lisl oí lhe hyperbolic colaugeuls oí all
eleueuls oí .
·01l'1..· ¸ 1.1´´.
·01l'|1.´..|· ¸
1
1~rl'1·

1.ÛÛ´.
coth
L1
() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
coth
L1
( )
coth
L1
( )
Relurus lhe iuverse hyperbolic colaugeul oí
or relurus a lisl coulaiuiug lhe
iuverse hyperbolic colaugeuls oí each eleueul oí
.
·01l
L1
'´.'· ¸ ..´´.
·01l
L1
'|L....1.n|· ¸

L!r'´·
.

.'1o.
!r'/´'·
.
crossP() NAIH/Natrix/Vector ops menu
crossP( , )
Relurus lhe cross producl oí aud as a
lisl.
aud uusl have equal diueusiou, aud lhe
diueusiou uusl be eilher 2 or 3.
c¡ossP1|a1,b1|,|aZ,bZ|; ¸
|0 0 a1øbZì aZøb1|
c¡ossP1|0.1,Z.Z,ë5|,|1,ë.5,0|;
¸
|ëZ.5 ë5. ëZ.Z5|
crossP( , )
Relurus a row or coluuu veclor (depeudiug ou
lhe arguueuls) lhal is lhe cross producl oí
aud .
Bolh aud uusl be row veclors, or
bolh uusl be coluuu veclors. Bolh veclors uusl
have equal diueusiou, aud lhe diueusiou uusl
be eilher 2 or 3.
c¡ossP1j1,Z,3¸,j4,5,6¸; ¸
jë3 6 ë3¸
c¡ossP1j1,Z¸,j3,4¸; ¸
j0 0 ëZ¸
csc() NAIH/Irig menu
csc( )
csc( )
Relurus lhe cosecaul oí or relurus a
lisl coulaiuiug lhe cosecauls oí all eleueuls iu
.
1r U-¸·-- ~r¸!- m0u-:
··'p´4· ¸
1
+r'
p
4
·
1r ¹~u+~r ~r¸!- m0u-:
··'|1.p´..p´´|· ¸

1
+r'1·

1
. ¦ ´
´
164 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
cosê( )
Relurus lhe ualrix iuverse cosiue oí .
Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug lhe iuverse
cosiue oí each eleueul. |or iuíorualiou aboul lhe
calculaliou uelhod, reíer lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode aud Reclaugular
couplex íorual uode.
cosê1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸;
¸
1.734.+.064.ø ë1.490.+Z.105.ø .
ë.7Z5.+1.515.ø .6Z3.+.77ß.ø .
ëZ.0ß3.+Z.63Z.ø 1.790.ì 1.Z71.ø .
cosh() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
cosh( )
cosh( )
cosh ( ) relurus lhe hyperbolic cosiue
oí lhe arguueul as au expressiou.
cosh ( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe hyperbolic cosiues
oí each eleueul oí .
cosl11.Z; ¸ 1.ß10...
cosl1|0,1.Z|; ¸ |1 1.ß10...|
cosh( )
Relurus lhe ualrix hyperbolic cosiue oí
. Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug
lhe hyperbolic cosiue oí each eleueul. |or
iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou uelhod, reíer
lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode.
cosl1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸;
¸
4Z1.Z55 Z53.909 Z16.905
3Z7.635 Z55.301 Z0Z.95ß
ZZ6.Z97 Z16.6Z3 167.6Zß
coshê() NAIH/Hyperbolic menu
coshê( )
coshê( )
coshê( ) relurus lhe iuverse hyperbolic
cosiue oí lhe arguueul as au expressiou.
coshê( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe iuverse
hyperbolic cosiues oí each eleueul oí .
coslê11; ¸ 0
coslê1|1,Z.1,3|; ¸
|0 1.37Z... coslê13;|
coshê( )
Relurus lhe ualrix iuverse hyperbolic cosiue oí
. Jhis is lhe saue as calculaliug
lhe iuverse hyperbolic cosiue oí each eleueul. |or
iuíorualiou aboul lhe calculaliou uelhod, reíer
lo cos().
uusl be diagoualizable. Jhe resull
always coulaius íloaliug·poiul uuubers.
|u Radiau augle uode aud Reclaugular
couplex íorual uode.
coslê1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸;
¸
Z.5Z5.+1.734.ø ë.009.ì 1.490.ø .
.4ß6.ì .7Z5.ø 1.66Z.+.6Z3.ø .
ë.3ZZ.ì Z.0ß3.ø 1.Z67.+1.790.ø .
cot() NAIH/Irig menu
cot( )
cot( )
Relurus lhe colaugeul oí or relurus a
lisl oí lhe colaugeuls oí all eleueuls iu .
Ncte: Jhe arguueul is iulerpreled as eilher a
degree or radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul
augle uode.
1r U-¸·-- ~r¸!- m0u-:
·01'4'· ¸ 1
1r ¹~u+~r ~r¸!- m0u-:
·01'|1...1.´|· ¸

1
1~r'1·
L.'o4.
1
1~r'´·
Memory and Variable Management 1JJ
Folder hames (alphabeIically lisIed)
Shows ihsIalled Flash applicaIiohs
Size ih byIes
DaIa Iype
Variable hames (alphabeIically lisIed)
1o scroll Ihrough Ihe lisI:
º Press or . (Use or Io scroll ohe page aI a Iime.)
- or -
º 1ype a leIIer. I! Ihere are ahy variable hames IhaI sIarI wiIh IhaI
leIIer, Ihe cursor moves Io highlighI Ihe !irsI o! Ihose variable
hames.
Note: 1ype a leIIer repeaIedly Io cycle Ihrough Ihe hames IhaI sIarI wiIh
IhaI leIIer.
Ihis... lndicates this...
Collapsed !older view (Io righI o! !older hame).
Lxpahded !older view (Io righI o! !older hame).
You cah scroll !or more variables ahd/or !olders (ih
boIIom le!I corher o! screeh).
I! selecIed wiIh .
Locked
Archived
1J4 Memory and Variable Management
Variable Iypes as Listed on VAR-LlNK
1ypes hoI lisIed above are miscellaheous daIa Iypes used by so!Iware
applicaIiohs.
Closing the VAR-LlNK 5creen
1o close Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh ahd reIurh Io Ihe currehI applicaIioh, use
or as described below.
Manipulating Variables and Folders with VAk-LlNK
Oh Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh, you cah show Ihe cohIehIs o! a variable. You
cah also selecI ohe or more lisIed iIems ahd mahipulaIe Ihem by usihg
Ihe operaIiohs ih Ihis secIioh.
5howing the Contents of a Variable
You cah show all variable Iypes excepI A5N, DAIA, GDB, and variables
created by Flash Apps. For example, you musI opeh a DAIA variable ih
Ihe DaIa/MaIrix LdiIor.
Iype Description
A5N Assembly-lahguage program
DAIA DaIa
EXPR Lxpressioh (ihcludes humeric values)
FUNC FuhcIioh
GDB Graph daIabase
Ll5I LisI
NAI MaIrix
PlC PicIure o! a graph
PRGN Program
5IR SIrihg
IEXI 1exI LdiIor sessioh
Press: Io:
PasIe Ihe highlighIed variable or !older hame Io Ihe
cursor locaIioh ih Ihe currehI applicaIioh.
ReIurh Io Ihe currehI applicaIioh wiIhouI pasIihg Ihe
highlighIed hame.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 16J
cos() @ 2 X key H X key
cos( )
cos( )
cos( ) relurus lhe cosiue oí lhe
arguueul as au expressiou.
cos( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe cosiues oí all
eleueuls iu .
Ncte: Jhe arguueul is iulerpreled as eilher a
degree or radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul
augle uode selliug. You cau use óor ôlo
override lhe augle uode leuporarily.
|u 0egree augle uode.
cos11p14;ô; ¸
‡Z
Z
cos145; ¸
‡Z
Z
cos1|0,60,90|; ¸ |1 11Z 0|
|u Radiau augle uode.
cos1p14; ¸
‡Z
Z
cos145¡; ¸
‡Z
Z
cos( )
Relurus lhe ualrix cosiue oí . Jhis is
lhe saue as calculaliug lhe cosiue oí each
eleueul.
wheu a scalar íuucliou í(^) operales ou
(^), lhe resull is calculaled by lhe
algorilhu.
