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Cht bn dn - Th vin Hc liu m Vit Nam

Cht bn dn
Bi: Wiki Pedia Cht bn dn (ting Anh: Semiconductor) l vt liu trung gian gia cht dn in v cht cch in. Cht bn dn hot ng nh mt cht cch in nhit thp v c tnh dn in nhit phng. Gi l "bn dn" (ch "bn" theo ngha Hn Vit c ngha l mt na), c ngha l c th dn in mt iu kin no , hoc mt iu kin khc s khng dn in.

Vng nng lng trong cht bn dn


Tnh cht dn in ca cc vt liu rn c gii thch nh l thuyt vng nng lng. Nh ta bit, in t tn ti trong nguyn t trn nhng mc nng lng gin on (cc trng thi dng). Nhng trong cht rn, khi m cc nguyn t kt hp li vi nhau thnh cc khi, th cc mc nng lng ny b ph ln nhau, v tr thnh cc vng nng lng v s c ba vng chnh.

Cu trc nng lng ca in t trong mng nguyn t ca cht bn dn. Vng ha tr c lp y, trong khi vng dn trng. Mc nng lng Fermi nm vng trng nng lng. Vng ha tr (Valence band): L vng c nng lng thp nht theo thang nng lng, l vng m in t b lin kt mnh vi nguyn t v khng linh ng. Vng dn (Conduction band): Vng c mc nng lng cao nht, l vng m in t s linh ng (nh cc in t t do) v in t vng ny s l in t dn, c ngha l cht s c kh nng dn in khi c in t tn ti trn vng dn. Tnh dn in tng khi mt in t trn vng dn tng. Vng cm (Forbidden band): L vng nm gia vng ha tr v vng dn, khng c mc nng lng no do in t khng th tn ti trn vng cm. Nu bn dn pha tp, c th xut hin cc mc nng lng trong vng cm (mc pha tp). Khong cch gia y vng dn v nh vng ha tr gi l rng vng cm, hay
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Cht bn dn - Th vin Hc liu m Vit Nam

nng lng vng cm (Band Gap). Ty theo rng vng cm ln hay nh m cht c th l dn in hoc khng dn in. Nh vy, tnh dn in ca cc cht rn v tnh cht ca cht bn dn c th l gii mt cch n gin nh l thuyt vng nng lng nh sau: Kim loi c vng dn v vng ha tr ph ln nhau (khng c vng cm) do lun lun c in t trn vng dn v th m kim loi lun lun dn in. Cc cht bn dn c vng cm c mt rng xc nh. khng tuyt i (0 K), mc Fermi nm gia vng cm, c ngha l tt c cc in t tn ti vng ha tr, do cht bn dn khng dn in. Khi tng dn nhit , cc in t s nhn c nng lng nhit (kB.T vi kB l hng s Boltzmann) nhng nng lng ny cha in t vt qua vng cm nn in t vn vng ha tr. Khi tng nhit n mc cao, s c mt s in t nhn c nng lng ln hn nng lng vng cm v n s nhy ln vng dn v cht rn tr thnh dn in. Khi nhit cng tng ln, mt in t trn vng dn s cng tng ln, do , tnh dn in ca cht bn dn tng dn theo nhit (hay in tr sut gim dn theo nhit ). Mt cch gn ng, c th vit s ph thuc ca in tr cht bn dn vo nhit nh sau: R = R 0 exp ( E g 2k B T ) size 12{R=R rSub { size 8{0} } ital "exo" \( { {E rSub { size 8{g} } } over {2k rSub { size 8{B} } T} } \) } {} vi: R0 size 12{R rSub { size 8{0} } } {} l hng s, Eg l rng vng cm. Ngoi ra, tnh dn ca cht bn dn c th thay i nh cc kch thch nng lng khc, v d nh nh sng. Khi chiu sng, cc in t s hp thu nng lng t photon, v c th nhy ln vng dn nu nng lng ln. y chnh l nguyn nhn dn n s thay i v tnh cht ca cht bn dn di tc dng ca nh sng (quang-bn dn).

Bn dn pha tp
Cht bn dn loi p (hay dng ngha ting Vit l bn dn dng) c tp cht l cc nguyn t thuc nhm III, dn in ch yu bng cc l trng (vit tt cho ch ting Anh positive', ngha l dng). Cht bn dn loi n (bn dn m - Negative) c tp cht l cc nguyn t thuc nhm V, cc nguyn t ny dng 4 electron to lin kt v mt electron lp ngoi lin kt lng lo vi nhn, y chnh l cc electron dn chnh C th gii thch mt cch n gin v bn dn pha tp nh vo l thuyt vng nng lng nh sau: Khi pha tp, s xut hin cc mc pha tp nm trong vng cm, chnh cc mc ny khin cho in t d dng chuyn ln vng dn hoc l trng d dng di chuyn xung vng ha tr to nn tnh dn ca vt liu. V th, ch cn pha tp vi hm lng rt nh cng lm thay i ln tnh cht dn in ca cht bn dn.

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