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K THUT TNG T 2.1.

CHT BN DN IN - PHN T MT MT GHP P-N

2.1.1. Cht bn dn nguyn cht v cht bn dn tp cht a - Cu trc vng nng lng ca cht rn tinh th Ta bit cu trc nng lng ca mt nguyn t ng c lp c dng l cc mc ri rc. Khi a cc nguyn t li gn nhau, do tng tc, cc mc ny b suy bin thnh nhng di gm nhiu mc st nhau c gi l cc vng nng lng. y l dng cu trc nng lng in hnh ca vt rn tinh th. Ty theo tnh trng cc mc nng lng trong mt vng c b in t chim ch hay khng, ngi ta phn bit 3 loi vng nng lng khc nhau: - Vng ha tr (hay cn gi l vng y), trong tt c cc mc nng lng u b chim ch, khng cn trng thi (mc) nng lng t do. - Vng dn (vng trng), trong cc mc nng lng u cn b trng hay ch b chim ch mt phn. - Vng cm, trong khng tn ti cc mc nng lng no in t c th chim ch hay xc sut tm ht ti y bng 0. Ty theo v tr tng i gia 3 loi vng k trn, xt theo tnh cht dn in ca mnh, cc. cht rn cu trc tinh th c chia thnh 3 loi (xt 00K) th hin

trn hnh 2.1. Hnh 2.1: Phn loi vt rn theo cu trc vng nng lng al Cht cch in Eg > 2eV ; b) Cht bn dn in 0 < Eg 2eV; c) Cht dn in Chng ta bit, mun to dng in trong vt rn cn hai qu trnh ng thi: qu trnh to ra ht dn t do nh c kch thch nng lng v qu trnh chuyn ng c hng ca cc ht dn in ny di tc dng ca trng. Di y ta xt ti cch dn in ca cht bn dn nguyn cht (bn dn thun) v cht bn dn tp cht m im khc nhau ch yu lin quan ti qu trnh sinh (to) cc ht dn t do trong mng tinh th. 16

b- Cht bn dn thun Hai cht bn dn thun in hnh l Gemanium (Ge) v Silicium (Si) c cu trc vng nng lng dng hnh 2.1b vi Eg = 0,72eV v Eg = 1,12eV, thuc nhm bn bng tun hon Mendeleep. M hnh cu trc mng tinh th (1 chiu) ca chng c dng hnh 2.2a vi bn cht l cc lin kt ghp i in t ha tr vnh ngoi. 0K chng l cc cht cch in. Khi c mt ngun nng lng ngoi kch thch, xy ra hin tng ion ha cc nguyn t nt mng v sinh tng cp ht dn t do: in t bt khi lin kt ghp i tr thnh ht t do v li 1 lin kt b khuyt (l trng). Trn th vng nng lng hnh 2.2b, iu ny tng ng vi s chuyn in t t 1 mc nng lng trong vng ha tr ln 1 mc trong vng dn li 1 mc t do (trng) trong vng ha tr. Cc cp ht dn t do ny, di tc dng ca 1 trng ngoi hay mt Gradien nng c kh nng dch chuyn c hng trong lng tinh th to nn dng in trong cht bn dn thun.
Si Si + Si

Vng Dn 1,12eV
Si Si Si Si Si Si

Vng ha tr
b) a) Hnh 2.2: a) Mng tinh th mt chiu ca Si. b) Cu trc vng nng lng Kt qu l: 1) Mun to ht dn t do trong cht bn dn thun cn c nng lng kch thch ln Ekt Eg 2) Dng in trong cht bn dn thun gm hai thnh phn tng ng nhau do qa trnh pht sinh tng cp ht dn to ra (ni = Pi). c - Cht bn dn tp cht loi n Ngi ta tin hnh pha thm cc nguyn t thuc nhm 5 bng Mendeleep vo mng tinh th cht bn dn nguyn cht nh cc cng ngh c bit, vi nng khong 1010 n 1018 nguyn t/cm3. Khi cc nguyn t tp cht tha mt in t vnh ngoi, lin kt yu vi ht nhn, d dng b ion ha nh mt ngun nng lng yu to nn mt cp ion dng tp cht in t t do. Ngoi ra, hin tng pht sinh ht dn ging nh c ch ca cht bn dn thun vn xy ra nhng vi mc yu hn. Trn th vng nng lng, cc mc nng lng tp cht loi ny (gi l tp cht loi n hay loi cho in t - Donor) phn b bn trong vng cm, nm st y vng dn ( khong cch vi % eV). 17

VNG DN Mc tp cht loi n

Mc tp cht loi p VNG DN


VNG HA TR a) b)