1. Coupule lhe eigeuvalues (l i) aud
eigeuveclors (vi) oí ^.
uusl be diagoualizable. ^lso, il
cauuol have syubolic variables lhal have uol
beeu assigued a value.
2. |oru lhe ualrices.
B =
l 1 0 . 0
0 l 2 . 0
0 0 . 0
0 0 . l u
aud X = |v1,v2, . ,vu¦
3. Jheu ^ = X B Xêaud í(^) = X í(B) Xê. |or
exauple, cos(^) = X cos(B) Xêwhere.
cos (B) =
cos( )
cos( )
cos( )
1
z
0 0
0 0
0 0 0
0 0
n
^ll coupulalious are períorued usiug íloaliug·
poiul arilhuelic.
|u Radiau augle uode.
cos1j1,5,3,4,Z,1,6,ëZ,1¸; ¸
.Z1Z. .Z05. .1Z1.
.160. .Z59. .037.
.Z4ß. ë.090. .Z1ß.
cosê() @ ¥ R key H 2 R key
cosê( )
cosê( )
cosê( ) relurus lhe augle whose cosiue
is as au expressiou.
cosê( ) relurus a lisl oí lhe iuverse cosiues oí
each eleueul oí .
Ncte: Jhe resull is relurued as eilher a degree or
radiau augle, accordiug lo lhe curreul augle
uode selliug.
|u 0egree augle uode.
cosê11; ¸ 0
|u Radiau augle uode.
cosê1|0,.Z,.5|; ¸
|
p
Z
1.369... 1.047...|
162 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
comDenom( ) relurus a reduced
ralio oí uuueralor aud deuouiualor expauded wilh
respecl lo . Jhe lerus aud lheir íaclors are
sorled wilh as lhe uaiu variable. Siuilar powers
oí are collecled. Jhere uighl be soue iucideulal
íacloriug oí lhe collecled coeííicieuls. Coupared lo
ouilliug , lhis oíleu saves liue, ueuory, aud
screeu space, while uakiug lhe expressiou uore
coupreheusible. |l also uakes subsequeul
operalious ou lhe resull íasler aud less likely lo
exhausl ueuory.
conLenon11y^Z+y;11x+1;
^Z+y^Z+y,x; ¸
conLenon11y^Z+y;11x+1;
^Z+y^Z+y,y; ¸
|í does uol occur iu ,
comDenom( ) relurus a reduced
ralio oí au uuexpauded uuueralor over au
uuexpauded deuouiualor. Such resulls usually save
eveu uore liue, ueuory, aud screeu space. Such
parlially íaclored resulls also uake subsequeul
operalious ou lhe resull uuch íasler aud uuch less
likely lo exhausl ueuory.
conLenon1exp¡n,abc;! conden
1exp¡n; ¸ Lone
conden11y^Z+y;11x+1;^Z+y^Z+y;
¸
Eveu wheu lhere is uo deuouiualor, lhe comden
íuucliou is oíleu a íasl way lo achieve parlial
íaclorizaliou ií factor() is loo slow or ií il exhausls
ueuory.
Kint. Euler lhis comden() íuucliou deíiuiliou aud
rouliuely lry il as au allerualive lo comDenom()
aud factor().
conden11Z34x^Zù1y^3ì y;+Z46ßx
ù1y^Zì 1;; ¸
1Z34øxø1xøy + Z;ø1yñì 1;
conj() NAIH/Complex menu
conj( )
conj( )
conj( )
Relurus lhe couplex coujugale oí lhe arguueul.
Ncte: ^ll uudeíiued variables are lrealed as real
variables.
con¸11+Z ; ¸ 1 ì Zø
con¸1jZ,1ì 3 ,ë ,ë7¸; ¸
Z 1+3ø
 ë7
con¸1z; z
con¸1x+ y; x + ë øy
CopyVar CAIALOG
CopyVar ,
Copies lhe couleuls oí variable lo |í
does uol exisl, CopyVar creales il.
Ncte: CopyVar is siuilar lo lhe slore iuslrucliou
(! ) wheu you are copyiug au expressiou, lisl,
ualrix, or characler slriug excepl lhal uo
siupliíicaliou lakes place wheu usiug CopyVar.
You uusl use CopyVar wilh uou·algebraic
variable lypes such as Pic aud C0B variables.
x+y! a ¸ x + y
10! x ¸ 10
Copy\a¡ a,b ¸ Lone
a! c ¸ y + 10
Le!\a¡ x ¸ Lone
b ¸ x + y
c ¸ y + 10
Memory and Variable Management 1JS
1. Oh VAR-LlNK, move Ihe cursor Io highlighI Ihe variable.
3. 1o reIurh Io VAR-LlNK, press ahy key.
Note: You cahhoI ediI Ihe cohIehIs !rom Ihis screeh.
5electing ltems from the List
For oIher operaIiohs, selecI ohe or more variables ahd/or !olders.
Note: Press eiIher or Io Ioggle beIweeh expahded or collapsed view
wheh you have a !older highlighIed.
Folders and Variables
Folders give you a cohvehiehI way Io mahage variables by orgahizihg
Ihem ihIo relaIed groups.
2. Press:

I! you highlighI a !older, Ihe screeh shows
Ihe humber o! variables ih IhaI !older.
Io select: Do this:
A sihgle variable or
!older
Move Ihe cursor Io highlighI Ihe iIem, Iheh press
.
A group o! variables
or !olders
HighlighI each iIem ahd press . A is
displayed Io Ihe le!I o! each selecIed iIem. (I! you
selecI a !older, all variables ih IhaI !older are
selecIed.) Use Io selecI or deselecI ah iIem.
All !olders ahd all
variables
Press Io expahd Ihe !older, Iheh press All
ahd selecI 1:5elect All.
Choosihg 3:5elect Current selecIs Ihe lasI seI o!
iIems IrahsmiIIed Io your uhiI durihg Ihe currehI
VAR-LlNK sessioh.
Choosihg 4:Expand All or 5:Collapse All expahds
or collapses your !olders or Flash applicaIiohs.
1J6 Memory and Variable Management
1he 1I-89 1iIahium has ohe builI-ih !older hamed NAlN. Uhless you
creaIe oIher !olders ahd desighaIe a user-creaIed !older as Ihe currehI
!older, all variables are sIored ih Ihe NAlN !older by de!aulI. A sysIem
variable or a variable wiIh a reserved hame cah be sIored ih Ihe NAlN
!older ohly.
8y creaIihg addiIiohal !olders, you cah sIore ihdepehdehI seIs o! user-
de!ihed variables (ihcludihg user-de!ihed !uhcIiohs). For example, you
cah creaIe separaIe !olders !or di!!erehI 1I-89 1iIahium applicaIiohs
(MaIh, 1exI LdiIor, eIc.) or classes. You cah sIore a user-de!ihed variable
ih ahy exisIihg !older.
1he user-de!ihed variables ih ohe !older are ihdepehdehI o! Ihe variables
ih ahy oIher !older. 1here!ore, !olders cah sIore separaIe seIs o! variables
wiIh Ihe same hames buI di!!erehI values.
Example of variables that
can be stored in NAlN only
Wihdow variables
(xmin, xmax, eIc.)
1able seIup variables
(Ibl5tart, Ibl, eIc.)
Y= LdiIor !uhcIiohs
(y1(x), eIc.)
NAlN
SysIem variables
User-de!ihed
a=1, b=2, c=3
!(x)=x³+x²+x
ALG102
User-de!ihed
b=5, c=100
!(x)=sih(x)+cos(x)
DAVE
User-de!ihed
a=3, b=1, c=2
!(x)=x²+6
NAIH
User-de!ihed
a=42, c=6
!(x)=3x²+4x+25
Name o! currehI !older
Variables
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 161
ClrHome CAIALOG
ClrHome
Clears all ileus slored iu lhe entry() aud ans()
houe screeu hislory area. 0oes uol clear lhe
curreul eulry liue.
while viewiug lhe houe screeu, you cau clear lhe
hislory area by pressiug _aud selecliug 8:Clear
Home.
|or íuuclious such as solve() lhal reluru arbilrary
couslauls or iulegers (©1, ©2, elc.), ClrHome
resels lhe suííix lo 1.
ClrlO CAIALOG
ClrlO
Clears lhe Prograu |/0 screeu.
ClrIable CAIALOG
ClrIable
Clears all lable values. ^pplies ouly lo lhe ASK
selliug ou lhe 1able SeIup dialog box.
while viewiug lhe Jable screeu iu Ask uode, you
cau clear lhe values by pressiug _aud selecliug
8:Clear 1able.
colDim() NAIH/Natrix/Dimensions menu
colDim( )
Relurus lhe uuuber oí coluuus coulaiued iu
.
Ncte: See also rowDim().
co!L1n1j0,1,Z,3,4,5¸; ¸ 3
colNorm() NAIH/Natrix/Norms menu
colNorm( )
Relurus lhe uaxiuuu oí lhe suus oí lhe absolule
values oí lhe eleueuls iu lhe coluuus iu .
Ncte: uudeíiued ualrix eleueuls are uol
allowed. See also rowNorm().
j1,ëZ,3,4,5,ë6¸! nal ¸
j
1 ëZ 3
4 5 ë6
¸
co!lo¡n1nal; ¸ 9
comDenom()NAIH/Algebra menu
comDenom( | ¦)
comDenom( | ¦)
comDenom( | ¦)
comDenom( ) relurus a reduced ralio oí
a íully expauded uuueralor over a íully expauded
deuouiualor.
conLenon11y^Z+y;11x+1;^Z+y^Z+y;
¸
160 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
ClockOff CAIALOG
ClockOff
Jurus lhe clock OFF.
ClockOn CAIALOG
ClockOn
Jurus lhe clock ON.
ClrDraw CAIALOG
ClrDraw
Clears lhe Craph screeu aud resels lhe SmarI
Graph íealure so lhal lhe uexl liue lhe Craph
screeu is displayed, lhe graph will be redrawu.
while viewiug lhe Craph screeu, you cau clear all
drawu ileus (such as liues aud poiuls) by
pressiug _(ReGraph) or pressiug.
@ _¡
H ˆ
aud selecliug 1:ClrDraw.
ClrErr CAIALOG
ClrErr
Clears lhe error slalus. |l sels errorhum lo zero
aud clears lhe iulerual error coulexl variables.
Jhe Else clause oí lhe Iry...EndIry iu lhe
prograu should use ClrErr or PassErr. |í lhe
error is lo be processed or iguored, use ClrErr. |í
whal lo do wilh lhe error is uol kuowu, use
PassErr lo seud il lo lhe uexl error haudler. |í
lhere are uo uore peudiug Iry...EndIry error
haudlers, lhe error dialog box will be displayed as
uorual.
Ncte: See also PassErr aud Iry.
Prograu lisliug.
:c!ea¡e¡¡1;
:P¡çn
:P!ols011:!n011:ZoonSld
:!o¡ 1,0,Z3ß
:@xù1+xn1n! xco¡d
: T¡y
: Pl0n xco¡d,!n1xco¡d;
: £!se
: 11 e¡¡o¡nun~ß00 o¡
e¡¡o¡nun~Z60 Tlen
: C!¡£¡¡ ¦ c!ea¡ lle e¡¡o¡
: £!se
: Pass£¡¡ ¦ pass on any olle¡
e¡¡o¡
: £nd11
: £ndT¡y
:£nd!o¡
:£ndP¡çn
ClrGraph CAIALOG
ClrGraph
Clears auy íuuclious or expressious lhal were
graphed wilh lhe Graph couuaud or were
crealed wilh lhe Iable couuaud. (See Graph or
Iable.)
^uy previously selecled Y= íuuclious will be
graphed lhe uexl liue lhal lhe graph is displayed.
Memory and Variable Management 1J7
You cahhoI creaIe a !older wiIhih ahoIher !older.
1he sysIem variables ih Ihe NAlN !older are always direcIly accessible,
regardless o! Ihe currehI !older.
Note: User-de!ihed variables are sIored ih Ihe "currehI !older" uhless
you speci!y oIherwise.
Creating a Folder from the VAR-LlNK 5creen
1. Press .
3. 1ype a uhique !older hame up Io eighI characIers, ahd press
Iwice.
A!Ier you creaIe a hew !older !rom VAR-LlNK, IhaI !older is hoI
auIomaIically seI as Ihe currehI !older.
Creating a Folder from the Home 5creen
LhIer Ihe NewFold commahd oh Ihe Home screeh.
5etting the Current Folder from the Home 5creen
LhIer Ihe setFold !uhcIioh oh Ihe Home screeh.
Wheh you execuIe setFold, iI reIurhs Ihe hame o! Ihe !older IhaI was
previously seI as Ihe currehI !older.
2. Press Nanage ahd selecI
5:Create Folder.
Folder hame Io creaIe. 1his hew !older is seI
auIomaIically as Ihe currehI !older.
NewFold folderName
setFold is a !uhcIioh, which requires you Io
ehclose Ihe !older hame ih parehIheses.
setFold (folderName)
1J8 Memory and Variable Management
5etting the Current Folder from the NODE Dialog Box
1. Press .
4. SelecI Ihe applicable !older. LiIher:
º HighlighI Ihe !older hame ahd press .
- or -
º Press Ihe correspohdihg humber or leIIer !or IhaI !older.
5. Press Io save your chahges ahd close Ihe dialog box.
Renaming Variables or Folders
Remember, i! you use Io selecI a !older, Ihe variables ih IhaI !older are
selecIed auIomaIically. As hecessary, use Io deselecI ihdividual
variables.
1. Oh VAR-LlNK, selecI Ihe variables ahd/or !olders.
2. Press Nanage ahd selecI 3:Rename.
Using Variables in Different Folders
You cah access a user-de!ihed variable or !uhcIioh IhaI is hoI ih Ihe
currehI !older. Speci!y Ihe compleIe paIhhame ihsIead o! ohly Ihe
variable hame.
A paIhhame has Ihe !orm:
folderName \ variableName
- or -
folderName \ functionName
2. HighlighI Ihe Current Folder seIIihg.
3. Press Io display a mehu o! exisIihg
!olders.
Note: 1o cahcel Ihe mehu or exiI Ihe dialog
box wiIhouI savihg ahy chahges, press .
3. 1ype a uhique hame, ahd press Iwice.
I! you selecIed mulIiple iIems, you are
prompIed Io ehIer a hew hame !or each
ohe.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 1S9
cFactor( ) relurus
íaclored wilh respecl lo variable .
is íaclored as uuch as possible loward
íaclors lhal are liuear iu , wilh perhaps uou·
real couslauls, eveu ií il iulroduces irralioual
couslauls or subexpressious lhal are irralioual iu
olher variables.
Jhe íaclors aud lheir lerus are sorled wilh as
lhe uaiu variable. Siuilar powers oí are
collecled iu each íaclor. |uclude ií
íaclorizaliou is ueeded wilh respecl lo ouly lhal
variable aud you are williug lo accepl irralioual
expressious iu auy olher variables lo iucrease
íaclorizaliou wilh respecl lo . Jhere uighl be
soue iucideulal íacloriug wilh respecl lo olher
variables.
c!aclo¡1a^3ùx^Z+aùx^Z+a^3+a,x;
¸
aø1añ + 1;ø1x + ë ;ø1x + ;
c!aclo¡1x^Z+3,x; ¸
1x + ‡3ø ;ø1x + ë‡3ø ;
c!aclo¡1x^Z+a,x; ¸
1x + ‡aøë ;ø1x + ‡aø ;
|or lhe AU1O selliug oí lhe LxacI/Approx uode,
iucludiug also peruils approxiualiou wilh
íloaliug·poiul coeííicieuls where irralioual
coeííicieuls cauuol be explicilly expressed
coucisely iu lerus oí lhe buill·iu íuuclious. Eveu
wheu lhere is ouly oue variable, iucludiug
uighl yield uore couplele íaclorizaliou.