VNG HA TR
Hnh 2.3: th vng nng lng a) bn dn loi n; b) bn dn loi p Kt qu l trong mng tinh th tn ti nhiu ion dng ca tp cht bt ng v dng in trong cht bn dn loi n gm hai thnh phn khng bng nhau to ra: in t c gi l loi ht dn a s c nng l nn, l trng - loi thiu s c nng Pn (chnh nhau nhiu cp: nn >>pn). d - Cht bn dn tp cht loi p Nu tin hnh pha tp cht thuc nhm 3 bng tun hon Mendeleep vo tinh th cht bn dn thun ta c cht bn dn tp cht loi p vi c im ch yu l nguyn t tp cht thiu mt in t vnh ngoi nn nn lin kt ha tr (ghp i) b khuyt, ta gi l l trng lin kt, c kh nng nhn in t, khi nguyn t tp cht b ion ha s sinh ra ng thi 1 cp : ion m tp cht - l trng t do. Mc nng lng tp cht loi p nm trong vng cm st nh vng ha tr (Hnh 2.3b) cho php gii thch cch sinh ht dn ca cht bn dn loi ny. Trong mng tinh th cht bn dn tp cht loi p tn ti nhiu ion m tp cht c tnh cht nh x tng vng v dng in trong cht bn dn loi p gm hai thnh phn khng tng ng nhau: l trng c gi l cc ht dn a s, in t ht thiu s, vi cc nng tng ng l pp v np (pp >>np). e- Vi hin tng vt l thng gp Cch sinh ht dn v to thnh dng in trong cht bn dn thng lin quan trc tip ti cc hin tng vt l sau: Hin tng ion ha nguyn t (ca cht tp cht) l hin tng gn lin vi qu trnh nng lng ca cc ht. R rng s ht sinh ra bng s mc nng lng b chim trong vng dn hay s mc b trng trong vng ha tr. Kt qu ca vt l thng k lng t cho php tnh nng cc ht ny da vo hm thng k Fermi Dirac:

n=

E max EC

N(E)F(E)dE
p=
EV Emin

N(E)F(E)dE
(2-1) vi n,p l nng in t trong vng dn v l trng trong vng ha tr. 18

Ec l mc nng lng ca y vng dn, Ev l mc nng lng ca nh vng ha tr, Emax l trng thi nng lng cao nht c in t, Emin l trng thi nng lng thp nht ca l trng, N(E) l hm mt n trng thi theo nng lng, F(E) l hm phn b thng k ht theo nng lng. Theo ngi ta xc nh c: n = Nc exp( E c EF ) KT p = NV exp( EF E V ) KT (2-2) vi Nc, Nv l mt trng thi hiu dng trong cc vng tng ng EF l mc th ha hc (mc Fermi). Kt qu phn tch cho php c ct kt lun ch yu sau: trng thi cn bng, tch s nng hai loi ht dn l mt hng s (trong bt k cht bn dn loi no) (2-3) nn . Pn = Ppnp = ni pi = ni2 = NCNVexp( - Eg/KT ) = const ngha l vic tng nng 1 loi ht ny lun km theo vic gim nng tng ng loi ht kia. Trong cht bn dn loi n c nn > > ni >>pp do s in t t do lun bng s lng ion dng tp cht: nn = ND+. Tng t, trong cht bn dn loi p c pp >> ni >> np) do s l trng lun bng s lng ion m tp cht: p p = NA- Hin tng ti hp ca cc ht dn Hin tng sinh ht dn ph hy trng thi cn bng nhit ng hc ca h ht (n.pni2). Khi ngi ta thng quan tm ti s gia tng nng ca cc ht thiu s v chng c vai tr quyt nh ti nhiu c ch pht sinh dng in trong cc dng c bn dn. Hin tng ti hp ht dn l qu trnh ngc li, lin quan ti cc chuyn di in t t mc nng lng cao trong vng dn v mc thp hn trong vng ha tr. Hin tng ti hp lm nht i ng thi 1 cp ht dn v a h ht v li 1 trng thi cn bng mi. Khi , trong cht bn dn loi n, l s ti hp ca l trng vi in t trong iu kin nng in t cao: t p(t) = p(0)exp p y: Dp(t) l mc gim ca l trng theo thi gian. Dp(0) l s lng l trng lc t = 0 (c c sau 1 qu trnh sinh ht) tp l thi gian sng ca l trng trong cht bn dn loi n (l khong thi gian trong nng l trng d gim i e ln) (2-4) 19

Dn(t) = Dn(o)exp(-t/tp ) (2-5) Cc thng s tp v tn quyt nh ti cc tnh cht tn s (tc ng nhanh) ca cc dng c bn dn. Di tc dng ca in trng, ht dn t do chuyn ng nh hng c gia tc to nn 1 dng in (gi l dng tri) vi vn tc trung bnh t / vi cng E ca trng: vtb =mE Suy ra vtbn = - nmnE vtbp = mpE Trong mp, mn l cc h s t l gi l linh ng ca cc ht dn tng ng (vi cht bn dn tp cht ch to t Ge c ,mn = 3800 cm2 / V.s ; mp = 1800 cm2/V.s, t Si c mn = 1300 cm2/V.s ; mp = 500cm2/V.s). T , mt ng tri gm hai thnh phn: Itrin = - q . n . vtbn vi q l in tch cc ht. Itrip = q . p . vtbp hay dng tri ton phn Itri = Itrin + Itrip Itri = qE(mnn + mpp) - Chuyn ng khuch tn ca cc ht dn Do c s chnh lch v nng theo khng gian, cc ht dn thc hin chuyn ng khuch tn t lp c nng cao ti lp c nng thp. Mt dng khuch tn theo phng gim ca nng c dng: Iktn = q . Dn ( - dn/dx ) = q . Dn . dn/dx Iktp = q . Dp ( - dp/dx ) = - q . Dp. dp/dx Ngi ta chng minh c cc tnh cht sau: D = mKT/q = UT. m (h thc Einstein) . Trong UT l th nhit (UT 25mv nhit phng T = 296oK) Dn tn = Ln2 ; Dp tp = Lp2 Trong Ln Lp l qung ng khuch tn ca ht (l khong cch trong nng ht khuch tn gim i e ln theo phng khuch tn) cng chnh l qung ng trung bnh ht dch chuyn khuch tn c trong thi gian sng ca n. (2-9) (2-10) (2-8) (2=7) (2-6) vi Dn v Dp l cc h s t l gi l h s khuch tn ca cc ht tng ng. 20