Ncte: See also factor().
c!aclo¡1x^5+4x^4+5x^3ì 6xì 3;
¸
x
5
+ 4øx
4
+ 5øx
3
ì 6øxì 3
c!aclo¡1ans11;,x; ¸
1x ì .965;ø1x +.61Z;ø1x + Z.13;ø
1x + 1.11 ì 1.07ø ;ø
1x + 1.11 + 1.07ø ;
char() NAIH/5tring menu
char( )
Relurus a characler slriug coulaiuiug lhe
characler uuubered írou lhe
J|·89 Jilauiuu/voyage¹ 200 characler sel. See
^ppeudix B íor a couplele lisliug oí characler
codes. Jhe valid rauge íor is 0-2SS.
cla¡13ß; ¸ "¿"
cla¡165; ¸ "A"
checkImr() CAIALOG
checkImr( )
Relurus au iuleger represeuliug lhe uuuber oí
secouds lhal have elapsed siuce a liuer was
slarled. is au iuleger relurued írou lhe
startImr() íuucliou.
You cau also use a lisl or ualrix oí
iulegers. valid iulegers uusl íall
belweeu 0 aud lhe curreul liue oí lhe clock. You
cau ruu uulliple liuers siuullaueously.
Ncte: See also startImr() aud timeCnv().
1~·1|m·'· ¸ 14oÛo´´1'
·l-·¹|m·'14oÛo´´1'· ´4
1~·1|m·'·! |+m-·1
©
1~·1|m·'·! |+m-·.
©
·l-·¹|m·'|+m-·1·! |+m-·1!~!u-
©
·l-·¹|m·'|+m-·.·! |+m-·.!~!u-
Circle CAIALOG
Circle , , [, ]
0raws a circle wilh ils ceuler al wiudow
coordiuales ( ) aud wilh a radius oí .
, , aud uusl be real values.
|í = 1, draws lhe circle (deíaull).
|í = 0, lurus oíí lhe circle.
|í = ·1, iuverls pixels aloug lhe circle.
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus. See
also PxlCrcl.
|u a ZoomSqr viewiug wiudow.
ZoonSq¡:C1¡c!e 1,Z,3 ¸
1S8 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
BldData CAIALOG
BldData | ¦
Creales dala variable based ou lhe
iuíorualiou used lo plol lhe curreul graph.
BldData is valid iu all graphiug uodes.
|í is ouilled, lhe dala is slored iu lhe
sysleu variable sysDaIa.
Ncte: Jhe íirsl liue you slarl lhe 0ala/Malrix
Edilor aíler usiug BldData, or sysDaIa
(depeudiug ou lhe arguueul you used wilh
BldData) is sel as lhe curreul dala variable.
Jhe iucreueulal values used íor auy iudepeudeul
variables (x iu lhe exauple lo lhe righl) are
calculaled accordiug lo lhe wiudow variable
values.
|or iuíorualiou aboul lhe iucreueuls used lo
evaluale a graph, reíer lo lhe uodule lhal
describes lhal graphiug uode.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode aud Radiau augle
uode.
ßùs1n1x;! y11x; ¸ Lone
Zùs1n1x;! yZ1x; ¸ Lone
ZoonSld ¸
@ "
H ¥ "
ß!dLala ¸ Lone
O 6 ¸
30 graphiug uode has lwo iudepeudeul
variables. |u lhe sauple dala lo lhe righl, uolice
lhal x reuaius couslaul as y iucreueuls lhrough
ils rauge oí values.
Jheu, x iucreueuls lo ils uexl value aud y agaiu
iucreueuls lhrough ils rauge. Jhis palleru
couliuues uulil x has iucreueuled lhrough ils
rauge.
Ncte: Jhe íollowiug sauple dala is írou a 30
graph.
ceiling() NAIH/Number menu
ceiling( )
Relurus lhe uearesl iuleger lhal is ‚ lhe
arguueul.
Jhe arguueul cau be a real or a couplex uuuber.
Ncte: See also floor().
ce1!1nç10.456; ¸ 1.
ceiling( )
ceiling( )
Relurus a lisl or ualrix oí lhe ceiliug oí each
eleueul.
ce1!1nç1|ë3.1,1,Z.5|; ¸
|ë3. 1 3.|
ce1!1nç1j0,ë3.Z ,1.3,4¸; ¸
j
0
Z.
ë3.ø
4
¸
cFactor() NAIH/Algebra/Complex menu
cFactor( [, ])
cFactor( [ ])
cFactor( [ ])
cFactor( ) relurus íaclored
wilh respecl lo all oí ils variables over a couuou
deuouiualor.
is íaclored as uuch as possible loward
liuear ralioual íaclors eveu ií lhis iulroduces uew
uou·real uuubers. Jhis allerualive is appropriale
ií you waul íaclorizaliou wilh respecl lo uore
lhau oue variable.
c!aclo¡1a^3ùx^Z+aùx^Z+a^3+a;
¸
aø1a + ë ;ø1a + ;ø1x + ë ;ø1x + ;
c!aclo¡1x^Z+419; ¸
13øx+ëZø;ø13øx+Zø;
9
c!aclo¡1x^Z+3; ¸ xñ + 3
c!aclo¡1x^Z+a; ¸ xñ + a
Memory and Variable Management 1J9
For example:
1o see a lisI o! exisIihg !olders ahd variables, press . Oh Ihe
VAR-LlNK screeh, you cah highlighI a variable ahd press Io pasIe
IhaI variable hame Io Ihe opeh applicaIioh's ehIry lihe. I! you pasIe a
variable hame IhaI is hoI ih Ihe currehI !older, Ihe paIhhame
(folderName\variableName) is pasIed.
Listing Only a 5pecified Folder and/or Variable Iype, or
Flash application
I! you have a loI o! variables, !olders, or Flash applicaIiohs, iI may be
di!!iculI Io locaIe a parIicular variable. 8y chahgihg VAR-LlNK's view, you
cah speci!y Ihe ih!ormaIioh you wahI Io see.
From Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh:
lf Current Folder = NAlN Folders and Variables
1. Press View.
2. HighlighI Ihe seIIihg you wahI Io chahge,
ahd press . 1his displays a mehu o! valid
choices. (1o cahcel a mehu, press .)
View - Allows you Io choose variables,
Flash applicaIiohs, or sysIem variables Io
view.
Note: 1o lisI sysIem variables (wihdow
variables, eIc.), selecI 3:5ystem
Folder - Always lisIs 1:All ahd 2:main, buI
lisIs oIher !olders ohly i! you have creaIed
Ihem.
NAlN
a=1
!(x)=x³+x²+x
NAIH
a=42
!(x)=3x²+4x+25
140 Memory and Variable Management
3. SelecI Ihe hew seIIihg.
4. Wheh you are back oh Ihe VAR-LlNK VlEW screeh, press .
1he VAR-LlNK screeh is updaIed Io show ohly Ihe speci!ied !older,
variable Iype, or Flash applicaIioh.
Copying or Noving Variables from One Folder to Another
You musI have aI leasI ohe !older oIher Ihah NAlN. You cahhoI use
VAR-LlNK Io copy variables wiIhih Ihe same !older.
1. Oh VAR-LlNK, selecI Ihe variables.
2. Press Nanage ahd selecI 2:Copy or 4:Nove.
4. Press . 1he copied or moved variables reIaih Iheir origihal
hames.
Note: 1o copy a variable Io a di!!erehI hame ih Ihe same !older, use
(such as a1 a2) or Ihe CopyVar commahd !rom Ihe Home
screeh.
Locking or Unlocking Variables Folders, or Flash
Applications
Wheh a variable is locked, you cahhoI deleIe, rehame, or sIore Io iI.
However, you cah copy, move, or display iIs cohIehIs. Wheh a !older is
locked, you cah mahipulaIe Ihe variables ih Ihe !older (assumihg Ihe
variables are hoI locked), buI you cahhoI deleIe Ihe !older. Wheh a Flash
applicaIioh is locked, you cahhoI deleIe iI.
1. Oh VAR-LlNK, selecI Ihe variables, !olders, or Flash applicaIioh.
Var Iype - LisIs Ihe valid variable Iypes.
- ihdicaIes IhaI you cah scroll !or
addiIiohal variable Iypes.
3. SelecI Ihe desIihaIioh !older.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 1S7
augment( , )
augment( ; )
Relurus a uew ualrix lhal is appeuded lo
. wheu lhe "," characler is used, lhe
ualrices uusl have equal row diueusious, aud
is appeuded lo as uew coluuus.
wheu lhe "," characler is used, lhe ualrices
uusl have equal coluuu diueusious, aud
is appeuded lo as uew rows. 0oes uol
aller or .
j1,Z,3,4¸! l1 ¸ j
1 Z
3 4
¸
j5,6¸! lZ ¸ j
5
6
¸
auçnenl1l1,lZ; ¸ j
1 Z 5
3 4 6
¸
j5,6¸! lZ ¸ j5 6¸
auçnenl1l1,lZ; ¸
1 Z
3 4
5 6
avgRC() CAIALOG
avgRC( , [, ])
Relurus lhe íorward·diííereuce quolieul (average
rale oí chauge).
cau be a user·deíiued íuucliou uaue
(see Func).
is lhe slep value. |í is ouilled, il deíaulls lo
0.001.
Nole lhal lhe siuilar íuucliou nDeriv() uses lhe
ceulral·diííereuce quolieul.
avçRC111x;,x,l; ¸
11x+l; - 11x;
l
avçRC1s1n1x;,x,l;|x~Z ¸
s1n1l+Z; - s1n1Z;
l
avçRC1x^Zì x+Z,x; ¸
Z.ø1x - .4995;
avçRC1x^Zì x+Z,x,.1; ¸
Z.ø1x - .45;
avçRC1x^Zì x+Z,x,3; ¸ Zø1x+1;
4Bin NAIH/Base menu
4Bin
Couverls lo a biuary uuuber. Biuary or
hexadeciual uuubers always have a 0b or 0h
preíix, respeclively.
Z56 4ß1n ¸ 0b100000000
0l1! 4ß1n ¸ 0b11111
0b
0h
wilhoul a preíix, is lrealed as deciual
(base 10). Jhe resull is displayed iu biuary,
regardless oí lhe 8ase uode.
|í you euler a deciual iuleger lhal is loo large íor
a sigued, 32·bil biuary íoru, a syuuelric uodulo
operaliou is used lo briug lhe value iulo lhe
appropriale rauge.
A binary number can have up to
32 digits. A hexadecimal number
can have up to 8.
Zero, not the letter O, followed by b or h.
1S6 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
ans() 2 ± key
ans()
ans( )
Relurus a previous auswer írou lhe houe screeu
hislory area.
, ií iucluded, speciíies which previous
auswer lo recall. valid rauge íor is írou 1
lo 99 aud cauuol be au expressiou. 0eíaull is 1,
lhe uosl receul auswer.
Jo use ans() lo geuerale lhe |ibouacci
sequeuce ou lhe houe screeu, press.
1 ¸ 1
1 ¸ 1
2 ± « 2 ± A 0 Z ¸ Z
¸ 3
¸ 5
approx() NAIH/Algebra menu
approx( )
Relurus lhe evalualiou oí as a deciual
value, wheu possible, regardless oí lhe curreul
LxacI/Approx uode.
Jhis is equivaleul lo euleriug aud
pressiug ¥ ¸ ou lhe houe screeu.
app¡ox1p; ¸ 3.141...
approx( )
approx( )
Relurus a lisl or ualrix where each eleueul has
beeu evalualed lo a deciual value, wheu
possible.
app¡ox1|s1n1p;,cos1p;|; ¸
|0. ë1.|
app¡ox1j‡1Z;,‡13;¸; ¸
j1.414... 1.73Z...¸
Archive CAIALOG
Archive |, ¦ |, ¦ .
Moves lhe speciíied variables írou R^M lo lhe
user dala archive ueuory.
You cau access au archived variable lhe saue as
you would a variable iu R^M. however, you
cauuol delele, reuaue, or slore lo au archived
variable because il is locked auloualically.
Jo uuarchive variables, use Unarchiv.
10! a¡clesl ¸ 10
A¡cl1ve a¡clesl ¸ Lone
5ùa¡clesl ¸ 50
15! a¡clesl ¸
N
Lna¡cl1v a¡clesl ¸ Lone
15! a¡clesl ¸ 15
arcLen() NAIH/Calculus menu
arcLen( , , , )
Relurus lhe arc leuglh oí írou lo
wilh respecl lo variable .
Regardless oí lhe graphiug uode, arc leuglh is
calculaled as au iulegral assuuiug a íuucliou
uode deíiuiliou.
a¡c¡en1cos1x;,x,0,p; ¸ 3.ßZ0...
a¡c¡en111x;,x,a,b; ¸
a
b
1

x
111x;;;ñ+1 x
arcLen( )
Relurus a lisl oí lhe arc leuglhs oí each eleueul
oí írou lo wilh respecl lo .
a¡c¡en1|s1n1x;,cos1x;|,x,0,p;
|3.ßZ0... 3.ßZ0...|
augment() NAIH/Natrix menu
augment( )
Relurus a uew lisl lhal is appeuded lo lhe
eud oí .
auçnenl1|1,ë3,Z|,|5,4|; ¸
|1 ë3 Z 5 4|
Memory and Variable Management 141
2. Press Nanage ahd selecI 6:Lock or 7:UnLock.
Deleting a Folder from the VAR-LlNK 5creen
Wheh you deleIe a !older !rom Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh, all o! Ihe variables
ih IhaI !older are also deleIed. You cahhoI deleIe Ihe NAlN !older.
Deleting a Variable or a Folder from the Home 5creen
8e!ore deleIihg a !older !rom Ihe Home screeh, you musI !irsI deleIe all
Ihe variables sIored ih IhaI !older.
º 1o deleIe a variable, ehIer Ihe DelVar commahd oh Ihe calculaIor
Home screeh.
DelVar var1[, var2] [, var3] ...
º 1o deleIe ah empIy !older, ehIer Ihe DelFold commahd oh Ihe
calculaIor Home screeh.
DelFold folder1[, folder2] [, folder3] ...
Note: You cahhoI deleIe Ihe NAlN !older.
ihdicaIes a locked variable or !older ih
RAM.
ihdicaIes ah archived variable, which is
locked auIomaIically.
1. Press .
2. Press Io selecI Ihe !older(s) Io deleIe.
(1he !older's variables become selecIed
auIomaIically.)
3. Press 1:Delete or .
4. Press Io coh!irm Ihe deleIioh o! Ihe
!older ahd all iIs variables.
142 Memory and Variable Management
Pasting a Variable Name to an Application
Suppose you are Iypihg ah expressioh oh Ihe Home screeh ahd cah'I
remember which variable Io use. You cah display Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh,
selecI a variable !rom Ihe lisI, ahd pasIe IhaI variable hame direcIly ohIo
Ihe Home screeh's ehIry lihe.
Which Applications Can You Use?
From Ihe !ollowihg applicaIiohs, you cah pasIe a variable hame Io Ihe
currehI cursor locaIioh.
º Home screeh, Y= LdiIor, 1able LdiIor, or DaIa/MaIrix LdiIor - 1he
cursor musI be oh Ihe ehIry lihe.
º 1exI LdiIor, Wihdow LdiIor, Numeric Solver, or Program LdiIor - 1he
cursor cah be ahywhere oh Ihe screeh.
You cah also pasIe a variable hame Io Ihe currehI cursor locaIioh ih mahy
Flash applicaIiohs.
Procedure
SIarIihg !rom ah applicaIioh lisIed above:
I! you pasIe a variable hame IhaI is hoI ih Ihe currehI !older, Ihe
variable's paIhhame is pasIed.
1. PosiIioh Ihe cursor where you wahI Io ihserI
Ihe variable hame.
2. Press .
3. HighlighI Ihe applicable variable.
Note: You cah also highlighI ahd pasIe
!older hames.
4. Press Io pasIe Ihe variable hame.
Note: 1his pasIes Ihe variable's hame, hoI
iIs cohIehIs. Use , ihsIead o!
, Io recall a variable's cohIehIs.
5. Fihish Iypihg Ihe expressioh.
sih([
sih(a1[
sih(a1)[
sih(class\a2
Assumihg IhaI CLASS is not Ihe currehI !older, Ihis is pasIed
i! you highlighI Ihe a2 variable ih CLASS.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 1SS
AndPic CAIALOG
AndPic |, ¦
0isplays lhe Craph screeu aud logically "^N0S"
lhe piclure slored iu aud lhe curreul graph
screeu al pixel coordiuales .
uusl be a piclure lype.
0eíaull coordiuales are (0,0), which is lhe upper
leíl coruer oí lhe screeu.
|u íuucliou graphiug uode aud Y= Edilor.
y11x; ~ cos1x; C
@ _¡ Sly!e ~ 3:Squa¡e
H ˆ Sly!e ~ 3:Squa¡e
_ Zoon ~ 7:ZoonT¡1ç
_ ~ Z:Save Copy As...
Type ~ P1clu¡e, \a¡1ab!e ~
P1C1
yZ1x; ~ s1n1x;
@ _¡ Sly!e ~ 3:Squa¡e
H ˆ Sly!e ~ 3:Squa¡e
y1 ~ no cleckna¡k 1!4 lo
dese!ecl;
_ Zoon ~ 7:ZoonT¡1ç
@ "
H ¥ "
AndP1c P1C1 ¸ Lone
angle() NAIH/Complex menu
angle( )
Relurus lhe augle oí , iulerpreliug
as a couplex uuuber.
Ncte: ^ll uudeíiued variables are lrealed as real
variables.
|u 0egree augle uode.
anç!e10+Z ; ¸ 90
|u Radiau augle uode.
anç!e11+ ; ¸
p
4
anç!e1z; ¸
anç!e1x+ y; ¸
angle( )
angle( )
Relurus a lisl or ualrix oí augles oí lhe eleueuls
iu or , iulerpreliug each eleueul as a
couplex uuuber lhal represeuls a lwo·
diueusioual reclaugular coordiuale poiul.
|u Radiau augle uode.
anç!e1|1+Z ,3+0 ,0ì 4 |; ¸
1S4 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
abs() NAIH/Number menu
abs( )
abs( )
abs( )
Relurus lhe absolule value oí lhe arguueul.
|í lhe arguueul is a couplex uuuber, relurus lhe
uuuber's uodulus.
Ncte: ^ll uudeíiued variables are lrealed as real
variables.
abs1|p1Z,ëp13|; ¸ |
p
Z

p
3
|
abs1Zì 3 ; ¸ 13
abs1z; ¸ |z|
abs1x+y ; ¸ x
Z
+y
Z
and NAIH/Iest and NAIH/Base menus
and
and
and
Relurus lrue or íalse or a siupliíied íoru oí lhe
origiual eulry.
x‚3 and x‚4 ¸ x‚4
|x‚3,x 0| and |x‚4,x ëZ| ¸
|x ‚ 4 x ëZ|
and
Coupares lwo real iulegers bil·by·bil usiug au
and operaliou. |ulerually, bolh iulegers are
couverled lo sigued, 32·bil biuary uuubers.
wheu correspoudiug bils are coupared, lhe resull
is 1 ií bolh bils are 1, olherwise, lhe resull is 0.
Jhe relurued value represeuls lhe bil resulls, aud
is displayed accordiug lo lhe 8ase uode.
You cau euler lhe iulegers iu auy uuuber base.
|or a biuary or hexadeciual eulry, you uusl use
lhe 0b or 0h preíix, respeclively. wilhoul a preíix,
iulegers are lrealed as deciual (base 10).
|í you euler a deciual iuleger lhal is loo large íor
a sigued, 32·bil biuary íoru, a syuuelric uodulo
operaliou is used lo briug lhe value iulo lhe
appropriale rauge.
|u hex base uode.
0l7AC36 and 0l3L5! ¸ 0lZC16
|u Biu base uode.
0b100101 and 0b100 ¸ 0b100
|u 0ec base uode.
37 and 0b100 ¸ 4
Ncte: ^ biuary eulry cau have up lo 32 digils
(uol couuliug lhe 0b preíix). ^ hexadeciual
eulry cau have up lo 8 digils.
Alphabetical Listing of Operations
OperaIiohs whose hames are hoI alphabeIic (such as +, !, ahd >) are lisIed aI Ihe
ehd o! Ihis appehdix, sIarIihg oh page 265. Uhless oIherwise speci!ied, all examples
ih Ihis secIioh were per!ormed ih Ihe de!aulI reseI mode, ahd all variables are
assumed Io be uhde!ihed. AddiIiohally, due Io !ormaIIihg resIraihIs, approximaIe
resulIs are IruhcaIed aI Ihree decimal places (3.14159265359 is showh as 3.141...).
Important: Zero, not the letter O.
Memory and Variable Management 14J
Archiving and Unarchiving a Variable
1o archive or uharchive ohe or more variables ihIeracIively, use Ihe
VAR-LlNK screeh. You cah also per!orm Ihese operaIiohs !rom Ihe Home
screeh or a program.
Why Would You Want to Archive a Variable?
1he user daIa archive leIs you:
º SIore daIa, programs, or ahy oIher variables Io a sa!e locaIioh where
Ihey cahhoI be ediIed or deleIed ihadverIehIly.
º CreaIe addiIiohal !ree RAM by archivihg variables. For example:
- You cah archive variables IhaI you heed Io access buI do hoI
heed Io ediI or chahge, or variables IhaI you are hoI usihg
currehIly buI heed Io reIaih !or !uIure use.
Note: You cahhoI archive variables wiIh reserved hames or
sysIem variables.
- I! you acquire addiIiohal programs !or your 1I-89 1iIahium,
parIicularly i! Ihey are large, you may heed Io creaIe addiIiohal
!ree RAM be!ore you cah ihsIall Ihose programs.
AddiIiohal !ree RAM cah improve per!ormahce Iimes !or cerIaih Iypes o!
calculaIiohs.
From the VAR-LlNK 5creen
1o archive or uharchive:
1. Press Io display Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh.
2. SelecI ohe or more variables, which cah be ih di!!erehI !olders. (You
cah selecI ah ehIire !older by selecIihg Ihe !older hame.)
Note: 1o selecI a sihgle variable, highlighI iI. 1o selecI mulIiple
variables, highlighI each variable ahd press .
3. Press ahd selecI eiIher:
8:Archive Variable
- or -
9:Unarchive Variable
I! you selecI 8:Archive Variable, Ihe variables
are moved Io Ihe user daIa archive.
= archived variables
144 Memory and Variable Management
You cah access ah archived variable |usI as you would ahy locked variable.
For all purposes, ah archived variable is sIill ih iIs origihal !older, iI is
simply sIored ih Ihe user daIa archive ihsIead o! RAM.
Note: Ah archived variable is locked auIomaIically. You cah access Ihe
variable, buI you cahhoI ediI or deleIe iI.
From the Home 5creen or a Program
Use Ihe Archive ahd Unarchiv commahds:
Archive variable1, variable2, .
Unarchiv variable1, variable2, .
lf a Garbage Collection Message ls Displayed
I! you use Ihe user daIa archive exIehsively, you may see a Garbage
CollecIioh message. 1his occurs i! you Iry Io archive a variable wheh Ihere
is hoI ehough !ree archive memory. However, Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium will
aIIempI Io rearrahge Ihe archived variables Io make addiIiohal room.
Responding to the Garbage Collection Nessage
A!Ier garbage collecIioh, depehdihg oh how much addiIiohal space is
!reed, Ihe variable may or may hoI be archived. I! hoI, you cah uharchive
some variables ahd Iry agaih.
Why not Perform Garbage Collection Automatically,
without a Nessage?
1he message:
º LeIs you khow why ah archive will Iake lohger Ihah usual. II also
alerIs you IhaI Ihe archive may !ail i! Ihere is hoI ehough memory.
º Cah alerI you wheh a program is caughI ih a loop IhaI repeIiIively
!ills Ihe user daIa archive. Cahcel Ihe archive ahd ihvesIigaIe Ihe
reasoh.
Wheh you see Ihe message Io Ihe righI:
º 1o cohIihue archivihg, press .
- or -
º 1o cahcel, press .
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 1SJ
! (íaclorial) 271 BldData 1S8 CubicReg 168
cum5um() 1öS ExpReg 1Sö LinReg z0z
LnReg 203 Logistic 20S mean() 207
median() 207 NedNed 208 nCr() 210
NewData 210 NewPlot 212 nPr() 213
OneVar 214 PlotsOff 219 PlotsOn 219
PowerReg 220 ÇuadReg 22S ÇuartReg 22S
rand() 226 randNorm() 226 Rand5eed 227
5how5tat 240 5inReg 243 5ortA 246
5ortD 246 stdDev() 247 IwoVar 2S6
variance() 2S7
& (appeud) 272 # (iudirecliou) 273 char() 1S9
dim() 177 expr() 18S format() 189
in5tring() 198 left() 200 mid() 208
ord() 21S right() 229 rotate() 230
shift() zJ9 string() z4S
5tatistics
5trings
1S2 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
= 270 270 < 270
271 > 271 271
# (iudirecliou) 273 ! (slore) 277 ¦ (couueul) 278
and 1S4 ans() 1S6 Archive 1bö
checkImr() 1b9 ClockOff 1ö0 ClockOn 1ö0
ClrErr 1ö0 ClrGraph 1ö0 ClrHome 1ö1
ClrlO 161 ClrIable 161 CopyVar 1öz
CustmOff 169 CustmOn 169 Custom 169
Cycle 169 dayOfWk() 172 Define 173
DelFold 174 DelVar 174 Dialog 177
Disp 177 DispG 178 DispHome 178
DispIbl 178 DropDown 180 Else 182
Elself 1Sz EndCustm 1Sz EndDlog 1Sz
EndFor 182 EndFunc 182 Endlf 182
EndLoop 182 EndPrgm 182 EndIBar 182
EndIry 182 EndWhile 182 entry() 183
Exec 183 Exit 184 For 189
format() 1S9 Func 190 Get 190
GetCalc 191 getConfg() 191 getDate() 192
getDtFmt() 19z getDt5tr() 19z getFold() 19z
getKey() 19J getNode() 19J getIime() 193
getImFmt() 193 getIm5tr() 194 getImZn() 194
getIype() 194 getUnits() 19b Goto 19b
lf 196 lnput 197 lnput5tr 198
isClkOn() 199 ltem 199 Lbl 199
left() 200 Local 204 Lock 204
Loop 20S NoveVar 209 NewFold 211
NewProb 212 not 213 or 21S
Output z1b part() z1ö PassErr z1S
Pause 218 PopUp 220 Prgm zz0
Prompt 221 Rename 229 Request 229
Return 229 right() 229 5end 233
5endCalc 233 5endChat 233 setDate() 234
setDtFmt() zJ4 setFold() zJ4 setGraph() zJ4
setNode() 23S setIable() 236 setIime() 236
setImFmt() zJ7 setImZn() zJ7 startImr() z4ö
setUnits() 237 5top 247 5tyle 248
switch() 249 Iable zb0 Iext 2S3
Ihen 2S3 timeCnv() 2S3 Iitle 2S4
Ioolbar zbb Iry zbö Unarchiv zb7
Unlock 2S7 when() 2S8 While 2S8
xor 2S9
Programming
Memory and Variable Management 14S
Why ls Garbage Collection Necessary?
1he user daIa archive is divided ihIo secIors. Wheh you !irsI begih
archivihg, variables are sIored cohsecuIively ih secIor 1. 1his cohIihues Io
Ihe ehd o! Ihe secIor. I! Ihere is hoI ehough space le!I ih Ihe secIor, Ihe
hexI variable is sIored aI Ihe begihhihg o! Ihe hexI secIor. 1ypically, Ihis
leaves ah empIy block aI Ihe ehd o! Ihe previous secIor.
Lach variable IhaI you archive is sIored ih Ihe !irsI empIy block large
ehough Io hold iI.
Note: Ah archived variable is sIored ih a cohIihuous block wiIhih a sihgle
secIor, iI cahhoI cross a secIor bouhdary.
1his process cohIihues Io Ihe ehd o! Ihe lasI secIor. Depehdihg oh Ihe
size o! ihdividual variables, Ihe empIy blocks may accouhI !or a
sighi!icahI amouhI o! space.
Note: Garbage collecIioh occurs wheh Ihe variable you are archivihg is
larger Ihah ahy empIy block.
How Unarchiving a Variable Affects the Process
Wheh you uharchive a variable, iI is copied Io RAM buI iI is hoI acIually
deleIed !rom user daIa archive memory.
variable B
variable C
variable A
variable D
Depehdihg oh iIs size,
variable D is sIored ih
ohe o! Ihese locaIiohs.
SecIor 1
SecIor 3
SecIor 2
LmpIy
block
146 Memory and Variable Management
Uharchived variables are "marked !or deleIioh," meahihg Ihey will be
deleIed durihg Ihe hexI garbage collecIioh.
lf the NENORY 5creen 5hows Enough Free 5pace
Lveh i! Ihe NENORY screeh shows ehough !ree space Io archive a
variable, you may sIill geI a Garbage CollecIioh message.
Ihe Garbage Collection Process
1he garbage collecIioh process:
º DeleIes uharchived variables !rom Ihe user daIa archive.
º Rearrahges Ihe remaihihg variables ihIo cohsecuIive blocks.
1his 1I-89 1iIahium memory screeh shows !ree
space IhaI will be available a!Ier all "marked !or
deleIioh" variables are deleIed.
Wheh you uharchive a variable, Ihe Flash ROM
!ree amouhI ihcreases immediaIely, buI Ihe
space is hoI acIually available uhIil a!Ier Ihe
hexI garbage collecIioh.
variable A
variable D
A!Ier you uharchive
variables 8 ahd C, Ihey
cohIihue Io Iake up space.
SecIor 1
SecIor 2
SecIor 3
variable A
variable D
SecIor 1
SecIor 2
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 1S1
+ (add) 26S ì (sublracl) 266 ù (uulliply) 266
à (divide) 267 ë (uegale) 269 % (perceul) 269
! (íaclorial) 271 ‡() (sqr. rool) 273 ^ (power) 268
¡ (degree) 274 (augle) 274 ¡, ', " 27S
_ (uuderscore) 27S 4(couverl) 276 10^() z7ö
0b, 0h z7S 4Bin 1S7 4Cylind 170
4DD 17z 4Dec 17J 4DN5 178
4Hex 19ö 4Polar 219 4Rect 228
45phere z4ö abs() 1b4 and 1b4
angle() 1bb approx() 1S6 ceiling() 1S8
conj() 162 cos 163 cosê() 163
cosh() 164 coshê() 164 cot() 164
cotê() 16S coth() 16S cothê() 16S
csc() 16S cscê() 166 csch() 166
coshê() 166 E 181  1S1
exact() 183 floor() 187 fPart() 190
gcd() 190 imag() 197 int() 19S
intDiv() 198 iPart() 199 isPrime() 199
lcm() z00 ln() 203 log() 204
max() 207 min() 209 mod() 209
nCr() 210 nPr() 213 P4Rx() 216
P4Ry() 216 r (radiau) 274 R4Pq() 226
R4Pr() 226 real() 227 remain() 228
rotate() 230 round() 230 sec() 232
secê() 232 sech() 232 sechê() 233
shift() 239 sign() 240 sin() 241
sinê() z41 sinh() z4z sinhê() z4z
tan() 2S1 tanê() 2S1 tanh() 2S1
tanhê() 2S2 tmpCnv() 2S4 @tmpCnv() 2SS
xê 276
+ (add) 26S ì (sublracl) 266 ù (uulliply) 266
à (divide) 267 ë (uegale) 269 .+ (dol add) 268
.. (dol subl.) 268 . (dol uull.) 269 . / (dol divide) 269
.^ (dol power) 269 ^ (power) 268 augment() 1S6
colDim() 161 colNorm() 161 crossP() 16S
cum5um() 168 det() 176 diag() 176
dim() 177 dotP() 178 eigVc() 1S1
eigVl() 1Sz Fill 1S7 identity() 19ö
list4mat() 202 LU 206 mat4list() 207
max() 207 mean() 207 median() 207
min() 209 mRow() 209 mRowAdd() 209
newNat() 211 norm() 213 product() 220
ÇR zz4 randNat() zzö ref() zzS
rowAdd() 231 rowDim() 231 rowNorm() 231
row5wap() 231 rref() 232 simult() 240
stdDev() 247 subNat() 249 sum() z49
I 2S0 unitV() 2S7 variance() 2S7
xê 276
Nath
Natrices
1S0 Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions
[ ("with") 277 cFactor() 1S8 comDenom() 161
c5olve() 166 cZeros 170 expand() 184
factor() 186 getDenom() 192 getNum() 193
n5olve() 214 propFrac() 221 randPoly() 227
solve() 243 tCollect() 2S3 tExpand() 2S3
zeros() zö0
‰() (iulegrale) 272 () (producl) 273 G() (suu) 273
arcLen() 1S6 avgRC() 1S7  172
de5olve() 174 fNax() 188 fNin() 188
limit() 200 nDeriv() 210 nlnt() 212
' (priue) 27S seq() 234 taylor() 2S2
AndPic 1SS BldData 1S8 Circle 1S9
ClrDraw 1ö0 ClrGraph 1ö0 CyclePic 170
DrawFunc 179 Drawlnv 179 DrawParm 179
DrawPol 179 Draw5lp 180 DrwCtour 180
FnOff 188 FnOn 188 Graph 19S
Line 201 LineHorz 201 LineIan 201
LineVert 202 NewPic 211 PtChg 221
PtOff 221 PtOn 222 ptIest() 222
PtIext 222 PxlChg 222 PxlCrcl 222
PxlHorz 222 PxlLine 223 PxlOff 223
PxlOn 223 pxlIest() 223 PxlIext 223
PxlVert 224 RclGDB 227 RclPic 227
RplcPic 231 5hade 238 5toGDB 247
5toPic 248 5tyle 248 Irace 2S6
XorPic 2S9 ZoomBox 261 ZoomData 262
ZoomDec 262 ZoomFit 263 Zoomln 263
Zoomlnt 263 ZoomOut 264 ZoomPrev 264
ZoomRcl 264 Zoom5qr 264 Zoom5td 26S
Zoom5to 26S ZoomIrig 26S
+ (add) 26S ì (sublracl) 266 ù (uulliply) 266
à (divide) 267 ë (uegale) 269 ^ (power) 268
augment() 1S6 crossP() 16S cum5um() 168
dim() 177 dotP() 178 exp4list() 184
left() 200 @list() 202 list4mat() 202
mat4list() 207 max() z07 mid() 208
min() 209 newList() 211 polyEval() 219
product() 220 right() 229 rotate() 230
shift() 239 5ortA 246 5ortD z4ö
sum() z49
Quick-Find Locator
1his secIioh lisIs Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium / Voyage¹ 200 !uhcIiohs
ahd ihsIrucIiohs ih !uhcIiohal groups alohg wiIh Ihe page
humbers where Ihey are described.
Algebra
Calculus
Graphics
Lists
Memory and Variable Management 147
Memory Error When Accessing an Archived
Variable
Ah archived variable is IreaIed Ihe same as a locked variable. You cah
access Ihe variable, buI you cahhoI ediI or deleIe iI. Ih some cases,
however, you may geI a Nemory Error wheh you Iry Io access ah
archived variable.
What Causes the Nemory Error?
1he Nemory Error message is displayed i! Ihere is hoI ehough !ree RAM
Io access Ihe archived variable. 1his may cause you Io ask, "I! Ihe variable
is ih Ihe user daIa archive, why does iI maIIer how much RAM is
available?" 1he ahswer is IhaI Ihe !ollowihg operaIiohs cah be
per!ormed ohly i! a variable is ih RAM.
º Opehihg a IexI variable ih Ihe 1exI LdiIor.
º Opehihg a daIa variable, lisI, or maIrix ih Ihe DaIa/MaIrix LdiIor.
º Opehihg a program or !uhcIioh ih Ihe Program LdiIor.
º Ruhhihg a program or re!errihg Io a !uhcIioh.
Note: A Iemporary copy leIs you opeh or execuIe ah archived variable.
However, you cahhoI save ahy chahges Io Ihe variable.
So IhaI you doh'I have Io uharchive variables uhhecessarily, Ihe 1I-89
1iIahium per!orms a "behihd-Ihe scehes" copy. For example, i! you ruh a
program IhaI is ih Ihe user daIa archive, Ihe 1I-89 1iIahium:
1. Copies Ihe program Io RAM.
2. Ruhs Ihe program.
3. DeleIes Ihe copy !rom RAM wheh Ihe program is !ihished.
1he error message is displayed i! Ihere is hoI ehough !ree RAM !or Ihe
Iemporary copy.
Note: LxcepI !or programs ahd !uhcIiohs, re!errihg Io ah archived
variable does hoI copy iI. I! variable ab is archived, iI is hoI copied i! you
per!orm 6 ab.
Correcting the Error
1o !ree up ehough RAM Io access Ihe variable:
1. Use Ihe VAR-LlNK screeh ( ) Io deIermihe Ihe size o! Ihe
archived variable IhaI you wahI Io access.
2. Use Ihe NENORY screeh ( ) Io check Ihe RAM !ree size.
3. Free up Ihe heeded amouhI o! memory by:
148 Memory and Variable Management
º DeleIihg uhhecessary variables !rom RAM.
º Archivihg large variables or programs (movihg Ihem !rom RAM
Io Ihe user daIa archive).
Note: 1ypically, Ihe RAM !ree size musI be larger Ihah Ihe archived
variable.
Appendix A: Functions and lnstructions 149
Name o! Ihe !uhcIioh or ihsIrucIioh.
Key or mehu !or ehIerihg Ihe hame.
You cah also Iype Ihe hame.
SyhIax lihe shows Ihe order ahd Ihe Iype o!
argumehIs IhaI you supply. 8e sure Io separaIe
mulIiple argumehIs wiIh a comma (,).
Appendix A:
Functions and lnstructions
0uick·|iud Localor ......................................................................................... 1S0
^lphabelical Lisliug oí 0peralious ................................................................. 1S4
Jhis secliou describes lhe syulax aud acliou oí each J|·89 Jilauiuu/ voyage¹ 200 íuucliou aud iuslrucliou
lhal is iucluded iu lhe operaliug sysleu (0S). See uodules relaliug lo calculalor soílware applicalious (^pps)
íor íuuclious aud iuslruclious speciíic lo lhose ^pps.
Circle CAIALOG
Circle , , [, ]
0raws a circle wilh ils ceuler al wiudow
coordiuales ( ) aud wilh a radius oí .
, , aud uusl be real values.
|í = 1, draws lhe circle (deíaull).
|í = 0, lurus oíí lhe circle.
|í = ·1, iuverls pixels aloug lhe circle.
Ncte. Regraphiug erases all drawu ileus.
|u a ZoouSqr viewiug wiudow.
.00m'µ·:Û+··!- 1...´ ¸
ArgumehIs are showh ih italics.
ArgumehIs ih [ ] brackeIs are
opIiohal. Do hoI Iype Ihe brackeIs.
Lxample
LxplahaIioh o! Ihe !uhcIioh or
ihsIrucIioh.